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High Incidence Disabilities


Dr. Kelly Anderson

Categories of Student Differences
Academic
Prior knowledge
Reading level
Content
knowledge
- Concepts
- Skills
Language
Social & Emotional
Interests
Learning styles
Motivation
Gender
Self-efficacy
Learning Habits
Effort
Relationships
Cognitive
Developmental reach
Schemas
Working memory
Thinking skills
Learning rate

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Learning Disabilities
Definition:
A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological
processes used in understanding or in using
language, spoken, or written
Characteristics:
A SLD may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to
listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do
mathematical calculations. Average or better
intelligence.
Academic Difficulties:
Discrepancy between IQ & academic performance
Poor handwriting
Reading problems
Processing problems- reading comprehension
Written expression
Social-Emotional Difficulties:
May be easily distracted
Hyperactivity
Low self-concept
Learned helplessness
Motivation
Behavioral problems
Social problems
Cognitive Difficulties:
Difficulty with coordination-gross motor
Organizational problems
Perceptual
Memory
Problem solving
Metacognition
Study skills
Test-taking
Multi-leveled projects/tasks


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Behavioral/Emotional Disabilities
Definition:
An inability to learn that cannot be explained by
intellectual, sensory, or health factors; An inability
to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal
relationships with peers and teachers;
Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings used
under normal circumstances;
A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or
depression
A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears
associated with personal or school problems.
Characteristics:
Conduct disorder: Students may seek
attention, are disruptive and act out.
Anxiety/withdrawal: These students are self-
conscious, reticent, and unsure of
themselves. They typically have low self-
esteem and withdraw from immediate
activities. They are also anxious and
frequently depressed.
Psychotic behavior: This student displays
more bizarre behaviors than others do. They
may hallucinate, may deal in a fantasy
world, and may even talk in gibberish.
Motor excess: Students with motor excess
are hyperactive. They cannot sit still nor
listen to others nor keep their attention
focused
Immaturity (inappropriate crying, temper
tantrums, poor coping skills);
Learning difficulties (academically
performing below grade level)
Bizarre motor acts
Abnormal mood swings
Some children may also have severe
psychosis or schizophrenia




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Intellectual Disabilities
Definition:
An individual is considered to have mental
disabilities based on the following three
criteria:
1.

2.

3.

Characteristics:





Specifically-

Sustaining attention
Use of Mediational Strategies
Memory
Generalized Learning
Motivation
Cognitive Development
Language Development
Social Skills & Behavior

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Attention Deficit Disorder
Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder
Definition:
ADD= Attention Deficit Disorder is typically
found in students that experience difficulty
sustaining prolonged attention to task and/or
process information at such a rate that
information retrieval is fragmented at best.
ADHD=


Characteristics:
Predominantly Inattentive:

Difficulty sustaining attention

Does not follow directions/instructions

Avoids/Procrastinates in engaging
tasks

Easily distracted by external stimuli

Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive:
Fidgets with hands and squirms

Runs about or climbs excessively


Talks excessively

Blurts out answers prematurely

Interrupts or intrudes on others



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Speech & Language Impairment
Definition:




Characteristics:
3 Main types of speech disorders:
Articulation




Voice disorders


Fluency disorders



Types of Language Disorders: