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1) Generation of Frequency division multiplexing.

2) AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT : Simulation of pulse code modulation


3) SOFTWARE REQUIRED :Mat lab 7.01
4) THEORY : Frequency Division Muli!le"in#$FDM% means that the total bandwidth
available to the system is divided into a seies of nonovelappin! fe"uency sub#bands
that ae then assi!ned to each communicatin! souce and use pai. $i!ues 7#7a and 7#
7b show how this division is accomplished fo a case of thee souces at one end of a
system that ae communicatin! with thee sepaate uses at the othe end. %ote that
each tansmitte modulates its souce&s infomation into a si!nal that lies in a diffeent
fe"uency sub#band '(ansmitte 1 !eneates a si!nal in the fe"uency sub#band
between )2.0 M*+ and )2.2 M*+, (ansmitte 2 !eneates a si!nal in the sub#band
between )2.2 M*+ and )2.4 M*+, and (ansmitte 3 !eneates a si!nal in the sub#band
between )2.4 M*+ and )2.- M*+). (he si!nals ae then tansmitted acoss a common
channel.
.) Fi#ure /0 system usin! fe"uency division multiple1in!.
-)
7) 0t the eceivin! end of the system, bandpass filtes ae used to pass the desied si!nal
'the si!nal lyin! in the appopiate fe"uency sub#band) to the appopiate use and to
bloc2 all the unwanted si!nals. (o ensue that the tansmitted si!nals do not stay
outside thei assi!ned sub#bands, it is also common to place appopiate passband filtes
at the output sta!e of each tansmitte. 3t is also appopiate to desi!n an $4M system
so that the bandwidth allocated to each sub#band is sli!htly la!e than the bandwidth
needed by each souce. (his e1ta bandwidth, called a guardband, allows systems to
use less e1pensive filtes 'i.e., filtes with fewe poles and theefoe less steep olloffs).
5) $4M has both advanta!es and disadvanta!es elative to (4M. (he main advanta!e is
that unli2e (4M, $4M is not sensitive to popa!ation delays. 6hannel e"uali+ation
techni"ues needed fo $4M systems ae theefoe not as comple1 as those fo (4M
systems. 4isadvanta!es of $4M include the need fo bandpass filtes, which ae
elatively e1pensive and complicated to constuct and desi!n 'emembe that these
filtes ae usually used in the tansmittes as well as the eceives). (4M, on the othe
hand, uses elatively simple and less costly di!ital lo!ic cicuits. 0nothe disadvanta!e
of $4M is that in many pactical communication systems, the powe amplifie in the
tansmitte has nonlinea chaacteistics 'linea amplifies ae moe comple1 to build),
and nonlinea amplification leads to the ceation of out#of#band spectal components
that may intefee with othe $4M channels. (hus, it is necessay to use moe comple1
linea amplifies in $4M systems.
2)Simulation of Pulse code modulation.
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT: Simulation of pulse code modulation
SOFTWARE REQUIRED: Mat lab 7.01
THEORY: Pulse&co'e (o'ul)ion 'P*M) is a method used to di!itally epesent sampled
analo! si!nals, which was invented by 0lec 7eeves in 1)37. 3t is the standad fom fo di!ital
audio in computes and vaious 8lue#ay, 6ompact 4isc and 494 fomats, as well as othe uses
such as di!ital telephone systems. 0 :6M steam is a di!ital epesentation of an analo! si!nal,
in which the ma!nitude of the analo!ue si!nal is sampled e!ulaly at unifom intevals, with
each sample bein! "uanti+ed to the neaest value within a an!e of di!ital steps.
:6M steams have two basic popeties that detemine thei fidelity to the oi!inal analo! si!nal:
the samplin! ate, which is the numbe of times pe second that samples ae ta2en; and the bit
depth, which detemines the numbe of possible di!ital values that each sample can
$o each sample, one of the available values is chosen by some al!oithm. (his poduces a fully
discete epesentation of the input si!nal that can be easily encoded as di!ital data fo stoa!e o
manipulation. $o the sine wave e1ample at i!ht, we can veify that the "uanti+ed values at the
samplin! moments ae 7, ), 11, 12, 13, 14, 14, 1., 1., 1., 14, etc.
<ncodin! these values as binay numbes would esult followin! nibbles the:
0111'2
3
=0>2
2
=1>2
1
=1>2
0
=1?0>4>2>1?7), 1001, 1011, 1100, 1101, 1110, 1110, 1111, 1111,
1111, 1110, etc. (hese di!ital values could then be futhe pocessed o analy+ed by a pupose#
specific di!ital si!nal pocesso o !eneal pupose 4S:. Seveal :ulse 6ode Modulation steams
could also be multiple1ed into a la!e a!!e!ate data steam, !eneally fo tansmission of
multiple steams ove a sin!le physical lin2. @ne techni"ue is called time#division multiple1in!,
o (4M, and is widely used, notably in the moden public telephone system. 0nothe techni"ue
is called $e"uency#division multiple1in!, whee the si!nal is assi!ned a fe"uency in a
spectum, and tansmitted alon! with othe si!nals inside that spec tum. 6uently, (4M is
much moe widely used than $4M because of its natual compatibility with di!ital
communication, and !eneally
(o poduce output fom the sampled data, the pocedue of modulation is applied in evese.
0fte each samplin! peiod has passed, the ne1t value is ead and a si!nal is shifted to the new
value. 0s a esult of these tansitions, the si!nal will have a si!nificant amount of hi!h#fe"uency
ene!y. (o smooth out the si!nal and emove these undesiable aliasin! fe"uencies, the si!nal
would be passed thou!h analo! filtes that suppess ene!y outside the e1pected fe"uency
an!e 'that is, !eate than the %y"uist fe"uency fs A 2). Some systems use di!ital filtein! to
emove some of the aliasin!, convetin! the si!nal fom di!ital to analo! at hi!he sample ate
lowe bandwidth e"uiements.
(hee is souce of impaiment implicit in any :6M system: 8etween samples no measuement of
the si!nal is made; the samplin! theoem !uaantees non#ambi!uous epesentation and ecovey
of the si!nal only if it has no ene!y at fe"uency f
s
A2 o hi!he 'one half the samplin! fe"uency,
2nown as the %y"uist fe"uency); hi!he fe"uencies will !eneally not be coectly epesented .
3)Simulation of Time division multiplexing.
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT: Simulation of time division modulation
SOFTWARE REQUIRED: Mat lab 7.01
THEORY: Ti(e Division Muli!le"in#$TDM% is to combine a set of low#bit#ate steams, each
with a fi1ed and pe#defined bit ate, into a sin!le hi!h#speed bit steam that can be tansmitted
ove a sin!le channel. (his techni"ue is called time division multiplexing '(4M) and has many
applications, includin! wieline telephone systems and some cellula telephone systems. (he
main eason to use (4M is to ta2e advanta!e of e1istin! tansmission lines. 3t would be vey
e1pensive if each low#bit#ate steam wee assi!ned a costly physical channel 'say, an entie
fibe optic line) that e1tended ove a lon! distance.
6onside, fo instance, a channel capable of tansmittin! 1)2 2bitAsec fom 6hica!o to %ew
Bo2. Suppose that thee souces, all located in 6hica!o, each have -4 2bitAsec of data that they
want to tansmit to individual uses in %ew Bo2. 0s shown in $i!ue 7#2, the hi!h#bit#ate
channel can be divided into a seies of time slots, and the time slots can be altenately used by the
thee souces. (he thee souces ae thus capable of tansmittin! all of thei data acoss the
sin!le, shaed channel. 6lealy, at the othe end of the channel 'in this case, in %ew Bo2), the
pocess must be evesed 'i.e., the system must divide the 1)2 2bitAsec multiple1ed data steam
bac2 into the oi!inal thee -4 2bitAsec data steams, which ae then povided to thee diffeent
uses). (his evese pocess is called demultiplexing.
(4M that is based on fi1ed slot assi!nments to each of the low#bit#ate data steams. 3n othe
wods, each steam has pedefined slot positions in the combined steam, and the eceive must
be awae which slots belon! to which input steam. 8oth tansmission ends, the tansmitte and
the eceive, must be pefectly synchoni+ed to the slot peiod. $o this eason, the techni"ue is
usually called synchronous TDM.
4)Simulation of BPSK, QPSK.
EXPERIMENT NO.-4
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:-Simulation of BPSK and QPSK.
APPARATS!SOFT"ARE REQIR#:-
$.P%
&.Mat 'a( )*+,ion -..$
THEOR/:-
Bina+0 12a,*-,2ift 3*0in4 5BPSK6
BPSK 5al,o ,om*tim*, 7all*d PRK8 P2a,* R*)*+,al K*0in48 o+ &PSK6 i, t2* ,im1l*,t fo+m of 12a,* ,2ift
3*0in4 5PSK6. It u,*, t9o 12a,*, 92i72 a+* ,*1a+at*d (0 $:.; and ,o 7an al,o (* t*+m*d &-PSK. It do*,
not 1a+ti7ula+l0 matt*+ *<a7tl0 92*+* t2* 7on,t*llation 1oint, a+* 1o,ition*d8 and in t2i, fi4u+* t2*0 a+*
,2o9n on t2* +*al a<i,8 at .; and $:.;. T2i, modulation i, t2* mo,t +o(u,t of all t2* PSK, ,in7* it ta3*,
t2* 2i42*,t l*)*l of noi,* o+ di,to+tion to ma3* t2* d*modulato+ +*a72 an in7o++*7t d*7i,ion. It i,8 2o9*)*+8
onl0 a(l* to modulat* at $ (it!,0m(ol 5a, ,**n in t2* fi4u+*6 and ,o i, un,uita(l* fo+ 2i42 data-+at*
a11li7ation, 92*n (and9idt2 i, limit*d.
In t2* 1+*,*n7* of an a+(it+a+0 12a,*-,2ift int+odu7*d (0 t2* 7ommuni7ation, 72ann*l8 t2* d*modulato+ i,
una(l* to t*ll 92i72 7on,t*llation 1oint i, 92i72. A, a +*,ult8 t2* data i, oft*n diff*+*ntiall0 *n7od*d 1+io+ to
modulation.
Implementation
T2* 4*n*+al fo+m fo+ BPSK follo9, t2* *=uation:
T2i, 0i*ld, t9o 12a,*,8 . and >. In t2* ,1*7ifi7 fo+m8 (ina+0 data i, oft*n 7on)*0*d 9it2 t2* follo9in4
,i4nal,:
fo+ (ina+0 ?.?
fo+ (ina+0 ?$?
"2*+* fc i, t2* f+*=u*n70 of t2* 7a++i*+-9a)*.
H*n7*8 t2* ,i4nal-,1a7* 7an (* +*1+*,*nt*d (0 t2* ,in4l* (a,i, fun7tion
"2*+* $ i, +*1+*,*nt*d (0 and . i, +*1+*,*nt*d (0 . T2i, a,,i4nm*nt i,8 of
7ou+,*8 a+(it+a+0.
Bit error rate
T2* (it *++o+ +at* 5BER6 of BPSK in A"@N 7an (* 7al7ulat*d a,:
o+
Sin7* t2*+* i, onl0 on* (it 1*+ ,0m(ol8 t2i, i, al,o t2* ,0m(ol *++o+ +at*.
Quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK)
Som*tim*, t2i, i, 3no9n a, quaternary PSK8 quadriphase PSK8 4-PSK8 o+ 4-QAM. 5Alt2ou42 t2* +oot
7on7*1t, of QPSK and 4-QAM a+* diff*+*nt8 t2* +*,ultin4 modulat*d +adio 9a)*, a+* *<a7tl0 t2* ,am*.6
QPSK u,*, fou+ 1oint, on t2* 7on,t*llation dia4+am8 *=ui,1a7*d a+ound a 7i+7l*. "it2 fou+ 12a,*,8 QPSK
7an *n7od* t9o (it, 1*+ ,0m(ol8 ,2o9n in t2* dia4+am 9it2 4+a0 7odin4 to minimiA* t2* (it *++o+
+at* 5BER6 B ,om*tim*, mi,1*+7*i)*d a, t9i7* t2* BER of BPSK.
T2* mat2*mati7al anal0,i, ,2o9, t2at QPSK 7an (* u,*d *it2*+ to dou(l* t2* data +at* 7om1a+*d 9it2 a
BPSK ,0,t*m 92il* maintainin4 t2* same (and9idt2 of t2* ,i4nal8 o+ to maintain the data-rate of
BPSK (ut 2al)in4 t2* (and9idt2 n**d*d. In t2i, latt*+ 7a,*8 t2* BER of QPSK i,exactly the same a, t2*
BER of BPSK - and d*7idin4 diff*+*ntl0 i, a 7ommon 7onfu,ion 92*n 7on,id*+in4 o+ d*,7+i(in4 QPSK.
@i)*n t2at +adio 7ommuni7ation 72ann*l, a+* allo7at*d (0 a4*n7i*, ,u72 a, t2* F*d*+al %ommuni7ation
%ommi,,ion 4i)in4 a 1+*,7+i(*d 5ma<imum6 (and9idt28 t2* ad)anta4* of QPSK o)*+ BPSK (*7om*,
*)id*nt: QPSK t+an,mit, t9i7* t2* data +at* in a 4i)*n (and9idt2 7om1a+*d to BPSK - at t2* ,am* BER.
Implementation
T2* im1l*m*ntation of QPSK i, mo+* 4*n*+al t2an t2at of BPSK and al,o indi7at*, t2* im1l*m*ntation of
2i42*+-o+d*+ PSK. "+itin4 t2* ,0m(ol, in t2* 7on,t*llation dia4+am in t*+m, of t2* ,in* and 7o,in* 9a)*,
u,*d to t+an,mit t2*m:
T2i, 0i*ld, t2* fou+ 12a,*, >!48 C>!48 D>!4 and ->!4 a, n**d*d.
T2i, +*,ult, in a t9o-dim*n,ional ,i4nal ,1a7* 9it2 unit (a,i, fun7tion,
T2* fi+,t (a,i, fun7tion i, u,*d a, t2* in-12a,* 7om1on*nt of t2* ,i4nal and t2* ,*7ond a, t2* =uad+atu+*
7om1on*nt of t2* ,i4nal.
H*n7*8 t2* ,i4nal 7on,t*llation 7on,i,t, of t2* ,i4nal-,1a7* 4 1oint,
T2* fa7to+, of $!& indi7at* t2at t2* total 1o9*+ i, ,1lit *=uall0 (*t9**n t2* t9o 7a++i*+,.
%om1a+in4 t2*,* (a,i, fun7tion, 9it2 t2at fo+ BPSK ,2o9, 7l*a+l0 2o9 QPSK 7an (* )i*9*d a, t9o
ind*1*nd*nt BPSK ,i4nal,. Not* t2at t2* ,i4nal-,1a7* 1oint, fo+ BPSK do not n**d to ,1lit t2* ,0m(ol
5(it6 *n*+40 o)*+ t2* t9o 7a++i*+, in t2* ,72*m* ,2o9n in t2* BPSK 7on,t*llation dia4+am.
QPSK ,0,t*m, 7an (* im1l*m*nt*d in a num(*+ of 9a0,. An illu,t+ation of t2* maEo+ 7om1on*nt, of t2*
t+an,mitt*+ and +*7*i)*+ ,t+u7tu+* a+* ,2o9n (*lo9.
%on7*1tual t+an,mitt*+ ,t+u7tu+* fo+ QPSK:
T2* (ina+0 data ,t+*am i, ,1lit into t2* in-12a,* and =uad+atu+*-12a,* 7om1on*nt,. T2*,* a+* t2*n ,*1a+at*l0 modulat*d
onto t9o o+t2o4onal (a,i, fun7tion,. In t2i, im1l*m*ntation8 t9o ,inu,oid, a+* u,*d. Aft*+9a+d,8 t2* t9o ,i4nal, a+*
,u1*+im1o,*d8 and t2* +*,ultin4 ,i4nal i, t2* QPSK ,i4nal. Not* t2* u,* of 1ola+ non-+*tu+n-to-A*+o *n7odin4. T2*,*
*n7od*+, 7an (* 1la7*d (*fo+* fo+ (ina+0 data ,ou+7*8 (ut 2a)* (**n 1la7*d aft*+ to illu,t+at* t2* 7on7*1tual diff*+*n7*
(*t9**n di4ital and analo4 ,i4nal, in)ol)*d 9it2 di4ital modulation.
R*7*i)*+ ,t+u7tu+* fo+ QPSK:
T2* mat72*d filt*+, 7an (* +*1la7*d 9it2 7o++*lato+,. Ea72 d*t*7tion d*)i7* u,*, a +*f*+*n7* t2+*,2old )alu* to d*t*+min*
92*t2*+ a $ o+ . i, d*t*7t*d.
Bit error rate
Alt2ou42 QPSK 7an (* )i*9*d a, a =uat*+na+0 modulation8 it i, *a,i*+ to ,** it a, t9o ind*1*nd*ntl0
modulat*d =uad+atu+* 7a++i*+,. "it2 t2i, int*+1+*tation8 t2* *)*n 5o+ odd6 (it, a+* u,*d to modulat* t2* in-
12a,* 7om1on*nt of t2* 7a++i*+8 92il* t2* odd 5o+ *)*n6 (it, a+* u,*d to modulat* t2* =uad+atu+*-12a,*
7om1on*nt of t2* 7a++i*+. BPSK i, u,*d on (ot2 7a++i*+, and t2*0 7an (* ind*1*nd*ntl0 d*modulat*d.
A, a +*,ult8 t2* 1+o(a(ilit0 of (it-*++o+ fo+ QPSK i, t2* ,am* a, fo+ BPSK:
Ho9*)*+8 in o+d*+ to a72i*)* t2* ,am* (it-*++o+ 1+o(a(ilit0 a, BPSK8 QPSK u,*, t9i7* t2* 1o9*+ 5,in7*
t9o (it, a+* t+an,mitt*d ,imultan*ou,l06.
T2* ,0m(ol *++o+ +at* i, 4i)*n (0:
.
If t2* ,i4nal-to-noi,* +atio i, 2i42 5a, i, n*7*,,a+0 fo+ 1+a7ti7al QPSK ,0,t*m,6 t2* 1+o(a(ilit0 of ,0m(ol
*++o+ ma0 (* a11+o<imat*d:
MATLAB PROGRAM:-
Simulation of BPSK:-
%Simulation using BPSK
clc;
clear all;
close all;
eb_no_db=[0:10];
for i=1:lengtheb_no_db!
"=10#$;
i%=rand1&"!'0();
s=*+i%,1;
n=1-s.rt*!!+[randn1&"!/0+randn1&"!];
1=s/10#eb_no_dbi!-*0!+n;
i%1=real1!'0;
nerri!=si2efind[i%,i%1]!&*!;
end;
simber=nerr-";
theor1ber=0()+erfcs.rt10(#eb_no_db-10!!!;
figure;
semilog1eb_no_db&simber&3b(,3!;
hold on;
semilog1eb_no_db&theor1ber&3m4,3!;
grid on;
legend3simulation3&3theor13!;
4label3eb-no&dB3!;
1label3Bit error rate3!;
title3Bit error %robabilit1 cur5e for BPSK modulation3!;
Simulation of QPSK:-
%Simulation of 6PSK
clc;
clear all;
close all;
"=1000000;
7b"odB=,8:*:10;
data=randn1&"!'=0;
odddata=data1:*:end!;
e5endata=data*:*:end!;
.%s9modulated=s.rt1-*!+1i+*+odddata,1!/*+e5endata,1!!;
:=8;
;m=log*:!;
;c=1;
B7;=2eros1&length7b"odB!!;
inde4=1;
for i=7b"odB
7b"o=10(#i-10!;
noisesigma=s.rt1(-*+;m+;c+7b"o!!;
noise=noisesigma+randn1&length.%s9modulated!!
/1i+randn1&length.%s9modulated!!!;
recei5ed=.%s9modulated/noise;
detected_real=realrecei5ed!'=0;
detected_imag=imagrecei5ed!'=0;
estimatedbits=resha%e[detected_imag;detected_real]&1&[]!;
B7;inde4!=sum4ordata&estimatedbits!!-lengthdata!;
inde4=inde4/1;
end;
%lothandle=%lot7b"odB&log10B7;!&3r,,3!;
set%lothandle&3line<idth3&1()!;
title3S"; %er bit7b-"o! =s B7; cur5e for 6PSK modulation scheme3!;
4label3S"; %er bit7b-"o! in dB3!;
1label3Bit error rateB7;! in dB3!;
grid on;
hold on;
theoreticalB7;=0()+erfcs.rt10(#7b"odB-10!!!;
%lothandle=%lot7b"odB&log10theoreticalB7;!&3b+3!;
set%lothandle&3line<idth3&1()!;
legend3simulated3&3theoretical_6PSK3&3theoretical_6PSK3!;
grid on;
CONCLUSION:-
Hence te !imulation of BPSK an" #PSK a" $e%fo%me" !ucce!!full& an" te matla' $%o(%am!
alon( )it te !imulate" fi(u%e! )e%e al!o o'taine".
5)Simulation of Delta modulation.
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT: Simulation of delta modulation
SOFTWARE REQUIRED: Mat lab 7.01
THEORY+
:6M is poweful, but "uite comple1 codes and decodes ae e"uied. 0n incease in esolution
also e"uies a hi!he numbe of bits pe sample. Standad :6M systems have no memoy/each
sample value is sepaately encoded into a seies of binay di!its. 0n altenative, which
ovecomes some limitations of :6M is to use past infomation in the encodin! pocess. @ne way
of doin! this is to pefom souce codin! usin! 'el) (o'ul)ion:
(he si!nal is fist "uanti+ed into discete levels, but the si+e of the step between
0dCacent samples ae 2ept constant. (he si!nal may theefoe only ma2e a tansition fom one
level to an adCacent one. @nce the "uanti+ation opeation is pefomed, tansmission of the si!nal
can be achieved by sendin! a +eo fo a ne!ative tansition, and a one fo a positive tansition.
%ote that this means that the "uantised si!nal must chan!e at each samplin! point. $o the above
case, the tansmitted bit tain would be 111100010111110.
(he demodulato fo a delta#modulated si!nal is simply a staicase !eneato. 3f a one is
eceived, the staicase incements positively, and if a +eo is eceived, ne!atively. (his is usually
followed by a low pass filte. (he 2ey to usin! delta modulation is to ma2e the i!ht choice of
se! si,e-
S)(!lin# !erio' /an incoect selection will mean that the si!nal chan!es too fast fo the steps
to follow, a situation called overlo)'in#. 3mpotant paametes ae theefoe the se! si,e and
the s)(!lin# !erio'
SIMU.ATION +
step?0.1;
fs?1000;
fm ?10;
0?1;
t?0:1Afs:''2Afm)#'1Afs));
1?0Dsin'2DpiDfmDt);
subplot'231),plot'1),title'&oi!inal si!nal&);
Emodulation
1"'1)?0;d'1)?0;
fo n?2:len!th'1),
d'n)?si!n'1'n)#1"'n#1));
1"'n)?1"'n#1)>d'n)Dstep;
end
subplot'232);
plot'd'1:100)),
a1is'F0 100 #1.2 1.2G);
title'&$ist 100 output of delta modulation&);
E4emodulation
y?0;
fo n?2:len!th'd)
y'n)?y'n#1)>d'n);
end;
subplot'233),plot'y);
title'&demodulation by summin!&);
1?filte'F0.12.Dones'1,5)G,1,y);
subplot'234),plot'1),title'&filtein! to smoothen ed!e&);
0?2..;1?0D1;
Emodulation
1"'1)?0;d'1)?0;
fo n?2:len!th'1),d'n)?si!n'1'n)#1"'n#1));
1"'n)?1"'n#1)>d'n)Dstep;
end
Edemodulation y?0;
fo n?2:len!th'd)
y'n)?y'n#1)>d'n);
end;
subplot'23.),plot'y);
title'&demodulation by summin!,slope oveload&)
1?filte'F0.12.Dones'1,5)G,1,y);
subplot'23-),plot'1),title'&filteed,slope oveload&)

*ON*.USION+&
*ence the simulation of delta modulation had pefomed successfully and the matlab po!ams
alon! with the simulated fi!ues wee also obtained.
6) Simulation of White uniform noise.
*+P*RIM*NT NO.-,
AIM O- TH* *+P*RIM*NT: - Simulation of Unifo%m )ite an" Gau!!ian noi!e.
APPARATUS.SO-T/AR* R*#UIR*0:-
1. PC
2. Mat la' 3e%!ion 4.51
TH*OR6:-
Unifo%m )ite an" Gau!!ian )ite noi!e:-
T)o t&$e! of noi!e tat f%e7uentl& a%e u!e" a%e unifo%m )ite noi!e an" Gau!!ian )ite noi!e.
Te te%m 8)ite8 %efe%! to te f%e7uenc& "omain ca%acte%i!tic of noi!e. I"eal )ite noi!e a!
e7ual $o)e% $e% unit 'an")i"t9 )ic %e!ult! in a flat $o)e% !$ect%al "en!it& ac%o!! te
f%e7uenc& %an(e of inte%e!t. Tu!9 te $o)e% in te f%e7uenc& %an(e f%om 155 H: to 115 H: i!
te !ame a! te $o)e% in te f%e7uenc& %an(e f%om 1555 H: to 1515 H:. /en &ou c%eate a
)ite noi!e !i(nal in te %eal )o%l"9 &ou cannot acie3e infinite 'an")i"t 'ecau!e an infinite
amount of $o)e% i! %e7ui%e". 6ou can9 o)e3e%9 (ene%ate )ite noi!e !i(nal! o3e% f%e7uencie!
of inte%e!t. Te follo)in( fi(u%e !o)! a )ite noi!e !i(nal )o!e f%e7uenc& "omain
mea!u%ement! a%e a3e%a(e".
Unifo%m Gau!!ian noi!e:-
Te te%m! 8unifo%m8 an" 8Gau!!ian8 %efe% to te $"f of te am$litu"e 3alue! of a noi!e !i(nal.
-o% unifo%m )ite noi!e9 te%e i! e7ual $o)e% $e% e%t: ac%o!! a !$ecifie" f%e7uenc& %an(e. Te
colo% of te noi!e %efe%! to te f%e7uenc& "omain "i!t%i'ution of te noi!e !i(nal $o)e%. In ti!
ca!e9 te noi!e i! )ite. Te%e i! an e7ual "i!t%i'ution of noi!e $o)e% f%om 1 to ;55 H:. Te%mal
noi!e $%o"uce" in acti3e elect%onic com$onent! ten"! to 'e 'ot unifo%m an" )ite. Ote%
im$o%tant noi!e !i(nal! inclu"e Gamma <flic=e% noi!e>9 Binomial9 an" Poi!!on9 )e%e te name!
fo% te noi!e in"icate te $%o'a'ilit& "i!t%i'ution of eac noi!e !ou%ce.
7)Simulation of Data compression using DCT.
EXPERIMENT NO : -7
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT:-

Simulation of data compression using DCT.

THEORY:-
In the JPEG image compression algorithm the input image is di!ided into "-#$-"
or %&-#$-%& #loc's and the (-D DCT is computed for each #loc'. The DCT coefficients
are then )uanti*ed coded and transmitted .The JPEG recei!er+or JPEG file reader,
decodes the )uanti*ed DCT coefficients computes the in!erse (-D DCT of each #loc'
and then puts the #loc's #ac' together into a single image. -or t$pical images man$ of
the DCT coefficients ha!e !alues close to *ero. these coefficients can #e discarding
/ithout seriousl$ affecting the )ualit$ o the reconstructed image. The e0ample code
#elo/ computes the (-D DCT of "-#$-" #loc's in the input image discard + sets to *ero,
all #ut %1 of the &2 DCT coefficients in each #loc' and then reconstructs the image using
the (-D in!erse DCT of each #loc'. The transform matri0 computation method is used .
3lthough there is some loss of )ualit$ in the reconstructed image it is clearl$
recogni*a#le e!en though almost "45 of the DCT coefficients /ere discarded
5P67G638 -76 I83GE C78P6ESSI79 :SI9G DCT
I ; imread+<cameraman.tif<,.
I ; im(dou#le+I,.
T ; dctmt0+",.
= ; #l'proc+I>" "?<P%@0@P(<TT<,.
mas' ; >% % % % 1 1 1 1
% % % 1 1 1 1 1
% % 1 1 1 1 1 1
% 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1?.
=( ; #l'proc+=>" "?<P%.@0<mas',.
I( ; #l'proc+=(>" "?<P%@0@P(<T<T,.
imsho/+I, figure imsho/+I(,
CONCLUSION :-

Aere the image +data, is compressed using DCT /ith the help 83TB3=
simulation. The outcomes of the simulation /ere in agreements /ith the theoretical as
/ell as e0perimental facts .

The programs and simulation results are enclosed separatel$.
8) To set up fiber optic link both analog and digital
signal.
EXPERIMENT NO-&/
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT+ # (o setup fibe optic lin2 both analo! and di!ital.
APPARARUS0*OMPONENTS REQUIRED+&
1. S( 2.02 taine 2it
2. $ibe optical cable
3. 67@
4. 6onnectin! wies
.. :owe supply
THEORY+&
$ibe optics lin2s can be used fo tansmission of di!ital as well as analo! si!nals. 8asically a
fibe optic lin2 contains thee main elements: a tansmitte module ta2es the input si!nal in
electical fom and then tansfes it into optical 'li!ht). <ne!y containin! the same infomation.
(he optical fibe is the medium which ta2es the ene!y to the eceive. 0t the eceive, li!ht is
conveted into electical fom with the same patten as oi!inally fed to the tansmitte.
T1e Tr)ns(ier+&
$ibe optic tansmittes ae typically composed of a buffe povides both an electical connection
isolation between the tansmitte and the electical system supplyin! the data. (he dive
povides electical powe to the optical souce. $inally the optical souce convets the electical
cuent to the li!ht ene!y with the same patten. 6ommonly used optical souces ae li!ht
emittin! diodes 'H<4) and lase beam.
(he tansmitte compises of 'i) $unction !eneato
'ii) $e"uency modulato
'iii):ulse width modulato bloc2
(he function !eneato !eneates the input si!nal that is !oin! to be used as infomation to
tansmit thou!h the fibe optic lin2. (he output volta!e available is at 1I*+. Sinusoidal si!nal
of adCustable amplitude and fi1ed amplitude at 1I*+ so s"uae wave si!nal. (he modulato
section accepts the infomation si!nal and convets it into suitable fom fo tansmission thou!h
the fibe optic lin2.
T1e Fi2er O!ic .in3+&
<mitte and detecto cicuits on boad fom the fibe optic lin2. (his section povides the li!ht
souce fo the optical fibe and the li!ht detection at the fa end of the fibe optic lin2s. (he optic
fibe plu!s into the connections povided in the pats of the boad. (wo sepaate lin2s ae
povided.
T1e Receiver+&
(he compaato cicuit, low pass filte, phase loc2ed loop, 06 amplifie cicuits fom eceive on
the boad. 3t is able to undo the modulation pocess in ode to ecove the oi!inal infomation
si!nal. 3n this e1peiment the taine boad is used to illustate one way communication between
di!ital tansmitte and eceive cicuits.
PRO*EDURE+&
1. (he powe supply was connected to the boad.
2. 3t was ensued that all switched faults wee off.
3. (he 1I*+ sine wave output was connected to emitte.
4. (he fibe optic cable was connected between emitte output and detection input.
.. 4etection is output to 06 amplifie input was connected.
-. @n the boad emitte is diven to analo! mode was switched and then to di!ital mode one
afte anothe.
7. (he powe was switched on.
5. (he input to emitte 1 '>ps) with the output fom 06 amplifie. (hen the coespondin!
wavefoms wee obseved on 67@ sceen and wee taced. 0s a esult it was found that
both the input and output si!nals fo both analo! and di!ital pocessin! wee e"uivalents.
*ON*.USION+&
*ence the above e1peiment was studied successfully.
9) Measurement of Numerical Aperture using fiber
optics.
EXPERIMENT NO-&4
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT+ & Measuement of %umeical 0petue uses fibe optics.
APPARARUS0*OMPONENTS REQUIRED+&
1. 6onnectin! wies
2. $ibe optic cable
3. %umeical apetue measuin! sceen
4. $ibe optic taine 2it'S( 2.02)
THEORY+&
%umeical apetue efes to the ma1imum an!le of, at which the li!ht is incident on the fibe and
intenally eflected and tansmitted popely alon! the fibe.
In o$tic!9 te numerical aperture <93> of an o$tical !&!tem i! a "imen!ionle!! num'e% tat
ca%acte%i:e! te %an(e of an(le! o3e% )ic te !&!tem can acce$t o% emit li(t. Te e?act
"efinition of te te%m 3a%ie! !li(tl& 'et)een "iffe%ent a%ea! of o$tic!.
3n most aeas of optics, and especially in micoscopy, the numeical apetue of an optical system
such as an obCective lens is defined by
whee n is the inde1 of efaction of the medium in which the lens is wo2in! '1.0 fo ai, 1.33
fo
pue wate, and up to 1..- fo oils), and is the half#an!le of the ma1imum cone of li!ht that can
ente o e1it the lens. 3n !eneal, this is the an!le of the eal ma!inal ay in the system. (he
an!ula apetue of the lens is appo1imately twice this value 'within the paa1ial
appo1imation).
(he %0 is !eneally measued with espect to a paticula obCect o ima!e point and will vay as
that point is moved. 3n micoscopy, %0 !eneally efes to obCect#space %0 unless othewise
noted.
3n micoscopy, %0 is impotant because it indicates the esolvin! powe of a lens. (he si+e of
the
finest detail that can be esolved is popotional to JA%0, whee J is the wavelen!th of the li!ht.
0
lens with a la!e numeical apetue will be able to visuali+e fine details than a lens with a
smalle numeical apetue. 0ssumin! "uality 'diffaction limited) optics, lenses with la!e
numeical apetues collect moe li!ht and will !eneally povide a bi!hte ima!e, but will p
ovide shallowe depth of field.
%umeical apetue is used to define the Kpit si+eK in optical disc fomats.
Numerical aperture versus f-number
S
Nume%ical a$e%tu%e of a tin len!.
%umeical apetue is not typically used in photo!aphy. 3nstead, the an!ula apetue of a lens
'o
an ima!in! mio) is e1pessed by the f#numbe, witten fAL o N, which is defined as the atio
of
the focal len!th to the diamete of the entance pupil:
(his atio is elated to the ima!e#space numeical apetue when the lens is focused at
infinity.8ased on the dia!am at the i!ht, the ima!e#space numeical apetue of the lens is:
tu! 9 a!!umin( no%mal u!e in ai% <n ? 1>.
Fi2er o!ics
0 multi#mode optical fibe will only popa!ate li!ht that entes the fibe within a cetain cone,
2nown as the acceptance cone of the fibe. (he half#an!le of this cone is called the acceptance

ma1
. $o step#inde1 multimode fibe, the acceptance an!le is detemined only by the indices of
efaction:
whee n
1
is the efactive inde1 of the fibe coe, and n
2
is the efactive inde1 of the claddin!.
Mhen a li!ht ay is incident fom a medium of efactive inde1 n to the coe of inde1 n
1
at the
ma1imum acceptance an!le, Snell&s law at the mediumNcoe inteface !ives
$om the !eomety of the above fi!ue we have:
whee is the citical an!le fo total intenal eflection.
Substitutin! cos O
c
fo sin O
r
in Snell&s law we !et:
8y s"uain! both sides
Solvin!, we find the fomula stated above:
(his has the same fom as the numeical apetue in othe optical systems, so it has become
common to define the %0 of any type of fibe to be
whee n
1
is the efactive inde1 alon! the cental a1is of the fibe. %ote that when this definition
is
used, the connection between the %0 and the acceptance an!le of the fibe becomes only an
appo1imation. 3n paticula, manufactues often "uote K%0K fo sin!le#mode fibe based on this
fomula, even thou!h the acceptance an!le fo sin!le#mode fibe is "uite diffeent and cannot be
detemined fom the indices of efaction alone.
PRO*EDURE+&
1. (he powe supply was connected to the boad.
2. (he fe"uency !eneato !eneatin! 1I*+ sine wave output was connected to the input of
emitte cicuit.
3. 6onnect one end of the fibe cable to the output cicuit of emitte1 cicuit and the othe
end to the numeical apetue measuement holdin! the white sceen facin! the fibe such
that its suface is pependicula to the a1is of fibe.
4. *old the white sceen with 4 concentic cicles '10,1.,20,2.mm diamete) vetically at
suitable distance to ma2e the ed spot fom the fibe coincide with 10mm cicle and so
on.
.. 7ecod the distance of the sceen fom the fibe end2 and note the diamete with the spot.
-. 6ompute the numeical apetue fom the below fomula,
%0 ? ? SinOma1
7. 9ay the distance between the sceen and optical fibe cable and ma2e it coincide with
one of the concentic cicles and note its distance.
5. (abulate the vaious distance and diamete of the cicle made at the white sceen and
compute the numeical apetue.
O5SER6ATION0TA5U.ATION+&
Seial
%o.
4istance sceen
fom the fibe'H) in
cm
4istance of
cicle'M) in mm
%umeical
0petue
0vea!e %.0.
1 2 10 0.)25.
0.)3527. P
0.)4
2 2.- 1. 0.)4)
3 3.2 20 0.).2
4 . 2. 0.)25-
*A.*U.ATION+&
$o H1?2cm, M1?10mm, %.0. ? ? 0.)25.
$o H2?2.-cm, M2?1.mm, %.0. ? ? 0.)4)
$o H3?3.2cm, M3?20mm, %.0. ? ? 0.).2
$o H4?.cm, M4?2.mm, %.0. ? ? 0.)25-
0vea!e %.0. ? ? 0.)3527. P 0.)4
*ON*.USION+&
*ence fom the above e1peiment the avea!e numeical apetue of optical fibe cable ta2en was
found to be 0.)4. Te 0i(ital fi'e% o$tic! lin= i! 3e%& muc !uita'le fo% t%an!mi!!ion of "i(ital
3i"eo9"ata9au"io93oice etc. to "i!tance $lace! )it minimum lo!!e! an" )it teft f%ee
en3i%onment.
P%amo" Kuma% Ba%i=
MTec < *C*>- 1!t !em
10) To set up satellite link by sending audio and
time signal.
EXPERIMENT NO-&78
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT+# (o setup satellite lin2 by sendin! audio and tone si!nal.
APPARATUS0*OMPONENTS REQUIRED+&
1. Qplin2 tansmitte 2it
2. 4ownlin2 tansmitte 2it
C. Satellite transponder 'it
2. Po/er suppl$.
THEORY+&
Satellite is used fo boad band application as it coves whole potion of ai eathRs suface. 0
communication satellite lin2 is essentially a micowave lin2 epeats. (hey ae 2ept at a distance
of 3-,000 2m fom the eathRs suface. 8y usin! IepleRs Haw , the satellites ae launched. (he
use sends infomation to the teestial antenna system. $om that the base band si!nal entes the
eath station at the tansmitte afte bein! pocessed. (hen the encode and modulato acts on the
base band si!nal and then it ae connected to the uplin2 fe"uency. 3t is then amplified and
diected to the satellite.
(he eceive in the tansponde eceives hi!h fe"uency si!nal and etansmit the same si!nal.
(he 7$ si!nal fom the eceivin! antenna ae sepaated fom each by usin! band pass antenna
and then conveted to down lin2 fe"uency. 3t is passed to the eath station then teestial system
fom whee we !et bac2 the oi!inal si!nal thou!h demodulation.
In view of the fact that the receiver and transmitter are operating at the same time and in close
proximity, care has to be taken in the design of the satellite that the transmitter does not
interfere with the receiver. This might result from spurious signals arising from the
transmitter, or the receiver may become de-sensitised by the strong signal being received
from the transmitter. The filters already mentioned are used to reduce these effects.
Block diagram of a basic satellite transponder
Signals transmitted to satellites usually consist of a large number of signals multiplexed onto a
main transmission. In this way one transmission from the ground can carry a large number
of telephone circuits or even a number of television signals. This approach is operationally
far more effective than having a large number of individual transmitters.
Obviously one satellite will be unable to carry all the traffic across the tlantic. !urther capacity
can be achieved using several satellites on different bands, or by physically separating them
apart from one another. In this way the beamwidth of the antenna can be used to distinguish
between different satellites. "ormally antennas with very high gains are used, and these
have very narrow beamwidths, allowing satellites to be separated by #ust a few degrees.
Separating satellites by position
PRO*EDURE+&
1. 0udio and tone si!nal ae povided to the uplin2 tansmitte.
2. Qplin2 tansmitte then sends the si!nal to the tansponde.
3. (he tansponde eceives the audio and tone si!nal thou!h the eceivin! end and then it
is etansmitted to the downlin2 eceive fom the tansmitted end of tansponde.
4. $om the downlin2 eceive by demodulation pocedue we !et bac2 the oi!inal si!nal.
OBSERVATIONS
Inside the laboratory through a microphone we are sending the voice signal.$e have the talk
.through the mic and that signal is modulated in the transmit and the sent through the
antenna.
The uplink fre%uency & '.( )*+ and downlink fre%uency & '., g *+
*ON*.USION+&
T1us 9ro( 1e )2ove e"!eri(en: ) circui o9 co((unic)ion lin3 $s)ellie lin3% ;)s
es)2lis1e' 2e;een u!lin3 )n' 'o;nlin3 receiver usin# )u'io )n' one si#n)l: ;ere
9oun' o 2e si(il)r ) 2o1 r)ns(ier )n' receiver si'e en'- The practical application is
sending audio video signal from the field foe live
telecast purpose may in - band or in .u band. and reception fre%uency/down link fre%uency0
also in same band.