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Aileron Wing \ aie Horizontal Nacelle ~ se ae =I elage all = l; Vertical | stabilizer Rudder Cabin w (or cockpit) { > Nose gear rata ely Anna Universit Sir Isaac Nerden Newton’s Three Laws of Motion Every object in a state of uniform motion| tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. The relationship between an objects mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F=ma. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. Anna Universi Law F=ma Basic physics demands that every vehicle that requires motion must have a force to start, maintain or change that motion and every one is govemed by the equation F=ima where F is the force m_ is the mass of the vehicle a_ is the acceleration Newton’s Seco What does this simple equation really mean to us? Those of us that want to go fast are most interested in how the vehicle accelerates so we rearrange the equation to a=F/m. For simplistic discussion lets call m weight So if we want more acceleration to achieve more speed we need a bigger force or a lighter weight or a combination of both GDI Anna Universi Newton’s Third Law For every action there is an equal and opposite action “A force in one direction produces an equal force in the opposite direction” Therefore, to move our vehicle we must produce a force in the opposite direction we want to go. For an propeller airplane the propeller moves enough air backwards producing a force that moves the airplane forward For a jet airplane the engine moves air and combustion products backwards producing the force to move airplane forward For a rocket, propellants are burned in the combustion chamber and accelerated out the nozzle producing a force to propel the rocket in the desired opposite direction. Anna Universi Basic Jet Propulsion "ACTION REACTION SS ‘The Jet Propulsion Principle (Newton's Third Law of Motion) Massflow Ce = . Thrust = mv peed V GDIP Anna University > Thrust is the force which moves an aircraft through the air. > Thrust is used to overcome the drag of an airplane, and to overcome the weight of a aircraft. > Thrust is generated by the engines of the aircraft through some kind of propulsion system. GDIP eC Mel i Aircraft Propulsion-Types PROPELLER PROPULSION HYBRID PROPULSION JET PROPULSION GDIP eC Mel i Aircraft Propulsion-C For any air-breathing propulsion, continuously 1. Draw in air. 2. Compress it. 3. Add fuel and burn (convert chemical to thermal energy). 4. Expand through a turbine to drive the compressor (extract work). 5. Then either 5.1 expand in a nozzle to convert thermal energy to kinetic energy & momentum (turbojet), or 5.2 expand in a second turbine (extract work), use this to drive a shaft for a fan (turbofan), or a propeller (turboshaft). The fan or propeller impart k.e. & mom. to the air. GDI Anna Universi al Components co ie c) (ei ir e a S i a3 sasefi jsneyxa jo jer adid [!2L aulqun| ses Joysnquios JOSSBIGWOD JY Jesnuid Iu] Tc sel Jhy auaudsowyy Bulwosul GDIP itoi = hots hark d=hs +id « D ¢ ct Tj+—=T, — ‘ 2Cp s 2p DY ue -(2) I: P1= Pais] % pi_{ Tis \YorY Pressure ratio, a.(F } € 2) Compressor Work We = No25 — hor = Cp (To2s — Tot) «3 _ p2_{ Tos y/y-1), Pressure ratio, 2. 2) ( 4) GDIP eC Mel i Gas Turbine - Energy Relations Combustion chamber Heat supplied is given by OQ, = Og ho3 — hors = Cp (To3 — Tors) « 5 Turbine Work, Wr = Nig ~ hogs = Cp (To3 ~ Tos) ( 6 . p3_( Ts y¥/(¥-1) Pressure al rato Pa (2) Go Exhaust nozzle Nods = hoes 1 hag + Leby= hey 5 cds es ey (8) a+ 9g, Te 2c, Ty, VOD Pressure ratio ee. Za) (9% Pe_\ Tes GDIP ecm Gas Turbine - Energy Relations Cont.. Air standard efficiency The thermal efficiency or the air standard efficiency of the ideal cycle 1-2s-3-4s is given by ____Work "J Feat supplied _ Heat supplied ~heat rejected Q,-O, * Heat supplied =O 2, wel-= (10) Ss Considering static temperatures in the cycle, 1-2s—3-4s, Q5= Cp (T3—T,) Q,= Cp (T4s- T)) Therefore, Equation ( 10) gives Tis-Ty wl ah, ‘ GDIP Anna University 11) Gas Turbine - Energy Relations Cont.. The pressure ratio in the compressor and turbine is same P2_ P3 r=—=— 12 Pi P4 ( ) Therefore, the corresponding temperature ratios are given by Tes _ Ts _ ey 7777" (13) Equation (13 ) in ( 11 ) gives =1-12,;-—!— Wel =l ea c 19 The actual work that is considered in aircraft propulsion is propul- sive work = thrust x aircraft speed. Therefore, the efficiency in Equation ( 14) is used only for tur- boshaft and turboprop engines. GDIP Anna University Entropy Wac =Mo2~ hot i-1 Diffuser 1-2 Compressor Compression through the inlet diffuser and the compressor GDIP eC mel) Gas Turbine Cycle-Component efficiencies G Inlet diffuser Small pressure Rise Here the static pressure rise in the diffuser for a given change in the kinetic energy 5(c;?—¢,2) is considered. The efficiency is defined as _ Static pressure rise in the actual process Static pressure rise in the isentropic process Pi-Pi (15) Prss—Pi b= Considering incompressible flow, p ~ constant Pi-Pi=Par-—- PC —Pai + po? 1 ~Pi=Pot 2 1 ~ Poi 5 OS Pr ~Pi= = Pe?-€)~Pa-Poi) ( 16 GDIP ecm Gas Turbine Cycle-Component e Stagnation pressure loss’ across the diffuser (AP.)p = Poi - Pot (« 172 For the isentropic process i-1ss, Pier—P:=Pai~—>- 0 C2—Pai+ po? 2 a. 1 2 PusPi= PC -¢) (18) Equations (15 ) and ( 18 ) give "p= ; Picks (19) nae Above expressions are fairly accirate for subsonic flows. For higher Mach numbers at entry following definition may be adopted. GDIP eC Mel i Gas Turbine Cycle-Component efficiencies Co Large pressure rise hi Enthalpy change in isentropic diffusion Enthalpy change in actual diffusion for the same exit pressure (20) Here the exit-velocity in the isentropic process is greater than that in the actual process C1>C) ‘The values of the diffuser efficiency in equations( 19) and(_.20) are nearly the same for small pressure rise in the diffuser. Efficiency in equation (20) can be expressed as a function of the Mach number at the diffuser inlet or the flight Mach number. ey] Anna Universi Gas Turbine Cycle-Component efficiencies Co Assuming T,~*T7,,= Peels =) M?, therefore 7; 7; 2 ( Pi ea ea np Shee ( 21) 35) yp 2 Compressor The actual work done by the compressor on the air is Woe = hoy — Noi = Cp (Tor To1)- (| 22) Work or energy transfer in the isentropic process (1-28) is lesser than ihe nciual on account of Ie ; this is given by Wsc = ho2s — 401 = ep To2s -To1 ) Q@3) Phe efficicney of the compressor based on equations (22) & (23) Anna Universi Gas Turbine Cycle-Component efficiencies Co ideal work input Ne, = nw ft actual work input es heag-Hor_ Teas-To1 (24) Wac hea—hoy T2-To1 The stagnation pressure ratio for the compressor, AssuMING Py2,™ Poo is Tye = ee Pot : Ih Therefore Ne= To Cee) (25) Te Wt To GDIP Anna University Gas Turbine Cycle-Component efficiencies Co Combustion Chamber The combustion of the fuel increases the enthalpy of the air-fuel mixture. The mass of high temperature gases flowing from combustor to the turbine and the propelling nozzla is —_kg/sec. m= Nig + Ni m= m,(1+f) ( 26) All the energy of the fucl is not available for increasing the enthalpy of gases in the combustion chamber; this is on account of incomplete combustion and heat losses. The efficiency of the combustion or fuel burning is defined as ~ increase in the enthalpy of gases Ne S energy supplied in the fuel ape (ig + 7) hes = Nig hoo ( 2 my Qy Anna Universit Gas Turbine Cycle-Component efficiencies Cont.. This can be approximated to the following expression for very small values of fuel-air ratio: re hog— hop ( 28) if Q Where Qr— Calorific value of the fuel , Jikg Combustion efficiency can also be defined by _ theoretical fuel-air ratio - actual fucl-air ratio "B= 5 (29) GDIP Anna University Gas Turbine Cycle-Component efficiencies G Turbine The condition of the gas at turbine entry is different from those of air flowing through the inlet diffuser and the compressor War = lig3 Nog = Cp (To3 - Tos) (30) Wsr= hog — Tods = Cp (To3 - Tos) (31) Total-to-total efficiency of the turbine is given by Wat _ hos hos _ To3- Tos Wet Mo3—hoss To3~ Tots The stagnation pressure ratio for the turbine assuming Pg4, = Pgq irs (32) To3 — Toa Po3 ToT = PA > aT = 3) o 1 ral | yl) rept Wy GDIP FEM) Gas Turbine Cycle-Component efficiencies G Nozzle The gases expand adiabatically to the exit pressure( ambient or slightly higher than ambient). There is no energy transfer; only energy transformation occurs. Mostly con. nozzle is used hy—h T,4-T, Yj Seas (34) Nog— hes Tog Tes Crema rela Co e Cycle-Component e If the velocity at the nozzle om is small, T,,~ 7,; therefore 4—Te =——__+____ (36) EP Energy equation gives CH 1 Rog = hoe = he + 2 FoF altos he = My Whos hes) cP =2 nj Cp (Toa Tes) @-DA SF e2=2mjepTas[1-( Fe" a ( ) Pos GDIP Anna Universi Crema e Cycle-Component e Mollier diagram - Expansion process 3-4 Turbine 4-e Nozzle Entropy GDIP Gas Turbine Cycle-Aircraft Propulsion In shaft power cycles, power is in form of generated power. In air craft cycles, whole power is in the form of thrust. Propulsion units include turbojets, turbofans and turboprops ¥In turbojets and turbofans, the whole thrust is generated in propelling nozzles. In turboprops, most of the thrust is produced by a propeller with only a small contribution from exhaust nozzle. GDIP Anna University Aircraft Propulsion For any air-breathing propulsion, continuously: 1. Draw in air. 2. Compress it. 3. Add fuel and burn (convert chemical to thermal energy). 4. Expand through aturbine to drive the compressor (extract work). §. Then either 5.1 expandina nozzle to convertthermal energy to kinetic energy & momentum (turbojet), or 5.2 expand in a second turbine (extract work), use this to drive a shaftfora fan (turbofan), ora propeller (turboshaft). The fanor propellerimpart k.e. & mom. to the air. GDIP ecm Types of Gas Turbines - Turbojet Turbofan Turboprop Afterburning Turbojet GDIP Anna University Jet Engine- Side and Front view GDIP Anna University Jet Engine Principle ‘Compressor Combustor Turbine + Compressor — draws in outside air and increases the pressure of the air * Combustor — mixes fuel with the air, ignites mixture * Turbine — extracts energy from the heated air to turn the compressor and possibly other components GDIP Anna University Brayton cycle Compressor Combustor Turbine Energy ay OUTSIDE AIR «0» Constant pressure line max pressure in engine onstant pressure line ambient pressure Energy E1 << Energy E3 Entropy Part of E3 used to drive the compressor Rest of E3 used to generate thrust Anna Universi away view — SR 30 Engine Radial Compressor Twine | | Combustor Inlet Nozzle Exhaust Nozzle Oil Port ——— Compressor - Turbine Shaft Injector 4. Compressor Iniet 2. Compressor Outlet 3. Turbine Inlet 4. Turbine Outlet 5. Nozzle Exit GDI Anna Universi Turboprop Engine ( u < 800 kmph } Propeller Reduction gears conten f= Compressor [J Turbine Basic parts of Turboprop Engine 90% - Propeller & 10% - Jet of gases GDIP Turboprop Engine Gear Box Through a gear box, the power from the engine shaft may be used to spin: a propeller (turboprop), or a rotor (helicopter) Propeller Core or Rotor GDIP Anna University Turboprop Engine-Cont.. + Air approaches the propeller with low velocity, leaves with higher velocity, and energy + This change in momentum of the particles is caused by the force exerted by the propeller on the particles * There is an equal and opposite reaction - the particles exert a forward force on the propeller, called thrust GDIP Anna University Turboprop Engine-Cont.. As the propelier turns... Fo Streamlines contract as they approach the propeller, Velocity of the particles increases GDIP ecm Turboprop Engine-Cont.. Thrust (T) Mass flow rate =4(V,, +v) where 4 is the propeller disk area Momentum flow rate = mass flow rate times velocity Thrust = Rate at which Momentum flows out- Rate at which momentum flows in T = pA(V,, +v) (V,, +2) - pd (V,, +v) V,, = 2pA(V,, +v)v Thrust is increased if the disk area 4 is large, and/or if the excess velocity v is large GDIP Anna University Turboprop Engine-Co 1 c= Fluid at rest Fluid in motion Ma Pa Flow boundary Anna Universi Thrust = change in momentum between stations 1 & 2 Fo = tha (CC) C1 = slight speed Cy = Cy = Jet velocity . . (Gg F=ma(Cj—#)= ma al —2-1 effective speed jet ratio, «= = SF Turboprop Engine- Cont.. There is a limit to the Disk area * If we make the disk area too large, the blade radius and diameter will be high * Tip will spin will be traveling at a high speed + If cruise speed is also high, shocks will form on the blades (critical Mach number!) + Additional power will be needed to overcome the drag on the blades caused by the shock waves + Noise will also go up * These factors have limited the use of propellers to aircraft that have relatively low subsonic cruise speeds (say, Mach 0.6 or less) GDIP Anna University Turboprop Engine- C 1 PN Advantages Fuel economy: Turbo props have a high thrust power with respect to fuel consumption, so they are very cheap to flyin regards to fuel costs. . Performance: For short field takeoffs & landings the turboprop has a distinct performance advantage over jets who require greater runway lengths to operate. Turboprops are also ideal for most hot-and-high altitude operations Disadvantages Limited to lower speed and altitudes Large propeller diameter Engine is heavier and more complicated Noisy and complex transmission GDIP eC Mel i Turbojet Engine ( Oto 3 Basic parts of Turbojet Engine 2 a Chamber GDIP Turbojet Engine - Afterburner BY-PASS AIRFLOW COOLING FLOW Nozze opepariNG / < SLEEVE E700 deg.C retuawr | | / / AFTERBURNER Ler PIPE VARIABLE PROPELLING NOZZLE » Afterburning is a method of augmenting the basic thrust of an engine to improve the take-off, climb and (for military purpose) combat performance. » Afterburning consists of the introduction and burning of the fuel between the engine turbine and nozzle, utilizing the unburned oxygen in the exhaust gas to support combustion. GDIP Anna University Turbojet Engine - Afterburner TAKE-OFF AND CLIMB, 8 R 6 5 3 e 2° E § < z & 2 z Un AFTERSURWING —»} = —— r | {ij |__| | r oO 14 18 22 26 30 i : TEMPERATURE RATIO THe Assume a gas temperature before reheat — 913 K and after reheat —- 1542 K = Thus temperature ratio = 1542/913 = 1.69. = Velocity of the jet stream increases as the square root of the temp.ratio. = Therefore, jet velocity = 1.69 =1.3 = Thus the jet stream velocity is increased by 30%. So thrust also increased by 30%. GDI Anna Universit Turbojet Engine - Afterburner A plane takes off from an aircraft carrier using Afterburners Anna a Nya) Compressor Bas Turbojet Engine - Thrust Finom = (ttg + mer Le —Iitgu vt ¢ -small comparedto tng, -- Finom = titgCe — tg Fimom = t#q(Ce —#) For = (Pe —Py Me Internal and extemal flows for a propulsion device F = ig(Ce—u)+ (e. —Pg When Po = Fg then Ce =Cj . |F =iMtg «; = x) ) whereCj effective jet velocity GDI Anna Universi Turbojet Engine- Co Advantages 1. Suitable for long distance flights at higher speeds and altitudes 2. Lower frontal area and shorter landing gears 3. Thrust augmentation can be achieved through afterburner Disadvantages 1. Take-off roll is longer requiring longer runway 2. TSFC is comparatively higher at lower speeds and altitudes 3. Uneconomical on short distance flights 4. Relatively noisy fib) Anna Universit Turbofan Engine IEA] LOW PRESSURE FAN COMPRESSOR HIGH PRESSURE TURBINE LOWPRESSURE TURBINE / HIGH PRESSURE COMPRESSOR COMBUSTION CHAMBER = bs 7 / TURBINE \ Vf) A / rcessorv oan cheats YW ty SECTION ley a inlet CASE GDI Anna Universi Turbofan En By-pass ratio = VO Mass flow [3]/ mass flow [2] Air 1 By-Pass Ratio = Secondary Stream _ Me Primary Stream mh Modern Turbofan Engine By-Pass ratio = 8.0 or higher GDIP eC Mel Turbofan Engin Con By pass ratio schematic Ait looking forward 4 ae. EMO Tess Turbofan Engine — Co [Home Page FAN COMPRESSOR FAN FAN COMBUSTOR TURBINE NOZZLE eepeees >] -—~ COMBUSTOR = a TURBINE COMPRESSOR TURBINE AUGMENTOR Al turbofan engine, A high bypass turbofan engine. on lps Loan erg J PMO esis cer Free Stream Cl ele ferme tg 7 = = . Thg= y+ mh F = mV, - yy + MeVe — MM Spas F = mV, - mV, + bpr my bpr-= thy / mh, ene Turbofan Engine Advantages 41.Short take-off roll due to increased thrust at low speeds 2.Comparatively quieter engine 3.Weight per unit thrust is lower than the turboprop system 4 Thrust is higher than that in turbojet engine Disadvantages 1.Increased frontal area and drag 2.TSFC is higher compared to the turboprop engine 3.Complexity 4.Lower speed limit than that of turbojet engine GDIP Anna University Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption (TSFC) = fuel mass flow rate Turbojet air mass flow rate 33° 1 =tuel to air ratio (in, /th ) Fs = specific thrust. (F / mg) F = net thrust TSFC=1.0 TSFC = TSFC= 0.5 *ZI- TSFC = Low TSFC= High efficiency High TSFC= Low efficiency Turbofan Reel an) (aime SACs A simple jet engine has no Se ad - moving parts. The speed of the jet “rams” or high compressed iow tue nection : forces air into Aico an supersonic the engine. Subsonic. ae a vit best performs when the “1 ema Craft is flying above Mach 2 or 3 i—> ‘tv Air is slowed down to near Mach 0.2, then combustion takes place. Fuel injector Central-body housing GDI Anna Universi Ramjet Engine — key points >» Aramjet engine provides a simple, light propulsion system for high speed flight. » Supersonic combustion ramjet called as scramjet >» Ramjets and Scramjets have no moving parts >» Aturbojet engine minus the compressor and turbine, but with a combustor is known as ramjet engine > Aramjet engine does not accelerate (it develops no static thrust) itself froma standing start but requires some other form of propulsion, usually a rocket, to accelerate it to near its operating period ® It has been used primarily in guided-missile systems. Space vehicles use this type of jet > Flame holders in the burner localize the combustion process. Burning occurs subsonically in ramjet and supersonically in scramjet > For ramjet and scramjet engines, the exit mass flow is nearly equal to the free stream mass flow ( i.e.) a very little fuelis added GDI Anna Universi Scramjet Engine [ Mach number > 6 ] NASA's experimental space plane, X-43A, set a new record for aircraft (16-11-2004) X-43A (unmanned test flight) reached Mac (6,600 miles/hr) —_«, First free flight scramjet Inlet body — Fuel injection Nozzle 7 Supersonic Combustion Supersonic Compression Exhaust GDIP Anna University Rela to ec] in) Kaien ALC a Advantages 1.High temperatures can be employed 2.Construction is very simple (no moving parts) 3.Lightest of all air breathing jets 4.lt can operate efficiently at high supersonic Mach numbers 5.It is not very sensitive to the quality of fuel 6.lt provides high thrust per unit weight 7.Cooling mush easier than turbojets as no turbine blades to cool Disadvantages 1.lt requires a launching device at supersonic speed 2.It has low thermal efficiency and high TSFC 3.In efficient at slow speeds 4.Maximum operating altitude is limited GDI Anna Universi Performance parameters TsFc == or; where Fy == Ky m Aig — fuel flow rate, F - thrust, F, — specific thrust, m- flow rate, f - fuelair ratio mC ;—u Cc; Sprcific impulsel, = £ = walcy—u)_ “(a 7 es “(2 i} w mg glu gla if W=Wq then it is known as air specific impulse GDIP ecm Aircraft engine - performance The performance of aircraft propulsion system can be judged by various efficiencies like 1. Propulsive efficiency 2. Thermal efficiency 3. Overall efficiency Propulsive power or Thrust power Ip Power output of the engine Power output of the engine "th Power input to the engine through fuel Propulsive power "No Power input to the engine through fuel GDIP Anna University Aircraft engine - performance Fu _ mile j—u)u _ 2a "1-7 79). J. 2) C 4/2 n( cha? 1/2 wi( 2-22) cite Fo — Tp * "th GDIP ecm Aircraft engine - performance (high by-possratioy _ 0¥,0Y-Pass ratio) The turboprop system is preferable in the lower range of speed. Performance of turbojet and turbofan engines continues to improve with speed The improved propulsive efficiency of the bypass system bridges the efficiency gap between the turboprop and the pure turbojet PROPULSIVE EFFICIENCY per cent AIRSPEED mp.h. GDI Anna Universi