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RAYLEIGH FLOW

Constant area Duct flow with Heat Transfer and negligible friction is called Rayleigh flow (Simple diabatic flow)

•Many

compressible

flow

problems

encountered

in

practice

involve

chemical reactions such as combustion, nuclear reactions, evaporation, and condensation as well as heat gain or heat loss through the duct wall

•Such problems are difficult to analyze

•Essential features of such complex flows can be captured by a simple analysis method where generation/absorption is modeled as heat transfer through the wall at the same rate •Still too complicated for introductory treatment since flow may involve friction, geometry changes, 3D effects

•We will focus on 1D flow in a duct of constant cross-sectional area with negligible frictional effects

RAYLEIGH FLOW RAYLEIGH FLOW- Assumptions

To isolate the effects heat transfer we make the following assumptions:

1. The area of the flow passage or duct is constant.

2. The flow is steady and one-dimensional.

3. There is no work, body forces are negligible, and the effects of friction are negligible.

4. Heat transfer is the only driving potential.

RAYLEIGH FLOW – Fundamental Equations X-Momentum equation

Continuity Equation  RAYLEIGH FLOW – Fundamental Equations

Energy equation

CV involves no shear, shaft, or other forms of work, and potential energy change is negligible. For and ideal gas with constant c p , Dh = c p DT Entropy change

In absence of irreversibility's such as friction, entropy changes by heat transfer only RAYLEIGH LINE •Infinite number of downstream states 2 for a given upstream state 1

•Practical approach is to assume various values for T 2 , and calculate all other properties as well as q.

•Plot results on T-s diagram

Called a Rayleigh line

•This line is the locus of all physically attainable downstream states

S increases with heat gain to point a which is the point of maximum entropy (Ma =1)

RAYLEIGH LINE Various flow parameters on Rayleigh Line

Variation of fluid Properties Rayleigh Flow Relations

Pressure Impulse Function F =F

2

1

Stagnation Pressure Temperature Cont

Stagnation Temperature Change of Entropy Density & Velocity Heat Transfer Derivation Proof

Momentum

· (p
1 p )A
-
=
m c
(
2
2
(p
1 p )A
-
=
r
Ac
2
2
We
know
that
Therefore p
-
p
1
2
(1
+ g
M
2
1 )
p
=
(1
+
1
2
p
2 (1
+ g M
)
1
=
2
p
1 (1
+ g M
)
2

- c

2

2

-

1

)

r

1

Ac

2

1

Þ

(p

1

-

p

2

r

c

2

=

p

g

=

g M

RT M p

2

2

2

-

2

2

)

p

2

M

2

g

RT

2

g M p

1

1

=

)

=

r

pM

2

2

g

c

2

2

-

r

1

c

2

1

Derivation Proof

Stagnation Pressure g
æ
g
-
1
2 ö
g
-
1
P
p
ç 1
+
M
÷
0 =
÷
è ç
2
ø
g
æ
g
-
2
ö
g
- 1
ç
1
+
1 M
÷
P
p
2
02
2
=
2 ç
÷
P
p
g
-
÷
01
1 ç
2
ç
1
+
1 M
÷
1
è
2
ø
g
g
-
1 2
ö
g
-
1
2
ç æ 1
+
M
÷
P
1 M
+ g
2
02
1
2
ç
÷
=
´
P
2
ç
g
-
01
1 2
÷
1 M
+ g
ç
1
+
M
1
÷
1
è
2
ø

Derivation Proof

Temperature

·

From

Continuity

m = r

1

Ac

 1 = r = c 2 c 1 eqn p 2

From Mach number M
c
c
g
2 a
2
2 RT 2
2 =
=
M
c
1 a
1 1
c
g
1 RT 1
From eqn 1 & 2
1/ 2
c
r
M
æ
T
ö
1
2
1
1
=
=
ç
÷
ç
÷
c
r
M
T
2 è
We know that, p
2
1
2 ø
RT 1
,
1
= r
1
p
r
2
2
T 2
So
=
´
eqn (4)
p
r
1
1
T 1

2

´

Þ

ö

 c 1 c 2 1/ 2

÷

÷

r 2

r 1

Ac 2

=

æ

ç

ç

è

T

1

T

2 ø

eqn

(3)

= r

2

RT 2

eqn (1)

(2)

Derivation Proof-Cont

Substituin g from eqn (3) in (4)

p

2

p

1

=

M

1

M

2

´

æ

ç

ç

è

ö

1/ 2

÷

÷

T

2

T

1 ø

Þ

T

2

T

1

=

æ

ç

ç

è

p

2

´

p

1

2

M

ö

2

÷

÷

M

1 ø p
2
substitute
in the above eqn
p
1
2
æ
2
ö
1 + g M
T
ç
M
2
1
2 ÷
=
´
ç
÷
T
2
M
1
ç
1 + g M
÷
è
2
1 ø

SLOPE OF RAYLEIGH LINE

W . K . T

p

+

2

G n

=

constant For any two state points,
2
2
p
+
G
n
=
p
+
G
n
1
1
2
2
2
æ
·
ö
p
-
p
ç m ÷
1
2
2
= -
G
= -
ç
÷
n
-
n
ç
A
÷
1
2
è
ø
æ
dp ö
2
2
ç
÷
= -
G
=
tan q
= -
(
r
c
)
= -
r
è
dv
ø
R
Slope of S=cons. Line

2

2

a M

(1)

2

Cont (2)
1
2

CONS. ENTHALPY LINE Note:

pv

Differenti ating yields ,

dp

=

RT

=

constant ; for T

=

pdv

+

constant line

vdp

= 0

p

= - dv

v

Cont Problem 1

In your opinion, which assumption(s) in the Rayleigh flow analysis may be potential source(s) of error in solving a real life problem?

•Heat transfer causes the total temperature to change significantly in the flow, which leads to a large variation of static temperature. The perfect gas assumption (constant specific heats) may not be appropriate. At higher and higher temperatures, more and more energy modes are activated within the molecules. In general, this causes the specific heats to rise with temperature.

•In cases where combustion occurs, chemical composition of the constituent gases changes significantly. Reactant species will be consumed and product species will be produced. Their relative ratio changes as combustion proceeds. Values like gas constant R, and specific heat ratio, will no longer be constant but depend on the extent of combustion.

Problem 2

Unchoked case: Air at 250 K and 1.0 bar is moving at 100 m/sec towards the entrance of a combustion chamber. Determine the exit conditions if 300 kJ/kg is added to the flow during the combustion process. 1
2 P= 1.0 bar T= 250 K V= 100 m/s  Solution:

For

Mach

T

From

From

1

=

250

number

K,

V

of

the

isentropic

1

=

M

100

1

=

flow

which

T

01

= 255

K

m/s.

This

0 .3156

table

we

gives

an inlet

obtain

T

1

T

01

=

0 .9805

Problem 2- Cont

From the Rayleigh flow table, we obtain

T

01

T

*

01

=

0.3763

T

1

*

T

1

= 0.4427

P

1

P

*

1

From conservati on of energy, we have

At station (2),

T

02

T

01

= *
T
T
02
02
Þ
*
T
T
01
01

T

02

T

*

02

=

= 2.106

q

T

02

=

´

T

01

C

p

(

T

02

-

T

01

T

* 2.172

=

o 1

01

T

)

´

Þ

T

02

T

01

0.3763

=

q

C

p

T

01

=

0.8173

+ 1

From the rayleigh flow table, this correspond s to an exit Mach no. of T
P 2
2
M
=
0.5985 (subsonic) , and
=
0.9152,
= 1.598
2
*
*
T
P 2
2
*
T
T
T
T
0.9152
2
2
2
2
The exit state is Þ
=
Þ
=
Þ
T
= 517 K
2
*
T
T
T
250
0.4427
1
1
1
*
P
P
P
P
1.598
2
2
2
2
=
Þ
=
Þ
P
= 0.7588 bar
2
*
P
P
P
1
2.106
1
1
1

Problem 2- Cont

Just choked case:

How much more heat that can be added without changing the conditions at the entrance to the cumbustor? Solution:

For the just choked case, M

From the energy equation,

1.

we have q

T

This implies

C

2

=

=

*

p

T

*

01

T

02

1

=

ö

÷

÷

ø

kJ

(

0 max

)

=

C

p

=

T

0

01

1

ç æ

ç

è

ö

=

T

*

01

Therfore,

q

=

C

p

(T

*

0

T

T

-

01

T

01

-

÷ =

ø

424

æ

255 ç

è

1

-

0.3763

=

1004

´

-

T

/

T

02

T

01

=

)

T

*

01

=

*

02

where M

kg

T

*

02

=

1

Hence, we can add an extra 124 kJ/kg into the flow before we choke it thermally.

At this choked condition, the stagnation temperatur e at station (2) is

T

02

=

T

*

02

=

T

*

01

=

T

*

01

T

01

T

01

æ

= ç

è

1

0.3763

÷ ö (255 )

ø

= 678 K

Problem 2- Cont

Choked case:

Let us add sufficient fuel to the system so that the exit stagnation temperature is raised to 1500 K now. Assume that the receiver pressure is very low. What do you expect to happen in the system? Describe the flow both qualitatively and quantitatively. Solution:

In this case T02 = 1500 K > 678 K (choking condition)

• The original flow cannot accommodate this large amount of heat. Something has to happen in order to take in so much heat addition. In other words, it cannot stay on the same Rayleigh line.

•Recall that the upstream state can always communicate with the downstream states in a subsonic flow by means of pressure waves.

Problem 2- Cont

“Sensing” the super-critical heat addition downstream, the flow decelerates from the free stream to the inlet. Spillage occurs ahead of the inlet. It is shown schematically as follows: Heat
M=0.3156
P=1.0 bar
T=250 K
V=100 m/s
1
2
Spillage

•With a smaller flow rate in the combustion chamber, the flow moves to a different Rayleigh line with a smaller mass flow rate/A value.

•Since the receiver (back) pressure is very low, we can assume that the flow is choked at the station (2), i.e. M2 = 1

Problem 2- Cont

With M2 = 1 we conclude that

T

o 2

=

T

*

01

=

T

*

02

=

1500

K

;

This

to

From

by

M

The flow decelerate s from

With M

the

above

temperatur e

table,

= M

¥

M

¥

we

=

ratio ,

obtain

refering

=

0.1977

Rayleigh

<

0.3156

1

0.3156

to

M

1

= 0.1977 we obtain from the isentropic

1 T
P
1
1
= 0.9922
= 0.9731
T
P
01
01
The inlet state is
T
T
T
0.9922
1
1
01
=
=
T
T
T
0.9805
¥
¥
0 ¥
P
P
P
0.9731
1
1
01
=
=
P
P
0.932
¥ P
¥
0 ¥

We know that T

¥

We know that P

¥

T

01

T

*

01

=

255

1500

= 0.17

0.1977 at the inlet flow table

=

 = 250 K = 1 bar

\

\

T

1 =

253

K

P

1 =

1.04 bar

Problem 2- Cont

To determine exit condition

@M

1

=

0.1977;

T

1

=

*

T

1

0.2024&

P 1

*

P 1

= 2.275

Recall that the exit state

is the referencestate due to choking,

we can concludethe exit conditionto be,

T

2

P

2

=

*

T

2

=

=

*

2

P

*

T

1

=

*

T

1

=

T 1

´

T

1

1

=

0.2024

= 1250 K

*

P

1

=

*

P

1

P 1

´

P

1

=

´ 253

1

2.275

´

higher ‘s’ due to more heat addition inlet
exit
upstream
smaller exit

·

m

A

1.04

=

0.457 bar