You are on page 1of 9

Data Sheet

Data Pack B Issued November 2005 1502325812


AC Industrial Electric Motors
Standards organisations
The RS-ABB range of ac i nducti on motors i s produced to
common European standards, these bei ng I EC and
C ENELEC ( C omi t Europen de Normali sati on
Electrotechni que) .
These two organi sati ons work together on harmoni sati ons of
standards both worldwi de and wi thi n Western Europe.
G ENELEC i n parti cular ai ms to remove trade obstacles i n
Western Europe that may occur due to di fferences i n the
regulati ons and standards.
New nati onal standards are i ncreasi ngly i denti cal to or
broadly based on these European standards i ssued by
C ENELEC .
Dimensional and power standards
The fi rst edi ti on of I EC Publi cati on 72 was i ssued i n 1959 and
supplemented i n 1970 by I EC ( I nternati onal Electrotechni cal
C ommi ssi on) Publi cati on 72A.
These contai ned the fi rst recommendati ons and outli ne
proposals that electri c motors should be produced wi th
si mi lar rated powers and mounti ng di mensi ons, i .e. shaft
hei ght, fi xi ng di mensi ons and shaft extensi on di mensi ons.
I n 1974 the j oi nt agreement was superseded by a
harmoni sati on document HD231 from C ENELEC . T he
resulti ng standardi sati on enabled a complete
i nterchangeabi li ty between motors of di fferent manufacture.
The si zes, versi ons and rated outputs of 4-pole and 2-pole
motors covered by the standard are shown i n Table 1.
However, the European standardi sati on does not fully
coi nci de wi th correspondi ng USA standards, whi ch tend to
be based on i mperi al di mensi ons rather than the
correspondi ng metri c-based European motor. Power rati ngs
also di ffer between US and European motors.
Features
M anufactured to metri c frame si zes
Totally enclosed fan cooled ( TEFC ) constructi on
Envi ronmentally protected to I P55
Three-phase motors avai lable i n both foot and flange
mounti ng
Wi de voltage range on three-phase motors of 220-
240V/250-280V i f delta ( ) connected or 380-420/440-
480V i f star ( U) connected for motors up to frame si ze 100
Wi de voltage range 380-420/440-480V delta ( )
connected or 660-690V star C connected for motors
wi th frame si ze 112 as above
Sui table for use on 50/60Hz suppli es
Si ngle-phase motors avai lable i n both permanent
capaci tor and capaci tor start-run formats
2-pole and 4-pole motors avai lable.
Table 1
Ratings according to IEC frame sizes IEC 34/1. IP55
For squirrel-cage motors
T he meani ng of the standardi sed letters i n the si ze
desi gnati on for si zes 90-132 are S = small, M = medi um long
and L = long versi on.
Frame Size Rated output, KW
2 Pole 4 Pole
63B 0.25 0.18
71A 0.37 0.25
71B 0.55 -
71C 0.75 0.55
80A 0.75 0.55
80B 1.1 0.75
80C 1.5 1.1
90S 1.5 1.1
90L 2.2 1.5
90LB 2.7 2.2
100L 3.0 -
100LA - 2.2
100 LB 4.0 3.0
100LC - 4.0
112M 4.0 4.0
112M B 5.5 5.5
132S - 5.5
132M - 7.5
132M BA - 9.2
132M B - 11.0
132SA 5.5 -
132SB 735 -
132SBB 9.2 -
132SC 11.0 -
160M 15.00 11.0
160M A 11.0 -
160L 18.5 15.0
160LB 22.0 18.5
Three-phase induction motor
1502325812
2
Insulation classes
I EC Publi cati on I EC 85 di vi des i nsulati on i nto classes. Each
class i s gi ven a desi gnati on that corresponds to the upper
temperature li mi t of the i nsulati ng materi al when used under
normal operati ng condi ti ons.
The correct i nsulati on of the wi ndi ng of a motor i s therefore
determi ned by both the temperature ri se i n the motor and
the temperature of the ambi ent ai r. I f a motor i s subjected to
an ambi ent temperature hi gher than 40C , i t must normally
be derated or a hi gh i nsulati on class of materi al used.
I nternati onal standards measure temperature i n degrees
C elsi us ( C ) , whi lst temperature di fference i s stated i n the
uni t Kelvi n ( K) . O ne degree C elsi us i s equi valent to 1K.
The RS-ABB range of ac i nducti on motors i s manufactured to
a class F i nsulati on rati ng. For class F the temperature ri se
must not exceed 105K, provi ded that the ambi ent
temperature does not exceed + 40C .
I t should be noted that i f the upper temperature li mi t of the
i nsulati on materi al i s exceeded by 8 to 10K ( Table 2) , the li fe
of the i nsulati on wi ll be approxi mately halved.
The graph i llustrates the effect of exceedi ng the hi ghest
permi tted wi ndi ng temperature on wi ndi ng li fe.
General characteristics
The followi ng i s a li st of general characteri sti cs of the ac
i nducti on motors suppli ed by RS C omponents. Each one
should be consi dered before choosi ng the appropri ate
motor for the appli cati on.
Voltage
Si ngle-speed, three-phase motors can usually be re-
connected for two voltages.
The usual way i s to connect the three stator phase wi ndi ngs
i n star ( U) or delta ( ) . All RS-ABB motors are suppli ed
confi gured i n star ( U) up to frame si ze 100 for 380-420V
50Hz, motors above thi s si ze are suppli ed delta pri mari ly but
may be converted for delta ( ) . Thi s means that the three-
phase i nput voltage range i s wi de. For example i f the motor
was connected i n delta i t would accept a three-phase i nput
voltage range of 220-240V for a 50Hz supply frequency or
250-280V for 60Hz frequency.
Si mi larly wi th the motor connected i n star an i nput voltage
range of 380-420V i s acceptable on 50Hz or 440-480V on a
60Hz supply system.
Thi s wi de voltage range and dual operati ng frequency
enables the motors to be used throughout the world.
To convert the motors refer to Fi gure 2 where i ndi cati on i s
gi ven of the requi red li nk change.
Note: To use these motors i n conjuncti on wi th si ngle-phase
240V i nput, three-phase output ac motor speed
controllers, these three-phase motors must be
connected i n delta ( ) .
M otors from frame si ze 112 are suppli ed delta connected for
380-420V 50Hz, 440-480V 60Hz. They can be connected i n a
star confi gurati on for 660-690V 50Hz operati on i f requi red.
Voltage deviation
I f the supply voltage at constant output power devi ates from
the rated voltage of the motor, the starti ng and maxi mum
torques of the motor vary approxi mately as the square of the
voltage.
The change i n torque wi ll also result i n a change i n the
speed, effi ci ency and power factor ( Fi gure 3) .
Voltage devi ati ons also affect the temperature ri se i n the
motor wi ndi ngs. I f the voltage i s low the temperature wi ll ri se
i n both large and small framed motors; i f the voltage i s hi gh
the temperature may drop sli ghtly i n large si zed motors but
ri se rapi dly i n the small output motors.
L1 L2 L3
W2 U2 V2
L1 L2 L3
W2 U2 V2
W1 U1 V1 W1 U1 V1
W2
L1
U1
U2
L2
V1 V2
L3
W1
L1
U1
U2
L3 W1
W2
L2
V1
V2
???- connection
220-240V
Y-connection
380-420V
5
10
10
5
15
60
75
80
105
125
40 40 40 40 40
C C C C C
Thermal
Margin
Permissible
temperature
rise
Maximum
ambient
temperature
A
105
E
120
B
130
F
155
H
180
Insulation classes
Excess temperature rise-K
Life %
%
0 10 20 30 40
40
80
120
Table 2
Figure 1 T emperature li mi ts of the di fferent
i nsulati on classes
Fi gure 2 Arrangement of windings and terminal
blocks for and Y connections
1502325812
3
Power
When choosi ng a motor si ze i t i s essenti al to bear i n mi nd
that i t i s the power demand of the dri ven machi ne that
determi nes the output deli vered by the motor and therefore
the power drawn from the supply. For example i f a machi ne
needs 4kW i t wi ll take 4kW, regardless of whether the motor
i s 3kW or 7.5kW.
I f the smaller motor i s i nstalled i t wi ll be subjected to a
conti nuous 25% overload that i t wi ll not be able to sustai n for
long peri ods. The protecti ve overload devi ce fi tted should,
however, protect agai nst these types of hi gh overloads, and
di sconnect the motor supply wi thi n a sui table ti me peri od.
A motor must be capable of deli veri ng the power needed by
the dri ven machi ne, and i t i s prudent to provi de a safety
margi n si nce mi nor overloads that are di ffi cult to foresee can
often occur.
I f a motor wi ndi ng i s overheated the i nsulati on of the copper
conductors may be destroyed. G i ven a choi ce between two
motor si zes the larger one should always be used. However
i t i s not a good i dea to choose an unnecessari ly large motor
si nce i t wi ll be di sproporti onately costly to purchase and
have a low power factor i n servi ce. I n addi ti on, when a
squi rrel cage motor i s started the starti ng current wi ll be
excessi vely hi gh, si nce i t i s proporti onal to the si ze of the
motor. I f a motor i s loaded at full load only for short peri ods
wi th peri ods of i dli ng between them, known as i ntermi ttent
duty, i ts temperature ri se wi ll be lower, and i t wi ll have a
capaci ty to deli ver a hi gher output than duri ng conti nuous
operati on.
Fi gure 4 shows a typi cal temperature/ti me graph for a motor
i n both conti nuous and i ntermi ttent duty.
Power factor
A motor consumes not only acti ve power ( kW) , whi ch i t
converts i nto mechani cal work, but also reacti ve power
( kVAr) whi ch i s needed for magneti sati on but does not
perform any useful functi on.
The acti ve and reacti ve powers are shown i n Fi gure 5
together wi th the apparent power ( kVA) . The rati o between
the acti ve power and the apparent power i s known as the
power factor. The angle between P ( kW) and S ( kVA) i s
usually desi gnated . The power factor usually bei ng
referred to as cos .
The power factor i s usually between 0.7 and 0.9, however
thi s may vary dependi ng on the motor si ze and rati ng.
I f there are many motors i n an i nstallati on they wi ll consume
a lot of reacti ve power and wi ll therefore have a lower power
factor. Power supply authori ti es someti mes requi re the
power factor of the i nstallati on to be rai sed. Thi s i s usually
done by correcti on capaci tors to the supply: these generate
reacti ve power and thus rai se the power factor level.
Power factor correction
Wi th phase compensati on the correcti on capaci tors are
usually connected i n parallel wi th the motor or group of
motors. C apaci tors must not be connected i n parallel wi th
any si ngle phases of the wi ndi ng otherwi se di ffi culty may be
experi enced i n starti ng usi ng star/delta methods.
To calculate the value of power factor correcti on capa-ci tor
requi red the followi ng formula should be used:
Q
C = 3.2 3 10
6
x
U
where C = C apaci tance, F
U = C apaci tor voltage, V
Q = Reacti ve power, kVAr.
The reacti ve power i s obtai ned by usi ng the formula:
P
Q = K x
h
where K = constant from Table 2a
P = rated power of motor, kW
h = effi ci ency of motor.
Q

P S
P= Active power (kW)
Q= Reactive power (kVAr)
S= Apparent power (kVA)
= Power factor
Temperature
Heating curve in continous
duty
Resultant curve in
intermittent duty
Cooling curve
Time
Temperature/Time graph for a motor on continous and
intermittent duty.
85 90 95 100 105 110 115%
Voltage
Graph showing current (I), speed (n), efficiency () and
power factor (cos) as a function of the voltage at constant
output (P).
cos

P
n
I
Fi gure 3
Fi gure 4
Fi gure 5
1502325812
4
Table 2a
Efficiency
I EC Publi cati on 34-2 descri bes two methods for determi ni ng
the effi ci ency of a motor, one bei ng the di rect method the
other known as i ndi rect.
Wi th the i ndi rect method i nput power and output are each
measured i ndi vi dually. M ost motor fi gures quoted are
determi ned by thi s method, whi ch also i ncludes a calculati on
of the losses i nvolved.
Typi cal motor losses i nclude:
Beari ng and ai r fri cti on losses
C urrent heat losses i n stator and rotor
I ron losses
Stray losses.
Fi gure 6 gi ves a graphi c i ndi cati on i f the relati onshi p
between these losses.
The standards defi ne the stray losses as 0.5% of the i nput
power at rated duty. The standard tolerance i s:
15% of ( 1 - h) for motors up to 15kW where h = effi ci ency of
motor. NEM A, the standards most wi dely used i n the USA,
permi t no tolerance on the losses. Stray losses are generally
calculated at 0.9% of the output.
Speed
The speed of an ac motor depends on the mai ns frequency
and the number of poles of the stator wi ndi ng.
2.f.60
n = r/mi n.
P
where
n = speed
f = frequency
P = number of poles.
The rule of thumb to follow for a 50Hz mai ns frequency i s that
the speed i n revoluti ons per mi nute ( r/mi n. or rpm) i s 6000
di vi ded by the number of poles.
For example a 4-pole motor wi ll have a synchronous speed
of:
6000
= 1,500 r/mi n.
4
Thi s speed can never actually be achi eved on load due to
sli p. O n no load, however, speed i s practi cally equal to the
synchronous speed.
To calculate sli p the followi ng equati on can be used:
n
1
-n
S = 100%
n1
where
S = sli p %
n
1
= synchronous speed, r/mi n.
n = asynchronous speed, r/mi n.
M otor sli p i s proporti onal to the power taken from the motor.
For example
A 4-pole motor of 4kW at 415V, 50Hz, 1425 r/mi n.
At 4kW sli p equals
1500 - 1425
S = 100 = 5%
1500
correspondi ng to 1500 - 1425 = 75 r/mi n.
At 3kW
1500 - 1425
S =
3
/
4
100 = 3.8%
1500
correspondi ng to
3
/4 ( 1500 - 1425 = 56 r/mi n.
Therefore n at 3kW wi ll be 1500 - 56 = 1444 r/mi n.
The sli p i s i nversely proporti onal to the square of the voltage.
For example
4-pole motor, 4kW, 415V, 50Hz, 1425 r/mi n.
415 1500 - 1425
At 380V; S = 100
380 1500
= 5.96%
415
correspondi ng to ( 1500 - 1425)
380
89 r/mi n.
n wi ll therefore be 1500 - 89 = 1411 r/mi n.
Input
Iron
Resistance
Friction
Output
Diagram of relationship between input iron losses,
resistance losses and output.
cos Constant K
without compensation Compensation to cos =
0.95 0.90 0.85 0.80
0.50 1.403 1.248 1.112 0.982
0.51 1358 1.202 1.067 0.936
0.52 1.314 1.158 1.023 0.892
0.53 1.271 1.116 0.980 0.850
0.54 1.230 1.074 0.939 0.808
0.55 1.190 1.024 0.898 0.768
0.56 1.150 0.995 0.859 0.729
0.57 1.113 0.957 0.822 0.691
0.58 1.076 0.920 0.785 0.654
0.59 1.040 0.884 0.748 0.618
0.60 1.005 0.849 0.713 0.583
0.61 0.970 0.815 0.679 0.548
0.62 0.937 0.781 0.646 0.515
0.63 0.904 0.748 0.613 0.482
0.64 0.872 0.716 0.581 0.450
0.65 0.841 0.685 0.549 0.419
0.66 0.810 0.654 0.518 0.388
0.67 0.779 0.624 0.488 0.358
0.68 0.750 0.594 0.458 0.328
0.69 0.720 0.565 0.429 0.298
0.70 0.692 0.536 0.400 0.270
0.71 0.663 0.507 0.372 0.241
0.72 0.625 0.480 0.344 0.214
0.73 0.608 0.452 0.316 0.186
0.74 0580 0425 0289 0.158
0.75 0.553 0.398 0.262 0.132
0.76 0527 0.371 0.235 0.105
0.77 0.500 0.344 0.209 0.078
0.78 0474 0.318 0.182 0.052
0.79 0.447 0.292 0.156 0.026
0.80 0.421 0.266 0.130
0.81 0.395 0.240 0.104
0.82 0.369 0.214 0.078
0.83 0.343 0.188 0.052
0.84 0.317 0.162 0.026
0.85 0.291 0.135
0.86 0.265 0.109
0.87 0.238 0.082
0.88 0.211 0.055
0.89 0.184 0.027
0.90 0.156
Fi gure 6
1502325812
5
Table 3 gi ves detai ls of synchronous speed for vari ous
numbers of motor poles and operati on on ei ther 50 or 60Hz.
Table 3
Operation at 60Hz
A motor wound for a gi ven voltage at 50Hz can be used
unmodi fi ed on a 60Hz supply: i n such cases the motor data
wi ll change as shown i n Table 4.
Notes: 1. That M /start/M and M max/M must be calculated
on the basi s of the 60Hz value of M .
2. The di fferent torque fi gures at 60Hz. The starti ng
torque and mi ni mum torque fi gures i n parti cular
are reduced on 60Hz operati on wi th the same
supply voltage, thi s may lead to starti ng
problems i n certai n appli cati ons.
Table 4
1. M Rated torque at 60Hz
M
max
/M M axi mum torque/rated torque
M
start
/M Starti ng torque/rated torque
Table 5
Example of a typi cal conversi on of data from 50 to 60Hz operati on.
Torque
The torque of a motor i s the measure of i ts turni ng abi li ty. I f
the power and speed are known i t i s easy to calculate the
torque.
I f we refer to Fi gure 7 we can see that at the peri phery of a
pulley there i s a certai n force i n the belt. I f thi s force i s
referred to as F and the radi us of the pulley r, the product Fr
i s known as the torque M of the motor.
The power i s the work performed by the motor per uni t of
ti me; work i s force ti mes di stance. The force F rotates n
revoluti ons i n one mi nute and covers the di stance n 2
r.
Duri ng motor accelerati on the torque developed fi rst drops
sli ghtly then ri ses to i ts maxi mum ( Fi gure 8) .
I n normal motors the maxi mum torque occurs at 85 to 90% of
full speed.
At synchronous speed torque i s zero.
To calculate the rated torque of a motor the followi ng formula
can be used:
30,000 P
M = Nm
n
Where P = output, kN
n = motor speed, r/mi n.
For example
A motor i s rated at 1.5kW and 1400r/mi n. the di ameter of
pulley i s 100mm i .e. r = 0.05m. The torque and tracti on
developed at full power wi ll be:
30,000 1.5
M =
1400
M = 10.2Nm
10.2
Therefore F =
0.05
= 205N
Minimum torque
I EC Publi cati on 34-1 states certai n fi gures for general
purpose three-phase squi rrel cage motors. For si ngle-speed
motors wi th rated output < 100KW the mi ni mum torque
deli vered duri ng run up at rated voltage must not be less
than 50% of the rated torque and not less than 50% of the
starti ng torque. The fi gure for si ngle-phase motors i s 30% of
the rated torque.
Speed
Typical torque/speed curve of an ac induction motor.
Torque
200
150
100
Pictoral representation of torque determination
Quantity Data at Conversion Data at
50Hz factor 60Hz
Voltage 380V - 440V
O utput 11kW 1.15 12.6kW
C urrent 23A 1.0 23A
M
max
/M 2.4 0.98 2.4
M
start
/M 2 0.95 1.9
Speed 1450 r/mi n 1.20 1740 r/mi n
Motor Connection
Data at 60Hz as % of 50Hz data
wound for to 60Hz
50Hz and and
Output M
1
M
max
/M
1
M
start
/M
1
Speed
220V 220V 100 83 85 70 120
255V 115 96 98 95 120
380V 380V 100 83 85 70 120
415V 110 91 93 85 120
440V 115 96 98 95 120
460V 120 100 103 100 120
415V 415V 100 83 85 70 120
460V 110 91 94 85 120
480V 115 96 98 95 120
500V 500V 100 83 85 70 120
550V 110 91 94 85 120
575V 115 96 98 95 120
600V 120 100 103 100 120
Synchronous speed at
Poles 50Hz 60Hz
2 3000 3600
4 1500 1800
6 1000 1200
8 750 900
10 600 720
12 500 600
16 375 450
20 300 360
24 250 300
32 187.5 225
48 125 150
Fi gure 7
Fi gure 8
1502325812
6
Maximum torque
The maxi mum torque i s a measure of the overload capabi li ty
of the motor I EC Publi cati on 34-1 lays down that general
purpose motors must be capable of developi ng at least
160% of the rated torque for 15 seconds - wi thout stoppi ng
or suddenly changi ng speed - i f the rated voltage or
frequency i s mai ntai ned. Four-pole motors made by ABB
usually have a maxi mum torque that i s approxi mately 200 to
300% of the rated torque. Low speed motors usually have a
sli ghtly lower maxi mum torque than hi gh speed ones.
Torque on voltage deviation
Wi th ac i nducti on motors, the starti ng current decreases
sli ghtly more than proporti onately to the voltage. Thus at 90%
of the rated voltage the motor draws approxi mately 87-89%
of the starti ng current.
The starti ng torque i s proporti onal to the square of the
current. The torque deli vered at 90% of rated voltage i s
therefore only 75-79% of the starti ng torque. Thi s factor may
be of parti cular i mportance when choosi ng a motor for use
on a weak electri cal supply or when starti ng techni ques
based on current reducti on methods are employed ( Fi gure
9) .
Frequency of starting and reversing
When a motor i s frequently started, counter-current braked
or reversed, extra heat, due to the i ncrease i n losses, i s
produced reduci ng the motors abi li ty to perform at i ts rated
loaded output.
The followi ng formula can be used to obtai n an approxi mate
value.
3600 - k
1
X ts
1st
1
P2 = P1
3600 - X ts
where
P2 = permi tted load
P1 = rated output of motor
X = number of starts, braki ng or reversals per hour
ts = starti ng or braki ng ti me
1st
= starti ng current/braki ng current
1
K
1
= constant: 1 for starti ng, 3 for braki ng and 4 for
reversi ng.
The permi tted value of X i s determi ned wi th regards to the
temperature ri se wi thi n the motor.
For example
1st
A 4-pole motor 4kW, = 5.5
1
starti ng ti me ts = 0.5s. X = 10 starts per hour.
Therefore
P2
=
3600 - 1 10 0.5 ( 5.5) 2
= .979
P1 3600 - 10 0.5
I f the same formula i s used to calculate the requi red derati ng
on 10 reversals per hour
P2
=
3600 - 4 10 0.5 ( 5.5) 2
= .912
P1 3600 - 10 0.5
Types of duty
Vari ous types of duty have been defi ned by I EC Publi cati on
34-1 that descri be how the load, and thus the motor output
vari es wi th ti me. The motor must undergo a load test wi thout
exceedi ng the temperature li mi ts lai d down i n the
speci fi cati on.
Actual operati ng condi ti ons are often of a more i rregular
nature than those correspondi ng to any of the standard duty
types. I t i s therefore essenti al that when choosi ng and rati ng
a motor to deci de on the type of duty that corresponds best
to the thermal stresses that are expected to occur i n practi ce.
The most standard types of duty classes are:
S1 continuous duty
O perati on at a constant load, long enough for thermal
equi li bri um to be reached ( Fi gure 10) .
S2 short time duty
O perati on at constant load for a gi ven ti me that i s shorter than
the ti me needed to reach thermal equi li bri um, followed by a
rest and de-energi sed peri od. De-energi sati on peri od
should be long enough to allow the motor to reach a
temperature that does not devi ate from the temperature of
the cooli ng medi um by 2K ( Fi gure 11) .
Load
N
Electrical
losses
Temperature
Time
N = operation under rated condition
= maximum temperature attained during the duty cycle -
max
-
max
Load
Electrical
losses
Temperature
Time
N
-
max
Correct
Torque
Speed
Mst
Mb
n1 n0
Incorrect
Torque
Speed
Mst
Mb
n1 n0 n2
Choice of motor size with reference to load torque
M
st
= starting torque n
1
= speed at rated power
M
b
= load torque n
2
= speed at excessive
n
o
= synchronous speed load torque
Fi gure 9
Fi gure 10
Fi gure 11
1502325812
7
S3 intermittent duty
A sequence of i denti cal duty cycles, where each cycle i s i n
two parts, one at constant load and the other at rest and de-
energi sed. I n thi s type of duty the starti ng current has no
si gni fi cant effect on the temperature ri se. The duty cycle i s
too short for thermal equi li bri um to be reached ( Fi gure 12) .
S4 intermittent duty with starting
A sequence of i ndi vi dual duty cycles, where each cycle
consi sts of a start that i s suffi ci ently long to have a si gni fi cant
effect on the motor temperature, a peri od of constant load
and a peri od at rest and de-energi sed. I n thi s type of duty the
starti ng current i s i nsi gni fi cant on the temperature ri se. The
duty cycles are too short for thermal equi li bri um to be
reached ( Fi gure 13) .
S5 intermittent duty with electrical braking
A sequence of i denti cal duty cycles, where each cycle
consi sts of a start, a peri od at constant load followed by rapi d
electri cal braki ng, and a rest and de-energi sed peri od. The
duty cycle i s too short for thermal equi li bri um to be reached
( Fi gure 14) .
S6 continuous operation
Periodic duty
A sequence of i denti cal duty cycles, where each cycle i s i n
two parts, one at constant load and the other at no load, no
rest and no de-energi sed peri od. The duty cycles are too
short for thermal equi li bri um condi ti ons to be reached
( Fi gure 15) .
Load
Electrical
losses
Temperature
N = operation under rated condition
V = operation at no load
R = at rest and de-energised
= maximum temperature attained during the duty cycle
-
max
-
max
Time
One duty cycle
N V
N
Cycle duration factor = -100%
N+V
Load
Electrical
losses
Temperature
D = starting
N = operation under rated condition
F = electrical braking
R = at rest and de-energised
= maximum temperature attained during the duty cycle
-
max
-
max
Time
One duty cycle
R N
F D
D+N+F
Cycle duration factor = -100%
D+N+F+R
Load
Electrical
losses
Temperature
D+N
N = operation under rated condition
R = at rest and de-energised
= maximum temperature attained during the duty cycle
-
max
-
max
Cycle duration factor = -100%
D+N+R
Time
One duty cycle
D
N R
Load
Electrical
losses
Temperature
N
One duty cycle
N = operation under rated condition
R = at rest and de-energised
= maximum temperature attained during the duty cycle
-
max
-
max
Cycle duration factor = -100%
N+R
Time
N R
Fi gure 12
Fi gure 13
Fi gure 14
Fi gure 15
1502325812
8
S7 continuous operation, periodic duty with
electrical braking
A sequence of i denti cal duty cycles, where each cycle
consi sts of a start and a peri od at constant load,
followed by electri cal braki ng, no rest and de-energi sed
peri od. The duty cycles are too short for thermal equi li bri um
condi ti ons to be reached ( Fi gure 16) .
Uprating
Because of the lower temperature ri se i n a motor operated
on short ti me or i ntermedi ate duty i t i s usually possi ble to
take a hi gher output from the motor on these types of duty
than on conti nuous duty S1. Table 6 gi ves detai ls.
Table 6
Changing direction
Three-phase motors
I f the mai ns supply to the stator termi nals marked U, V and W
of a three-phase motor and the phase sequence of the mai ns
i s L1, L2, L3, the motor wi ll rotate clockwi se ( when vi ewed
from the dri ve end) . To reverse di recti on i nterchange any
two of the three cables connected to the starter devi ce or the
motor.
Single-phase motors
Capacitor start - capacitor run type
To reverse the di recti on of thi s type of motor the blue and
yellow cables connected to termi nals 3 and 12 should be
i nterchanged ( Fi gure 17) .
Permanent split capacitor type
T o reverse the di recti on of thi s type of motor the
connected capaci tor should be moved from between
termi nals U1 and U5 to U1 and Z2 ( refer to Fi gure 18) .
Single-phase motor variations
CSR (Capacitor start and run)
M otors are fi tted wi th both a separate start and run capaci tor.
These motors are also fi tted wi th an electroni c relay whi ch
prevents any ri sk of damage to the starti ng capaci tor ei ther
duri ng heavy start or overload of the motor.
C SR motors have a starti ng torque of approxi mately 160% of
full load torque, maki ng them i deal for dri vi ng compressors,
pi ston pumps, hi gh pressure cleaners, etc.
PSC (permanent split capacitor)
These motors are fi tted wi th one capaci tor only that i s
connected i n ci rcui t both duri ng starti ng and runni ng. These
motors tend to have lower starti ng torques typi cally between
25 and 50% of full load torque. PSC meters are parti cularly
sui table for use on dri ves havi ng comparati vely li ght starti ng
loads such as fans and centri fugal pumps.
Z2 U2 U6
Z1 U5 U1
L1 L2
Z2 U2 U6
Z1 U5 U1
L2 L1
A A
L1 L2
S
A
Black
Starting relay
B
l
u
e
R
e
d
Y
e
l
l
o
w
C run
C start
1 2 3 5 6 7 9 11 12
Interchange leads blue
and yellow
As shown
Short-time duty, Poles Permitted output as % of rated
S2 output in S1 continuous duty
for motor size:
63-100 112-250
30 mi n 4-8 110 120
60 mi n 2-8 100 110
Intermittent duty, Poles Permitted output as % of rated
S3 output in S1 continuous duty
for motor size:
63-100 112-250
15% 4 140 145
25% 4 130 130
40% 4 120 110
60% 4 110 107
Load
Electrical
losses
Temperature
D = starting
N = operation under rated condition
F = electrical braking
= maximum temperature attained during the duty cycle
-
max
-
max
Time
One duty cycle
N D F
Cyclic duration factor = 1
Fi gure 16
Fi gure 18
Fi gure 17
CSR motor (single-phase)
PSC motor (single-phase)
1502325812
RS C omponents shall not be li able for any li abi li ty or loss of any nature ( howsoever caused and whether or not due to RS C omponents negli gence) whi ch may
result from the use of any i nformati on provi ded i n RS techni cal li terature.
RS C omponents, PO Box 99, C orby, Northants, NN17 9RS Telephone: 01536 201234
An Electrocomponents C ompany RS C omponents 1998