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Cairo 1997

Lecturer of Geotechnical Eng.


Structural Engineering Dept.
Facultyof Engineering
Ain ShamsUniversity
Dr. MohamedM. Morsy
Prof. of Geotechnical Eng.
Structural Engineering Dept.
Facultyof Engineering
Ain ShamsUniversity
Prof. of Geotechnical Eng.
Structural Engineering Dept.
Facultyof Engineering
Ain ShamsUniversity
Supervisors
Prof. Dr. AbdelmonemA. Moussa Prof. Dr. TarekA. Macky
i n St r uct ur al Engi neer i ng
Requi r ement s of The Degr ee of Mast er of Sci ence
Submi t t ed i n Par t i al Ful f i l l ment f or The
A Thesi s
Ai n Shams Uni ver si t y - Facul t y of Engi neer i ng
St r uct ur al Engi neer i ng Depar t ment
B. Sc. Ci vi l Engi neer i ng - 1993
Eng. Sayed Mohamed EI-Sayed Mohamed
By
DYNAMIC INTERACTION OFMACHINE
FOUNDATIONS
Ain Shams University
Faculty of Engineering
II- 1 1 - , II- II-
~ ~~ ~\ cY \\~ ~~.).J ~\ cY~. ~ ~~ ~\ ~\"
,
r- ;\ ~)\ ~\ ~
Examiner Committee Signature
1- Prof. Dr. Abdelmonem A. Moussa
~~
Prof. of Geotechnical Engineering
Faculty of Engineering - Ain Shams University
2- Prof. Dr. Abd EI-Rahman S. Bazaraa
Prof. of Geotechnical Engineering
A '~ ~ fA
Faculty of Engineering - Cairo University
3- Prof. Dr. Mostafa M. Zidan
,~~
Prof. of Structures
Faculty of Engineering - Ain Shams University
),_.-/
4- Prof. Dr. Tarek A. Macky
_/
A-~~
Prof. of Geotechnical Engineering
" - v .' ) (!i/._
Faculty of Engineering - Ain Shams University
Design of machine foundation involves the predictionof vibrationmagnitude.
Very slight (of theorder ofa hundredthofa centimeter) vibrationmagnitudemaycause
harm to function of the machine andmayeventerrifypeopleor threatenthesafetyof
surrounding structures so the codes and manufacturers of the machines limit the
amplitudes of the vibrationsof machinefoundationto certainvaluesdependingontheir
frequencies and types. Inmost designstheinteractionof nearbymachinefoundationsis
ignored, with the assumptionof beingfar apartto minimizetheir crosseffects. Withno
reliable analysis of machinefoundationinteraction, ignoranceof interactionmayleadto
unsatisfactoryresults.
In thisresearchthecrossinteractionof machinefoundationsisinvestigatedusing
the finite element method (FEM). The soil ismodeledasvisco-elastichalf space. The
complex response method is adopted andtheanalysisisimplementedinthefrequency
domain. A model of two squarefootingsusingthreedimensional finiteelements, loaded
withvertical harmonicforces isanalyzedto studythefollowingfactors:
1.The effect of loading parameters (angular velocity, amplitudeandphasedifference)
andspacingontheinteractionof surfacefootings.
2. The effect of the footingembedmentfor thecaseof embedded-surfacefootingsand
the caseof embedded-embeddedfootings. Theloadingparameters arealsoconsidered
for thetwo cases.
3. The effect of the soil depth to the underlain rock stratum on the interactionof
adjacentfootings.
4. Theuseof trenchesto reducetheeffectof adjacent footings' interaction.
Title . Dynamic Interaction of Machine Foundations
Submitted by . SayedMohamed El-Sayed Mohamed
Supervisors :Prof. Dr. AbdelmonemA. Moussa Prof. Dr. TarekA. Macky
Dr. Mohamed M. Morsy
Abstract
Ain Shams University
Facuhy of Engineering Abstract of M.Sc. Thesis
Dept. of Structural Eng.
Key words: Soil dynamics, machine foundation, interaction, finite element method, three
dimensional analysis, frequency domain, complex response method, vertical vibration,
rocking.
Dimensionless curves have been developed for amass ratio of 5.0 to account for
the interaction of machine footings. The results show the importance of the interaction to
get asatisfactory serviceability of machine foundation. The study also shows the effect of
the loading characteristics, spacing, depth of compressible layer on the dynamic
behaviour of adjacent footings. The following results were obtained:
1. The vibrations of surface footings may double inmagnitude due to the interaction in
case of applying forces with equal angular frequencies.
2. The load-vibration relation is linear incase of equal angular frequencies and non-linear
for other cases.
3. The maximum out-of-phase vibration amplitudes are greater than the in-phase
vibration amplitudes by a slight difference.
4. The vertical and the rocking vibrations are no longer uncoupled when considering the
dynamic interaction of adjacent footing.
5. The embedment of the footings reduces the vibration if the two footings are equally
embedded and may increase the vibration for the case of surface-embedded footings.
6. The vibration amplitudes decrease for cases of shallow depths of soil underlain by
rock. In the same time, the dynamic response of the footings is not affected by the
angular speed of the applied dynamic forces.
7. Trenches can be used to reduce the effect of machine foundation interaction with
width greater than O.lB, depth greater than 2B and length greater than 3B, where B is
the footing width.
From the results of this study, the interaction of machine foundations must be
considered in design. Vibration reduction methods such as embedment and trenches, are
investigated to obtain the optimum values of the parameters of each method.
: Sayed Mohamed EI-Sayed Mohamed Name
Signature
DeceYV\~e-- I Iqql
~, Ko,",a.~
Date
Universityor Institution.
No part of thisthesishasbeensubmittedfor adegreeor qualificationat anyother
of Structural Engineering, AinShamsUniversity, from1993 to 1997.
The work includedinthisthesiswas carriedout bytheauthor intheDepartment
This dissertation is submittedto AinShamsUniversityfor thedegreeof Master
of ScienceinStructural Engineering.
Statement
No words would suffice to show how thankful I amto Dr. Mohamed M.
Morsy whoundertook thedifficulttask of genuinelyadvisingmethroughout mycourse.
He sparednoeffort for thesakeof thecompletionandsatisfactionof thisthesis. Tohim
all myadmirationandrespect.
I wouldalsoliketothank Prof. Dr. Tarek A. Macky for hisgreat support and
guidance throughout this work. He kindly guidedmewithhisscientificadvicetill this
work finallycametrue. Tohimall myrespect andgratitude.
At the completion of this work I wouldliketo sincerelyacknowledgemyGod
Father and my dear Prof. Dr. AbdelmonemA. Moussa. Hisgenuineadviceandhis
parental spirit kindly overwhelmed me all through the period of theprogress of this
work, afact that gavemegreat momentuminthecompletionof thisthesis. Hisimmense
support made it possible to overcome all the difficultiesthat wereto facemetill this
work was finally concluded. To him I devote most of the credit for thisscientific
research.
First, I want to thank ALLAH who gave methepower tocompletethis
work and I hopeI havedoneit inthewayour ISLAM orders us, perfect and well
done.
Acknow~edgment
Eng. Sayed Mohamed El-Sayed
Cairo, 1997
Finally I am greatly indebted to my mother and my wife for their support and
encouragement.
I also want to express my gratitude to my colleagues Sherif Abd EI-Basset,
Mohamed Abd EI-Motaal and Ayman Lotfy for their advice and their help inmy
work.
I would also like to extend my thanks to Prof. Dr. Amin S. Aly, Prof. Dr.
Mona M. Eid, Dr. Hesham Helmy and Dr. Ali A. Abd EI-Fattah who were of great
help inmy personal and scientific life. Their contribution to my engineering profession is
extremely precious.
To the soul oC myCather"MohamedElaraby" and
to my beloved son "Mohamed S. Mohamed
Elaraby"
A
A
A
s,
Dimensionof rectangular footing;
Dimensionlessfrequencyfactor;
Nodal displacementvector;
Displacementvector of nodei;
Contact Area;
Richart's amplitudefactor;
Strain-displacementoperator matrix;
Dimensionlessfrequencyratiofor thecaseof two mutuallyaffected
footings;
Amplitudeof slidingvibrationinxdirection;
Amplitudeof vertical vibrationinz direction;
Amplitudeof rockingvibrationabout ydirection;
Amplitudeof torsional vibrationabout z direction;
Reissner's massratio; rectangular footingdimension;
Bodyforcesvector of element;
a
80
The followingisalistof usedsymbolsthoughout thisresearch. Theboldsymbols
indicate matrices and vectors. In additionto thesedefinitions, all symbolsareclarified
where they are used, or first used. It is important to knowthat, not all symbolsare
showninthis glossary; andtherest areshownwiththeir proper definitionsinthetext.
GLOSSARY OF SYMBOLS
cljI Coefficientof elasticnonuniformshear of thesoil;
C, Slidingx-translatory dampingconstant;
Cz Vertical z-translatory dampingconstant;
Crx Slidingx-translatory critical dampingconstant;
Crz Vertical z-translatory critical dampingconstant;
C, Rockingy-rotary dampingratio;
C", Torsional z-rotary dampingratio;
Crcjl Rockingy-rotary critical dampingratio;
Cnv Torsional z-rotary critical dampingratio;
C Compliancematrix;
C" Element dampingmatrix;
D Depthof trench;
DFT DiscreteFourier Transform;
D Element stress-strainconstitutivematrix;
E Young's modulus;
E, Bulk modulusof elasticity;
Ccp
B
B",
Bcjl
Foundationwidth; half footingwidthinGazetas andDobry's impedance
functions charts;
Slidingmassratio;
Vertical massratio;
Rockingmassratio;
Torsional massratio;
Strain-nodal displacementmatrixof theelement;
Coefficientof elasticuniformcompression;
Barkan's footingconstant;
Coefficientof elasticnonuniformcompressionof thesoil;
dampingconstant for rocking;
c, Coefficientof elasticuniformshear of thesoil;
B
Reissner,sdisplacementfunctions;
Natural frequency;
Reducednatural frequency;
Lysmer displacementfunctions;
First footing;
Secondfooting;
Infinitesimalinertiaforcevector;
Forcingamplituderatio;
Finiteelementmethod;
Forcingphasedifference;
ForcingfrequencyRatio;
Fast Fourier transform;
gravityacceleration=9.81m/sec";
Shear modulus;
Initial tangent modulus;
Equivalent shear modulus;
Height of machineandfootingcentroidabovecontact area;
Half bandwidth
Springstiffnessinx-translatory direction;
Springstiffhessinz-translatory direction;
Springstiffhessiny-rotary direction, rocking;
Springstiffhessinz-rotary direction, yawing;
Impedancefunctionof x-translatoryvibration;
Impedancefunctionofy-translatory vibration;
Impedancefunctionof z-translatoryvibration;
Impedancefunctionof x-rotary vibration;
Impedancefunctionof y-rotaryvibration;
Impedancefunctionof coupledx-translatory andy-rotary vibration;
h,
lIB
fl & f2
fn
fnr
Fl &F2
Fl
F 2
dFi
F AR
FEM
FPD
FFR
FFT
g
G
Impedancefunctionof coupledy-translatory andx-rotary vibration;
Impedancefunctionof z-rotary vibration;
Element stiffnessmatrix;
J acobianmatrix;
Inverseof J acobianmatrix;
Eigenvectors, solutionof characteristicequation;
complexnumber,..r:I ;
InversediscreteFourier transform;
Polar moment of inertiaof foundationbasearea;
Lengthof trench; half footinglengthinGazetas andDobry's impedance
functions charts;
Lovewaves;
Shapefunctionsof theelement;
Appliedmoment about y-direction;
Amplitudeof appliedmoment about y-direction;
Appliedmoment about z-direction;
Amplitudeof appliedmoment about z-direction;
Assembledmassmatrixof thesystem;
Consistentmassmatrixof theelement;
Dynamicmagnificationfactor =dynamicdisp.lstatic disp.;
Massmoment of inertiaof themachineandfoundationabout theaxisof
rotationinthecontact area;
Massmoment of inertiaof themachineandfoundationabout the
centroidal axisof rotation;
Foundationmass;
Nodal forcevector;
Longitudinal wave;
Forceinx-direction;
m
pe
P-wave
Px
N
L-wave
L
IDFT
1
J
.rl
I
Amplitude of the x-direction force;
Force in z-direction;
Amplitude of the z-direction force;
Distance from the center of footing;
Radius of equivalent circle;
Generic displacement vector;
Rayleigh wave;
Ramberg-Osgood constant;
Equivalent nodal force vector;
Generic displacement of the element;
Shear wave;
Spacing of footing; Pauw' s factor;
Dynamic stiffness;
Element dynamic stiffness;
Strain energy density function; weight of the foundation and the machine;
width of trench;
Strain energy increment;
Horizontal x-coordinate; x-displacement;
Horizontal y-coordinate; y-displacement;
Vertical x-coordinate; z-displacement;
Modal coordinate response;
Depth of rock interface;
Ramberg-Osgood constant; Alpan's constant; Pauw's stress transfer
slope;
Potential energy;
Natural coordinate axis;
Damping ratio for x-sliding;
Damping ratio for z-sliding;
z
z
y
x
AW
W
s
qe
U
S-wave
s
r
R-wave
R
r
Torsional vibrationof themachine;
x
\jI
v
ro
e
p
< l>
Y o
Y r
1t
Damping ratio for y-rocking;
Damping ratio for z-yawing;
Natural coordinate axis;
Hall's frequency adjustment factor for rocking vibration;
Natural coordinate axis;
Shear strain , unit weight of the material;
Initial shear strain;
Reference shear strain;
Circumference of acircle / its diameter =3.141592654 ;
Phase difference;
Mass density of the footing;
Rocking vibration of the machine;
Angular frequency of the forcing function;
Natural frequency for x-horizontal vibration;
Natural frequency for z-vertical vibration;
Natural frequency for y-rocking;
Natural frequency for z-yawning;
Stress vector of the element;
Static contact stress;
Shear stress;
Initial shear stress;
Reference shear strain;
Poisson's ratio;
= M o m I M o ;
surface 58
Fi gur e( 2. 13) Appar ent mass f act or s f or hor i zont al cont act
contact surface 57
Figure Page
Fi gur e( 2. 1) Degr ees of f r eedomof a bl ock f oundat i on . . . . . 52
Fi gur e ( 2. 2) Li mi t i ng ampl i t udes of vi br at i ons f or a
par t i cul ar f r equency ( Af t er Ri char t , 1970) 52
Fi gur e( 2. 3) Hyst er i c l oop f or soi l under cycl i c l oadi ng 53
Fi gur e( 2. 4) Bi l i near i deal i zat i on f or hyst er si s l oop 53
Fi gur e ( 2. 5) Equi val ent shear modul us and mat er i al
dampi ng 53
Fi gur e( 2. 6) Bl ock under goi ng ver t i cal vi br at i on 54
Fi gur e ( 2.7) Pur e sl i di ng vi br at i on 54
Fi gur e ( 2. 8) Rocki ng vi br at i on of t he bl ock f oundat i on 55
Fi gur e( 2. 9) Bl ock f oundat i on under goi ng yawi ng vi br at i on. . 55
Fi gur e( 2. 10) Bl ock f oundat i on 56
Fi gur e( 2. 11) Pauw' s assumpt i ons 56
Fi gur e( 2. 12) Equi val ent soi l spr i ng const ant s f or hor i zont al
LIST OF FIGURES
rigid block 64
Fi gur e( 2. 22) Not at i on f or combi ned r ocki ng and sl i di ng of a
Fi gur e ( 2. 20) Equi val ent l umped syst emt o hal f space ( Af t er
Lysmer , 1965) 62
Fi gur e( 2. 21) Response of a r i gi d ci r cul ar f oot i ng on el ast i c
hal f space t o const ant ampl i t ude sl i di ng f or ce ( Af t er Hal l ,
1967) 63
1966) 62
ver t i cal f or ce devel oped by const ant f or ce exci t at i on
( Af t er Lysmer and Ri char t , 1966) 61
Fi gur e ( 2. 19) Response of a r i gi d ci r cul ar f oot i ng t o
ver t i cal f or ce devel oped by f r equency dependent ampl i t ude
f or ce exci t at i on ( Af t er Lysmer and Ri char t ,
a r i gi d ci r cul ar f oot i ng t o of Fi gur e( 2. 18) Response
Fi gur e ( 2. 17) Lysmer di spl acement f unct i ons ver sus Poi sson' s
r at i os and f r equency r at i o ( Af t er Lysmer and Ri char t ,
1966) 61
Fi gur e( 2. 15) Ef f ect of pr essur e di st r i but i on and Poi sson' s
r at i o on t he r esponse cur ves f or ver t i cal mot i on of a
ci r cul ar f oot i ng ( Af t er Ri char t et al., 1970) 59
Fi gur e ( 2. 16) Ampl i t ude ver sus f r equency r el at i ons f or
ver t i cal osci l l at i on of a r i gi d ci r cul ar f oot i ng on an
el ast i c hal f space ( v=1/ 3) ( Af t er Ri char t , 1970) 60
1956) 59
Fi gur e( 2. 14) Rei ssner di spl acement f unct i ons ( Af t er Bycr of t ,
1993) 69
ci r cul ar f oot i ng on a homogenous, i sot r opi c, el ast i c hal f -
space ( Af t er Woods, 1968) 68
Fi gur e( 2. 34) Ef f ect of soi l r epl acement ( Af t er El sal amony,
of di spl acement waves f r om a Fi gur e ( 2. 33) Di st r i but i on
vel oci t y of pr opagat i on of compr essi on ( P) , shear ( S) and
Rayl ei gh ( R) waves i n a semi - i nf i ni t e el ast i c hal f space
( Af t er Ri char t , 1970) 66
Fi gur e( 2. 30) Rayl ei gh wave 67
Fi gur e( 2. 31) Body and sur f ace waves 67
Fi gur e( 2. 32) Wave syst em f r om a poi nt s i n an i deal medi um
( Af t er Ri char t et al . , 1970) 68
Poi sson' s r at i o and t he bet ween Fi gur e( 2. 29) Rel at i on
Fi gur e ( 2. 27)Compr essi on, l ongi t udi nal , push or P wave 66
Fi gur e( 2. 28) Shear , secondar y or S wave 66
................................ 65
of t he spr i ng st i f f ness and
t he i mpedance f unct i ons ( Af t er
Fi gur e ( 2. 26)Det er mi nat i on
dampi ng coef f i ci ent f or
Dobr y and Gazet as, 1986)
Fi gur e( 2. 23) Ef f ect of embedment on t he spr i ng st i f f ness
( Af t er Kal dj i an, 1969) 63
Fi gur e( 2. 24) Ef f ect of embedment on t he dampi ng coef f i ci ent
( Af t er Lysmer and Kuhl emeyer , 1969) 63
Fi gur e( 2. 25) Ef f ect of embedment r at i o f or ci r cul ar f oot i ng
wi t h ( Bz=5) ( Af t er El zar ka, 1991) 64
Fi gur e( 3. 11) St or age of t he hal f banded mat r i x 104
finite element method 103
Fi gur e ( 3. 10) Equat i ons of cont i nuum ver sus equat i ons of
rnatric es 103
decompsi t i on of N- poi nt s DFT f or N=8 101
Fi gur e ( 3. 6) Newt on Cot es and Gauss i nt egr at i ons 102
Fi gur e( 3. 7) Gauss poi nt sf or 8- node br i ck el ement 102
Fi gur e ( 3. 8) St eer i ng vect or " exampl e" 103
Fi gur e( 3. 9) Usage of st eer i ng vect or t i assembl e el ement s'
f ul l FFT, compl et e t he of gr aph Fi gur e( 3. 5) Fl ow
N=8 101
decomposi t i on of N- poi nt s i nt o t wo N/ 2- poi nt s DFT' s f or
f i r st st age i n FFT, t he of gr aph Fi gur e( 3. 4) Fl ow
Fi gur e( 3. 2) Per i odi c f unct i on wi t h per i od T 100
Fi gur e( 3. 3) Di scr et e poi nt s def i ni ng t he f unct i on 101
"finite elements" 100
3D soi l d cont i nuum i nt o of Fi gur e( 3. 1) Di scr et i zat i on
Fi gur e( 2. 35) Vi br at i on i sol at i on usi ng a ci r cul ar t r ench
sur r oundi ng t he sour ce of vi br at i on- act i ve i sol at i on
( Af t er Ri char t , 1970) 69
Fi gur e( 2. 36) Vi br at i on i sol at i on usi ng st r ai ght t r ench-
passi ve i sol at i on ( Af t er Ri char t , 1968) 70
Fi gur e( 2. 37) Ef f ect of f r equency on t he act i ve i sol at i on
( Af t er El zar ka, 1991) 70
case 139
unsyr nr net r i c De=0. 25B, dept h Fi gur e ( 4. 12)Er nbedr nent
Fi gur e ( 4. 9)Ef f ect of FPD 136
Fi gur e( 4. 10) Ref er r i ng case, sur f ace f oot i ng 137
Fi gur e( 4. 11) Er nbedr nentdept h De=0. 25B, symmet r i c case 138
Fi gur e( 4. 2) Ef f ect of FFR f or s/ B=0. 5 ................... 129
Fi gur e( 4. 3) Ef f ect of spaci ng and FFR ................... 130
Fi gur e( 4. 4) Ef f ect of FAR f or s/ B=0. 5 and FFR=1. 0 . . . . . . 131
Fi gur e( 4. 5) Ef f ect of FAR f or s/ B=0. 5 and FFR=3. 0 . . . . . . 132
Fi gur e( 4. 6) Ef f ect of FAR ............................... 133
Fi gur e( 4. 7) Ef f ect of FPD f or s/ B=0. 5 and FFR=1. 0 . . . . . . 134
Fi gur e( 4. 8) Ef f ect of FPD f or s/ B=0. 5 and FFR=3. 0 . . . . . . 135
Fi gur e( 4. 1) The geomet r y, boundar y condi t i on and meshi ng of
t he st udi ed model 128
Fi gur e( 3. 16) St r uct ur al char t f or t he dynami c pr ogr am
( Af t er Smi t h, 1982) 107
Smith, 1982) 106
Fi gur e ( 3. 14) St r uct ur al char t f or el ement mat r i ces' pr ogr am
( Af t er Smi t h, 1982) 106
Fi gur e( 3. 15) St r uct ur al char t f or t he st at i c pr ogr am ( Af t er
banded matrix 105
Fi gur e( 3. 12) Or der of Chol esky' s decomposi t i on 104
Fi gur e( 3. 13) Rel at i on bet ween convent i onal mat r i x and hal f
case) , case of FFR=1/ 3, $ 151
Fi gur e( 4. 25) Ef f ect of embedment dept h, FFR=1. 0 152
Fi gur e( 4. 26) Ef f ect of embedment dept h, FFR=3. 0 153
Fi gur e( 4. 27) Ef f ect of embedment dept h, FFR=1/ 3 154
Fi gur e( 4. 28) Mesh f or s=0. 5 8 156
0. 258 ( unsymmet r i c dept h Fi gur e ( 4. 24) Embedment
case) , case of FFR=1/ 3, Mz 150
0. 258 ( unsymmet r i c dept h Fi gur e ( 4. 23)Embedment
case) , case of FFR=3. 0, $ 149
0. 25B ( unsymmet r i c De = dept h Fi gur e ( 4. 22)Embedment
case) ,case of FFR=3.0, Mz 148
0. 25B ( unsymmet r i c dept h Fi gur e ( 4. 21)Embedment
case) , case of FFR=1. 0 and si ngl e f oot i ngs, Mz 146
Fi gur e ( 4. 20)Embedment dept h De = 0. 25B ( unsymmet r i c
case) , case of FFR=1. 0 and si ngl e f oot i ngs, ~ 147
0. 25B ( unsymmet r i c dept h Fi gur e ( 4. 19)Embedment
4 > . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Fi gur e ( 4. 18) Embedment dept h De = 0. 25B ( symmet r i c case) ,
Mz 14 4
Fi gur e( 4. 13) Embedment dept h De=0. 50B, symmet r i c case . . . . 140
Fi gur e( 4. 14) Embedment dept h De=0. 50 B, unsymmet r i c case. 141
Fi gur e( 4. 15) Sur f ace f oot i ngs, Mz 142
Fi gur e( 4. 16) Sur f ace f oot i ngs, $ 143
Fi gur e ( 4. 17)Embedment dept h De = 0. 25B ( symmet r i c case) ,
Mz 171
cont i nuous) , 4 > . 170
Fi gur e ( 4. 44)Ef f ect of t r ench l engt h, L=B, ( D=B,W=O. 2B) ,
( D=B, W=O. 2B, wi dt h, t r ench of Fi gur e( 4. 43) Ef f ect
continuous), Mz 169
( D=B, W=O. 2B, wi dt h, t r ench of Fi gur e( 4. 42) Ef f ect
continuous), < I > 168
( W=O. l B, t r ench dept h, D=O. 5B, of Fi gur e( 4. 41) Ef f ect
cont i nuous) , Mz 167
( W=O. l B, t r ench dept h, D=O. 5B, of Fi gur e( 4. 40) Ef f ect
Fi gur e( 4. 37}Mesh f or st udyi ng ai r t r enches ( var i abl e L) . 164
Fi gur e( 4. 38) Sur f ace f oot i ngs ( r ef er r i ng case) , Mz 165
Fi gur e( 4. 39) Sur f ace f oot i ngs ( r ef er r i ng case) , ~ 166
D) .................................................... 163
Fi gur e( 4. 36) Mesh f or st udyi ng ai r t r enches ( var i abl e Wand
FFRs , < f > ............................................... 162
Fi gur e( 4. 35) Ef f ect of r ock i nt er f ace dept h f or di f f er ent
FFRs , M z . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
Fi gur e( 4. 30) Ef f ect of r ock i nt er f ace dept h( s/ B=O. 5) , Mz. . 157
Fi gur e( 4. 31) Ef f ect of r ock i nt er f ace dept h( s/ B=O. 5) , ~. . . 158
Fi gur e( 4. 32) Ef f ect of r ock i nt er f ace dept h( s/ B=1. O) , Mz. . 159
Fi gur e( 4. 33) Ef f ect of r ock i nt er f ace dept h( s/ B=1. 0) , ~. . . 160
Fi gur e( 4. 34) Ef f ect of r ock i nt er f ace dept h f or di f f er ent
Fi gur e( 4. 29) Mesh f or s=B 156
< 1 > . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
( symmet r i c case) , De=O. 5B dept h Fi gur e ( B- 2) Embedment
Mz 1 97
( symmet r i c case) , De=O. 5B dept h Fi gur e ( B- 1) Embedment
Fi gur e( 4. 46) Ef f ect of t r ench dept h, M z 173
Fi gur e ( 4. 47) Ef f ect of t r ench dept h, < I > 174
Fi gur e( 4. 48) Ef f ect of t r ench wi dt h, M z 175
Fi gur e ( 4. 49) Ef f ect of t r ench wi dt h, < I > 176
Fi gur e( 4. 50) Ef f ect of t r ench l engt h, M z 177
Fi gur e ( 4. 51) Ef f ect of t r ench l engt h, < I > 1 78
Fi gur e( A- 1) Ef f ect of FFR at s/ B=1. 0 184
Fi gur e( A- 2) Ef f ect of FFR at s/ B=1. 5 185
Fi gur e ( A- 3) Ef f ect of FFR at s/ B=2. 0 186
Fi gur e ( A- 4) Ef f ect of FFR at s/ B=3. 0 187
Fi gur e ( A- 5) Ef f ect of FAR at s/ B=1. 5 and FFR=1. 0 189
Fi gur e( A- 6) Ef f ect of FAR at s/ B=1. . 5 and FFR=3. 0 190
Fi gur e( A- 7) Ef f ect of FAR at s/ B=3. 0 and FFR=I . 0 191
Fi gur e( A- B) Ef f ect of FAR at s/ B=3. 0 and FFR=3. 0 192
Fi gur e ( A- 9) Ef f ect of FPD at s/ B=1. 5 and FFR=1. 0 194
Fi gur e( A- 10) Ef f ect of FPD at s/ B=1. 5 and FFR=3. 0 195
< t > 172
Fi gur e( 4. 45) Ef f ect of t r ench l engt h, L=B, ( D=B, W=0. 2B) ,
trench), < I > 213
Fi gur e( C- 6) Ef f ect of t r ench wi dt h, W=0. 3B, ( D=B, cont i nuous
trench), Mz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
cont i nuous t r ench) , $ 210
Fi gur e( C- 5) Ef f eet of t r ench wi dt h, W=0. 3B, ( D=B, cont i nuous
( W=O. 1B, D=2B, dept h, t r ench of Fi gur e ( C- 4) Ef f ect
cont i nuous t r ench) , M z 209
( W=O. 1B, D=2B, dept h, t r ench of Fi gur e ( C- 3) Ef f ect
trench), q , 208
Fi gur e( C- 2) Ef f ect of t r ench dept h, D=B, ( W=O. l B, cont i nuous
trench), Mz . . . . . . 207
case) , case of FFR=1/ 3, $ 204
Fi gur e( C- 1) Ef f ect of t r ench dept h, D=B, ( W=O. l B, cont i nuous
( unsymmet r i c 0. 5B dept h Fi gur e ( B- 8) Embedment
case) , case of FFR=1/ 3, M z 203
( unsymmet r i c 0. 5B dept h Fi gur e ( B- 7) Embedment
case) , case of FFR=3. 0, $ ............................. 202
( unsynunet r i c 0. 5B dept h Fi gur e ( B- 6) Embedment
case) , case of FFR=3. 0, M z 201
( unsynunet r i c 0. 5B dept h Fi gur e ( B- 5) Embedment
case) , case of FFR=1. 0 and si ngl e f oot i ngs, Mz 199
Fi gur e ( B- 4) Embedment dept h De = 0. 5B ( unsymmet r i c
case) , case of FFR=1. 0 and si ngl e f oot i ngs, $ 200
( unsynunet r i c 0. 5B dept h Fi gur e ( B- 3) Embedment
4 > . . . 218
Fi gur e ( C- l O) Ef f ect of t r ench l engt h, L=3B, ( D=B, W=O. 2B) ,
Mz 21 7
Fi gur e ( C- 9) Ef f ect of t r ench l engt h, L=3B, ( D=B, W=O. 2B) ,
< I > 216
Fi gur e ( C- 8) Ef f ect of t r ench l engt h, L=2B, ( D=B, W=O. 2B) ,
Mz 215
Fi gur e ( C- 7) Ef f ect of t r ench l engt h, L=2B, ( D=B, W=O. 2B) ,
Tabl e( 4. 3) Ef f ect of t he f or ci ng ampl i t ude r at i o ( FAR) . . 124
(FFR) 123
i ThpeoanceI unc~i on5 \ AI ~eI Gaze~as and DDDI y, l ~~~) . . . . .~~
Tabl e( 2. 7) Vel oci t i es of compr essi on waves and shear waves
( Af t er Bar kan, 1962) 51
Tabl e( 2. 8) Wave l engt h and wave vel oci t y f or t he R wave at
a f i el d si t e ( Af t er Woods, 1968) 51
Tabl e( 3. 1) Gauss quadr at ur e poi nt s and wei ght s 100
Tabl e( 4. 1) Pr oper t i es of soi l and f oot i ng el ement s 123
Tabl e( 4. 2) Ef f ect of spaci ng and t he f or ci ng f r equency r at i o
dampi ng coef f i ci ent s f or t he and Tabl e( 2. 6) St i f f ness
Tabl e( 2. 1) Numer i cal val ues of Cs ( Af t er Bar kan. 1962) 48
Tabl e ( 2. 2) Tent at i ve val ues of Cu ( Af t er Bar kan, 1962) 48
Tabl e ( 2. 3)Pauw' s const ant s 49
Tabl e ( 2. 4) 1l q, val ues ( Af t er Hal l , 1962) 49
Tabl e( 2. 5) Magi f i cat i on f act or s f or ver t i cal vi br at i on of a
r i gi d ci r cul ar f oot i ng suppor t ed by an el ast i c l ayer of
hei ght H ( Af t er War bur t on, 1957) 49
Table Page
LIST OF TABLES
Tabl e( 4. 5) Ef f ect of embedment 125
Tabl e( 4. 6) Ef f ect of r ock i nt er f ace dept h 126
Tabl e( 4. 7) Tr ench i sol at at i on 127
(FFR=l. 0) 124
Tabl e( 4. 4) Ef f ect of t he f or ci ng phase di f f er ence ( FPD) at
2. 2. Soi l Dynami c Behavi our Char act er i st i cs 6
2. 2. 1. Hyst er i cal Behavi our of Soi l 6
2. 2. 2. Vi sco- El ast i c Hyst er i c Soi l Model s 7
2. 3 Anal ysi s of Machi ne Foundat i on 7
2.3.1 Introduction 7
2.1. Introduction 5
Chapter (2)Literature Review
1.3.8. References 4
13.7. Appendix (C) 4
1.3.6. Appendix (B) 4
1. 3. 5. Appendi x ( A) 4
1.3.4. Chapter Five 4
1.3.3. Chapter Four 3
1. 3. 2. Chapt er Thr ee 3
1. 2. Obj ect of t he Resear ch 2
1. 3. The Or gani zat i on of t hi s Resear ch 3
1.3.1. Chapter Two 3
1.1. General 1
Chapter (l)Introduction
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ver sus El ast i c Const ant s 20
2. 3. 3. 3. Ef f ect of Soi l Mass and Dampi ng on
t he Equat i on of Mot i on 20
2. 3. 3. 4. Pauw' s Met hod ( 1956) 22
2. 3. 4. Hal f Space Model l i ng of Soi l 25
2. 3. 4. 1. I nt r oduct i on 25
2. 3. 4. 2. Ver t i cal Vi br at i on 25
2. 3. 4. 3. Anal ogous Lumped Par amet er Syst em
f or Ver t i cal Osci l l at i on 29
2. 3. 4. 4. Sl i di ng Vi br at i on 30
2. 3. 4. 5 Tor si onal Vi br at i on 31
2. 3. 4. 6. Rocki ng Vi br at i on 32
2. 3. 4. 7. Coupl ed Rocki ng and Sl i di ng 33
2. 3. 4. 8 Ef f ect of Embedment of Foundat i on. 35
2. 3. 4. 9 Ef f ect of Rock I nt er f ace 35
2. 3. 4. 10. Ef f ect of Foundat i on Shape 36
2. 3. 4. 11. Advant age and Di sadvant ages of
Hal f - Space Model i ng 36
2. 3. 5. I mpedance Funct i ons Met hod 37
2. 3. 5. 1 I nt r oduct i on 37
2. 3. 5. 2 The I mpedance Funct i ons Concept . . 37
2. 3. 5. 3 Usi ng I mpedance Funct i ons t o Sol ve
f or t he Vi br at i on of Ri gi d Foot i ngs. 38
Subgr ade React i on of Modul us 2. 3. 3. 2.
2. 3. 3 Spr i ng Model i ng of Soi l s 9
2. 3. 3. 1. Bar kan' s Met hod ( 1962) 9
Frequencies 8
2. 3. 2. Empi r i cal Met hods t o Det er mi ne Nat ur al
3. 1. 2. 1. Di scr et i zat i on 72
3. 1. 2. 2. Sel ect i on of Shape Funct i ons . . 72
3. 1. 2. 3. St at i c Case For mul at i on 75
3. 1. 3. Dynami c Case For mul at i on 84
3. 1. 3. 1. Undamped Case 84
3. 1. 3. 2. Damped Case 84
3. 2. Expansi on of For ci ng Funct i ons by Four i er
Ser i es 85
Method ..... " .... """" .. """".,,,,.,,""""""""""""""" 72
3. 1. The Fi ni t e El ement Met hod 71
3. 1. 1. I nt r oduct i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3. 1. 2. Syst emat i c St eps of t he Fi ni t e El ement
Chapter (3)Ana~ysisProcedure
2. 4. 3. I nt er act i on of Machi ne Foundat i ons 45
2. 4. 4 Machi ne Foundat i on I sol at i on 45
Footing ".. "... ".. """""."""."" ..... ,,... ,,.. 44
2. 4. 2. 1 Types of Ear t h Waves 41
2. 4. 2. 2 Waves Gener at ed by a Sur f ace
2.4.2 Earth Waves 41
2. 4 Reduci ng Machi ne Foundat i on I nt er act i on 41
2. 4. 1 I nt r oduct i on 41
Mesh Size 40
of Assumed Boundar y and 2. 3. 6. 2 Ef f ect
2. 3. 6 Fi ni t e El ement s as a Numer i cal Met hods of
Anal ysi s 39
2. 3. 6. 1 I nt r oduct i on 39
4. 1. I nt r oduct i on 108
4. 2. I nt er act i on of Sur f ace Foot i ngs 109
4. 2. 1. The St udi ed Model 109
Parametric stuqy Chapter (4)
3.6. The Program 99
El ement Met hod 96
3. 5. 2. Chol esky Sol ver 97
Resul t i ng f r om t he Fi ni t e Equat i ons 3. 5. 1.
3. 5. Sol ver of Equat i ons 96
Matrices 96
3. 2. 1. 3. Di scr et e For mof Four i er and I nver se
Four i er Tr ansf or m 87
3. 2. 1. 4. Fast Four i er Tr ansf or m ( FFT) 87
3. 2. 2. The Compl ex Response Met hod 90
3. 2. 2. 1. Har moni c Loadi ng 90
3. 2. 2. 2. Gener al Loadi ng 92
3. 3. Numer i cal I nt egr at i on ( Quadr at ur e) 93
3. 3. 1. Met hods f or Numer i cal I nt egr at i on 93
3. 3. 2. Eval uat i on of El ement Mat r i ces by
Numer i cal I nt egr at i on 94
3. 4. Assembl y of El ement Mat r i ces i nt o Syst em
Series 86
For m of Four i er Compl ex 3. 2. 1. 2. The
Functions 85
Per i odi c f or Ser i es Four i er 3. 2. 1. 1.
3.2.1. Introduction 85
Footing) 114
4. 3. 3. 2. Embedded Foot i ngs 114
4. 4. Ef f ect of Rock I nt er f ace Dept h 116
4. 4. 1 The St udi ed Model 116
4. 4. 2. The St udi ed Par amet er s 116
4. 4. 3. Resul t s and Di scussi on 117
4. 5. Vi br at i on I sol at i on Usi ng Ai r Tr enches 118
4. 5. 1 The St udi ed Model 118
4. 5. 2. The St udi ed Par amet er s 118
4. 5. 3. Resul t s and Di scussi on 119
4. 5. 3. 1 Ref er r i ng Case ( Sur f ace Foot i ngs
wi t h no Tr enches) 119
4. 5. 3. 2. The Ef f ect of Tr ench Dept h ( D) . . 120
4. 5. 3. 3. The Ef f ect of Tr ench Wi dt h ( W) . . 120
( Sur f ace Case Ref er r i ng The 4. 3. 3. 1.
4. 3. 1. The St udi ed Model 113
4. 3. 2. The St udi ed Par amet er s 113
4. 3. 3. Resul t s and Di scussi on 113
Interaction 113
Foot i ng t he Embedment on of Ef f ect 4. 3.
Di f f er ence ( FPD) 111
t he For ci ng Phase of Ef f ect
............................. 111 Rat i o ( FAR)
4. 2. 3. 3.
4. 2. 2. The St udi ed Par amet er s 109
4. 2. 3. Resul t s and Di scussi on 109
4. 2. 3. 1. Ef f ect of Spaci ng and t he
For ci ng Fr equency Rat i o ( FFR) . . . . 109
4. 2. 3. 2. Ef f ect of t he For ci ng Ampl i t ude
Reerences
Appendix (C) 205
Appendix (B) 196
Appendix (A) 182
5. 3. Reconunendat i ons 181
5.2. Conclusion 180
5.1. Introduction 179
Chapter (5)Conc~usionand Recommendations
4. 5. 3. 4. The Ef f ect of Tr ench Lengt h( L) . . 121
1
Modeling the foundation as a rigidblock supportedbyspringsanddampersto
represent the soil is common in designpracticebecauseof theeaseof solution. Some
mass-spring models takeintoaccount thecontributionof thevibratingsoil to theinertia
forces anddamping. Modelsthat represent theproblemasablock restingonelastichalf
space have been availablefor somesimplecasesdueto complexityof themathematical
treatment to solvethegoverningdifferential-integralequations.
Foundation supporting machines (e.g., reciprocating engines, compressors,
turbines andgenerators, etc.) aresubjectto vibrations. If therateof theforceapplication
becomes significant, additional inertia and damping forces developbothinfoundation
and earth, so that the response to dynamicloadingiscompletelydifferentfromstatic
case, and depends onthemassesof footingsandsoil, configurationof thefoundations-
earth system, the soil dynamiccharacteristicsandthetimevariationof theload. Incase
of the generatedvibrationsbecomeexcessive,theymaydamagethemachineor causeit
not to function. properly, inadditionto their adverseeffect onthenearbybuildingsand
people.
1.1. GENERAL
Introduction
Chapter (1)
2
In order to studytheseparameters, differentconfigurationsof adjacent footings
have been studied to clarify the effect of each parameter. From the results of the
parametric study, themost pronouncedfactorsareemphasized.
The effect of differentparameters of thedynamicforcesactingonthefootings(i.e.,
thefrequency, theamplitudeandthephase)
Effect of thefoundationspacingonthecrossinteractionbetweenthem.
Effect of thedepthof underlyingfirmstratumontheinteractionbetweenthemachine
foundations.
Effect of theembedmentof thefoundationsontheir response.
Useof trenchesto reducetheinteractionbetweentheadjacent machinefoundations.
The object of this research isto studytheinteractionof machinefoundations.
Thefollowingparametershavebeenstudied
1.2. OBJECT OF THERESEARCH
This work shows that the interaction may be quite important as the singlefooting
response in some cases of adjacent foundations. A parametric study is conducted to
reveal the important factors affecting the interaction using the finite element method.
The problem of machine foundation interaction is ignored inmost literature of
machine foundations. Most models detect the vibrations of singlefootings under dynamic
loads and on the contrary ignore the effect of the interaction of adjacent footing.
3
In this chapter the results of theanalysiswithadiscussionof theseresults, are
grven. The parametric study includes the foundations spacing, depth of foundation
embedment, loading parameters, depthto rock interfaceandusing of trenchesto reduce
the interaction between the nearbyfootings. Theresultsareorganizedindimensionless
chartsandtables.
1.3.3. Chapter Four
In this chapter the method of analysis is presented in detail. A complete
formulation for the finite element methodinboththestaticanddynamiccasesisgiven
with emphasis on the isoparametric 8-node brick element. The techniques of the
frequency domain steadystatedynamicanalysisusingthecomplexresponsemethodare
given.
1.3.2. Chapter Three
In this chapter, a literature review on the vibration modes offoundations is
introduced. The soil behaviour under dynamic loading andthemodelingof machine
foundations have been discussed with emphasis on the finite element techniques.
The methods for reducingthedynamicresponseof foundationusing trenches arealso
discussed
1.3.1. Chapter Two
1.3. THE ORGANIZATION OF THIS RESEARCH
Thisthesisisorganizedintofivechaptersandthreeappendices. Inthefollowinga
summaryof eachchapter isintroduced:
4
A listof thereviewedresearchesandliteratureconceringthesubjectof thethesis,
aregiveninalphabetical order.
1.3.8. References
Theresults of theanalysisof trenchisolation.
1.3.7. Appendix (C)
Theresults of theanalysisof theembedmentof footings.
1.3.6. Appendix (8)
Theanalysisresultsof thesurfacefootingsinteraction.
1.3.5. Appendix (A)
In this chapter, a summary of thework throughout thethesisisgivenwiththe
recommendationsandconclusionsinterpretingtheresultsobtained.
1.3.4. Chapter Five
5
Although the response of footings subject to loads of dynamic nature has been
studied excessively as it will be shown, the interaction response of neighbouring footings
has been ignored inalmost all technical literature. It is aimed inthis chapter to introduce
the analysis of machine foundations and modeling techniques used to predict their
Richart et al. (1970)c43 showed that the serviceability requirement for machine
foundations depends on the amplitude of vibrations as shown inFigure (2.2). It may be
noticed that even a very small vibration amplitude(in the order of ahundredth of a
centimeter) may endanger the function of the machine.
The rigid block modeling for footings is common to simplify the problem
concerning the vibration of foundation resting on the soil half space. The rectangular
rigid block foundation, as shown inFigure (2.1), undergoes six degrees of freedom (viz.
three of translation and three of rotation about three centroidal orthogonal axes).
The prediction of magnitude of vibration of afooting inresponse to an acting
dynamic loading is essential for serviceability conditions. The excessive vibrations may
cause harm to function of the machine, terrify nearby people or may be of danger to
surrounding structures.
2.1. INTRODUCTION
Review Literature
Chapter (2)
6
Soil behaviour under dynamic stresses is always characterized by the strain
magnitude. Under small strains, soil hasnearlyconstant modulii andasmall amount of
'tr, Yr arethereferencestressandstrain
'to, Yo aretheinitial stressandstrain
where
(2.2)
loopisgivenbyMasing'sequation
where a &R aretheRamberg-Osgoodconstants, ylyris thenormalizedshear strain, Gis
the secant shear modulus and Gmax istheinitial tangent shear modulus. Thehysteresis
(2.1)
Gnux -I =a[ l/ Gmax] R
G 't, G
Soil tends to exhibit a hysteric behaviourunder dynamicstresses. Hysteresis
loops are described by the Ramberg-Osgood backbonecurve(1943f39 and Masing's
criterion(1926)C32to construct the loop as shown inFigure(2.3). Backbonecurveis
describedbyRamberg-Osgood'sequation
2.2.1. Hysterical Behaviour of Soil
2.2. SOIL DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR CHARACTERISTICS
interactionbetween adjacentfootings.
response to different dynamic loads. I t is also of interest to showhowto reducethe
7
2.3.1Introduction
2.3 ANALYSIS OFMACHINE FOUNDATIONS
W isthe strain energy density.
AW is the hysteric losses of the strain energy density.
where
(2.3)
~=_l .~W
41t W
Different models have been developed such as bi-linear, multi-linear or variable
curvi-linear stress-strain relationships as shown inFigure(2.4). Seed and Idriss (1978)C45
proposed linear model as shown inFigure (2.5). The model parameters are the equivalent
shear modulus Geqat strain level y and adamping ratio ~which introduces the hysteric
damping as viscous damping where
2.2.2. Visco-Elastic Hysteric Soil Models
strain that characterizes the serviceability condition of machine foundations.
damping, but under large strains, stiffness degradation and large amounts of damping are
observed. Another aspect of the soil hysteresis loops is the trend of these loops to
migrate in the weakest direction. Also the pore water pressure tends to build up quasi-
monotonically specially under fast cyclic loading, low permeability, and large strain
conditions. Itis the case inthis research to consider the soil behaviour under only small
8
(2.4)
equation:
and a variable termed as the reducednatural frequency(fnr)definedbythefollowing
Based on experimental data collected from practice, Tschebotarioff et al.
(l948)C49 gave an approximate relation betweencontact areaof amachinefoundation
2.3.2. Empirical Methods to Determine Natural Frequencies
6- Thefiniteelementmethodasageneral numerical methodof fieldproblems.
In this sectionthemethodsof analysisof machinefoundationareintroduced, it is
intendedto showdifferenttrends to simulatethesoil actionsineachmethodof analysis.
.'
1- Empirical methods to evaluate the natural frequencies of machine foundations
(Tschebotarioffet al. 1948c49, Alpan 1961c1).
2- Methods based on elastic soil spring constants (Barkan 1962C4).
3- Methods based on linear massive elastic analog spring (pauw 1953c36).
4- Methods based on considering the soil as an elastic half space and their simplified
analog mass-spring-dashpot systems (Reissner 1936c40, 1937c41, Reissner and Sagoci,
1944c42, Quinlan 1953c38, Sung 1953C48, Bycroft 1956c6, Hsieh 1962c19, Lysmer
1965c28, Lysmer and Richart 1966c29, Hall 1967cI8).
5- The impedance function method(Lysmer 1978C3\ Novak et al. 1978C35, Roesset
1980c44, Luco 1982c27, Gazetas andDobry 1983c14, Gazetas et al. 1984c1S, 1987cl6
and Dobry andGazetas 1985c9, 1986C10)
machine foundations are based on the numerical simulation of soil:
The soil does not only provide support to the foundation but also contribute to
the inertia and damping forces of the system. The principal methods of analysis of
9
He alsostatedthat dueto thenonuniformityof theinteractingstressdistribution,
these constants are dependent not onlyonthetypeof soil but alsoontheconfiguration
areaof thefooting.
Coefficientof elasticuniformcompressionof thesoil (CU )
Coefficientof elasticnonuniformcompressionof thesoil (c<p)
Coefficientof elasticuniformshear of thesoil (c.)
Coefficientof elasticnonuniformshear of thesoil (cljJ)
Barkan (1962)c4 indicated that even when thesoil behaveslinearlyupon small
monotonic loading, the behaviour is irreversiblewhichmeansthat thedeflectionisnot
totally elastic. He established a number of "elastic"constants of thesoil to definethe
elasticsoil supportingactionof vibratingloads. Theyarenamely:
2.3.3.1. Barkan's Method (1962)
2.3.3 Spring Modeling of soils
where W is the weight of themachineandthefooting(inkg), A isthecontact area(in
rrr') anda isconstant equal to 3,900for peats, 69,000for plasticclays, 82,000for sands
and 110,000for sandstones.
(2.5)
f =~(A)1/4
D J W
where O'st isthestaticcontact stress(ton/fr') betweenthefoundationandthesoil andfnis
thenatural frequency.
Alpan (1961)cl made useof Tschebotarioff's dataanddevelopedanexpression
for thenatural frequency, intheform:
10
(2.8)
q E 1
c =- =(1.13) .-
n S I-v2.fA
Byintegrationwefind
A =A reaof thebaseplate
q=A veragestressbetweentherigidplateandthesoil
S=Settlementof therigidplate
where
(2.7)
soil isdefinedby:
changes fromminimumat thecenter to theoreticallyinfinityat theedgesat whichplastic
deformations are expected to occur. Theaveragestressbetweentherigidplateandthe
Equation (2.6) shows that thestressunder thebasecontact areaof arigidplate
r0 =radiusof thecircular plate.
r =radiusvector of point under considerationinthesoil under bearingplate.
v=Poisson'sratio.
E = Young'smodulusof soil.
where
(2.6)
1
compression of the soil (cs). For a point in thesoil liesunder thecontact areaof a
circular plate, theexpressionfor [eu(A )]maybewrittenintheform
A s an example various formulae are shown for the coefficient of elastic uniform
11
Parakash (1981f37 gaveadescriptionof usageof Barkan's constantsto evaluate
the dynamic response of footingsunder differentharmonicexcitations. Inthefollowing
sectionasurveyof theusageof theseconstants isgivenindetail.
(2.10)
(2.11)
(2.12)
purpose:
Table (2.2) shows a summery of average values of thecoefficientsof elastic
uniform compression selected (eu) of differentsoilsobtainedunder varyingconditions.
For other elastic constant, Barkan recommended the following values for design
It isgenerallynotedthat consideringaveragesettlementof theflexiblefootingfor
determinationof c; givesvaluesveryclosetotherigidfooting.
dependingontheaspect ratioandstiffnessof thefooting.
where Cs is anumerical constant that dependsontheareaconfigurationandtherelative
stiffness of the footing and the soil (in caseof flexiblefootingitwill bebasedonthe
averagesettlement). Table (2.1) shows a set of valuesof (cs) for arectanglefooting
(2.9)
E 1
cu =c, . 1_ v' . J A.
or equivalently for foundation shapes other than circular ones:
12
(2.15)
Therefore, thenatural frequencyO lnz of thesystemisgiven by:
A =contact areaof thefooting.
=cA
u
kz =equivalent springrepresentingthesoil invertical direction.
m =massof themachineandfoundation
inwhich
(2.14) mz +kzZ=P oz sinrot
equationof motionneglectingthedamping, is
If the unbalanced load acts through the center of gravity of the block, the
whereP oz istheforceamplitudeandroistheforcefrequency
The amplitudes of vibration are generally reduced due to the effect of
embedment. Assuming(Df=O) for sakeof simplicityasshowninFigure(2.6.b). Thesoil
is replaced by an equivalent spring of stiffness k, as showninFigure(2.6.c), thus the
machinefoundation-soil systemissimilarto that showninFigure(2.6.d).
(2.13)
that
Consider a foundation of area 1\ placedat depthDfbelowthegroundlevel as
shown in Figure (2.6.a) and acted uponbyavertical unbalancedharmonicforcesuch
2.3.3.1.1. Vertical Vibration of a Block
13
(2.21)
and
(2.20)
whichgives
(2.19)
Theequationof motionis:
(2.18)
withaspringk,givenby:
The vibrations of thefoundationinthiscaseareanalogousto vertical vibrations,
wherePox istheforceamplitudeandroistheforcefrequency
(2.17)
The horizontal displacementof thefootingoccursunder anexcitingforce(Px) as
showninFigure(2.7). Theforceisgivenby:
2.3.3.1.2. Sliding Vibration of a Block
(2.16)
The amplitude of the motion Az isgivenby
14
I =moment of inertia of contact area about an axis passing through the
centroidal of the base contact area.
q , =angular displacement of block.
where
(2.23) MR =-f (ccpxq , )x dx =- C <J llq ,
A
1. Moment due to soil reaction (acting inan anticlockwise direction):
considered about the center of rotation):
The following moments act upon the foundation (all moments would be
Itis known that the rocking vibration is accompanied by sliding. For the sake of
simplicity, it will be assumed that the resistance to sliding is so great that sliding can be
ignored.
vertical linethrough 0 (the center of rocking vibration) is as shown inFigure (2.8).
center of mass of the machine and foundation and the centroid of the base lieon a
It is assumed that the footing is symmetric about the y axis inthe xz plane and the
where Moy is the moment amplitude and ro is the moment freq uency
(2.22)
C onsider block foundation of area A, resting on the ground surface and acted
upon by amoment
2.3.3.1.3. Rocking Vibration of a Block
15
(2.27)
or
(2.26)
Therefore
M mO =massmoment of inertiaof themachineandfoundationabout theaxisof
rotation.
(I ) = angular accelerationof theblock.
where:
(2.25)
The equation of motionabout thecenter of rotation maythenbewritten
inthefollowingform:
whereM y isgivenbyequation(2.22)
(2.24) External moment=M y
3. Externallyappliedmoment (actingintheclockwisedirection):
area
where W isweight of the block, heistheheightof thecentroidabovethecontact
(2.24)
2.M oments due to the displaced position of the center of gravity of the block
(acting inthe clockwise direction):
16
(2.33)
(2.32)
Thenatural frequency(0D", andmaximumangular displacement \II max aregivenby
~ t " J , (ODIjI - --
M mz
M oz 1
\II =--. 2
max c",J z 1- M mzill
cljIJ z
J z =polar moment of inertiaof foundationbasearea
\II =angleof torsionof foundation
(z-axis)
M mz =massmoment of inertiaof themachineandfoundationabout theaxisof rotation
inwhich
(2.31)
(2.9). Theequationof motion is
where"M oz isthemoment amplitudeand(0isthemoment frequency, as showninFigure
(2.30)
If the footing is subjected to yawing under theinfluenceof torsional moment
givenby:
2.3.3.1.4. Yawing Vibration of a Block
(2.29)
Theamplitudeof vibrations
(2.28) ill D<jl =
The natural frequency Oln+ of thesystem isgivenby:
17
or
(2.39)
2- inthe xdirection:
(2.38)
or
(2.37)
All of those loads are acting at the combined center of gravity of the machine and
the block foundation. Itis assumed that centroid of the contact area and the center of
gravity of the machine and foundation lie on one vertical line. The following
displacements of the foundation could be noted:
1- displacement inthe vertical direction z
2- displacement inhorizontal direction at the centroid x
3- displacement inhorizontal direction at the base Xo
4- rotation of the base < j )
The equations of motion can bewritten as follows
1- inthe z direction:
(3.36)
3- Moment:
(3.35) P x (t) =P ox sin rot
2- Horizontal force:
(2.34)
1- Vertical force:
loads:
Figure(2.10) shows a block foundation acted upon by the following oscillatory
2.3.3.1.5. Simultaneous Rocking, Sliding and Vertical Vibrations of a Block
18
or
(2.46)
motioncanberewritteninamoreuseful matrixformasfollowing:
center of gravity, it will undergo both rocking and sliding. The aboveequationsof
interdependent. If a foundation is subjected to horizontal force or moment about its
Equation (2.38) contains terms involving z only. Hence, the motioninthez
direction isindependent of anyother motion. Equations (2.42) and(2.45) containsterms
in both x and cP.Hence, the motions in the x direction and about the y axis are
(2.45)
or
(2.44)
=M O Y sinrot
'--.,-----'
external moment
M m~ -c,A(x-hocP)ho + ccpIcP WhocP
'--<0--' ......._.. ~
inertiamoment momentduetoslidingforces momentduetorocking momentduetoweighteccentricity
passingthroughthecenter of gravityandinthedirectionof theyaxis, hence
M m IS themassmoment of inertiaof themachineandfoundationabout anaxis
inwhich
(2.43)
3- about theyaxis:
(2.42)
hence
(2.41)
The horizontal displacement of the bottom of the block x, isgivenby
x,=x-hA)
(2.40)
19
let
passingthroughthecenter of thecontact area.
where M m o IS them assm om ent of inertiaof them achineandfoundationabout anaxis
(2.53)
knowingthat
(2.52)
thesecondterm m aybewrittenintheform
(2.51)
term of thecharacteristicequationgives
Solution of the characteristicequationgivesthreesolutions(0ln,I, 0ln,2and0ln,3), thefirst
(2.50)
((C uA } - ro; m ] { (C T A )- (J )! m } { (cq: >I+C T A h~ - W ho)- ro! M m} - { cT A hoV ==0
,
natural frequencyduetovertical vibration natun.l : fiequenciesduetorockingandsliding
Bydecom positionof thedeterm inant
(2.49) (cT A )- ro! m - c.A h, =0
- cT A ho (C q: >I+C T A h~ - W ho} - ro! M m
or
(2.48)
detlK - ro!MI ==0
T henatural frequenciescanbefoundbythecharacteristicequation
(2.47) Mii+Ku ==P
20
Itmaybeseenthat thespring-masssystemmodellingpresentedaboveneglectthe
2.3.3.3 Effect of Soil Mass and Damping on the Equation of Motion
deformation is linear) will contain some "inelastic" deformations. Thusthesubgrade
reaction which presents the elastic and plastic deformationsof thesoil, haslessvalue
thantheelasticconstants whichpresent theelasticdeformationof thesoil only.
Both the elastic constants and themodulusof subgradereactionaredefinedas
the contact pressure per unit deflection. Yet the soil behaviour (evenwhentheload-
2.3.3.2 Modulus of Subgrade Reaction versus Elastic Constants
in which 11,12 and 13 are the eigenvectors of equation(2.50) andZl,Z2 andZ3 arethe
responsesof thedifferentmodesof vibrations
(2.57) u="I.z.
.. 1 1
equation
To findtheresponseof theblockto anysystemof dynamicloading, wemayuse
the method of modal superposition, bysolvingfor theeigenvalueprobleminequation
(2.48). The response is given by superposition of responses to each mode by the
(2.56)
Hencethat thesecondandthethirdnatural frequenciesaregivenby
(2.55)
Equation(2.52) canberewrittenas
(2.54)
Mm
--= x C X <1)
MmO
21
Empirical formula (prakash 1981C37)hasbeendevelopedwhichmaybeaccurate
for the limited conditions to which it applies for. The following formulaappliesto
verticallyoscillatingmassesonthesurfaceof sand:
pressuredistributionandthenatureof thedynamicforces.
Prakash (1981)c37 showed that there is a wide range onvaluesof m' which
depend on the type of soil,thesizeandweight of theblock, depthof embedment, the
(2.59) ( 0' =
n
will become
(2.58)
Also the stiffness k isreplacedbyanequivalentstiffnessk', takingintoaccount
the interaction between the vibrating mass and the standing mass of the soil. For
example,theequationfor natural frequencyfor onedegreeof freedom,
A simplified approach to the problem assumes that the mass of the foundation is
increased by an amount such that its effect on the vibration will be approximately that of
real soil. In all equations of motion the mass m of the block isreplaced by m+m',
wherethe m' istheapparent massof thesoil.
mass of the spnng, also the elastic constants determine the reaction of the half space
defining only the interaction between the foundation and the half space and not between
the vibrating mass of both the foundation and the soil and the half space.
22
where
(2.61)
The effective zone is assumed to bethevolumeof thisprism. Themodulusof
elasticity E of the soil within theeffectivezonewill varywiththecharacter of soil. Its
valueisgivenbytheequation
footing, i.e., with uniformly distributed load acting on the surface of theearth. The
vertical component of the pressurefromthefootingisassumedto decreasewithdepth
and to be uniformly distributed over rectangular areas bounded by planes sloping
outward from the footing at ananglewiththevertical, thetangent of whichisaJ2 as
showninFigure(2.11).
constants andapparent mass aredetermined. Thisanalysisassumesaflexiblerectangular
Pauw (1953f36 presentedanapproximateapproachof whichvaluesof thespring
2.3.3.4. Pauw's Method (1953)
Another drawback of this analysis is ignoring the damping in soils in the
equations of motion. Whenthedampingisintroduced, thevibrationswill bemuchlessin
magnitudesotheaboveanalysisyieldsveryconservativedesignsof themachinefootings
G =shear modulusof elasticityof thesoil, inpsi
Poz =maximummagnitudeof dynamicforces, inlb
r, =radiusof thecircular vibrator baseplate, in(in)
y =unitweight of thesoil, inpcf
where:
(2.60)
80y ( Poz) 0.55Gro
wnz =20.735 G1.64- W + W
23
For mixtures of cohesionless and cohesive soils, Eo andJ 3maybeestimated
from field or laboratory tests. A roughideaof theseparameters maybeobtainedfrom
Table(2.3).
depth.
For mixtures of sandandcohesivematerial, thevalueof hcannot bedetermined
directly from the surchargeload, sincetheconfinementmaybeconsideredpartiallydue
to cohesivenessof thesoil.
For a homogeneous pure clay, there may be practically nochangeinE with
(2.65)
If there is surcharge on the surface, suchastheweight of thefoundation, the
equivalent surchargeheightisusedi.e.
h=q/y(beneaththe.footing)
(2.64) h=0at unconfinedsurface(earthsurface)
or
(2.63) Eo=0 at unconfinedsurface(earthsurface)
For cohesionlesssand
(2.62) h=EJ J 3
whereEoisthemodulusof elasticityat thebaseof thefoundation
J 3 isthe rate of increase of E with depth.
h isthe height of anequivalent soil surcharge.
z is depth below surface.
The height h is given by
24
(s=ahIB).
g
is the mass density of the soil.
isthe foundation width.
isthe gravity acceleration (9.81 m/sec').
are factors that can be determined fromFigure (2.13) using the value of
p
B
where
(2.67)
The expression for mass moment of inertia of soil for rotational modes of
vibration is given by
(2.66)
curves are given inFigure (2.12). He also gave amethod to determine the apparent mass
using the curves in Figure (2.13). For translatory modes of vibration the apparent soil
mass (m') is given by
Pauw presented a series of curves to calculate the translational stiffness, these
25
z, isthevertical oscillatorydisplacementof thecircular loadedareacenter.
ill isthecircular frequencyof forceapplication.
Poz istheamplitudeof theappliedforce.
G istheshear modulusof thehalf space.
inwhich
(2.68)
Reissner (1936)C40 used the solutionof theproblemof harmonicallyvibrating
point load acting on an elastic half space(dynamicBoussinesq's problem) whichwas
solved by Lamb(1904)c25.He integratedtheLamb's equation to describethevibration
of thecenter of aflexiblecircular loadedareabythefollowingformula:
2.3.4.2. Vertical Vibration
Inthefollowingsection, abrief discussionfor thismethodof analysisisgivenfor
differentmodes of vibration.
doesnot includethematerial damping andincludestheradiation damping.
The soil is assumed to behomogeneous, isotropicandelastic,anddescribedby
the shear modulus G and Poisson's ratiov:Theoretically,dampingiszero inaperfect
elastic body, however damping is introduced into thesolutionbyradiationof energy
away from the footing through the half spaceof thesoil. Inother words thesolution
2.3.4.1. Introduction
2.3.4. Half Space Modelling of Soil
26
elasticmedium.
1. Permanent displacement during the tests, violated the conditions assumed for an
of fieldmeasurementsdidnot agreewithhisequations. Thereareseveral reasonsfor that
including:
These derivations become the comer stone in the modern work in machine
foundation field.However Reissner'swork wasnot appreciatedinhistimeastheresults
(2.71)
tan(e) =_f b 2(f2 f2)
1 + ao 1 +2
The phase angle (9) between the external forcePz =Poz e(irot) anddisplacementZo was
expressedas:
(2.70)
where b isadimensionlessparameter calledthemassratiowhichisdefinedby:
(2.69)
Reissner gavetheamplitudeof vibration(A z) bytherelation:
whichwerereproducedbyBycroft (1956)
a. is thefrequencyratio =roro.[ t; wherepisthemassdensityof thehalf space
and a dimensionless frequency ratio ao. Figure(2.14) representsthesefunctions,
f1&f2are the Reissner'sdisplacementfunctionswhicharefunctionsof Poisson's ratio
r, is the radius ofthe circular contact area ~lfor non-circular areas
27
Two cases of the exciting force are of concern; first the case of constant
amplitude Poz and the second the case of frequency-dependent amplitude considering a
(2.72)
". - GroA z
The amplitude factor = A =____::;~
Poz
Using Quinlan and Sung approach, Richart et al. (1970)C43introduced arelation
between the frequency ratio and the dimensionless amplitude factor given by:
From the previous Figure, we can conclude that a change from a pressure
distribution corresponding to a rigid base (where most of the reaction is concentrated
near the periphery) to adistribution where the pressure is higher at the center increases
the amplitude of oscillation and reduce the frequency at which maximum amplitude
occurs. Thus, for a given footing-soil system, the shape and position of response curve
can be changed if the pressure distribution on the base of the footing is afunction of
frequency and amplitude of motion. In the theory of elastic spring, the pressure
distribution does not affect the response.
Sung (1953f48 and Quinlan (1953)C38intwo different works, gave solutions for
this problem for different contact pressure profiles. Figure(2. 15) shows the amplitude-
frequency curves corresponding to three pressure distributions for (b=5.0).
of his calculations.
4. There was an error incalculating f2; the matter which influenced the numerical value
available insensitive instruments at his time, which allowed the vibrator to jump clear
of the ground and to act as ahammer.
3. The assumption of uniform distribution of stress was not realistic.
2. The amplitudes of the motion were very large, so they can be measured by the
28
different Poison's ratios.
(2.76)
he also introduced anew displacement function, F which is given by
4
F = --(f) +if2) = FI +iF2
I-v
A plot of Lysmer (1966)C29displacement functions is given inFigure (2.17) for
(2.75)
B =(I - v) . b =(I - v) . ~
z 4 4 pr;
deflection. He was also successful in eliminating the Poisson's ratio in the equations
defining the response by introducing a modified dimensionless mass ratio (Bz) of the
definition:
rings which have uniform pressure but of different magnitude so as to have constant
footing to harmonic exciting force by considering the footing composed of concentric
Lysmer (1965)C28solved the problem of determination of the response of circular
(2.74)
and
(2.73)
equations:
vertical stiffness (kJ and damping (CJ of the system can be given by the following
Hsieh (1962)C19studied the case of weightless rigid circular footing resting on the
elastic half space. This analysis will be discussed later by the name of dynamic impedance
which is the modem trend inanalyzing machine foundations. Hsieh concluded that the
mass ratios.
rotary out of balance mass mewith eccentricity e(Poz =mee(02). Figure (2.16) shows
for the two different cases, the amplitude factor versus the frequency ratio for different
29
He showed that a lumped system analog as shown in Figure (2.20) can be
developed for vertical vibration of a rigid circular footing, which provides close
agreement with the response curves fromthe elastic half space theory inthe frequency
range near resonance where significant amplitudes are developed. The motion equation
for this lumped systemrepresenting the vertical motion the rigid circular footing is:
(2.79)
He used abest fit for the damping term inthe range of (O<ao<l) inthe form
C
- 3.4 2 r a : :
z- -}-rO "up
- v
(2.78)
After studying the variation of the spnng stiffness with the frequency,
Lysmer(196Sf28 concluded that the spring stiffness is independent of the frequency (a.).
He chose the stiffness of spring equal to bethe static value; i.e.,
2.3.4.3. Ana logous Lumped Pa r a meter System for Ver tica l Oscilla tion
is given inFigures(2.18) and (2.19)
A plot of the response curves -based on Lysmer's analysis(1966f29-
corresponding to constant amplitude and frequency-dependent amplitude harmonic force
where M is the magnification factor by which the static response is multiplied to give the
dynamic response.
(2.77)
A =(1-v)Qo . M
Z 4Gro
After these modifications the rigid footing amplitude of vibration Az can be
presented by
30
Thecorrespondingmassratio B, isgivenby
(2.85)
C =18.4(1- v) r2 r : : a
x 7_ 8v 0 vpu
and
(2.84)
32(1- v)
k - Gr
x 7_ 8v 0
Hall (1967f18usedBycroft's analysis(1956f6of slidingvibrationsto developan
analog lumped system, hegivesthefollowingexpressionsfor theequivalentspringand
damping:
2.3.4.4. Sliding Vibration
(2.83)
The above analysishasconsideredcircularfootings. If thefootingisrectangular
in plan, with dimension a x b, the equivalent radius may be determinedfromthe
relationship:
(2.82)
andthedampingratio ~z is
(2.81)
hencethecritical dampingCcz is
C =2~=~4Grom
cz 1-v
(2.80)
3.4 2 ~ 4Gro
mz+--ro vGpz+ 2 Z =Pz(t)
I-v I-v
31
where J z is the polar moment of inertia of body
(2.90)
solutions for the torsion oscillation of a circular footing resting on the surface of an
elastic half space. The mass ratio B\jI is defined as
Reissner (1937)C41 and Reissner and Sagoci (1944)c42 presented analytical
2.3.4.5 Torsional Vibration
(2.89)
r =~axb3
o 31t
following equation
If the footing is not circular, the equivalent radius may be determined fromthe
Figure(2.21) shows the relation between the frequency ratio (a.) and the
magnification factor (MJ which isthe ratio between the static and dynamic response of
the footing.
(2.88)
and the damping ratio (~x) is given by
(2.87)
32m(1- v)
Cex =2 7_ 8v Gr,
and the critical damping Ccx isgiven by
(2.86)
B = 7-8v m
x 32(1- v) pr:
32
and
(2.95)
Hall (1962)C17 proposed the following formulae for the spring stiffness and
dampingcoefficientbasedonBycroft analysis,where:
whereIIjIisthemomentof inertiaabout theaxisof rotation at thecontact area
(2.94)
3(1- v) I
B Ij> = . 3
8 Gro
The analytical solution to this problem waspresentedbyBycroft (1956)c6,he
usedthefollowingformulafor themassratio
2.3.4.6. Rocking Vibration
(2.93)
relation,
If the footingisrectangular (axb) theequivalentradiusisgivenbythefollowing
(2.92)
0.5
~\jI =1+2B
\jI
and
(2.91)
factor ~1jI for torsional vibrationasfollows:
Richart, Hall and Woods (1970)C43 defined the spring constant k", and damping
33
The horizontal force at thebaseof thefootingisexpressedinterms of thisbase
displacementandvelocityas
(2.99)
In order to form the equation of motionfromwhichtheamplitudesof motionandthe
resonance frequenciescanbecalculated, it wasfounduseful to describethetranslationof
thebaseof foundationas showninFigure(2.22) bytheequation
Hall (1967)C18studiedthecaseof combinedrockingandslidingfor arigidblock.
2.3.4.7. Coupled Rocking and Sliding
Thevaluesof 11+aregivenintheTable(2.4)
(2.98)
solution heusedagreater massof ratio (B~.etT) that dependsontheoriginal one(B~). The
followingequationrelatesthemassratios
determining the resonance frequency, soinorder to forcehissolutionto thehalf-space
Hall (1962)C17found a bias between the half-space solutionandhisanalogin
(2.97)
hence, thedampingratio isgivenby
(2.96)
34
Equations (2.103) and (2.105) are the governing differential equations for the
motion. From the previous analysis, solution can be obtained by describing the forcing
function as a function of time and solving these equations by methods used to decouple
themto different modes.
(2.105)
or
(2.104)
The equation of motion for rotation about the center of gravity is given by
(2.103)
or
(2.102)
Thus equation of motion for horizontal translation of center of gravity is given by
(2.101)
The resisting moment to rocking of the foundation is given by
(2.100)
35
Warburton (1957)C51 presented asolutionfor b>0 inwhichtheamplitudeof
motion at vibration isfinitebut is greater than thesolution of the elastic half space.
A stiff stratumwill alsoreflect aconsiderableportionof theenergy that wouldordinarily
be radiated away from the foundation, thus producing a lower geometricdamping.
Bycroft (1956)c6 considered the case of vertical vibration of a rigidcircular
footing resting on elastic layer bounded by a rigid rock interface and extending
horizontally to infinity with b=O.Hehasfoundthat theamplitudeof motionbecomes
infiniteat resonancewhichcorrespondsto theresonanceof thelayer itself
2.3.4.9 Effect of Rock Interface
Elzarka (1991f13 consideredtheeffectof thesidecontact of thefootingwiththe
surrounding soil. He concluded that the side contact of thefootingwiththesoil will
decrease the -dynamic response of thefooting dueto the'increaseinthespringstiffness
andtheradiationdampingasinFigure(2.25).
Lysmer and Kuhlemeyer (1969f30 studied the effect of theembedmentonthe
dynamic response of a circular rigidblockfoundationusingthefiniteelementmethod
with the use of a special adsorbing boundary to simulate the half-space radiation
damping. The resultsof their researchshowedthat theradiationdampingincreaseswith
theincreaseinembedmentas showninFigure(2.24).
Kaldjian (1969)c22studied theeffectof embedmentonthestatic springstiffness
in vertical loading of rigidcircular plate. Figure(2.23) showstheincreaseof thevertical
springstiffnesswiththeincreaseof depthof embedment.
2.3.4.8 Effect of Embedment of Foundation
36
These methods give a better idea than the mass-spring modeling about the
geometric radiation of energy (geometric damping) andtheeffect of thedepthof rock
interface. Yet the inability to introduce the material damping, theanisotropyof most
clays maylimitthevalidityof thisanalysis.Alsotheinabilityto introducetheproblemof
multi-layersystemhasbeenalsoadeficiencyinthismethodof analysis
2.3.4.11. Advantage and Disadvantages of Half-Space Modeling
Model tests carriedbyChae(1969f7 oncircular, squareandrectanglefootings,
showedthat theequationsfor equivalentcircular footings (2.83,2.89 and2.93) arevalid
for determining the resonance frequency but they overestimate the amplitudeof the
frequency.
2.3.4.10. Effect of Foundation Shape
The large magnification factors presented in the Table arenot asbadasthey
appear; becausetheyamplifyastaticdisplacementwhichisreduced inmagnitude asthe
layerthicknessdecreases.
Table(2.5) shows the relation between the magnification factor M which is ratio between
the dynamic and the static response and the ratio between the depth of rock interface H
and the radius r0
37
D
(2.107)
Bytransformingof theforcingfunctionintothefrequencydomain, i.e.
(2.106)
The equationof motiondescribingthevertical vibrationof arigidfootingresting
onspring-dashpot support presentingthehalf space~isgivenby
2.3.5.2 The Impedance Functions Concept
A)Analytical solutionsbasedonintegral transformtechniques.
B)Semi-analyticalformulationrequiringdiscretizationof onlythetop surface.
C)Dynamicfiniteelementmethodsusingspecial "wave-transmitting" lateral boundary.
Thepresent availabletechniquesto evaluatetheseimpedancefunctionsare:
interaction problems, require the determination of the dynamic impedancefunctions
associated withmasslessrigidfoundation. Extensivereviewsof thesedevelopmentshave
been presented by Lysmer (1978f31, Novak et al. (1978f35, Roesset (1980)C44,Luco
(1982)c27, Gazetas and Dobry (1983f14, Gazetas et al,(1984)ClS and(1987f16 and
DobryandGazetas (1985 f9 and(1986)CIO.
Current methods of dynamic analysis of soil-foundation and soil structure
2.3.5.1 Introduction
2.3.5. Impedance Functions Method
38
(2.111)
R Reirot
K = - = z = K +iroC
z U u +iu z
1 2
So thedynamicvertical stiffnessor dynamicimpedancecanbecalculatedby
(2.110)
TheresponseUwill beof two parts (i.e. real andimaginaryparts), hence
(2.109)
RgivenBy
Consideringamasslessrigidfooting, acteduponbyavertical harmonicexcitation
2.3.5.3 Using Impedance Functions to Solve for The Vibration of Rigid
Footings
Then, the inverse transform is usedto get thetimehistoryof themotion. Thismethod
can be used for any kindof forceexcitationnot onlytheperiodicforcesasinthehalf-
space models. The impedance functions for an arbitrary shaped footing(takinginto
consideration the soil layeringandthefootingembedment) canbeobtainedfromDobry
andGazetas (1986flO.
(2.108)
frequencydependent, theequationof motioninthefrequencydomain
and replacing the two resistance terms (Cz z +k, z) by single term (Kz) whichis
39
Although thepreviousmethods of analysisareattractivebecauseof their physical
interpretations, many situations have been agreat difficultyto beanalyzed.Numerical
solution to the variable field problem of continua has always been a blessing for
engineers. One of the most usable methods isthefiniteelementmethod. It isusedto
convert the field governing partial differential equationsof thecontinuumintoaset of
linear algebraic equationsor aset of ordinarydifferential equationswhicharemoreeasy
tobesolved.
2.3.6 Finite Elements as a Numerical Method of Analysis
2.3.6.1 Introduction
Dobry andGazetas (1986)CIOgavecompletetablesandfiguresfor theimpedance
functions versus the frequency ratio ao asshowninTable(2.6) andFigure(2.26) for
surface footings. Other cases(i.e., embeddedfootings, definiterock interface, etc.,) can
befoundinthereference
K x
0 0 0
K x z y
0
0
K y 0 K y r x
0 0
K(ro) =
0 0 K z 0 0 0
0 K y r x 0
K r x
0 0
(2.112)
K x z y 0 0 0
K t y 0
0 0 0 0 0 x.,
Generally there are eight different impedance functions and they are function of
the frequency. The general formof these functions isgiven inthe matrix form as
40
The choice of mesh size is a frequency dependent. Lysmer and Kulemeyer
(1969f30 have found that the dimension of the element in the direction of wave
propagation has a major influenceonthefrequencyof motionsthat canbetransmitted,
with large element being unable to transmit motions with high frequencies and
correspondingly short wavelength. They proposed that the required mesh size for
effective transmission of any motionshouldnot bemorethanonequarter or preferably
one eighth of thewavelengthof themotion; i.e,. increasingthefrequencywill decrease
Problems defined in theinfinitedomainsmaybeapproximatedbyextendingthe
finite element mesh to afar distancewheretheinfluenceof thesurroundingmediumon
the region of interest is considered small enough to beneglected. Thismaybedone
through experimentation withboundary of theassumedproblemandassumedboundary
conditions at thetruncated edgesof themesh, andthisisnot alwaysreliable;becausethe
boundary of the meshmayreflect energyback intoregionbeingmodeledthusreducing
thegeometric damping.
2.3.6.2 Effect of the Assumed Boundaries and Mesh Size
The fact that one can assign different element with different properties, and
without approximately restriction on the element shape and boundary, makes the finite
element the most popular numerical method used in solving engineering problems. A
complete formulation of finite element with emphasis on the three dimensional 8-node
brick element is given in chapter(3)
The continuity of the field variables is achieved though interpolation polynomials
defined in a piece-wise form; i.e. over subdomains called "finite elements" , these
subdomains will be mapped to a more simple geometry to ease the definition of the
interpolation functions.
41
The propagation of vibration in various media is customarilyknownaswave
process. In physics, theterm"wave" refersto atimevariationof maximaandminimaof
any physical quantity, suchasmatter density, electricfield, strength, temperatureandthe
like. In our case the wave processes are associated with mechanical vibration i.e..
propagation of vibration in aspaceat finitevelocity.Thereareseveral types of earth
waves. Theyaredividedto two categories:
1- Bodywavesinwhichthewavespropagatethroughtheinterior of theearthmass.
2- Surfacewavesinwhichwavespropagatenear or alongthesurfaceof thesoil mass.
2.4.2.1 Types of Earth Waves
2.4.2 Earth Waves
Machine foundationsact assourcesof vibrationinthehalf space. Suchvibration
will propagate through body and surface waves to adjacent foundations, structures,
people etc.. and may have harmful effects. Itisdesiredinmanycasesto reducethese
unfavourite effects throughmachinefoundationisolation. Inthissectionareviewof the
methodsusedinmachinefoundationisolationispresented.
2.4.1 Introduction
2.4 REDUCING MACHINE FOUNDATION INTERACTION
the mesh size, but fortunately the overall dimensions of the mesh are allowed to be
reduced. One may often use small elements near the foundation with the element
dimension gradually increasing away fromthe foundation.
42
The two waves representing differenttypesof bodymotions, travel at different
velocities. The P wave travels faster than the S waveasshowninFigure(2.29). The
(2.114) .
v.=~
oscillate perpendicular to the direction of propagation as in Figure (2.28), just asa
transverse wave passing down a rod which has beenstruck ontheendinadirection
perpendicular to itsaxis. TheSwavevelocity vs isgivenby
The transverse wave iscalledtheSwavefor secondary or shearwave. Particles
pisthesoil density
where
E(I- v) . . .
E, =(1+v)(I- 2v) IS thebulkmodulusof elasticity
(2.113)
E(I-v) ~
vp = p(l+v)(1-2v) =Vp
by:
of compression and dilation as shown inFigure (2.27). The P wave velocity vpis given
propagation of the waves, just as a compression wave passing down arod which has
been struck on the end inthe direction of its axis. Each wave consists of alternate zones
push, dilatation or compression wave. This type of waves oscillates inthe direction of
Body waves propagate longitudinally causing normal stresses or transversely
causing shear stresses. The longitudinal wave is called the P wave for primary wave, the
2.4.2.1.1. Body Waves
43
The Lovewaveissimilarinformto thepreviousdescribedshear, or Swave. The
particle moves in a path parallel to the surfaceandat right anglesto thedirectionof
travel of the waves as shown inFigure(2.31). Theeffect of thewaveisconfinedto a
relativelyshallowzonenear thesurface.
The Rayleigh wave is similar to a wave on water, except for thedirectionof
movement of soil particle. In Rayleigh waves, a given particle of earthmovesinan
elliptical path with the long axis perpendicular to the surface this pathiscalledthe
retrograde ellipse, and its directionof rotationis suchthat theparticlemovestowards
the source of disturbance when it is at the top of its elliptical path as shownin
Figure(2.30). Crests and valleys exist as the wavemovesalong, similarto awaveon
water. The number of creststhat passagivenpoint per secondisameasureof thewave
frequencyandthedistancebetweenadjacent crestsisthewavelength.
The surface waves of most interest arecalledtheRayleighwaveandtheLove
wave. Two other wavescalledthecoupledwaveandthehydrodynamicwavehavebeen
found to exist inthevicinityof dynamiteblasts, but rapidlydieout astheyproceedfrom
the source. The RayleighwaveandtheLovewavearetheonlysurfacewaves of major
importanceto theengineer.
2.4.2.1.2 Surface Waves
measurement of thevelocityofa compressionwaveinwater-saturated soilswill not bea
representativevelocityfor soils, but for water.
Table (2.7) lists the velocityof wavepropagationincompressionandshear for
differentmaterials
44
Machine foundationgenerateswavesinthesoil half space. Consideringacircular
footing resting on the surface of an elastic half spaceandhasavertical vibrationas
shown in Figure(2.33), the energyof thevibratingfoundationistransmittedawaybya
combination of P, S andRwaves. Thebodywaves(P andSwaves) propagateradially
outward from the source along hemisphere wave front, and theR wavepropagates
radially along a cylindrical wavefront. All of thewaveenergiesdecreaseinintensityas
they move away fromthe source due to thegeometrical damping. Woods (1968)cS4
2.4.2.1 Waves Generated by a Surface Footing
The time interval between wave arrival becomes greater and amplitude of
oscillation becomes smaller withincreasingdistancefromthesource. Inaddition, theP
wave andtheSwaveamplitudedecaysmorerapidlythanof anR wave. ThereforetheR
waveisthemost significantdisturbancealongthesurfaceof elastichalf space.
The particle at thesurfacefirstundergoes anoscillatorylateral displacementon
the arrival of the P wave, followed by arelativelyquiet periodleadingupto another
oscillation at the arrival of theSwave. Thisisfollowedbyanoscillationof muchlarger
magnitudewhentheR wavearrives.
If a point source acts at the surface of anelastichalf space, thedisturbance
spreads out assymmetricannularwaves. Theinitial formof thesewaveswill dependon
the input impulse; if theinput isof short duration, thenthecharacteristicwaveswill beas
shown inFigure(2.32) inwhichthehorizontal andvertical component of particlemotion
are indicated (Richart et aI., 1970c43). These waves have three salientfeaturesthat
correspondto thearrival of P wave, SwaveandR wave.
2.4.2.1.3 Particle Motion at the Surface
45
Machine foundation may cause distress to other machinery and structures
through transmission of energy associated with propagatingwaves. Thisproblemhas
been examined in two parts, the first part throughusingavibrationabsorber madeof
2.4.4 Machine Foundation Isolation
Kumar et al. (1986)C24 had shown the effect of spacing on interaction of
dynamically loadedfootingusinganexperimental model of two footingsrestingonclean
dry sand. Warburton (1971f51 studiedtheproblemof two periodicallyexcitedmasses
with circular bases attached to the surfaceof anelastichalf space. Other studieswere
performed by Kobori et al (1973)C23andLuco (1973f73 but thesestudiesconcentrated
on the geometric spacing and the damping ratio for an active (dynamicallyloaded)
footing near passive (dynamically unloaded) footing near theresonanceof theloaded
footingfrequency.
2.4.3. Interaction of Machine Foundations
Miller and Pursey (1954f33 determinedthedistributionof total input energyof
the vertically oscillated circular energy source, it was foundthat 67% of total energyis
transmitted by theR wave while26% and7% aretransmittedbytheSandtheP waves
respectively. The fact that two-thirds of thetotal input energyistransmittedbytheR
wave, whichdecaysmuchmoreslowlywithdistancethanthebodywaves, indicatesthat
theR waveisof mainconcernfor foundationonor near thesurfaceof theground.
found that the amplitude of the body waves decreases in proportional to the ratio lIr,
where r is the distance from the input source. However, along the surface of the half
space, the amplitude decreases as l/r2. Theamplitudeof theR wavesdecreases as I/Jr.
46
Neumeur (1963)c34reported on the use of bentonite slurry filledtrenchesto
isolate a printing plant in Berlin from vibration caused by underground trains. The
trencheswerefoundsuccessful withefficiencyratedas 50%.
Barkan (1962f4 recommendedfor effectiveisolationthat thedepthof thetrench
shouldbeat least onethirdof thewavelengthof vibrationswhichcanbeestimatedusing
Table(2.28) for theR-waves.
The amplitude reduction factor is definedastheratioof amplitudeafter trench
installation to amplitude before trench installation. Iftheamplitudereductionfactor is
0.25 or less, thetrenchisconsideredeffective.It maybenotedthat althoughtheactive
trenches reduce the amplitude away from the foundation, they may increase the
amplitudeof vibrationintheother side.
The use of trenches has been investigate by Richart et al. (1970f43. He divided
this type of vibration isolation into active isolation (isolation at the source) as In
Figure(2.35) andpassiveisolation(isolationat adistance) asinFigure(2.36).
Elsalamony (1993f12 considered the replacement of soil to decrease the dynamic
response of the footing. Figure(2.34) shows the relation between the ratio of the
replacement soil's modulus of elasticity and the original soil's modulus of elasticity
versus the magnification factor at resonance. The figure shows that, about 10%
reduction in the response can be achieved using replacement with ten times greater
modulus of elasticity than the original soil.
steel springs, rubber or cork and, the second part through using of vibration barriers such
as trenches.
47
Elzarka (1991)C13studied the active isolation of circular foundations. He
concluded that at high frequencies, the vibrations near the machine as well as the
vibrations beyond thetrenchbyincreasingthedepthof thetrenchdecrease, as shownin
Figure(2.37).
Woods (1968f54 after studying the effectiveness of some trench designs,
recommended that the depth of trenchmustbeat least 0.6timestheR wavelengthfor
effective activeisolationand 1.33timesR wavelengthfor effectivepassiveisolation. He
gavethewavelengthofR wavefor differentfrequenciesasshowninTable(2.8).
Dolling (1965)Cl1showed experimentally that the requireddepthof trenchfor
effectiveisolationshouldbeequal to thelengthof thepropagatingwave.
48
Table (2.2) Tentative values of c; (After Barkan 1962)
Tentativevalueof
Descriptionof soil allowableloadonsoil Cu
<Kg / em")
(Kg / em')

Grayplastic siltyclaywithsandandorganic silt. 1 . 0 1 . 4

Brownsaturated siltyclaywith sand. 1.5 2 . 0

Densesilty claywithsomesand (aboveground Upto5 10.7


water table).

Mediummoist sand 2 2 . 0

Dry sand withgravel. 2 2 . 0

Finesaturated sand. 2 . 5 3 . 0 - 3 . 5

Mediumsand 2 . 5 3 . 1

Grayfinedensesaturatedsand 2 . 5 3 . 4

Loesswith natural moisturecontent 3 4 . 5

Moist loessial soil 3 4 . 7


Aspect Ratio Cs (Rigid) Averagevalueof Cs
(Flexible)
1 1 . 0 6 1 . 0 8
2 1 . 0 9 1 . 1 0
3 1.13 1 . 1 5
5 1 . 2 2 1 . 2 4
t
10 1 . 4 1 1 . 4 1
I M
Table (2.1) Numerical values of c, (After Barkan, 1962)
49
supported by an elastic layer of height H. (After Warburton, 1957)
H Themagnification factor M
-
r o
b=O b=5 b=10 b=20 b=30
1 00 5.8 11.4 20.5 28.9
2 00 8.0 16.1 30.6 40.8
3 00 4.7 9.5 23.7 36.0
4 ao 3.4 5.9 15.6 27.9
00 1 1.21 1.6 2.22 2.72
Table (2.5) Magnification factors for vertical vibration of a rigid circularfooting
Table (2.4) 7 J t f t values (After Hall 1962)
B+
0.2 0.5 0.8 1.0 2.0 3.0 5.0
11+
1.600 1.378 1.251 1.219 1.143 l.BO 1.079
Type of soil Eo , psi J 3 , psi/ft
Densesandandgravel 0 3000-5000
Densesand 0 1750-2500
Loose sand 0 300-600
Loosesiltysand 100 250-500
Densesiltysand 300 1000-2000
Clay, semisolid 800-1500 50-100
Clay, stiffplastic 400-800 50-100
Clay, weak plastic 200-400 50-100
Table(2.3) Pauw's constants
s
r
III
. . . . . .
-. I
50
Table (2.6) Stiffness and damping coefficients for the impedancefunctions.
For graph refer to Figure (2.26) (After Dobry and Gazetas, 1986)
iQ
c
o
. ~
o
I-
------
. . . : c :
~ Q) . 2
c. ciQ-
a= s s
.~ .S: ; .~
o~--o
J:
+
M
r--
- . J e , ' " " ~I~
c. . : > I II
N. . . . > -<
II . ;
" ' < ~ . ~
II
r----1
on
e
"...-.,_
- . J 1 C l : l
' -. -/
M
L-. J
II)
~. .
0'"
--
' 0
< II
I
C
o < II
. ;: ' x
~< U
c~
:J :::..
o~
_>c
Q) Q)
-;;
' 0 - 0
CIl C
._ :J
1: : 0
Ql . . . .
. S CIl
- Q,)
o y
.... OJ
c : ' t :
II) :J
E < II
0 -
E al
CIl-
Q) c :
. . . . 0
OJ o
g
o
"...-.,_
- . J 1 C l : l
' -. -/
o 0
~ Jl
M N
d d
10 I 0 I
q-,_ LO.-
dII dII
V ~ II ~
,.. 4C ,.. 4C
. . . . _ _ _ _ _ . _ . ,
, . . . . . -. . . . . ,
C l : l 1 - . J
10
d
+
0::-
N
'----'"
II)
N
<:)
,..-....
- . J 1 C l : l
'----'"
II)
r:,
~
II
o
~
N
d
I
II
N I
d~
d
I
. .
-..:,
II
-..:,'
- . J ' ' ' "
c. . : > I
NN
II
-..:,'"
51
Frequency, Hz Wave length , ft Velocity , ft/s
200 2.25 450
250 1. 68 420
300 1. 38 415
350 1. 10 385
Table (2.8) Wave length and wave velocityfor the R wave at afield site
( After Woods, 1968.)
* This value is close to the velocity of wave propagation in water
Table (2.7) Velocities of compression waves and shear waves (After Barkan 1962)
Soil
p,kg x s2/cm4
vpmls v.mls
Moist clay
1. 80 x 10- 6
1500* 150
Loessat natural moisture
1. 67 x 10- 6
800 260
Densesand and gravel
1. 70 x 10- 6
480 250
Fine-grained sand
1. 65 x 10- 6
300 110
Medium-grained sand
1. 65 x 10- 6
550 160
Medium-sized gravel
1. 80 x 10- 6
750 180
52
Frequency (Hz)
Figure(2.2) Limiting amplitudes of vibrationsfor a particular
frequency. (After Richart, 1970)
10000 1000
0.0001
100
0.01
c D
"0
::J
:!::
a.
E
ttl
"E
Q)
E
Q)
~ 0.001
a.
C/)
zs
-
c
-= -
0.1
Figure(2.1) Degrees of freedom of a blockfoundation
Vertic al
53
Figure(2.5} Equivalent shear modulus and material damping
/
Strain
w
_ . L ( - ,
1
Stress
Figure (2.4) Bilinear idealizationfor hysteresis loop
Stress
Strain
Figure(2.3} Hysteric loopJor soil under cyclic loading
Stress
54
~
x
Figure(2. 7) Pure sliding vibration
", "" "', "'", "'I' .""""""", """"" """", r t ' "
x
p
< x )
zL i
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
Figure(2. 6) A blockfooting undergoing a vertical vibration (a) Block resting at depth
Df (b) Block resting on surface of ground, (c) Soil replaced by equivalent
spring kz and (d) Equivalent spring-mass systemfor analysis
(d)
(c)
z
k
m
x
(a)
p
z
p
z
55
Figure (2.9) A blockfoundation undergoing yawing vibration
Figure(2.8) Rocking vibration of the blockfoundation
x
v
/1
v
/1
PclynamiC
r m n T I m I I I I
-~
a
o
C.G. : 110 < I > ; '
~
,
,
i.~i, f
, f
,
,
/ : - - . j
/ ...._ ....._ _ i
z
56
Figure(2. 11) Pauw's assumptions
E(z)=P (h+z) z
Cohesion/ess Soil
1
h
E(z)=E z
Cohesive Soil
j .. _z
"",_
.'....
Surface load q
Figure(2. J 0) A blockfoundation under the action of simultaneous oscillatory
vertical and horizontal forces and moment
z
57
K:. =Ea.By.
Ax II::: Ga.By:
KJ =Ga.By;
K]:. =Ea.B'yox
Kx:: =Ea.BsY6y
Kx_\' ='Ga.B' (YOx +Yey)
E
G =2(1+v)
Ccl
(b) Y6,
,
5 . 0 2. 0 0.5 1.0
T i '
0.1 0.2
20
10
I
!~
11/
1 7 '
l~_
. +
I
I-~- ---
IT
r o ; : ,
,
I
,
r . x
I
l"-
I
I
I
r
I/!I
r- ;
r ty _
H-
I ' I r ": r
. . . . . . .
.1
.,....
1 / ~ I
:
"
I I
I I
f I I
2
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Yal'
"
.L !_ Yex
'\
-
,
I
\\\\ \"
- t-
r
\\\
\:
~ Y & j
~
-.
I- -
._
~
.... --- ..... _-
~
_.
w. . . . . . r
J
"\
~
",
........
'"
. . . .....
- ,
~
r -,t'-...
. . . . . .
. _
t........
<,
t:'::
~
~
<,
.....
1=
- - ,
I'"- ~ f=2
<,
~ ~ ~
r=!
,=~
. . . . . . .
. . . . . . .
-.. 4
. . . . .
=~
Figure(2.12 ) Equivalent soil spring constantsfor horizontal contact surface
(a),(b)for cohesionless soils, (c)for cohesive soil(After Pauw, 1953)
[r o tatio nabo ut x axis]
[r o tatio nabo ut _y axis]
[r o tatio nabo ut z axis]
K t: - ==~ B'-y t:
s == (5'Blyt:
K] =P'Bly,c
~'=fJ / [ 2 (I +v)]
< . ,
5 o
1
~
,\\ \
,\ \
xx
1---
\\\0
r- ,
---
. _
\'\.
~"""
-
\
~'"
0
. . . . . . _:"'" 1
-
,""'-
~"
:tf :i
'"
<,
f - -
<,
,. . ~
< t
I--
~
O- f - -
"'I~ 5
II
...
0 . 2
0.5
1.0
;I~
20
I,
V)
5 . 0
0 . 2
0 . 5
1.0
~I~
II
2. 0
V)
50
58
Figure (2.13) Apparent massfactors for horizontal contact surface
(a) Cohesionless soil (i) Transition modes (ii) to (iv) Rotary modes about x,y,z axes
(b) Cohesive Soils (rotary modes ( After Pauw, 1953.)
(b)
c;
(IV)
(a)
05 1.0
c~
(r J+r)
o
1,5
, 5
5.0
0.5
;1t x : l 1O
Jl 2.0
1i\~
.,5 _P85 Z
,\'~\ . oz"
12 911.
C i
"
.....
--
~
l ~
r\~
-,
- -~I-I- -
\
~
'\ -,
r: 2
02
(II)
o 0.1 0.20,30,40'50.60.70,809
5.0
I
1.0
-; III
II 2.0
II)
0,5
~
.51 pB ' " J(
~~
=-c
,'~
Ox 12g'" I
"
1-r---
f--
,. . . .
f--
~
~
. - I-
-
,,\,
-
"\'~
'-['\.'-...
,,--...; :
'-
r
-1....: ...1~
; S: -.; ",
0.2
(III)
1,0
o
5.0
~Ifil ' .0
" 2.0
III
0.5
I\\~
,
< b S _ pB 5 G Y
\ \\
I
T
-i CY - 129'" j
-
l i-
~
-~
,~
-
~++1-
I ' \N
. "
<,
; ; I I
I
\. . " - . . ; . 1 I
\cl I;: :
. ,,
'\I
"-
"
r~ 2
-
'11
0. 1
(I)
5 6
o
234 o
5.0
1.0
~11l l
.. 2.0
U
II)
0.5
\1
I pB)
_ ]
mS=-Cm
-- g.
--
f---
~
r--- -- -- --
"
~
,~
~
--.....~
,=
0. 2
_ _ _ _ _ _ ---
59
Figure(2. 15) Effect of pressure distribution and Poisson's ratio on response
curvesfor vertical vibration of a circularfooting. (After Richart et al., 1970)
1.6 1.4 1.2 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2
oL _ ~- - _ L - - _ L - - ~~==========~
o
P=mem'
. .
0.2
-
- ~....-.
Rigid
b=5
E
"0.6
0.4
1.2
GI
.
E 0.8 I!! , ,
1.6 1.4 1.2 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2
oL - ~~~l _ - - ~- - ~- - ~==~======~
o
0.5
Figure (2.14) Reissner displacementfunctions. (After Bycrojt, 1956)
1.5 1 0.5
o
o
o
0.25
0.5
..
C
GI
C
~ 0.1
o
o
!
~N

.................................... , ,.......................................................... 0.2 .


u
0.3 ,---------,------------,.....----------,
60
80
Figure(2.16) Amplitude versusfrequency relationsfor vertical oscillations of a rigid
circularfooting on an elastic half-space (v =1/3) (After Richart et al., 1970)
1. 5 1 0. 5
P =constant
oz

!
0. 8
: 1.
0. 7
. . . ;>
N
0
C)
D. .
0. 6
II
. . .
0
0. 5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . . . . . . .
. . . .
e
ca
LL
cu
0. 4
~
: : : s
:t::
-a
0. 3
E
<C
II)
II)
0. 2
. . . _ _ . _ _ . . . . .
. . . .
II)
C
. 2
II)
0. 1
c
II)
E
s
0
0
1 1. 5 0. 5
b=5
2 . n
2. 5
II
. . .
S
u
ca
LL
II)
~
: : : s
:t::
-a
E
1. 5
<C
3
: 1. <II 3. 5
D
E E
i
t~
. .
I I
2
P =m e (1)
oz

!
!
4
61
80
Figure(2. 18) Response of a rigid circularfooting to aforce of constant
amplitude excitation (After Lysmer and Richart, 1966)
2 1.5 1 0.5
-------------------------.-;- .. ------- ... -------------------------------r -_._.-._-- ..... -----------------
P = constant
oz
3
.
f
Figure(2. 17) Lysmer displacement functions versus Poisson's ratio andfrequency ratio
(After Lysmer and Richart, 1966)
1.5 1 0.5
o
o
o
0.5
0.25
o
I,L-
-
c
~ 0.4
GI
Q.
E
o
u0.2
. 0.25
I,L 0.6
I ...
0.5
1
0.8 .
\)
1
62
Figure (2.21) Sliding response of a rigid circularfooting on elastic half space
(After Hall, 1967)
a.
1.5 0.5
4 . - - - - - - - - - ~- - - - - - - - - - ~- - - - - - - - - - _,
Lumped system
Figure(2.20) Equivalent Lumped system to halfspace (After Lysmer, 1965)
Half space G, p, u
Figure(2.19) Response of a rigid circularfooting to verticalforce developed by
frequency dependent amplitude force excitation
(After Lysmer and Richart, 1966)
4
3.5
t~
~I ~.
E E
3
2
II
P .,.=m.. <II
..
B
2.5
u
III
u..
GI
"a
:a
1.5
E
o c t
fit
fit
GI
C
0
iii
c
GI
E
0
0.5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
a.
63
O/ro
Figure (2.24)Effect of embedment on the damping coefficient
(After Lysmer and Kuhlemeyer, 1969)
C/C
2
p
orb-
2.5 ,.--------,-------,-----------,
Figure (2.23) Effect of embedment on the spring stiffness
(After Kaldjian, 1969)
Depth to Radius Ratio (D/r.)
1 I l 1.6
{!
iil 1.5
{i
~1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1 ~~--~--~--~--~--~--~--~~
o 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6
Figure (2.22) Notationfor rocking and sliding mode of vibration
tv b
m

t
.
,
..
, .
z~
64
~- - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~~- - -
Figure (2.25) Effect of embedment ratiofor a circularfooting with (Bz=5.0)
(After Elzarka., 1991)
3 . 0 2 . 6 0.5 1.0 1.6 2.0
Di me ns i o nl e s s f r e que nc y
o .
0 . 0
c
~1.
.....
D
Cl
- 1.
e:
CD
a
:::E: O.
L-
a
. . . . .
~2.
-
2 .
0
5
~
I ; )
.Z5r 2r .25r
(~
H H
0
I
"
\
I
~
'J .~ ....
~
5
"
;4/
\\ . . .
V'
\\ o d / r = D. O O
\
w\:\
6 d / r = O . 2 5
6
'.
~~
o d / r = O . 7 5
0
I ~
lC d/r=l .50
3 .
o .
0 . 0
c:
a
-I .
.....
D
Cl
- 1.
e:
CD
o
:::E O.
L-
a
. . . . .
~ 2.
-
2 .
3 . 0 2 . 6
0.6 r.o 1.6. C.O
Di me ns i o nl e s s f r e que nc y
0
5
~
!\
' 2r I
0
j , .A ..
. ~
. .
5
p:
\
j.: .0.
11/
I
. . .
I
" - 1
u. . . . . . . lC~
<~
o d / r = O . O O
)c.
', \
t. d / r = O . 2 5
6
. . .
r
, ~
I
I I
o d / r = O . 7 5
01
lC d/r=I .50
3 .
65
~-'------
------
Figure(2.26) Determination of the spring stiffness and damping coefficient
for the impedancefunctions (After Dobry and Gazetas, 1986)
9
ROCKINt. 1",
1
"e
Q.= -v.-
5
SWAVIHG 1.,
o
,
J ,
0 .) '=-0 .........,o.s:l :-.o......J ,'--'-_ ,,:':-.s~~
Q.
l IB
SWAYING Iy 1
10
l iB, _
~)-

f . n . ,~ft
~Oh"''Q!rtd10. '
I"'" 0.'>0 I
66
0.5 0.4 0.1
o
o 0.2 0.3
Poisson's Ratio
Figure(2.29) Relation between Poisson's ratio v and velocity of propagation of
compression (P) ,shear (S) and Rayleigh (R) waves in a semi-infinite elastic medium.
(After Richart, 1962)
1
iR-Waves
3 -- .. - - 7 - - - - -.- -.- ...; - -.- - .; -.-.- -.- ; - .
U)
~
....
o
U) 2 -.-.- - + .. -.- - -.-.-.- : - .
~ p_Wa'leS-------
~ $-Waves
4 .-.--- 1..----.--.-_ __ _ _--i - - - ~ - --. _ _ _ -_.
5
Figure(2.28) Shear, secondary or Swaves
:<:- IDirection of propagation
& ; : ! i g ) - - . . ~ , Path of motion of
~l ~........... a particle
.!' "V .. ... ....
~'fI .: ~.... ~.... Relativepositions
"'~-...?' of soccessweparticles
~ .. alongthe pathof propagation
\Initial displacement
Figure(2.27) Compression, longitudinal, push or P waves
I
Direction of motion
Oense-~ 1)f a particle
=e.
. ~
~ Wavelength
~
.~
Source~
67
Figure (2.31) Body and surface waves
Source of vibrations
~PW~
Figure(2.30) Rayleigh wave, (a)-(g) Simultaneous positions of different individual
particles each of which is moving in all elliptical path as shownfor a.
Direction of
wave travel
r-wave len~h L If!
~ .........
68
Figure(2.33) Distribution of displacement wavesfrom a circular
footing on a homogenous, isotropic, elastic half-space (After Woods, 1968)
Relative
amplitu~
r 0,5
,_- -
Circular footin9
t
-. _- -__
--~-----.
--- ------. _------
Figure (2. 32) Wave systemfrom point source in an ideal medium.
(After Richart, Hall and Woods, 1970)
[b]
V@rticalparticle motion
la'
Horizontal particle motion
S w . . . ,. . R WIN.
69
__- .----_ ..
_._-_._-
Figure(2.35) Vibration isolation using a circular trench surround
the source of vibration - active isolation (After Richart et aI., 1970)
D
Circular, open trench of
radiusR.andDepth D
Oscillating Force
Amplitude of surface
displacement
------
-------
Figure(2.34) Effect of soil replacement
(After Elsalamony, 1993)
--_ ...__.----
10.0
( Er ep/ Esol 1)
8. 0
2.~_;_--;;;:;---;-::----:------.J
O~ ao ~o ~o
u/r - 0. 5
~
oy IfO.O U 1....0.0
~
o
"-'
U
to dJ
"-IU
C 3.2
C f't!
o C
_.o
+JUl
n! dJ
U ~
.... 3.0
"-I +J
.....to
C
0-
Il!
l:
304r----------,r------...---.
AII/ r Z .6 I u Ir-O.6
au Ir Z .6 u IrW Z .O
D0
UIr Z .6 u 1r-< l.O
.- ; - - - ~~- - ~~- - ~~~~~~~~
0.0 D.::! 0.4 a.e O.I! t..o
Di menSi Onl ess f r equency ( Av)
I Itu
, '2 ' I
u r "
, , D
o
c
0_2.0
~X
to - 1.5
U
_.
""'
_.
C
~ 0.5
l:
3.0
3.6,----::------------
o 8 7
70
Figure(2.3 7) Effect of frequency on the active isolation,
a-at frequency 2.5cps and b- at frequency 7.5cps
(After Elzarka, 1991)
6 3 2 . - 0
3 2 o
I
H
1 I I I 1
10
I 1
lJ. hl r=O.16
o hl r-I .60 .
o N o l ranch
h
r I
1
R
H . . 6 r
R = 2 r
4 f 7 . 5 c./sec.
, + hI r-2.50
:~t hl r=4.00
t
'i~~~
-<, +- - - ~- - +- , - . . . . .
. ~- . _- -. - - ~~es~~* ~~
R _l -t-
-+--l---t- I
,
\
\
+ ' .
,.
0\ .
\\\. +
~.'c
,.
I
. . . - - - i...
"D 0I -_j_~ .=---~ ...= = : " ~:t+----f
. _
1 5 ~~. ~- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - , r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ' r - - - - - - - ,
,
I
I
h
r _l
f 2. ti c./set.
H 6 r
R . . 2 r
~-----------.-------~ ~- . . .
Figure(2.36) Vibration isolation using a straight trench-
passive isolation (After Richart et al., 1970)
o
o
o
Ampl itude of surface
displ acement
Sensitive instrument or tool
Straight, open trench of
depth Dand l ength L
I ncomping R ayl eigh wave
_.
L-
m
>
D
U
_.
c
m
E
C D
o 51-
D
C 1.
C D
- to
&
E
71
In the followingsection, thefiniteelement stepsandconcepts areintroducedfor
theisoparametricbrick eightnodeelement.
The finite elementmethod(FEM) isanumerical methodto solvetheproblemof
field continuum, and in our case to solve for the dynamic and static response of
foundations resting on soil half-space. It is used to convert continuous systemsinto
discrete systems, thus turning the partial differential equations governing the field
problems into a set of linear or nonlinear algebraic equations, or may be in time-
dependent problems into set of ordinary differential equations which can betreated
numerically in simpler way than the original differential equationsresultingfromthe
continuum. The FEM is superior to other numerical techniquesbecauseof itsabilityto
model irregular domains, different boundary conditions, different properties of
subdomains and finally its systematic steps that makeit flexibleenoughto handlethe
stressanalysisof solidsinthesamewayit handlesthethermal heat conductionanalysis.
3.1.1. Introduction
3.1. THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
Ana~ysisProcedure
Chapter (3)
72
(3.2)
{
displacement inthex directiOn(uJ }
a, =displacement inthey direction(vJ
displacement inthez direction(w.)
where8jisthedisplacementvector at nodei, i.e.,
(3.1)
According to Zienkiewics (l977f55 andIrons andAhmed(1980)C21;thenodal
displacementof theisoparametricbrick eightnodeelementisgivenby
The displacement field through the element isdescribedthroughinterpolating
functions called the trial or theshapefunctions. Theshapefunctionsaredependent on
the type of element and the degrees of freedom that may bedisplacementsor their
derivativeswithrespect to spatial coordinateof theproblem.
3.1.2.2.Selection Of Shape Functions
Thedomainof theproblemisdividedinto subdomainscalled"thefiniteelements"
as showninFigure(3.1). Theseelementswill betreated onebyoneleadingto formation
of equations of equilibriumor motion for eachelement. Thentheseequationswill be
assembled into overall system equations. The continuity of the system is achieved
through points ontheboundaryof theelementcalledthenodes.
3.1.2.1. Discretization
3.1.2. Systematic Steps of the Finite Element Method
73
where
(3.8)
For Co elementssuchastheusedeightnodebrick element; Ni maybechosenintheform:
(3.6)
(3.7)
Ni (Xi' yj' ZJ =I(Identitymatrix)
Nj(xpYj'Z) =0 (Null matrix)
functionsmust satisfy
The function family(Ni)ischosensoasto giveappropriatenodal displacements
when the coordinates of the appropriate nodes are inserted. Generally, the shape
(3.5)
u =t }
whereuisthegenericdisplacementvector, i.e.,
(3.4)
The relation between u and aeusingtheshapefunctionmatrixN canbewrittenas :
(3.3) N=N(x,y,z)
position only; i.e.,
The nodal displacement vector is related to the generic displacement vector u
through the shape functions' matrix N. These functions are polynomials of the spatial
74
and
Uj
v
I
{ : } = [ ~;
0 0 N. 0 0
" " " J
Wj
J
Nj 0 0 Nj 0
...
uj (3.15)
0 N. 0 0 N.
Vj
1
J
w
J
Equations (3.4) and(3.11) mayberewrittenas
(3.14)
(3.13)
(3.12)
r =thegenericcoordinatevector ={~}
rn=thenodal coordinatevector ={ rj}
r; = thecoordinatevector of nodei= { ~: }
where
(3.11) r=Nr
n
Because thiselementisanisoparametricelement(IronsandAhmedI980C21); the
same interpolation functions(Ni'S) areusedalsoto mapgeometry of original elementin
the space (x,y,z) into a normalized natural space (l; ,ll,l; ) that extend in every axis
betweenthevalues-1&1,hence:
(3.9)
(3.10) N.(x. y. z.) = 0
1 J' J' J
7S
displacementaregiveninamatrixformasfollows:
For thecaseof threedimensional stress statetherelationshipsbetween strainand
3.1.2.3.1. Strain - Displacement Relationship
3.1.2.3. Static Case Formulation
(3.17)
We have 24 degreesof freedomand8shapefunctions(i.e., onefor eachnode),
the shape functionsareoftenexpressedusingthemappedspacecoordinateof thepoint;
i.e., for node i having the mapped coordinates (~i, lli, ~i), thecorrespondingshape
functionsNi aregivenby(Zienkiewics1977c55):
x
I
Yi
m = n ;
0 0 Nj 0 0
00 O J
Zi
N. 0 0 Nj 0
...
Xj (3.16)
I
0 N. 0 0 Nj
Yj
I
z
J
76
(3.22)
As it has previously been shown that A matrix isadifferential operator with
respect to x, yandz whileN matrixisdefinedinthemappedspace, sotheN matrixisto
bedifferentiatedwithrespect to x, yandzusingthechainruleasfollows:
O N . a N . a x O N . O y O N . a z
-' =-'.-+-'._+-'.-
a ~ a x a ~ O y a ~ a z a ~
O N . O N . a x aN. O y aN. a z
-' =-'.-+-' .-+-'.-
m, a x m, O y m, a z m,
aN. aN. a x a N . O y a N . az
-' = -' .-+-'--+-'.-
al; a x e; O y al; a z a ;
(3.21) B=AN
where
(3.20)
Recallingequations(3.4) and(3.19); wecanobtain:
3.1.2.3.2. Strain-Nodal Displacement Relationship
wheretheA matrixisthestrain-displacementmatrix
(3.19) E =Au
a
0 0
a x
a
Ex
0
-
0
O y
Ey
a
{ : }
Ez
0 0
a z
=
a a
(3.18)
yxy
-
0
yyz
O y a x
a a
Y zx
0
-
az O y
a a
0
-
a z a x
or
77
.SotheJ matrixmaybewrittenas
(3.26)
y=:LNsi
Z ="" Nz.
L.J I 1
but theelementisanisoparametricelementsothat
Ox By a z
- -
a; a; a;
Ox iJ y a z
(3.25)
J =
- -
i1rl i1rl i7 rl
Ox iJ y a z
- -
a;; a;; a;
where J istheJacobianmatrixandisgivenby
ONi
ONi
a;
Ox
ON. ON.
I
=J
_1
(3.24)
i7 rl
By
ON. aN.
1 _1
a; a z
or
ON Ox By a z
ON. 1
-
_1
~ ~ ~ ~ Ox
ON.
Ox By a Z ON.
1 1
(3.23)
=
-
i1rl i1rl i1rl i1rl
By
ON. Ox By a Z ON.
1
-
1
a; a; a; a;
a z
which may be best written inthe matrix notation as follows:
78
aN. aNi
__ I
Ox ~
aN.
=J-I
aN.
I
__ I
(3.29)
Oy
C rt
aNi aNi
a z a;
or
In order to obtainthederivativeof N's withrespect to X, Yandz; thefollowing
equationisused:
Xl
YI
ZI
aNI
aN2 aN3 aN4 aN5 aN6 ON7 ONs
X2
Y2
Z2
a; a; a;
~ ~ ~
a;
a;
X3
Y3
Z3
J =
ONI aN2 aN3 aN4 aNS aN6 ON7
B NS
X4
Y4
Z4
(3.28)
C rt C rt C rt C rt C rt C rt C rt C rt
X5
Y5
Z5
ONI aN2 aN3 aN4 aN5 ON6 ON7 aNs
X6
Y6
Z6
~ ~ ~
a; a;
~ ~
a;
x7
Y7
Z7
Xs
Ys
Zs
Thismay berewritteninthefollowingform
(3.27)
aNI ON2
--Z +--Z +...
a; I a; 2
aNI ON2
--Z +--Z +:..
C rt I C rt 2
aNI aN2
--Z +--Z +...
~ I ~ 2
ONI aN2
--X +--X +:..
a; I a; 2
ONI aN2
--X +--X +..
C rt I C rt 2
ONI aN2
--X +--X +...
~ I ~ 2
J =
79
The stress-strain relationship for linearelasticsolidspacemaybeobtainedfrom
thegeneralizedHooke's lawinthreedimensional spaceasfollows
3.1.2.3.3. Stress - Strain Relationship
(3.31)
where
(3.30)
aNI
aN2 aN3 aN4 aNs aN6 aN, aNg
Ox Ox Ox Ox Ox Ox Ox Ox
aNI
aN2 aN3 aN4
aN~
aN6 aN, aNg
Oy Oy Oy Oy Oy Oy Oy Oy
aNI
aN2 aN3 aN4 aNs aN6 aN, aNg
(}z
8z
(}z
a z 8z 8z
(}z
8z
aNI
aN2 aN3 aN4
aN~
aN6 aN7 aNg
a; a; a; a; a; a; a;
a~
=J-1
aNI
8N2 aN3 aN4 aNS aN6 aN7 aNg
Ofl Ofl Ofl Ofl Ofl Ofl Ofl Ofl
aNI
aN2
8N3
aN4 aNs aN6 aN7 aNg
e x; e x; e x; e x; e x; e x; e x; e x;
80
or inmatrix form
(3.34)
G= E
2(1+v)
are the shear stress components along the planes yz, zx and xy
respectively.
and the law of the elastic constants
Y xy, Y yz, Y zx
respectively.
isthe shear modulus of elasticity
are the shear stress components along the planes yz, zx and xy
G
where
(3.33)
For shear strains
are the normal stress components along the X,yand z axes respectively.
are the normal strain components along the x.y and z axes respectively.
isthe Y oung's modulus of elasticity E
where
(3.32)
Ex=~[ax - vay - vaz]
Ey=~[ay - vo, - vaz]
s, =~[az - vay - vax]
For normal strains
81
(3.40)
Thuswehave
I-v v v 0 0 0
v 1- v v 0 0 0
v v I-v 0 0 0
E
0 0 0
1-2v
0
D=
0
(I +v)(I- 2v)
2
1-2v
0 0 0 0 0
2
0 0 0 0 0
1-2v
2
(3.39)
therefore
(3.38) D =C-1
where
(3.37)
Thepreviousequationmayberewritteninthefollowingform:
" =DE
whereC isthecompliancematrix.
(3.36)
or
Ex
1 -v -v 0 0 0
O" X
Ey
- V 1 - V 0 0 0
O" y
Ez
1
-v -v 1 0 0 0
O" z
-
2(1+v)
(3.35)
y xy
E 0 0 0 0 0 ' t xy
y yz
0 0 0 0 2(1+v) 0 ' t yz
Y z x
0 0 0 0 0 2(1+v)
' t z x
82
(3.49) K" is the element stiffness matrix
(3.48) qe is the equivalent nodal force vector =pe+f bNT dV
V
where
(3.47)
that may be written inthe well known form
(3.46)
Equating the internal and the external work we get
pe +f bNTdV = f BTDB dV ae
v v
(3.45)
(3.44) pe ={pei}is the nodal force vector
{
FeX i}
P'i =F:,:: arethenodal forcesatnodei
F Z,'
where
(3.43)
T
The external work =0 ae pe
(3.42)
_ _ {F:x:}
b =the body force vector
where
v v
internal work is equal to the external work. Thus
Applying a virtual nodal displacement oae, then due to the equilibrium, the
3.1.2.3.4. Element Stiffness Matrix "Virtual Work Approach"
(3.56)
(3.55)
(3.54)
(3.53)
(3.52)
(3.51)
(3.50)
83
or alternatively
pe +J bNTdV =J BTDB dV ae
y y
therefore
For equilibrium A must be minimumand hence
Thus we have
U (the strain energy) =.! J ETO'EdV =.!J acTBTDBacdV
2y 2y
W (the work done) =J uTb dV +aeTpc =aeTJ NTbdV +aeTp
y y
where
A=U- W
The potential energy A is given by
3.1.2.3.5. Element Stiffness Matrix "Minimum Potential Energy Approach"
84
whereC isthedampingmatrix.
(3.60)
Adopting the previous sequence, damping forces will develop in additionto
inertiaforces, thustheequationof motionof anelementwill beintheform:
3.1.3.2. Damped Case
(3.59)
whereM iscalledtheconsistent massmatrixandisdefinedby
(3.58)
e Ke e+Me..e
q = a a
writetheequationof motionas
The only change in equation (3.48) isto replacethetermbbyterm-pNie, sowecan
(3.57) dFj = -iipdV = -pN ae dV
The only difference between this caseandthestaticcaseisthedevelopment of
inertiabodyforcegivenbyd'Alembertprincipleasfollows:
3.1.3.1. Undamped Case
3.1.3. Dynamic Case Formulation
85
(3.65)
co co
f(t) =a, +2:aj cosjrot+2:bj sinjrot
j=J j=J
The previous analysiscanbeextendedfor anyperiodT as showninFigure(3.2)
bythefollowingequation
(3.64)
(3.63)
(3.62)
1 211
ao =-2 J f(t) dt
1t 0
1211
aj=-J f(t) cosjtdt
1t 0
1211
bj=-J f(t) sinjtdt
1t0
where
(3.61)
co co
f(t) =a, +2:aj cosjt+ 2:bj sinjt
j=J j=l
withtheperiod T =21t:
Fourier representedhisseriesfor periodic functionsbasedontheorthogonalityof
the sine and cosine functionsover theinterval [O,21t],thus for aperiodic function (t)
3.2.1.1. Fourier Series/or Periodic Functions
3.2.1. Introduction
3.2. EXPANSION OF FORCING FUNCTIONS BY FOURIER SERIES
shown inthe next section.
Although equation(3.60) has introduced the damping effect inthe solution, the
technique of damping introduction depends mainly on the solution method as will be
86
and
(3.72)
where
(3.71)
00
f(t) =~cjeiIDjt
j=-oo
F(t)can berewritten inthe form
(3.70)
eiIDt _ e-iIDt
sinrot =----
2i
cosrot =----
2
eiIDt=cosrot +i sinrot =>
From the Euler relation
3.2.1.2. The Complex Form of Fourier Series
(3.69)
2T
bj=-J f(t) sinjrotdt
To
(3.68)
2T
aj =TJ f(t) cos jrotdt
o
(3.67)
(3.66)
_ 21t
ro=-
T
where
87
The evaluation of each Cjinthe OFT needs N complex multiplication. Thus we
have to do N2 complex multiplication operations to evaluate all terms of'Cj. Similarly, N2
complex multiplications are needed to complete the process of the IDFT.
3.2.1.4. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)
(3.77)
and Inverse Discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) isgiven by
(3.76)
N-J N-l .(271.)(Tk N-I (-2m).k
C
- ~c -imjlk_ ~c -IT'J N') _ ~c N"
j- """lk e - """lk e - """lk e
k=O k=O k=O
(OFT) isgiven by:
The application of Fourier Transform inthe numerical analysis is accomplished by
defining the function f1:t) as a set ofN discrete points as inFigure (3.3). Dividing the
frequency to N equal divisions (viz. 2n1T, 4n1T, etc.), the Discrete Fourier Transform
3.2. 1.3.Discrete Form of Fourier and Inverse Fourier Transform
(3.75)
T
Cj =J f(t) e-imj'dt
o
where
(3.74)
1~ i<tJI
f(t) = - """Cje j
T j=-oo
or in another form:
(3.73)
Olj=Jffi
88
(3.82)
N/2-1
Cj =L(fk +e-i7Ikfk+NI2)Wkj
k=O
or
(3.81)
N-l N/2-1 N-l
Cj = LfkWkj = LfkWkj +LfkWkj
k=O k=O k=N/2
hence
(3.80)
definingWas
(3.79)
N-l -271;
~ (-)kj.
Cj =LJ fk e N ,J =0,1,2, ... , N-l
k=O
where M is an integer. Thisconstraint isintroducedto simplifytheresultingalgorithm.
NowrecallingtheDFT
(3.78)
Chapra and Canale (1990f8 had described aFFT techniquecalledtheSande-
Turkey Algorithm, thisalgorithmrequires thenumber of pointsto beanintegral power
of2, i.e.,
reduce number of operations.
The Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT), are algorithms that have been developed by
many researchers to compute the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) inan economical
fashion, they speed the transform by utilizing the results of the previous computation to
89
(3.89)
(N/2)-1
C2j+1 =Lh, W2kj
k=O
and
(3.88)
(N/2)-1
'" 2k
C2j =LJgtW J
k=O
thus
(3.87)
and
(3.86)
Usingthe following functions each of length N/2
(3.85)
(N/2)-1
'" k 2k
C2j+1 =LJ (ft-fk+N/2)W W J
k=O
and for odd number
(3.84)
the equation (3.82) can be rewritten for even terms
(3.83)
Usingthe relation
90
u isthedisplacementvector at time(t).
U isthedisplacementamplitudevector.
where
(3.91)
Thesteadysolutionisassumedto begivenby
(3.90) P=Peiwt
o
If weassumeharmonicloadingintheform
3.2.2.1. Harmonic Loading
3.2.2. The Complex Response Method
This algorithm needs N log2(N) complex addition and Y 2 N log2(N)complex
multiplication. The reduction of the computational time which results from this
formulation is significant when the time interval is divided into a large number of
increments. Another aspect of theFFT algorithmisthat theorder of computedCj's is
differentfromthenatureorder asshowninFigure(3.5).
inFigure(3.5).
Using thisapproach 'divide and conquer" repeatedlywill beeventually as shown
points.
An insight look of equations (3.88) and (3.89) shows that, the N point
computation has been replaced by two (N/2) point computations. Becauseeachof the
latter requires (N/2)2 complex multiplications andadditions, thisapproachproduces a
factor of2 savings(i.e., N2 versus 2(N/2i=N2/2 ). Figure(3.4) showstheprocedurefor 8
91
(3.97)
and the dynamic stiffness S is then given by:
(3.96)
There are many approaches to introduce the effect of the damping, one of themis
by modifying the K matrix (Wolf 1985c53) as follows:
Where S is called the dynamic stiffness.
(3.95) s=K - ill2M +iroC
Where
(3.94) su=P,
or
(3.93)
Substituting equations (3.90) and (3.91) inequation (3.92), we get
(3.92) Mii+CiI +Ku =P
The equation of motion of the systemis given as
92
(3.99)
thefollowingequation:
Thus the displacementvector inthefrequencydomainU(roj) canbesolvedfor. Thenwe
canusetheInverseFourier Transformto calculatethedisplacement timehistoryU(tk)by
(3.98)
By applying the Discrete Fourier Transform to the forcing function, the
amplitudes of the loads in the frequency domain P(roj), are calculatedat all discrete
frequencies(roj). The equationof motioninthefrequencydomain becomes:
3.2.2.2. General Loading
It may be note that the dynamic stiffness matrix is dependent on the loading
frequency. This method does not suffer from the drawbacks of the other methods in
introducing of the damping, in addition to its similarity with the static equation of
equilibrium which facilitate the using of the static equation solvers.
93
(3.102)
1
I = = - [ f(- 1)+4f(0) +f(1)]
3
For n=3; theSimpsonrulecanbeobtained:
(3.101) I = = f(- 1) +f(1)
therangeof[ - I ,I ] . For example, ifn =2, wehavethewell- knowntrapezoidal rule:
where Hi is the weight of theequal- spaceddifferentpointsf(ti) definingthefunctionin
(3.100)
1 n
1= f _ f(t) dt= = L H i f{tJ
1 i= l
1- Newton-Cotes Quadrature inwhichtheintegrandistobecalculatedat somediscrete
points - usually at equal intervals - as shown inFigure(3.6a) usingapolynomial
passing through these points. As n values of the functiondefinesapolynomial of
degree n- l, theerror will beof theorder D(An) whereA isthepoint spacingand0
isthetruncation error function. Usingthismethod, theintegrationcanbewrittenas
I t has been shown that both stiffnessandmassmatricesresult fromintegration
over the volume of the element. Theseintegrationsarecalculatednumericallybytwo
basicmethods(Zienkiewics 1977c'j'j):
3.3.1. Methods for Numerical Integration
3.3. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION (QUADRATURE)
94
(3.105)
f2(l;) =f/l(l1,l;) d11=Hl1(l1j,l;)
j =l
constant, i.e.,
where nisthenumber of Gausspoints, thento integratewithrespect to 11andkeepingl;
(3.104)
isto first evaluatetheinner integral, keeping 11,l; constant, i.e.,
(3.103)
111
I =f f If(~, 11,l;)d~d11dl;
-1-1-1
Themost obviouswayof obtainingtheintegral
3.3.2. Evaluation of Element Matrices byNumerical Integration
coefficientsfor Gaussianquadrature.
2- Gauss Quadrature Insteadof specifyingthepositionof samplingpointsapriori, we
allow these to beallocatedat someplacessoasto achieveanincreasingaccuracy. If
we reconsider equation(3.100) andassumeagainapolynomial expression, thusfor n
sampling points we have 2nunknowns(Hi,ti)andhenceapolynomial of thedegree
(2n-l) could be constructed and exactly integrated, the error will beof theorder
O(A2n),as shown inFigure(3.6b). Thesimultaneousequations involvedaredifficult
to solve, but somemathematical manipulationshowsthat thesolutioncanbeobtained
explicitly in terms of Legendrepolynomials.Thusthismethodisfrequentlyknownas
Gauss-Legendre quadrature. Table (3.1) shows the positions and weighting
95
where (Hi, Hj, Hk) are the Gauss weights and (~i,11;, ~) are the coordinates of the Gauss
points. To calculate the integration exactly for this element we need 2x2x2=8 Gauss
points as indicated inFigure(3. 7).
(3.109)
11 1
Me =H I pNtN dxdydz =I I I pNtN detlJ I d~dlldl;
v - 1- 1- 1
and
(3.108)
1 1 1
Ke =I I I BtDB dxdydz =I I I BtDB detlJ I d~dlldl;
v - 1- 1- 1
respectively as follows:
hence, the expressions for the element stiffness and mass matrices are evaluated
(3.107)
From the above equations one may write
(3.106)
finallyto integrate with respect to l; , i.e.,
96
Theassumedshapefunctionshavethefollowingtwo important properties:
1.Theyarepolynomialsinthespatial coordinatesof theproblem.
The finite element discretization results in transforming thepartial differential
equation governing the continuum into a set of discretelinearor non-linear algebraic
equations or ordinary differential equations, asshowninFigure(3.10) asanexamplein
staticanalysisof 3Dsolidlinearelasticcontinuum
3.5.1. Equations Resulting From The Finite Element Method
3.5. SOLVER OFEQUATIONS
G vector isusedto addthecoefficientsof thelocal matricesintheir appropriate
placesintheglobal matricesasshowninFigure(3.9).
G ={O0 1 0 0 4 5 0 6 2 0 3 0 7 8 0 12 13 14 15 16 9 10 ll}t
Unrestrained joints have threedegreesof freedomfor each, boundaryjoint may
have fewer degrees of freedom. Eachdegreeof freedomisassignedauniquenumber,
this may be done aseconomicallyaspossibleto reducethebandwidthof theproblem
thus reducingthestorageof theglobal matrices. Thevector G containingthenumbersof
the degrees of freedom for an element is called thesteeringvector, for examplethe
element 1 inFigure(3.8) hasthesteeringvector
3.4. ASSEMBLY OFELEMENT MATRICES INTO SYSTEM MATRICES
97
We can find the unknown displacements (u) by getting the inverse of S.
Practically, the method of solution is to decompose the S into upper and lower
triangular matrixandproceedinforward andbackward substitutionsasfollows:
where the S matrix istheglobal stiffnessmatrix, uistheunknowndisplacementvector
andP isthenodal loadvector.
(3.110) Su=p
The used compiler (Lahey/Ergo 1992) makesuseof theextendedmemoryand
can createavirtual memoryonthedisk, thustheordinaryLU solver of Choleskyisused.
Theresultingequationsystemwill beinthefollowingmatrixform:
3.5.2. Cholesky Solver
The amount of storage depends not only on the number of degrees of freedom
but also on the band of the matrix. In 3D finite element analysis the amount of storage
required for the matrices is enormous and the storage of the complete matrices incore
may even be impossible for an ordinary language compiler because of the large number
of the degrees of freedom and the large band of" the equations. The used compiler
(Lahey/Ergo 1992) has the ability to address the extended RAM.
2. They are piecewise continuous with the degree of continuation depending on the
problem.
The use of piecewise functions leads to bandedness of the assembled matrices
thus we can reduce the amount of storage by not storing the zero terms that arise off
diagonal. Another aspect of the assembled matrices istheir symmetry about the main
diagonal that leads to storage of half-banded matrices as shown inFigure (3.11)
98
(3.119)
1sj~N
j-l
ljj = s,-~)\
r=l
the decomposition matrix L isgiven by itselement [lij]using the following equations:
(3.118)
S=L.LT
(3.117)
U=LT
or
unknowns issymmetrical, inthiscase:
Cholesky method applies only to cases where the matrix of coefficients of the
(3.116)
U=U-Iy
(3.115)
Y=L-lp
(3.114) LY=P
(3.113) U.u=Y
(3.112) LUu=P
(3.111) S=LU
Using backward substitution we can get
Usingforward substitution we can get
we got
Using the substitution
99
were innovated by the author basedonthepreviousconcepts. Somesubroutines were
borrowedfromSmith(1982f46 andChapraandCanale(1990f8.
A FORTRAN programusingthepreviousprocedures hasbeendeveloped bythe
author to analyzetheproblemof machinefoundationinteraction. Figures(9.14) to (9.16)
show thestructural chartsof theprogram(Smith1982c46).Most of theusedsubroutines
3.6. THE COMPUTER PROGRAM
whereHB isthehalfband width
(3.122)
j+l~i~N
HB+j-i
S..- "I.}.(. .)
y L... II" j,1+r-j
I.. = r=l
y I
j,(HB+l)
(3.121)
HB
Ij,(HB+l) = Sj,(HB+l) - _Ll~r
r=l
Equations (3.119) and(3.120) maybewritteninthebandedmatricesas shownin
Figure(3.13) to be
where N is the number of equations. An insightof theprevious equationsclarifiesits
columnwiseorder asshowninFigure(3.12).
I..
II
I
r=l
..=_---!.:=-_
u
(3.120)
j-l
Sij-_Llirljr
100
Figure(3. 2) Periodicjunction withperiod T
T T T
f(t)
Figure (3.1) Discretization of 3D solid continuum into ''finite elements"
AnEJement
I
I
I "-+-+--;;
4~__ __ 8
/
/
7
3
"elements"
Domain discretized
into subclomains
Table (3.1) Gauss quadrature points and weights
n t H n t H
1 0.0000 2.0000 6 0.9325 0.1713
2 0.5774 1.0000 0.6612 0.3608
3 0.7746 0.5556 0.2386 0.4679
0.0000 0.8889 7 0.9491 0.1295
4 0.8611 0.3479 0.7415 0.2797
0.3400 0.6521 0.4058 0.3818
5 0.9062 0.2369 0.0000 0.4180
0.5385 0.4786
0.0000 0.5689
101
Figure (3.5) Flow graph of the complete FFT, full
decomposition of Ni-pointDFTfor N =8
f a CO
0
W
f 1 C4
f2 C2
0
f 3
W
C6
f 4 C1
0
f 5
W
cs
fa C3
f7 C7
+
Figure (3.4) Flow graph of thefirst stage in FFT, decomposition
of N-point DFT into two Nl2-point DFTsfor N =8
f O
gO
f 1 91
N/2 - Point
f 2
g2
DFT
f 3
g3 . .
0
hO
f 4
W
1
h1
f 5
W

N/2 - Point
2
h2
f 6
W
DFT
+
3
h3
f7
W
+
Figure(3. 3) Discrete points defining thefunction
T T T
\ I
\ 1
\ I
\ 1
\ ......." /
......__/ \ /1
, 1
_I
/'--\
f \
1 \
I \
/ \
,..--,
f \
1 \
I \
/ \
f(t)
102
Figure(3. 7) Gauss points for 8-node brick element
Gauss point
Node
Each integrates exactly a seventh order polynomial
Figure(3.6) (a)Newton-Cotes and (b)Gauss integrations.
(b)
10.86114 )1
x x X
0.33998
v k
o
-1
f
_ _ . . . - -
~r--
/
t
-,
(a)
H
fF.1/7
o
-1
f
~,..-
~........,
/
t \.
-,
103
Figure(3. 10) Equations of continuum versus equations of the Finite Element Method
Keae =pe
Ke =f f f BtDB dV
v
0'x.x+'tyx,y +'tzx,z +Fx =0
O'y,y+'txy,x +'tzy,z +Fy =0
0'z.z+'tyz,y+'txz,x +F, =0
/ /
I
I
I
I
.-
[7
L/
For each finite element For aninfinitesimal element
/ C Iz
Finite element equations Continuum equations
Figure (3.9) Usage of steering vector to assemble elements' matrices
Addition
J
Addition
PdcmaK Disp
G(i)
G(j)
:Kglobal
in y direction
Figure (3. 8) - Steering vector" example"
Displacement restrained in
all directions
0,0,0
34,35,36
Displacement restrained
104
Figure(3.12) Order of Cholesky 's decomposition
o
L =
Columnwise order
of evaluation
Figure(3.11) Storage of the half banded matrix
Actual matrix Half-bandedmatrix
r .

. r
r _

r .
" ' .

r

I e I .

I

I -
I.

I.

r e
laI .~

I

I

I.

I . e

r e er.

--
I .

I -

!

I-

I .

rn
.~
I
.t:
t$
~
.~
~
....
.....
~
C U
...J
E

ro
~
'--'
::J ! :! ::- ,
.....
:i. ~
~
.....
]
.~
.t:
t$
~
-
~
.0
...-
.;::
+
:::::
V)
m
~
0
I
Q)
......
0)
8
~
-
0
:r
1i)
~
- -
- s
....L ...
rn tn
"0
...-
Q) :::::
+
I
"U
rn
c
~
I
C U
~
- -
.c
-ro
~
I
~
:::::
.0
.;::
~
~
~
......
~
~
m
.[0
I ~
.~
....
.....
cu
tn
E
ro
::J
.....
:i.
...-
+
rn
I
. ~
....
.....
-
cu
:r
E
X
...J
"U
m
Q)
..-
"U
+
I
c
rn
C U
I
.c
- -
- ro
I
106
- Find solution of the prescribed DOF's
-End
Figure (3.15) Structural chartfor the static program
(After Smith, 1982)
- Read the element stiffness matrix
- Assemble the element stiffness matrix into
the global stiffness matrix using the
steering vector
- Reduce the complete equation and modify the
coefficients of required DOF.
For each element
- Declaration and initialization of variables
- Define input and output data files
- Read the loaded DOF and the magitude of
each load
- Null the global stiffness matrix
- Null the load vector
- Formthe new load vector.
Figure(3.14) Structural chartjor element matrices' program
(After Smith, 1982)
- Write the mass and stiffness matrices to output files
e
- Add this contribution to the element mass matrix M
t
- Find the product p N N
- Find the product of p Nt N by (H;.H~Hk. IJ I)
e
- Add this contribution to the element stiffness matrix K
- Calculate the derivative of the shape functions in the global
coordinates
- Formthe strain displacement matrix B
- Find the product of DB
t
- Transpose B to B
t
- Find the product of B DB
- Find the product of B DB by (H;.Hj.Hk. IJ I)
-1
J and its determinate
- Calculate the J acobian matrix J
- Calculate the inverse of the J acobian
IJ I
- Formthe element shape functions and their derivatives inthe
local coordinates
For a/I Gaussian integration pOints
- Read the element properties, nodal coordinates and steering vector
- Null the element stiffness and mass matrices
- Formthe stress strain Matrix 0
For all elements
- Declaration and inilialization of variables
- Define input data files
107
Figure (3.16) Structural chartfor the dynamic program
(After Smith, 1982)
- Declaration and initialization of variables
- Define input and output data files
- Read the loaded OOF , the frequency and phase of
each load
For each Fourier mode
- Null the complex global stiffness matrix
- Null the complex load vector
- Findthe frequency of that mode
- Formthe newcomplex load vector using FFT
For each element
- Read the element stiffness matrix
- Formthe element consistent mass matrix
- Formthe complex element stiffness matrix
- Assemble the element dynamic stiffness
matrix into the global complex stiffness matrix
using the steering vector
- Reduce the complete equation and modify the
coefficients of required DOF.
- Findthe solution of each mode
- Rearange the data obtained from the solution of
each mode
- Apply the inverse Fourier transform to get the
history of the response of theprescribed DOF's
- For all time steps, isolate the real and print the
maximum response of the prescribed DOF's
-End
108
In this chapter, theresultsof thisparametricstudyarediscussedfor thedifferent
casesusingnon-dimensional chartsto explaintheeffect of eachparameter.
1. The effect of the different parameters of the vertical harmonicforcingfunctions
actingonsurfacefootings(i.e., thefrequency, theamplitudeandthephase)
2. Effect of thespacingbetweensurfacefootingsontheir interaction.
3. Effect of thesoil depthto theunderlyingfirmstratumontheinteractionbetweenthe
machinefootings.
4. Effect of thefoundations' embedmentontheir response.
S. Use of trenches to reduce the interaction between the adjacent machinesurface
footings.
It is aimed in this research to study the mutual interaction between the
machine foundations. A model of two footingswithdifferentconfigurationsandforcing
functions, isstudied. Thefollowingparametershavebeeninvestigated:
4.1. INTRODUCTION
Parametric Study
Chapter (4)
109
The results of dimensionless magnification factor (M,=ZstatiJ Zdynamic) versus the
dimensionless frequency factor for the first footing FI (Ao) are shown inFigure (4.2) for
four cases of FFR (FFR=0.0,1.0,2.0 and 3.0) at spacing (s=O.5B). The results of other
spacings are shown inAppendix (A). The case of singlefooting (FFR=O.O) is considered
4.2.3.1. Effect of Spacing and the Forcing Frequency Ratio (FFR)
A comprehensive discussion of the parametric study results is given in the
following parts:
4.2.3. Results and Discussion
1. The spacing of the footings s(sIB =0.5,1,1.5,2 and 3, where B is footing width).
2. The forcing frequency ratio FFR=ffi2/rol (FFR=0,1,2 and 3).
3. The forcing amplitude ratio FAR=P2/PI (FAR=0,0.5,1,1.5 and 2).
4. The forcing phase difference FPD= 9 (FPD =0,45,90,180,270 and 315).
The studied parameters are:
4.2.2. The Studied Parameters
The model consists of two identical square surface footings FI and F2as shown in
Figure( 4. 1), each footing has amass ratio (Bz) equals to 5. The properties of the soil and
foundation element are given in Table (4.1). The two footings FI and F2are loaded by
vertical harmonic forces given by PI cos (rolt) and P2cos (ID2t+9),respectively.
4.2. INTERACTION OF SURFACE FOOTINGS
4.2.1. The Studied Model
110
Figure (4.3) shows the peak values of Mz normalized using M, for asingle
footingat differentspacingversustheFFR. Itappearsthat themost pronouncedeffect of
the interaction appears whenFFR=l andthiseffect decreasesbyincreasingthespacing
or having two frequenciesmuchdifferentfromeachother. Theresponseof thefootings
decreases with values of FFR other than unity and until it approaches singlefooting
behaviour, the response also approaches single footing behaviour withincreasingthe
spacing.
The peaks of all cases are scanned andlistedinTable(4.2), theresultsof the
study show that theinteractiondiminishes at large(sIB) ratios andpracticallyvanishes
for thecaseof(sIB=3.0).
as a reference for each spacing to eliminate the error due to the mesh choice. For FFRs
other than the unity and zero, the curve has two peaks each one corresponds to the
resonance of one of the two footings. The case of (ID2=0)characterized asingleactive
footing (FI), this case will be designated as singlefooting (FI). Inspection of the results
in this case indicates that the vibration of the inactive footing (F2) is considerably large
(i.e., MzI =3.09andMz2 =2.4) becauseof small sIBratio. Thetwo footingsexhibitone
peak at (Ao=O.4)which is comparabletothat of thehalf spaceanalysisfor (Bz=5.0)as
shown in Figure (2.19). Thisvalueassuresthegood choiceof themeshingparameters.
The caseof (ID2=roi or FFR=1.0) hasthegreatest responseof other casesof FFRs witha
single peak at thepreviousfrequencyratio (Ao==O.4). Thefootingpeaks(MzI=Mz2=5.37)
are almost the sum of the two peaksof theactiveandinactivefootingsinthecaseof
single footing(FFR=O.O), whichmeansthat thereisdiminutivephasedifferencebetween
the two footings. For the cases of two differentfrequencies(FFR+':1.0),therearetwo
peaks for eachcurverepresentingthebehaviour of thefootings, oneat (Ao=O.4)for the
footing of lower frequency(FI),andtheother peak islocated at Ao==0.2for FFR =2.0
and A o ==0.13for FFR=3.0. Thesevaluescorrespondto resonanceoffooting (F2). Due
to thisbiasbetweenthetwo peaksintheir frequencyratio, theinteractionislessthanthe
caseof equal frequenciesandaboutthesameof thecaseof singlefooting.
111
The results of M, versus Ao areshowninFigures(4.7) and(4.8) for thecases
s/B=0.5, FFR=1 and 3 andFPD=O,45, 90, 180,270 and315. Theresultsof other
spacingsareshowninAppendix(A).
4.2.3.3. Effect of the Forcing Phase Difference (FPD)
Peak values arescannedandsummarizedin Table(4.3) for thedifferentcasesof
FFR and FAR of Figures (4.4) and (4.5). Figure (4.6) showsthepeak valuesof'M,
normalized usingthevalueof thecase(FAR=I.0) to showtheeffect of theFAR ratio on
the response of the two footings, the most pronounced effect of theFAR ratioisat
(FFR=3.0 ands/B=0.5), but it must bekept inmindthat thiscaseislesscritical thanthe
case of (FFR=l.O) whichinducedalargeinteractionresponseasshowninFigure(4.3).
Itis also to be noted that, the relationbetweenthenormalizingresponseandFARis
linearlyvariedfor (FFR=l.O) andnon-linearlyvariedfor other ratios ofFFR.
Figure (4.4) showstherelationbetweentheM, andAo inthecase (s/B=O.5and
FFR=1) for the four cases of FAR. Theresultsshowthat, theincreasingof theacting
loadincreasestheresponseof thefootings. For examplecomparingthecaseof (P2=0.5P1
or FAR=0.5) withthepeakvaluesareMzl=4.10andMz2=3. 79, againstthecase(P2=2P1
or FAR=2.0) withthepeaksareMzl=7.56andMz2=8.23, showstheincreaseinresponse
for both footings when increasing the forces' magnitudes. Figure(4.5) showsMs-A,
relation for the same spacingbut at (FFR=3.0). Inthiscasetheinteractionismuchless
than the case of (FFR=l.O), it isobservedthat increasingtheloadofF2, increasesthe
responsebut inalessratethaninthecaseof (FFR=I.0).
The results of M, versus A, areshowninFigures(4.4) and(4.5) for thecases
s/B=0.5, FFR=1 and 3 andFAR=0.5,1,1.5 and2. CurveswithFFR=l.Ohaveonepeak
and that withFFR=3.0havetwo biasedpeaksasitwas showninthepreviouspart. The
resultsof other spacingsareshowninAppendix(A).
4.2.3.2. Effect of the Forcing Amplitude Ratio (FAR)
112
Peak values are scanned and summarized inTable (4.4)for the different cases of
FPD at (FFR=1.0). Figure( 4.9) shows that the out of phase response isgreater than the
in phase response by 10%for s/B=1.5 and FFR=l.O. For sib =0.5 and FFR=l.O, out of
phase response is greater than the inphase response by 3%. It seems also that the effect
of the phase difference is much reduced at higher FFR.
The single peak at (FFR=1.0), which was observed inthe previous cases, is no
longer dominate, considering the phase difference, at (FPD=1800). For example, two
trifling peaks are espied at the same frequency (FFR=I.0). The out of phase response
may increase or decrease depending on the angle of phase difference, for FFR=1.0 and
FPD=O.O Mzl=5.25 and Mz2=5.27, when increasing the forcing phase difference by 45
the peaks are Mz1=5.38 and Mz2=4.35; i.e., this increase ofFPD increases the response of
F, and inthe same time decreases the response ofF2. At FPD=180 the response will be
minimum for both footings, Mzl=2.19 and Mz2=2.19 and then by increasing the FPD the
response of the two footings increases.
Curves with FFR=l.O have one peak and that with FFR=3.0 have two biased
peaks as it was shown inthe previous part. Itcan be shown that any value of 9(phase
difference) less than 180 has acorresponding angle (9+180) where the footings F1and
F2 exchange their response due to the symmetry of the problem, therefore the discussion
is limited to phase difference between 0 and 180.
113
A comprehensive discussion of the parametric study results is given in the
followingparts.
4.3.3. Results and Discussion
1.TheembedmentdepthwidthratioDJ B (DJB =0.0,0.25 and0.50).
2. Theforcingfrequencyratio FFR=(C02/COl) (FFR=1/3,1and3).
3. TheforcingamplituderatioFAR=(P2/Pl) (FAR=0.5,1and2).
4. Thesymmetricandunsymmetricembedmentof thetwo footings.
5. Rockingdueto vertical loading(,).
Thestudiedparameters are: .
4.3.2. The Studied Parameters
cases.
The model consists of two squarefootingsF. andF2. Theproperties of thesoil
and foundationelementsarethesameaswasmentionedpreviouslyinarticle(4.2.1). The
two footings areloadedbyvertical harmonicforcesgivenbyPI cos (COlt) andP2COS (C02t)
respectively. The spacing betweenthefootingishalf their width(B). Thefootingshave
different embedment depthsto represent thecasesof surface-embeddedandembedded-
embedded footings. Figures (4.10) to (4.14) showthemeshdetailsfor different studied
4.3.1. The Studied Model
4.3. EFFECT OF EMBEDMENT ON THE FOOTING INTERACTION
Figures (4.19) to (4.24) showtherelationsbetweenM , versus ~ andc I >versus ~
respec tively, for the c aseof embedmentdepth(De=0.25B) intheunsymmetric position
(interac tionof surfac e-embeddedfootings) at differentFFRsandFARs. Thetwo c asesof
single footinghaveto beinvestigated(ffi2=0andffil=O),theresults of thisc aseshowthat
the embedded footing F2 has less vibrationamplitudethanthesurfac efootingFl. The
114
Figures (4.17) and (4.18) show the relations M, versus A, and versus~
respec tively. for embedment of (0.25B) in the symmetric position (interac tion of
embedded-embedded footings). The single footing behaviour at ( o : > z = O ) indic ates a
dec rease inthevertic al responseandinduc edroc kingc omparedwiththesurfac efooting
c ase, this effec t is shown inTable(4.5) for thepeak values. For FFRsother thanunity,
the two peak behaviour isexhibitedandtheresponsewill belessc ritic al thaninthec ase
of (FFR=1.0).
4.3.3.2. Embedded Fo o tings
4.3.3.1. The Referring Case ( Surface Fo o ting)
Figure (4.15) shows therelationbetween~ andM,for thec aseof two surfac e
footings for different FFRsandFARs. Thec asewhenF1 istheonlyac tivefooting(i.e.,
002=0)has peak values M z1=2.840andM z2=2.046 at ~= 0.40whic harequitec loseto
the half spac e analysis as shown in Figure (2.19). The maximum valueof dynamic
response happens at FFR=1.0. For other valuesofFFRs, the two peaks behaviour is
exhibited with thesec ondpeak c orrespondsto theresonanc eof (F2), thesepeakshavea
less values thaninthec aseofFFR=I .0, bec auseof thebiasinthepositionof thepeaks
as shown in Figure (4.15) and by the peakvaluesinTable(4.5). For other valuesof
FARs the displac ementswill inc reasebut inlessratethaninthec aseof(FFR=I .0). The
same behaviour is also depic tedinM z-c I > giveninFigure(4.16). Peak valuesof roc king
andvertic al vibrationamplitudesarelistedinTable(4.5).
115
Peaks of vertical magnification factor and rocking for the previous cases are
drawn against the embedment depth/width ratio in Figures(4.25) to (4.27). These
Figures indicate the following:
Symmetric Cases
The vertical vibrations and accompanying rocking vibrations decrease
monotonically when increasing theembedmentof thefootingbut therockingdecreases
at higher rates.
Unsvmmetric Cases
There is no obvious trend for the unsymmetric cases; except for theeffect of
increasing the load of the embedded footingwhichaffectsgreatlythesurfacefooting.
The vertical oscillationof thesurfacefootingwill increasewithincreasingof thedepthof
embedment (in range of O-O.SB)but the rocking will decrease. Sometimes, asaddle
behaviour isnoticedfor thevertical oscillationandfor rockingwithapeak at DjB=0.25.
The case of embedment (De=0.5B) is also investigated and the results are given in
Appendix (B) and Table (4.5). The single footing behaviour (O)}=O)and the case of
symmetric embedment investigated indicate more decrease inthe two footings' response
due to embedment than the case ofDe=O.25B. Considering the case of the unsymmetric
position (interaction of surface-embedded footings), increasing the load of any footing
will increase the response of both footings, but increasing the load of the embedded
footing will have avery intensive effect on the behaviour of the surface one as predicated
by the peaks of the curve as given inTable (4.5)
critical case appears at (FFR=l.O), increasing the load of any footing, increases the
response of both footings, but increasing the load of the embedded footing has avery
intensive effect on the behaviour of the surface one as predicated by the peaks of the
curve as shown inTable (4.5). At FFRs different fromunity, the response of the footings
is less critical due to the double peak behaviour.
116
When the actual static displacement of the footing- with rock at definite depth- is used, the
magnification factor approaches00at shallowdepthsof rockinterfaceduetothedecreaseof thestatic
response, as it was shown in Table(2.5). However,thedynamic responsewill alsodecrease, soit is
preferabletorelatetheresponsetothestaticresponseof rigidfootingrestedontheelastic half space.
The results of thedimensionlessmagnificationfactor Mz=ZcJ ynarniJ Zstatic,surface and
the rocking cj > are plotted versus the dimensionless frequency factor (Ao) of thefirst
footing(FI) inFigures(4.30) to (4.33).
I. Thedepthof theunderlyingrock Z (ZIB = 0.5,1,2and3).
2. TheforcingfrequencyratioFFR=(ffi2!rol)(FFR=I and3).
3. Rockingdueto vertical loading(,).
Thestudiedparameters are:
4.4.2. The Studied Parameters
The model consists of two squaresurfacefootingsF, andF2. Theproperties of
the soil andfoundationelementaresimilarto thosementionedinarticle(4.2.1). Thetwo
footings FI andF2areloadedbyvertical harmonicforcesgivenbyPI cos (rolt)andP2cos
(C02t)respectively. The effect of the depth of the compressible layer is studied
parametrically (ZIB=O.5,1,2and3) for two spacingsof thefootings (s/B=O.5and 1.0) as
showninFigures(4.28) and(4.29).
4.4.1 The Studied Model
4.4. EFFECT OFROCK INTERFACE DEPTH
117
Figures (4.34) and (4.35) represent therelationbetweentheMz and< j ) versus
depth of compressible layer. It isnotedthat bothvertical vibrationsandaccompanying
rocking will increasebyincreasingthedepthof thecompressiblelayer. However thereis
no differencebetweenthevertical vibrationsor theinducedrockingunder differentFFRs
for depth of compressiblelayer lessthan(B) for spacingequalsto (0.5B), and(l.3B)
for spacing equals to (B), whichmeansthat all frequenciesgivealmostthesamesmall
magnitudeof vibrationresponseat shallowdepths.
Figures (4.32) and (4.33) represent the relation betweenM, and< j ) versusA,
respectively, for the case of (sIB =1.0). Thesamebehaviour depictedintheprevious
case is valid but with less interaction due to theincreaseof spacingas showninthe
valuesof peaksinTable(4.6).
Figure (4.31) shows the relation between < j ) and Ao for thesamespacing. At
shallow depths of rock interface, thereisnodifferencebetweenthetwo casesofFFRs
and bothgiveasmall inducedrockingasdepictedfromthemaximumvaluesasshownin
Table (4.6). The main characteristics of vertical vibrationspreviouslydescribedisthe
samefor inducedrocking.
4.4.3. Results and Discussion
Figure (4.30) represents the relation between M, versus A, for (sIB=O.S)for
(FFR=l and 3). Itis observed that at shallow depths of rock interface, thedynamic
response is small. The effect of FFR on the peaks vanishes for shallow depths, as
depictedinthepeak valueslistedinTable(4.6). Another aspect of shallowdepths isthat,
the two peak behaviour at (FFR=3.0) decomposesintotwo curveseachwithonepeak at
the resonance frequency of itsfooting. Thepositionof thepeaksisalsoshifted, e.g. at
ZIB=0.5, the resonance frequency factors are Ao=O.5for F, andAo=O.16for F2.At
greater depths of rock interface, thebehaviour of two peaksfor eachcurveat (FFR=3.0)
is obvious but have different frequency factors compared with the case of shallow
depths, e.g. for (ZIB=3), wherethe two peakshappenat (Ao=0.25)for F, and(Ao=O.l)
for F2. Thegreatest responsehappensat (FFR=1.0) for higher depthsof rock interface.
118
1. The depth of the trench D (DIB =0.5,1 and 2).
2. The width of the trench W (WIB =0.1,0.2 and 0.3).
3. The length of the trench L (LIB =1,2,3 and the case of continuous trenches).
4. The forcing frequency ratio FFR=(ID2/(l)l)(FFR=1I3,1 and 3).
5. Rocking due to vertical loading (.).
The used model is a three dimensional one. This isthe first employed model of
this nature to be used in studying the trench isolation. In all other reviewed researches,
the models were plane strain or axisymmetric to scrutinize the case of circular or strip
footings due to the difficulties in the three dimensional analysis. Using this model, the
length effect can beinvestigated along with the depth and width of trench. The studied
parameters are:
4.5.2. The Studied Parameters
The model consists of two square surfacefootingsF1andF2separated by adistance
that equals totheir width (B). Theproperties of thesoil andfoundation elements arethesame
as given inthe previous parts. Thetwo footings (F1andF2)areloaded byvertical harmonic
forces given by PI cos (COlt)and P2cos (C02t) respectively. Thevibration isolationusing air
trenches is studied for activeisolated footing(F1) andpassive isolated footing(F2). Thetrench
is assumed tobecontinuous or discontinuous, withvariabledimensions (depth D=0.5B,B and
2B, width W=0.IB,0.2B and 0.3B and length L= B,2B,3B and (0), as shown inFigures
(4.36) and(4.37).
4.5.1 The Studied Model
4.5. VIBRATION ISOLATION USINGAIR TRENCHES
119
Thestaticresponseisfor rigidfooting, restedonelastichalf-space.
4.5.3.1 Referring Case (Surface Footings with no Trenches)
Figure (4.38) shows therelationbetweenA o andM, for thecaseof two surface
footings for different FFRs. The case of singleactivefooting(ffi2=0)showsthat peak
values happen at (A o=:0.25), thisvalueisdifferentfromtheprevious caseswhichhave
the peak at (A o=:O.4);this may be dueto themeshviolationtotheknownruleof not
using aspect ratio greater than 4.0 for theelements, but themeshwasuseddueto the
computer storage limitation. A lthough the meshisnot predicatingaccurateresultsfor
A o, there is no great gross error inthedeterminationof thepeakswhichhappento be
Mz1=3.197 and Mz2=1.659comparedwithMz1=3.07andMz2=1.89asit was shownin
Table (4.2); therefore the curveisonlyshiftedalongthefrequencyaxis. Themaximum
value of dynamic response happenswhenFFR=1.0withpeak valuesMz1=Mz2=4.193.
For FFR=3.0, the two peak behaviour isexhibitedwiththeother peak corresponds to
resonance of the secondfooting(F2), at thiscasethefootingresponseisapproximately
thesameastheir singlebehaviour.
Figure (4.39) shows the relation between the induced rocking (q,) and the
frequency ratio (A o) for different FFRs. Thesinglefootingcase(ffi2=0)showsthat the
parts:
4.5.3. Results and Discussion
A comprehensive discussion of the obtained results, IS giveninthefollowing
The results of the dimensionless magnification factor Mz="Zdynamid zstatic andthe
induced rocking q, plottedversusthedimensionlessfrequencyfactor (A o) for thefooting
(F1) as shown in Figures (4.38) to (4.45). In case of (001=0),A , will represent the
frequencyfactor for F2.
120
Figures (4.42) and (4.43) investigate the case of trenchwidth (W=0.2B) for
continuous trencheswithdepth(D=B). Thecaseof (W=0.3B) isgiveninAppendix(C).
Thecaseof (W=O.IB) ispreviouslypresentedintheabovearticle.
4.5.3.3. The Effect of Trench Wulth (U1
The relations between Mz versus Ao andcj)versusAofor caseof (D=O.5B) are
approximately same as the corresponding relations of the referring case (surface
footings). For other casesof trenchdepths, thevertical vibrationandtheinducedrocking
dwindle with the increasing of trench depth for footingF2but remainsapproximately
constant for footing Fl. Therateof diminutionof'F, responsedecreasesafter thedepth
of (D=B) as shown in Figures (4.46) and (4.47), which show that, the trenchcan
decrease the response of the passive isolated footing (F2) byabout 30%for vertical
vibrationand 10%of theinducedrocking. Theactiveisolatedfooting(F1)appearsnot to
beaffectedbythevariationof trenchdepth.
Figures (4.40) and (4.41) investigate the caseof trenchdepth (D =0.5B) for
continuous trenches withwidth(W=O.IB). Bothvertical andinducedrockingvibrations
are considered. Other casesof trenchdepthsaregiveninAppendix(C). Peak valuesare
listedinTable(4.7).
4.5.3.2. The Effect of Trench Depth (D)
two footings have the same induced rocking value (cj)1~ == 0.06) at (Ao =0.25). The
maximumrockinghappenswhenFFR=l.Owithpeaks(cj)1=cj)2=0.1039). Thetwo footings
have the approximately the same response of the singlefootingat FFR=3.0but with
doublepeaks eachonecorrespondsto resonanceof oneof thetwo footings.
Figures (4.44) and (4.45) show the relation between Mz andc j , versusA o for
(L=B) for differentFFRs. Thec ritic al c aseisat (FFR=l.O), inthis c asethefootingswill
suffer from inc rease in the roc kingspec iallyF1, asshowninthepeakvalueswhic hare
given in Table (4.7). At (FFR=3.0) and(FFR=1/3) thetwo footingsbehavemorelikely
as a singlefootingwithF1havingaslightinc reaseintheamplitudeof itsvibrations. For
greater lengths, the vertic al vibration dec reases for F2andinc reasesfor F1 c ompared
withthepreviousc ase. Roc kingwill inc reasefor bothfootings
121
Figures (4.44) and (4.45) investigate the c ase of disc ontinuous trenc hwith
length (L=B). Thewidthanddepthof trenc hare(W=O.2B)and(D=B). Other c asesof
trenc hlengthsaregiveninAppendix(C).
4.5.3.4. The Effect of Trench Length (L)
Figures (4.48) and(4.49) illustratetheeffec t of thetrenc hwidthonthepeaks of
the vertic al vibrationsandinduc edroc king. Inc reasingthetrenc hwidthupto (O.lB), will
dec rease the vertic al response of the passively isolated footing. Inthesametimethe
response of the ac tively isolated footing will inc rease spec ially at (FFR=1/3) andat
(FFR=3). Considering the induc ed roc king vibrations, the two footings suffer from
inc reaseof thevibrationsspec iallyat (FFR=1.0).
Figures (4.42) and (4.43) show the variation of M, and c j , versus A, for
(W=O.2B) for different FFRs. Thec ritic al c aseisat (FFR=l.O). However, thevaluesof
this c ase are c loseto thec aseof (W=O.lB). Other FFRsratios arec harac terizedbythe
two peak behaviour whic h dec reases the valuesof thepeaks asshowninTable(4.7).
The c ase of (W=O.3B) gives also c loseresultstothec aseof (W=O.2B).Theseresults
show that thewidthof thetrenc hhasinsignific anteffec tontheresponseof thefootings,
for widthsgreater than(O.lB).
122
Figures (4.50) and (4.51) illustrate the effect of the trench length on the peaks of
the vertical vibrations and induced rocking. Increasing the trench length will decrease the
vertical response of both the passively isolated footing and the actively isolated footing,
the rate of decrease of the vertical vibration of the footing F1 ispaltry. For F2, the
decrease is substantial up to length of 3B and thenthereductiondeemedto bevery
small. For rocking, there is a slightincreaseintheinducedrockingupto lengthof 2B
andthentherockingappearsto beconstant for bothfootings.
123
Thisvalueischosento makethevertical massratio B, =(1-v). m3 =5.0
4 pro
Table(4.2) Effect of spacingand theforcingfrequency ratio (FFR)
s I B Si ngl eF o o t . F F R=l F F R=2 F F R=3
(F1)
Mzl Mzz Mzl Mzz Mz,
Mzz Mzl Mz2
0. 5 3.09 2.4 5.36 5.38 3.42 3.34 3.08 3.l7
1. 0 3.07 1.89 4.54 4.54 3.14 3.14 3.08 2.7
1. 5 3.08 1.59 4.08 4.08 3.11 3.19 3.09 2.9
2. 0 3.28 1.23 3.75 3.75 3.29 3.24 3.29 3.27
3. 0 3.63 0.58 3.42 3.42 3.64 3.64 3.63 3.63
Table (4.1) Propertiesof soil andfooting elements
I t e m F o unda t i o ns So i l
Modulus of Elasticity(E) (kN/m") 2Oxl06 IOxl03
Poisson's ratio (u)
0.17 0.3
Dampingratio(l;)
0.01 0.05
Unit weight (y) (kN/m3)

18.0
184.72
124
Table (4.4) F;ffectof theforcing phase difference (FPD) at (FFR=1.0)
sIB FPD =0 FPD =450 FPD =90 FPD =1800
Mzl Mzz Mzl Mzz Mz. Mzz Mzl Mzz
0.5 5.25 5.27 5.38 4.35 4.68 2.79 2.19 2.19
1.5 4.08 4.08 4.27 3.33 4.51 2.42 3.19 3.19
Table (4.3) E/fectojthe!orcingamplitude ratio (FAR)
FFR=1
sIB FAR =0.5 FAR =1.0 FAR =1.5 FAR =2.0
Mzl Mzz Mzl Mzz Mzl Mzz Mzl Mzz
0.5 4.10 3.79 5.25 5.27 6.41 6.75 7.56 8.23
1.5 3.52 2.52 4.08 4.08 5.60 4.59 5.10 7.13
3.0 3.52 1.77 3.42 3.42 5.23 3.43 3.54 7.05
FFR=3
sIB FAR =0.5 FAR =1.0 FAR =1.5 FAR =2.0
Mzl Mzz Mzl Mzz Mzl Mzz Mzl Mzz
0.5 3.02 2.27 3.02 3.11 3.87 4.53 4.81 5.95
1.5 3.04 1.67 3.09 2.90 4.35 3.09 3.44 5.81
3.0 3.63 1.813 3.63 3.63 5.44 3.63 3.63 7.26
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126
Case
M Z 1 M z2
+ 1 ch
SD8cing Between Footinas =0.5 B
Depth of Rock = 0.58
P2=P11W2=W1 2.106 2.106 0.0223 0.0223
P2=P11W2=3w2 2.105 2.050 0.0211 0.0204
Depth of Rock =B
P2=P11W2=W1 3.493 3.493 0.0320 0.0320
P2=P11W2=3w2 3.389 3.231 0.0233 0.0230
Depth of Rock = 28
P2=P11W2=W1 3.989 3.989 0.0449 0.0449
P2=P11W2=3w2 3.033 3.080 0.0787 0.0840
Depth of Rock =38
P2=P11W2=W1 4.486 4.486 0.1709 0.1709
P2=P11W2=3w2 2.882 3.078 0.0877 0.0900
SD8cina Between Footings =B
Depth of Rock =0.58
P2=P11W2=W1 2.047 2.047 0.0124 0.0124
P2=P11W2=3w2 2.055 1.961 0.0026 0.0026
Depth of Rock =8
P2=P11W2=W1 3.259 3.259 0.0093 0.0093
P2=P11w2=3w2 3.328 3.330 0.0086 0.0081
Depth of Rock =28
P2=P11W2=W1 4.435 4.435 0.0131 0.0131
P2=P11w2=3w2 3.919 4.066 0.0268 0.0280
Depth of Rock =38
P2=P11W2=W1 4.180 4.180 0.1043 0.1043
P2=P11W2=3w2 3.195 3.242 0.0877 0.0902
Table (4.6) Effect ofrock interface depth
127
Case M z1 M z2
cjl1 cjl2
No Trench ,Referring Case)
SingleFooting.F, 3.197 1.659 0.0597 O.05n
PrP,.Wr"W, 4.193 4.193 0.1039 0.1039
PrP"wrlw, 3.204 3.313 0.0595 0.0620
Effect of Continuous Trench Del!th ~dth of Trench = 0.1B}
OtIpth of Irwlch = 0.5B
SingleFooting. F, 3.247 1.652 0.0626 0.0641
SingleFooting. F2 1.652 3.194 0.0570 0.0582
PrP,.Wr-W, 4.236 4.065 0.1176 0.1118
PrP,.wrlw, 3.254 3.212 0.0639 0.0649
PrP,. w,=lw, 3.323 3.196 0.0661 0.0498
Depthof trench = B
Singlefooting. F, 3.378 1.590 o.oseo 0.0599
SingleFooting. "2 1.590 3.270 0.0490 0.0571
PrP,.wrw, 4.235 3.570 0.1075 0.1000
PrP,.wr3w, 3.378 3.312 0.0791 0.0549
PrP,. w,=3w, 3.441 3.413 0.0715 0.0648
Depth of Irwlch ;;;; 2B
SingleFooting. F, 3.963 1.258 0.0795 0.0483
SingleFooting. F2 1.258 3.413 0.0610 0.0693
PrP"Wr-W, 4.235 3.570 0.1075 0.1000
PrP,.wr3w, 3.963 3.519 0.0791 0.0681
P2=P,.w,=lw, 3.854 3.413 0.0810 0.0694
Effect of Continuous Trench Width ,Del!th of Trench = B}
Wfdth oflrwlch =0.18
SingleFooting. F, 3.378 1.590 0.0680 0.0599
SingleFooting. F2 1.590 3.270 0.0490 0.0571
PrP,.Wr-W, 4.235 3.570 0.1075 0.1000
PrP"Wr3w, 3.378 3.312 0.0791 0.0549
PrP,. w,=3w, 3.441 3.413 0.0715 0.0648
Width of trench ;;;; O.2B
SingleFooting. F, 3.616 1.594 0.0737 0.0651
SingleFooting. F2 1.594 3.306 0.0533 0.0563
PrP,.Wr-W, 4.234 4.045 0.1262 0.1166
PrP"wr3w, 3.616 3.377 0.0749 0.0647
PrP,. w,=3w, 3.580 3.304 0.0676 0.0614
Wfdth of Irwlch ;;;; 0.38
SingleFooting. F, 3.863 1.601 0.0853 0.0694
SingleFooting. F2 1.601 3.381 0.0587 0.0561
PrP,.wrw, 4.545 3.608 0.1440 0.1216
PrP"wr3w, 3.863 3.436 0.0835 0.0692
PrP" w,=3w, 3.782 3.380 0.0882 0.0685
Effect of Trench Length, DeE!thof Trench = B. Width of Trench = O.2B}
Length of Irwlch = 8
SingleFooting. F, 3.388 1.6n 0.0630 0.0639
SingleFooting. F2 1.672 3.160 0.0603 0.0601
PrP,.Wr"W, 4.388 4.036 0.1204 0.1142
P2"'P,.Wr3w, 3.395 3.203 0.0646 0.0645
Pt"P" w,=3w, 3.324 3.163 0.0593 0.0599
Length of trench;;;; 2B
SingleFooting. F, 3.559 1.&49 0.0747 0.0843
SingleFooting. F2 1.649 3.250 0.0592 0.0596
PrP,.wrw, 4.462 3.804 0.1340 0.1228
PrP,.wr3w, 3.538 3.300 0.0765 0.0688
PrP,. w,=3w, 3.627 3.249 0.0822 0.0746
Length of trench=38
SingleFooting."1 3.588 1.615 0.0749 0.0684
SingleFooting. F2 1.615 3.290 0.0559 0.0579
PrP,.w-r-w, 4.369 3.707 0.1307 0.1195
PrP,.wr3w, 3.587 3.351 0.0768 0.0682
PrP,. w,=3w, 3.550 3.289 0.0668 0.0607
Table (4.7) Trench isolation
128
-------- ---------
Figure (4. J) - The geometry, boundary conditions and meshing
For the studied model (dimensions are in meters)
PLAN
+
1.0 1 1.0 0,5 0,50,5 0,5 s 0.5 0,5 0,:iO,5+ 1.0 + 1.0 +
- , + + + + t + + ~ - - -
x
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+ + + + + + + + + -
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x
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129
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134
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135
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sIB
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136
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137
Figure (4.J 0) Referring case, surface footing
PLAN
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138
Figure (4.11) Embedment depth D e =O.25B. symmetric case
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PLAN
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139
Figure (4.J 2) Embedment depth De =O.25B. unsymmetric case
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140
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141
Figure (4.14) Embedment depth De = = 0.50 B. unsymmetnc case
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Figure (4.28) Meshfor s=0.5 B
PL AN
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156
Figure (4.29) Mesh for s=B
PL AN
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Figure (4.30)Effect of rock interfacedepth (sIB=0.5),M,
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Figure (4.31) Effect of rock interface depth (s/B=O.5), rj J
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Figure (4.32) Effect of rock interface depth (siB=1.0). M,
1.5 1.5 0.5 0.5
4
23
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Rook Interlace

1
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160
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1,\
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178
179
In order to study these parameters, different models of adjacent footings have
been studied to clarify the effect of each parameter. The analysis is based on the finite
element method. A special three dimensional finite element program has been developed
to perform theparametric study; themost pronounced factors are emphasized.
5. Use of trenches to reduce interaction between the adjacent machine foundations.
4. Effect of the foundation embedment on their response.
3. Effect of the soil depth to the underlying fIrmstratum on the interaction between
the machine foundations.
2. Effect of spacing between the foundations on the interaction between the
machine foundations.
1. The effect of different parameters of the forcing functions of the footings (i.e.,
the frequency, the amplitude and thephase).
The aim of this research isto study the interaction of the machine foundation. The
following parameters havebeen studied:
5.1. INTRODUCTION
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Chapter (5)
180
9. Both vertical vibrations and accompanying rocking increase by increasing the
depthof therock interface
8. For unsymmetrically embedded footing, the greater the load acting upon the
embedded footing the greater the response of surface footing, and this effect
increaseswiththeincreasingof theembedmentdepth
7. For symmetricallyembedded footings, thevertical vibrationsand accompanying
rockingvibrationsdecreasemonotonicallywith increasingtheembedment of the
footing;however, therockingdecreasesathigherrates.
6. Rocking and vertical vibrations are no longer uncoupled considering the
interactionof closefootings.
5. The greatest interactionhappens when thetwo footingsarebiasedthrough some
phaseangle, thiseffectisslightincaseof small sIBratios(sIB=O.5)but tendsto be
significantathigher sIBratios(sIB= 1.5)
4. The interactionincreasesin a linear formas theFAR increasesfor (FFR 1).For
theother FFR values, theresponsetrendsarenot linear.
3. "The closer the MO footing, the greater the interaction" is not always a true
statement, becauseat higher FFR (FFR>3.0),thefootingswill not suffer fromthe
effect of interaction. Thereforedifferent machine foundation can be constructed
withspacingequal to 0.5Bwhentheir FFR isgreaterthan3.0.
2. The most pronounced interactioneffect will appear at the least distancesIB=O.5
andat FFR =1.0.At sIB=3.0, theinteractionpracticallyvanishes.
1. The greatest interactioneffect appearswhen the FFR 1then it decreases as this
ratio increases and almost vanishes at FFR 3. At shallow depths of rock
interface, the difference between the footing responses at different FFRs is not
significant. The change of response with change of FFRs is notable when the
depth of compressible layer is more than 1.0B for spacing equal to 0.5 B and
I.3B for spacingequal to B.
Theobtainedresultscanbeconcludedinthefollowing:
5.2. CONCLUSION
181
Future research in this field is suggested to be more accurate using the viscous
boundaries toprevent theordinary boundary effect that may reflect thewaves back to
the region of interest. The study must include the interaction between the footings
under general cases of vibrations (i.e. torsional, sliding, ...etc.), taking intoaccount the
possible relative displacement between the footings and their supporting soil at the
contact area. The soil modeling must includethe effect of the confming pressure on
thesoil elastic modulus andtheeffect of soil anisotropy.
Interaction between footings must be studied thoroughly because it may be of
the same importance as thesinglefooting behaviour and may generate unpredictable
vibrations similar to the inducedrocking dueto vertical vibrations.
5.3. RECOMMENDATIONS
11. Increasingthetrenchdepth,widthor lengthwill decreasethevertical vibrationsof
thepassiveisolatedfootinguptoD =B, W=0.1B andL =3B andthentherateof
thedecreasewill bevery small.
10. Trench isolation can reduce the vertical vibration in passive isolation but may
increase the rocking for both footings and the vertical oscillation for the active
isolation with themost pronounced effect happening when FFR=1.0
I nt er act i on of sur f ace f oot i ngs
Appendi x ( A)
183
Effect of Spacing and FFR
PART (I)
184
105
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188
Effect of FAR
PART (II)
189
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193
Effect of FPD
PART (III)
194
Figure (A-9) Effect oj FPD at s/B>1.5andFFR=1.0
9=270 9=315
6
6
5
b;]
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195
Figure (A-10) Effect of FPD at sIB=1.5 and FFR=3.0
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196
Appendix (B)
Effect of Embedment
197
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Appendix (C)
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