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30 =

=
=
=
= 100 x 61.4 10
-3
=
=
=
=
Calculation of Water Demand
It can be assumed that city is a residential town ( Low Rise Buildings )
Expected Population after
Average Rate of Water Supply / Capita 135
61400
Water required for above purposes for whole town = ( 61400 x 135 )
8.289 MLD
Industrial Demand 0.6 MLD
Fire Requirement :
Maximum Daily Draft = ( 1.5 x 8.889 ) = 13.334 MLD
Coincident Draft = Maximum Daily Draft + Fire Demand
Water for Fire MLD
= 0.78 MLD
Average Daily Draft = ( 8.289 + 0.6 ) = 8.889 MLD
Pipe Main = Maximum Daily Draft = 13.334 MLD
2 x Average Daily Demand
= ( 13.334 + 0.78 ) = 14.114 MLD
( Considering Draft < Maximum Hourly Draft )
Design Capacity For Various Components
Intake Structure Daily Draft = 13.334 MLD
Filters and Other Units at Treatment Plant :
( 2 x 8.889 ) = 17.778 MLD
Lift Pump : 2 x Average Daily Demand
( 2 x 8.889 ) = 17.778 MLD
3
10 100

= P
S.No.
1
2
3
4 7.0 to 8.5 6.5 to 9.2
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
Characteristics
Turbidity ( Units on J.T.U. Scale )
Colour ( Units on Platinum Cobalt Scale )
Taste & Odour
PH
Zinc ( mg / L as Z
n
)
Total Dissolved Solids ( mg / L )
Total Hardness ( mg / L as Ca CO
3
)
Chlorides ( mg / L as C 1 )
Sulphates ( mg / L as S O
4
)
Fluorides ( mg / L as F )
Nitrates ( mg / L as N O
3
)
Calcium ( mg / L as Capacity )
Magnesium ( mg / L as Mg )
Iron ( mg / L as F
e
)
Manganese ( mg / L as M
n
)
Copper ( mg / L as C
u
)
Anionic Detergents ( mg / as MBAS )
Mineral Oil ( mg / L )
Arsenic ( mg / L as A
s
)
Cadmium ( mg / L as C
d
)
Chromium ( mg / L as Hexavalent C
r
)
Gross Beta Activity ( C
i
/ L )
Cause for Rejection
10
25
Unobjectionable
1500
600
1000
400
Cyanides ( mg / L as C N )
Lead ( mg / L as P
b
)
Selenium ( mg / L as S
e
)
Mercury ( mg / L as H
g
)
Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons ( mg/L )
Gross Alpha Activity in pico Curie ( C
i
/ L )
Phenolic Compounds ( mg / L as Phenol )
0.05
1.5
45
200
150
1
0.5
1.5
15
0.002
1
0.3
0.2
3
30
Acceptable
2.5
5
Unobjectionable
500
200
200
0.01
0.05
0.05
0.1
0.01
0.001
0.001
0.2
0.01
200
1
45
75
30
0.1
0.001
0.2
3
30
Physical & Chemical Standards Of Water
TOXIC MATERIALS
RADIO ACTIVITY
0.05
0.01
0.05
0.05
0.1
0.01
0.05
0.05
5
S.No. Actual Treatment Proposed
1 7.5 7.0 to 8.5 0.25 Hence OK. Not Necessary
2 50
Clarifier & Rapid
Sand Filler
3 550 Softening
4 200 -
5 2.5 Aeration
6 3.5 Aeration
7 110 Softening
8 3.5 Chlorination
Particulars
pH
Comparison of Given Data & Standard Data and Treatment Proposed
Standard
Iron
Carbonate
MPN
Turbidity
Total Hardness
Chlorides
Manganese
0
Difference
47.5
350
0
2.4
3.45
110
3.5
2.5
200
200
0.1
0.05
0
S.No.
1
2 5.0 to 10 m ( Maximum = 15 m )
3 10 m
4
5 1 to 3 ( Maximum = 4 )
6
=
=
=
=
= 0.1543 m
0.1543 x 10 x 60
= 92.58 m
( 92.58 / 4 )
= 23.15 m
23.15 x 4

d = 5.43 m
5.43 m 5.5 m
S.No. Values
1 1 Unit
2 5.5 m
3 4.0 m
4 24 m
Design Criteria :
Particulars
Detention Time / Period
Diameter of Well
Depth of Well
Velocity of Flow
Number of Units
Free Board
Values
10 minutes
4.0 to
5.0 to
Design of Intake Well
Flow of Water Required = 13.334 MLD / 3600 x 24
Given F.S.L.
Minimum R.L.
Given invert of gravity main
Detention Time
27 m
28 m
24 m
10 minutes
0.6 to 0.9 m / sec.
5 m
Design Assumptions :
3
/ sec.
Volume of Well =
Cross-sectional Area of Intake Well =
Diameter of Intake Well =
Design Calculations :
Number of Intake Wells
Diameter of Intake Well
Height of Wall
R.L. of bottom of Well
< 10 m ( O.K. )
Hence Diameter of Intake Well =
Summary :
Particulars
a)
b)
= 0.6 to
=
=
c)
=
=
=
=
= 0.103 m
0.103 x 4

d)
S.No.
1
2
3
a)
= 0.2 to
= 6.0 to
=
b)
=
= 10.0 mm
c)
( 10 x 10 ) x
Calculation
4
Area of Each Hole =
0.25 m / sec.
0.75 m / sec.
Less than 1 m
= 0.79 cm
Area of Strainer 2
Assumptions
Velocity of Flow
Hole Diameter
Design of Bell Mouth Strainer :
Design Criteria
Velocity of Flow 0.3 m / sec.
Hole Diameter 12.0 mm
Number of Pen Stock / Well 2 Units
At Each Level 1 m
Diameter of Pen Stock 0.40 m
Particulars Values
Number of Pen Stock for each Level
Velocity
C / S area of each Pen Stock
2 nos.
0.1543 / ( 0.75 x 2 )
Diameter = 0.3622 m 0.4 m (Say)
Summary
Diameter of each Pen Stock
Number of Pen Stock for each Intake Well 2 nos.
Design Calculation
Number of Intake Well 1 nos.
Design of Pen Stock & Bell Mouth Strainer
Pen Stock
Design Criteria
Velocity through Pen Stock 1.0 m / sec.
These are the Pipes provided in Intake Well to allow water from water body to intake well.
These pen stocks are provided at different levels, so as to take account of seasonal variation in
water level (as H.F.L, W.L., L.W.L.). Trash racks of screens are provided to protect the entry
sizeable things which can create trouble in the pen stock. At each level more than one pen
stock is provided to take account of any obstruction during its operations. these pen stocks are
regulated by valves provided at the top of intake wells.
=
H

=
4 Area
d
=
H
4
2
d
0.1543 1
( 0.25 x 2 ) 0.7850
= = 6171.98
x d
2
4

0.90 m
F.S.L. =
L.W.L. = 26.0 m
5.5 m
24 m
Area of Collection = Area of Pen Stock
0.1543
( 0.25 x 2 )
= 0.7850 x N

= 88.67 cm
= 6171.98 cm
N = = 3931.2
Area of Strainer =
Bottom R.L. =
3.0 m
Provide Diameter of for Bell Mouth Strainer.
27.0 m
2
2 x 3931.2 x 0.785
Bell Mouth Strainer
Diameter of Bell Mouth Strainer =
( 6171.98 x 4 )
Diameter = d =
Plan
Section
Regulating Valves Manhole
Gravity Main
=
H
4
2
d
a)
b)
= 0.3 to
= 0.6 to
= 1 nos.
=
c)
R.C.C. Circular n =
=
= 0.1543
= 0.2204 m
x d
2
4

0.7 x 0.7
4/3
= 11.6684 x 10
-4
S = 1 : 857
Area 1 D 0.55
Perimeter x D 4 4
100
857
( 27 - 3 ) =
d)
S.No.
1
2
3
4
Diameter of Gravity Intake 0.55 m
Invert Level at Intake Well 24.0 m
Invert Level at Jack Well 23.88 m
23.883 m
Summary
Particulars Values
Number of Gravity Intake 1 Units
Head Loss = = 0.117
R.L. of Gravity Main = 24.0 m
R.L. of Gravity Main at Jack Well = ( 24 - 0.117 ) =
=
( 0.55 / 4 )
= 0.001167
4

/ ( 0.70 )
0.55 m
Pipe is used. For this
Conduit Velocity ( Assumed ) 0.70 m / sec.
Using Manning's Formula -
0.013
x 0.013 x 0.013
x D x D
= Here R =
Diameter = d =
0.2204 x 4
= 0.53 m
Velocity of Water 0.9 m / sec.

Number of Gravity Main = Number of Intake Well


0.70 m / sec. Assumption Velocity
Design Calculation
Area of Conduit required (A = Q / V )
Diameter of the conduit
= 0.2204 m
Design of Gravity Main
Gravity Main
Design Criteria
Diameter of Gravity Main 1.0 m
The Gravity Main connects the Intake Well to the Jack Well & water flows through it by gravity.
To secure the greatest economy, the diameter of a single pipe through which water flows by
gravity should be such that all the head available to cause flow is consumed by friction. The
available fall from the intake well to the jack well & the ground profile in between should
generally help to decide if a free flow conduit is feasible. once this is decided the material of the
conduit is to be selected keeping in view the local cost & the nature of the terrain to be traversed.
Even when a fall is available, a pumping or force main, independently or in combination with a
gravity main could also be considered. Gravity pipelines should be laid below the hydraulic
gradient.
2
1
3
2
1
S R
n
V =
=
(
(


=
2
3
2
R
n V
S =

3
4
2 2
R
n V
a)
b)
0.5 x ( 3.0 to 15.0 min. )
= 0.5 x 10 minutes
c)
5 minutes
8.0 m
1.0 m
0.5 m
3.12 m
0.1543 x 10 60.0
( 92.58 / 3.12 ) = 29.70 m
x d
2
4
29.7 x 4

22.88 m
d)
S.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Design of Jack Well
Head required ( h
d
) 4.88 m = ( 8 - 2.12 - 1 )
R.L. of Top of Jack Well 29.88 m
Suction Depth 2.12 m
Top Clearance 0.50 m
Bottom Clearance 1.00 m
Particulars Values
Diameter of Jack Well 6.15 m
R.L. of Bottom of Jack Well 22.88 m
Diameter = d = = 6.15 m
Summary
29.88 m
R.L. of Bottom of Jack Well = ( 23.883 - 1 ) =
R.L. of Bottom of Jack Well when full = ( 22.883 + 7 ) =
Design criteria
Detention Time = ( Detention time of intake Well )
Bottom Clearance =
Top Clearance =
Jack Well
Capacity of Well = = 92.58 m
C / S Area of Well =
Diameter of the Well
Minimum Depth of Water = ( 26 - 22.883 ) =
This structure serves as a collection of the sump well for the incoming water from the intake well
from where the water is pumped through the rising main to the various treatment units.
The unit is more useful when number of intake wells are more than one, so that water is collected
in one unit and then effected.
The Jack well is generally located away from the shore line, so that the installation of pumps,
inspection maintenance is made easy.
= 29.70 m
Maximum depth of water that can be stored in condition when water is minimum in river .
( < ) Less than 10 m
Diameter of Well = ( < ) Less than 20 m
Assuming Suction Head =
= 5 minutes
Suction Head =
Design Calculations
Detention Time =
a) Pumps

10 m,

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

b)
= 0.1543 m
= ( 0.97 to 1.22 )
= ( 0.97 to 1.22 )
= ( 0.381 to 0.48 )
= 0.43 m Say 0.45 m
c)
= 0.7 to
= 0.50 m
= 1.00 m
d)
=
0.02 x 190 x ( 0.9 x 0.9 )
2 x 9.81 x 0.45
f = 0.02
L = 190 m
g =
Design Calculation
Hence Provide d =
Design Criteria
Buoyancy Operated pumps
running costs.
The efficiency of the pumps & consequent influence on power consumption and the
Here :
9.81 m / sec.
Present & projected demand & pattern and change in demand.
The details of head & flow rate required.
Suction head should not be greater than
x ( 0.1543 )
Economical Diameter ( d )
( > ) 10 m.
Velocity of flow length 1.1 m / sec.
Top Clearance
Bottom Clearance
= 0.349 m
Frictional Losses in Rising Main -
Velocity ( Assuming ) 0.9 m / sec.
Head Loss
= ( 0.97 to 1.22 )
x ( 0.3930 )
Design Of Pumping System
3
/ sec.
In the water treatment plant, pumps are used to boost the water from the jack well to the
aeration units.
2
2.5
If head is more than 10 m ,
The following criteria govern pump selection : -
Diameter of Rising Main
Discharge ( Q )
Type of duty required.
Selecting the operating speed of the pump & suitable drive.
Impulse Operated pumps
Velocity Adoptions pumps
Positive Displacement Pumps
water is converted into vapour & thus inspite of creating water head,
head is created & pump ceases to fuction.
The following points are to be stressed upon :
be greater than ( > ) for centrifugal pump.
The suction pumping should be as short & straight as possible. It should not
The following four types of pumps are generally used -
Q
=


=
d g
v L f
h
f
2
2
Head Loss h
f
= 0.349 m Say
= 1 m
=
= 8.35 m
Assuming
1000 x 8.35
17.18
0.75
If = 75 %
e)
S.No.
1
2
Pumps Capacity 25 H.P
Diameter of Pipe 0.45 m
Say = 22.90 H.P
75
= 17.179 H.P
Hence Total Head of Pumping = ( h
s
+ h
d
+ h
f
+ minor losses )
Particulars Values
25 H.P
( 2.12 + 4.88 + 0.35 + 1 )
Minor Losses should be assuming
2 in Parallel is working
0.1543 x
Summary
0.35 m
= =
75
. .
. .
H Q W
P H W
= =
q
P H W
P H B
. .
. .
a) General
b)
= 0.9 to
0.9 m
= 0.1543 m
3
/ sec.
c)
= ( 0.97 to 1.22 )
= ( 0.97 to 1.22 )
= ( 0.381 to 0.48 )
= 0.43 m Say 0.45 m
d)
S.No.
1
Particulars Values
Diameter of Mains Pipe 0.45 m
x ( 0.1543 )
x ( 0.3930 )
Hence Provide d =
Total Discharge in Mains
Summary
1.5 m / sec. Permissible Velocity in Mains
Mains Diameter should be less than ( < ) of
Design Calculations
Economical Diameter ( d ) = ( 0.97 to 1.22 )
Design of Rising Main
The design of rising main is dependent on resistance to flow, available head, allowable velocities of
flow, sediment transport, quality of water & relative cost.
Various types of pipes used are cast iron, steel, R.C.C, P.C.C, asbestos cement, polyethylene, rigid
PVC, iron fibre glass pipe, glass reinforced plastic etc.
The determination of the suitability in all respects of the pipe of joints for any work is a matter of
decision by the engineer concerned on the basis of requirements of the scheme.
Design Criteria
These are the pressure pipes used to convey the water from jack well to the treatment units.
Q
i)
ii)
iii)
i)
ii)
iii)
= 4 to 9
= 0.3 to
= 2.0 m
= 0.015 - 0.05 m
Disharge ( Q
max.
) = 0.1543 m
= 17.0 m
= 5.0 m
= 0.4 m
= 50.0 cm

1
= 1.0 m

2
= 2.0 m 31.0 m

3
= 3.0 m R.L.

4
= 4.0 m 30.2 m

5
= 5.0 m R.L. 29.8 m
R.L. 29.4 m
R.L. 29.0 m
Inlet
R.L.
30.6 m
R.L.
3
/ sec.
= 0.5 m
Spacing of trays 0.75 C / C
Height of the Structure
Space Requirement
2
/ m
3
/ hr.
Design Calculations
Provide Area at Tray
Diameter of bottom most tray
Rise of each Tray
Tread of each tray
Number of Trays
Aeration is necessary to promote the exchange of gases between the water & the
atmosphere. In water treatment, aeration is practiced for three puposes :
To add oxygen to water for imparting freshness, e.g. water from under ground sources
devoid of or deficient in oxygen.
Expulsion of CO
2
, H
2
S & other volatile substances causing taste and odour, e.g.
water from deeper layers of an impounding reservoir.
To precipitate impurities like iron and manganese, in certain forms, e.g. water from
some under ground sources.
The Concentration of gases in a liquid generally obeys Henry's Law which states that
the concentration of each gas in water is directly proportional to the partial pressure or
concentration of gas in the atmoshere in contact with water. The saturation
concentration of a gas decreases with temperature & dissolved salts in water. Aeration
tends to accelerate the gas exchange.
The three types of aerators are :
Water Fall or Multiple Tray Aerators
Aeration unit
Cascade Aerators
Diiffused Air Aerators
Design Criteria For Cascade Aerators
Treatment Units - Design Of Aeration Unit
=
=
=
50 mg / L, 20 mg / L, & 5 mg / L in the
Monsoon Winter Summer
0.1543 x ( 60 x 60 ) = 555.48 m
3
/ hour
50 x 555.48 x 1000 x 24
1000000
= 666.58 Kg / Day
For 6.0 months
50.0 Kg
=
each heep = 160.0
, 32.0 m
5 mg / L
Let the average dose of alum required be
seasons respectively.
Per day alum required for worst season for intermediate stage
=
Alum required
Summer
Flow of Water Required Hourly =
Bags
2400 Bags
( 180 Days ) = ( 666.58 x 180 ) = 119984.40 Kg
Number of Bags when 1 bag is containing =
119984.40
=
50.0
= 2399.7
Design Of Chemical House & Calculation Of Chemical Dose
The terms coagulation & flocculation are used indiscriminately to describe the process of
removal of turbidity caused by the suspension colloids & organic colors.
The coagulant dose in the field should be judiciously controlled in the light of the jar test
values. Alum is used as coagulant.
50 mg / L
20 mg / L
Alum Dose for Coagulation
Design Criteria for Alum Dose
Alum required in particular season is given below :
Monsoon
Winter
If 15 bags in ( 2400 / 15 ) =
0.2 then total area required =
no. of heeps
30.0
C
a
C O
3
= ( 40 + 12 + 16 x 3 )
= ( 40 + 12 + 100
C
a
O = ( 40 + 56
C
a
C O
3
=
C
a
C O
3
=
=
= 24
requires =
requires = C
a
O
requires = C
a
O
= 8.2 C
a
O
=
74 Kg
=

= ( 2 x 11 + 12 + 16 x 3 )
= ( 22 + 12 + 82
=
= 92.24 x 180 x 24 x 1000
=
Softening
48 ) =
A water is said to be hard, when it does not form leather readily with soap. The hardness of
generally used are Lime-Soda process. Softening with these chemicals is used particularly for
Lime required for alkalinity.
Molecular Weight of
Lime & Soda Required :-
Design Criteria For Lime-Soda Process
110 mg / L of alkalinity requires ( 56 / 100 ) x 110
61.6 mg / L of C
a
O
Molecular Weight of 16 ) =
100 mg / L of alkalinity requires 56 mg / L of C
a
O
56 mg / L of C
a
O
1.0 mg / L of Magnesium ( M
n
) ( 56 / 24 ) mg / L of
Lime required for Magnesium
24.0 mg / L of Magnesium ( M
n
)
Soda ( Na
2
C O
3
)
Soda is required for non - carbonate hardness, as follows -
48 ) =
Also 56 Kg of Pure Lime ( Ca O ) is equivalent to
Hence hydrated Lime is required ( 69.8 x 74 ) / 56 = 92.24
3.5 mg / L of Magnesium ( M
n
) mg / L of ( 56 / 24 ) x 3.5
mg / L of
Hence, the total pure lime required ( 61.6 + 8.2 ) = 69.8 mg / L
65.30 mg / L of Na
2
C O
3
555.48 x
1000000
61.6 mg / L of NCH requires ( 106 / 100 ) x 61.6 =
100 mg / L of Non Carbonate Hardness ( NCH ) requires 106 mg / L of Na
2
C O
3
50.0 Kg
= = 4426.9 Bags Say 4427 Bags
221345.890 Kg
( One Bag contains = 50.0 Kg )
221345.890 Kg
Number of Bags required
Lime - Soda Process
of hydrated lime.
water is due to the presence of Calcium and Magnesium ions in most of the cases. The method
water with high initial hardness ( > 500 mg / L ) and suitable for water containing turbidity,
colour and iron salts. Lime -Soda softening con not reduce the hardness to value less ( < 40 mg / L ).
Molecular Weight of Magnesium ( M
n
)
to 200 mg / L total hardness by this process.
Total Quantity of Lime
Molecular Weight of Soda ( Na
2
C O
3
)
=

= 65.30 x 180 x 24 x 1000


=
=

Length = Width =
=
Ok.
=
=
180
=

Length = Width =
=
= 2766.83 x 20 = 55336.6
=
24 x 60
= 38.43 x 60 x 8
18446.4
1000
1.20 m
= 4.50 m x 1.50 m
= 23.625 m
S.No.
1
2
3
4 1.50 m
5
555.48 x Total Quantity of Soda required for 6 months
1000000
156698.69 Kg
( 4427 / 15 ) = 295.1 no. of heeps
, then total area required = 59.030 m
If 15 bags in
0.2
each heep
If 15 bags in each heep ( 3134 / 15 ) = 208.9 no. of heeps
0.2 , then total area required = 41.790 m
Number of Bags required =
156698.690 Kg
= 3134.0 Bags Say 3134 Bags
50.0 Kg
Hence Provide room Dimension : 15.00 m 12.00 m
Room Area ( 15 x 12 ) = 180.00 m
Total Area for all Chemicals ( 32 + 59.03 + 41.79 ) = 132.82 m
Add 30 % for chlorine storage, chlorine cylinders etc. hence total Area = 172.67 m
Total quantity of Alum, Lime & Soda / Day
Number of Bags required =
2766.830 Kg
= 55.3 Bags
Chemical Dissolving Tanks :
Total quantity of Alum, Lime & Soda ( 119984.4 + 221345.89 + 156698.69 )
498028.980 Kg
498028.980 Kg
= = 2766.8 Kg
0.2 , then total area required = 0.750 m
Hence Provide room Dimension : 1.50 m 1.50 m
Say 56 Bags
50.0 Kg
If 15 bags in each heep ( 56 / 15 ) = 3.733 no. of heeps
Hydrated Lime Required
Soda required
Size of Chemical Dissolving tanks
Size of Chemical Solution tanks
1.50 m x
Values
666.58 Kg / Day
92.24
65.3
4.5 x 3.5 x 1.5
Particulars
Per Day Alum Required
Dimension of Solution Tank 3.50 m x
Volume of Solution Tank
Summary
= 18.45 m =
Assuming Depth of Tank =
Quantity of solution for 8.0 Hours = 18446.4 Liters
Hence Solution required per day Liter / Day
Hence Solution required per day 55336.6
& Free Board 0.30 m
Area required is ( < ) Greater than Area provided, hence Ok.
Area required is ( < ) Greater than Room Area provided, hence
= 38.43 Liter / Min
Room Area ( 1.5 x 1.5 ) = 2.25 m
Chemical Solution Tanks :
Total quantity of Alum, Lime & Soda / Day = 2766.8 Kg
= 30 to 60 Sec.
= 4 to
= 1 to 3 m
= 1000 m
= 100 to
= 0.4 to 1.0 m
= 300 m
0.2 to 0.4 : 1
= 1 to 3 : 1
= 0.1543 x
= 13331.52
= 30 Sec.
= 1.5 : 1
0.3 : 1
= 120 rpm
= 20
0
C
i)
Volume = 4.629 m
= 1.6 m
4.629 1
( / 4 ) 1.6 x 1.6
= 2.37 m (Say)
= 0.23 m
= 2.60 m
ii)
= 5.47 KW
iii)
= 0.65 m
=
= A
B
Let C
D
=
5.47 x 1000 = x 1000 x A
B
x ( 3/4 ) x 4.08
2
A
B
= 1.99 m
Design Criteria for Mechanical Rapid Mix Unit
/ sec / m depth
Ratio of Tank Height to diameter
Design Calculations
Impeller Speed
Loss of Head
0.041
250 rpm
Detention Time
Velocity of Flow 9 m / sec.
Depth
Power Required
( 24 x 60 x 60 )
m
3
/ Day
Detention Time
Ratio of Tank Height to diameter
Ratio of impeller dia. to tank dia. =
Impeller Speed
Assume Temperature
Dimension of Tank :
Diameter D
Design Flow
( 2.37 + 0.23 ) =
4.08 m / sec.
= Height of Tank
Tank free board
Total Height of Tank
Power Spent
1.8 (Flat Blade): and V
R
= ( 3/4 ) x V
T
Power Requirement :
Power Spend
Dimensions of Flat Blade & Impeller :
Diameter of Impeller
3
/ Day
Ratio of impeller diameter to tank diameter =
Mixing device be capable of creating a velocity gradiend
1 x 1.8
Velocity of Tip Impeller ( V
T
)
= 2.30 m
Area of Blade
( )
3
2
1
R B o D
V A r C =
8 ( 0.50 x 0.50 ) m
2.00 m
Provide projecting 0.2
250 mm diameter.
iv)
S.No.
1
2
3
4
5 ( 0.50 x 0.50 ) m
6
7
Speed of impeller 120 rpm
Provide Inlet & Outlet Pipes of
Area of Blade Provided = ( 0.5 x 0.5 ) x 8 =
4 numbers of length 1.50 m and
Hence Provide Blades of
Summary
Particulars Values
Detention Time 30 Sec.
2.60 m
Power Required 5.47 KW
8
Height of Tank ( 0.23 m free board )
Number of Blade
Number of Baffles ( length 1.50 m ) 4
Diameter of Inlet & Outlet Pipes 250 mm
= 3 to 4.5 m
= 30 to 60 min.
= 0.2 to
= 10 to
= 0.2 to
= 10 to 75
= 10
4
to 10
5
= 10 to
= 0.15 to
= 40 m
= 3 to 4.5 m
= 300 m
= 25 %
= 1 in 12
= or 8 %
= 1.2 : 1
= 1 45 to 80 min.
= 40
= 555.48 m
3
/ hour
= 2 %
Design Of Clariflocculator
0.25 m / sec.
Design Criteria : ( Clarifier )
Assuming a Surface Overflow rate
3
/ m
2
/ Day
Depth of Water
( V : H )
Scraper Velocity
Assumption
Average Outflow from clariflocculator
Water Lost in desludging
3
/ m
2
/ Day
Storage of Sludge
Floor Slope
for mechanically cleaned tank
Clariflocculator
The flocculated water passes out from the bottom of the flocculation tank to the clarifying zone through a
wide opening. The area of the opening being large enough to maintain a very low velocity. Under quiescent
conditions, in the annular setting zone the floc embedding the suspended particles settle to the bottom & the
clear effluent overflows into the peripheral launder.
All these units consists of 2 or 4 flocculating paddles placed equidistantly. These paddles rotate on their
vertical axis. The flocculating paddles may be of rotor-stator type. Rotating in opposite direction above the
vertical axis. The clarification unit outside the flocculation compartment is served by inwardly raking
rotating blades. The water mixed with chemical is fed in the flocculator compartment fitted with paddles
rotating at low speeds thus forming flocs.
The coagulation & sedimentation processes are effectively incorporated in a single unit in the
Clariflocculator. Sometimes clarifier & Clariflocculator are designed as separate units.
Dimension Less Factor G
t
Power Consumption
Total Area of Paddles 25
Range of peripheral velocities of blades 0.6 m / sec.
Depth of Tank
Detention Time
Velocity of Flow 0.8 m / sec.
Design Criteria : ( Flocculator )
36 KW / MLD
Velocity of water at outlet chamber
Weir Loading
Velocity Gradient ( G )
Slope for Sludge Hopper
Outlet Velocity
= 555.48 + 2 % of 555.48
= 555.48 + 11.11
= 566.59 m
3
/ hour
= 30 min.
= 30.0 sec
- 1
= 0.1543 m
3
/ sec.
=
0.1543 x 4
1/2
1
450 mm
= 566.59 x 30 = 283.3 m
60
= 3.50 m
= 283.30 = 80.9 m
3.50
80.94 x 4
1/2

= 0.45 m
10.20 m
Here :
P = N.m / s
=
G =
V =
= ( / 4 ) x 285.85 m
= 30 x 30 x 0.89 x 285.85 = 228.97
1000
C
d
= 1.8
= 995 Kg / m
3
( 25
0
C )
v =
= 0.4 ) = 0.1 m / sec.
Diameter of Inlet Pipes ( D
P
)
Provide a Tank Diameter of
Dimension Of Paddles :
Diameter of Flocculator ( D )
Velocity of water tip of blade = ( 0.25 x
Power Input =
Volume of raw water to which P is applied in m
3
Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity of Raw Water in N.s /
m
2
Temporal Mean Velocity Gradient in ( sec
-1
)
Velocity of tip of blade = 0.4 m / sec.
1.0 m / sec. Assuming Velocity ( V )
Discharge ( Q )
= = 10.15 m
= 0.4434 m
Provide an influent pipes of diameter.
Design Of Flocculatior : Wall
Hence Diameter ( d ) =

Volume of flocculator
Provide a Water Depth
Plan Area of flocculator
Average Value of Velocity Gradient
Design Of Influent Pipe
Design Average Period
Power dissipated in watts i.e.
Detention Period
Say 10.20 m
( 10.2 x 10.2 ) x 3.5 =
V
Q
d
V
Q
A V A Q = |
.
|

\
|

H
= =
2
4
|
.
|

\
|
H

=
V
Q
d
4
|
.
|

\
|
H

= |
.
|

\
|

H
=
4
4
2
A
d d A
V G P =
2
( ) | |
3
2
1
u v A C
P d
228.97
3
x A
P
A
P
= 9.470 m
9.47 / ( A
P
) x ( 9.11 ( 10.0 to 25 % )
10.5 m
A
P
= 10.5 / 10.12 %
( Which is
Provide 5 nos. of paddles
1 ( One ) 5 Paddles.
4
60
0.955 m Say 1 m
r =
Area = 555.48 / = 0.514 m
0.51 / ( x 10.20 )
= 0.016 m
( 0.25 x 3.5 ) = 0.875 m
8 %
0.29 say ( 0.3 +
= 4.691 m
= 40 m
= 555.48 x 24 = 333.29 m
40
D
cf
=
10.20 x 10.20 ) = 333.29
4
1333.152 + 104.04
1/2

= 22.992 m
= x D
cf
72.22 m
= 555.48 x 24
72.22
1500
Diametre of Clariflocculator
= ( 1 / 2 ) x 1.8 x 995 x ( 0.4 - 0.1 )
0.3 x 60 x 60
Depth below partition Wall =
25
Provide Slope for Bottom =
Surface Of Clariflocculator
Total Depth of Tank at Partition Wall =
x ( 10.2 - 0.75 ) x 3.5 x 100 =
Acceptable, hence O.K. )
Ratio of Paddles to C / S of Flocculator
10.2 - 0.75 ) x 3.5 x 100 =
Provide A
P
=
3.5 + 0.016 + 0.875 )
say 4.7 m
Design Of Clarifier
Assuming a Surface Overflow rate
3
/ m
2
/ Day
0.3 m / sec.
3.5 m height 0.7
Shaft will support
The Paddles will rotate at an rpm of
V = 2 x x r x N = 2 x 3.14 x r x ( 4 / 60 ) = 0.4
r =
Distance of Paddle from C 1 of vertical shaft.
Let velocity of water below the partition wall between the flocculator & clarifier be
Weir Loading
= 184.60 m
3
/ Day / m
According to manual of govt. of india, if it is well clarifier, then it can be exceed upto
x ( D
cf
2
-
Say 23 m
Length of Weir = ( 3.14 x 23 ) =
= D
cf
S.No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11 Diameter of Clariflocculator 23.0 m
No. of Paddles
Distance of Paddle from C.L. of vertical Shaft 1.0 m
Slope of Bottom ( % ) 8 %
Total Depth of Partition Wall 4.7 m
5 nos.
Distance of Shaft from C.L. of Flocculator
Paddles Rotation (RPM) 4
Diameter Of Influent Pipes 0.45 m
Overall Depth of Flocculator 3.5 m
Diameter of Tank 10.20 m
Summary
Particulars Values
Detention Period 30 min.
a)
= 5 to 7 m
=
0.5 m
= 2.6 m
= 0.45 to 0.7
= 1.30 to 1.7
= 2.55 to 2.65
= 2
= 0.6 to 0.75
= 1 to 2 m
b)
= 555.48 m
= 2 %
= 30 min.
= 5 m
= 1.25 to
=
= 13 mm
c)
= 555.48 m
= 24
23.5
= 578.64 m
578.64
5
Using 2.0 Units
116
2
Length x Width = L x 1.25 L = 58.0 m
58
1/2
1.25
= 6.8 m
Width = ( 1.25 x 6.8 ) = 8.5 m
Provide 2 Filters 8.6 m x 6.8 m
Design Of Rapid Gravity Filter
Minimum Overall Depth Of Filter Unit Including a Free Board of
Length L
Design Calculations
3
/ hour
= Plan Area For Filter = 115.7 m
( > ) 3.0 %
Minimum Number Of Units
Depth Of Sand
Standing Depth of water over the filter
Free Board is less than ( > ) 0.5 m
Time Lost During Backwash
Say 8.6 m
Units, each with a dimension of =
1.33 : 1
116 m
=
555.48 x ( 1 + 0.02 ) x

Water Flow Required


3
/ hour
Design Flow for Filter
3
/ m
2
/ Day
= 58 m
Effective size Of Sand
Uniformity Co-efficient For Sand
Ignition Loss Should Not Exceed ( > ) 0.7 %
Design Criteria : ( Rapid Sand Filter )
Rate Of Filteration
Maximum surface area of One Bed
percent by weight
Specific Gravity
Wearing Loss is not greater than
Design Rate Of Filteration
3
/ m
2
/ Day
Length & Width Ratio
Under Drainage System
Size of Perforations
Central Manifold With Laterals
Problem Statement :
Net Filtered Water
Quantity of Backwash water used
3
/ hour

= Hence Plan Area of One Unit
Q x d
3
x h =
L
Where m
4
10000
h = 2.5 m
Q = 5 x 2 m
3
/ m
2
/ hr
d = 0.6 mm
4
10000
= 46.04 cm
60.0 cm
40.0 mm
formula : P = 2.54 x
R = 12 mm ( 10 mm to 14 mm )
2 5 10 40
9.2 21.3 30.5 49
9.2 12.1 9.2 9
50.0 cm
= 8.6 m x 6.8 m
= 58.48 m
3
1000

= ( 3.0 x
= ( 3.0 x 1754.4 )
= ( 2.0 x
= ( 2.0 x 5263.2 )
= 10526.4 x 4

= 20 cm
8.6 100.0
61.2 x 4
86 Units
( Terminal Head Loss )
B x 293223
Q, d, h & are in
3
/ m
2
/ hr, mm, m and m respectively
Using Hudson Formula -
Estimation Of Sand Depth :
It is checked against break through of floc.
( Assuming 100 % overload of filter )
( Mean Diameter )
0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 2.5
= x 293223
( Poor Response ) < Average degree of pre-treatment
Where :
Estimation Of Gravel & Size Gradation :
Assuming size gradation of 2.0 mm to at bottom using empirical
10 x
{ or ( > ) greater than }
Hence provide depth of sand bed =
R x ( log d )

= 1754.40 cm
Total Cross Section Area of Laterals Area of perforation )
x 58.48 = Total Area of perforation = 0.17544 m
Estimation Of Under Drainage System :
Plan Area of each filter
Hence provide depth of gravel.
The Units of L & d are cm & mm, respectively.
Depth (cm )
Increment
Size 20
40
9.5
B = Assume
Providing a commercially available diameter of = 100.0 cm
Assuming spacing for laterals
20
= 5263.20 cm
Area of Central Manifold Area of Laterals )
= 10526.40 cm
Diameter of Central Manifold
= 115.80 cm
Number of perforations / laterals =
= 43 on either side = Number of Laterals

= D = 8.8 cm say 90 mm
2 2
= ( 1 x 6.8 ) - ( 1 x 1.0 ) = 2.9 m
2 2
n x x ( 1.3 ) =
4
n = 1322.43 say 1322
1322.0
86.0
2.90 x 100
16.0
Provide 16
= 36 m
= ( 36 x 58.48 ) = 2105.28 m
= 0.5848 m
3
/ sec.
1.80 m for
6.8
1.8
0.5848
4.0
0.40 m
0.1462 = 1.376 x 0.40 x ( h )
3/2
0.1462
2/3
1.376 x 0.40
Freeboard = 0.1 m
Provide 4.0 troughs of 0.5 m 0.50 m
= ( 900 + 2200 + 300 )
= 4500 mm
= 1.5 m
= 3.0 min.
= 1.5 x 3.0 x 8.6 x 6.8
= 263.16 m
Depth of filter box = ( depth of under drain + gravel + sand + water depth + free board )
500 + 600 +
Design Of Filter Air Wash :
Assume Rate at which air is supplied
3
/ m
2
/ min.
Duration of Air Wash
Total Quantity of air per unit bed
= h = 0.41 m
Wide &
Wash Water discharge for one filter
Let n be the total number of perforation of 13.0 mm diameter
Total Area of perforation
say 0.5
= 18.13 cm C / C
perforations of 13.0 mm diameter at 180 cm C / C
Computation Of Wash Water Troughs :
Wash Water Rate
3
/ m
2
/ hour
= Spacing of Perforation
Say 180.00 mm C / C
1754.40
= 15.37 say 16 = Number of Perforation or Laterals
deep in each filter.
Total Depth Of Filter Box :
= Discharge per unit trough = 0.146 m
3
/ sec.
For a width of the water depth at upper end is given by :
3
/ hour
Assuming a spacing of wash water trough which will run parallel to the longer
dimension of the filter unit.
= Number of trough = 3.78 say 4
Length of One lateral = ( 1 ) width of filter - ( 1 ) diameter of manifold
2
3
376 . 1 h b Q =
S.No.
1
2 8.60 m x 6.8 m
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 0.40 m x 0.5 m
13
14
15 263.2 m
Duration of Air Wash 3 min.
Total Quantity Of Air Required Per Unit Bed
Diameter Of Perforation
Diameter Of Laterals 90 mm
Number Of Perforations 16
Number Of Trough 4
Size Of Trough
Total Depth Of Filter Box 4500 mm
Depth Of Gravel 50.0 cm
13 mm
Diameter Of Central Manifold 100.0 m
Spacing For Laterals 20 cm
Number Of Laterals 86 Units
Summary
Particulars Values
Number Of Units 2 min.
Size Of Unit
Depth Of Sand Bed 60.0 cm
a)
b)
= 1.4 mg / L
= 1 mg / L
= 0.6 mg / L
= 0.1 to 0.2 mg / L
= 20 to 30 min.
c)
2 p.p.m.
= 13.33 x 1000000 x 1.40 x 1
1000000
= 18.662 Kg
= ( 18.66 x 180 )
16.0 Kg ) = ( 3359.16 x 2 ) = 419.895
16
= 2 Cylinders of 16.0 Kg
d)
S.No.
1
2 2 Cylinders of 16.0 m Number Of Cylinders required per day
Design Of Disinfection Unit
Number Of Cylinders used per day
Summary
Particulars Values
Chlorine required per day 18.662 Kg
Rate of Chlorine required, to disinfect water be =
Chlorine required Per Day
For 6 Months = 3359.16 Kg
Number of Cylinder ( One Cylinder contain
( Winter Season )
( Summer Season )
Residual Chlorine ( Minimum )
Contact Period
Design Calculations
Chlorination
Chlorine Dose
Disinfection should not only remove the existing bacteria from water but also ensure their
immediate killing even afterwards, in the distribution system.
( Rainy Season )
Design Criteria ( Chlorination )