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UnitedStates Officeof July2004

EnvironmentalProtection Administrationand
Agency ResourcesManagement(2304)
EPAFACILITIESMANUAL,VOLUME3
Safety,Health,and
EnvironmentalManual:
SafetyandHealth
Requirements
Printed on Recycled Paper
Safety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagement:
SafetyandHealthRequirements July2004
Foreword
TheEPAFacilitiesManualiscomprisedoffourdistinct,yetcomplementaryresourcesforplanningand
managingEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA)facilities.Thesefourvolumesaremeanttobeused
simultaneouslytodeterminedesignintent,requirements,andtheongoingevaluationofallEPAfacilities.
Theuseofonevolumewithoutreferencetotheotherthreewouldresultinanincompleteunderstanding
oftherequirementsforEPAfacilities.
Volume1: TheSpaceAcquisitionandPlanningGuidelinescontaininformationonspaceplanning,
spaceestimation,environment,materials,furniture,process,andmaintenance.EPAs
OfficeofAdministrationandResourcesManagementdevelopedthisdocumenttohelpEPA
facilitiesmanagers,spacemanagers,andlinepersonnelplanandusetheirspace.
Volume2: TheArchitectureandEngineeringGuidelines(referredtoastheA&EGuidelines)provide
guidanceforfacilitiesmanagement,engineering,planning,andarchitectureprofessionalsin
thedesignandconstructionofnewEPAfacilitiesandtheevaluationofexistingfacilities.
Volume3: TheSafety,Health,andEnvironmentalManagementManual:SafetyandHealth
RequirementsoutlinessafetyandhealthconsiderationsforownedorleasedEPAfacilities.
TheManualsgoalistomaintainasafeandhealthfulworkplacethatprotectsagainstinjury,
illness,andlossoflife.
Volume4: TheSafety,Health,andEnvironmentalManagementManual:EnvironmentalManagement
Guidelines,establishesenvironmentalspecificationstobeaddressedbydesignersand
managersofEPAfacilitiesandrelatedbuildingsystems.
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Safety,HealthandEnvironmentalManual:
SafetyandHealthRequirements
CONTENTS
1. Introduction 4.9 RadiationSafety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1.1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5. IndoorAirQuality
1.3 Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5.1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
1.4 EPAResponsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
1.5 Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5.3 GeneralRequirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
5.4 SourcesofAirborneContaminants . . . . 42
2. FireLifeSafety 5.5 DiagnosingIAQProblems . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5.6 MitigatingIAQProblems. . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5.7 AcceptableWorkplaceTemperatureand
2.3 ClassificationofOccupancies . . . . . . . . . 6 Humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.4 TypesofConstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.5 FixedFireSuppressionSystems. . . . . . . 10 AppendixAListofStandardsand
2.6 PortableFireExtinguishers . . . . . . . . . . 11 References
2.7 FireandSmokeDetectors . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.8 SmokeControl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 AppendixBGlossary
2.9 MeansofEgress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.10 FireLifeSafetyRequirementsfor AppendixCListofAcronymsand
SpecificRoomTypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Abbreviations
2.11 SafetyfortheDisabled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.12 EmergencyPower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Index
2.13 LightningProtection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3. ElectricalSafety
3.1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.3 OvercurrentProtection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.4 Grounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.5 Lockout/Tagout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.6 ClassifiedLocations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.7 PowerTransmissionandDistribution . . 25
3.8 UndergroundElectricalInstallations . . . 26
3.9 EnergizedSubstations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.10 UseofPortableSpaceHeaters . . . . . . . . 27
4. ChemicalandLaboratorySafety
4.1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
4.3 SafetyandHealthProgram . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.4 EmployeeTraining. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.5 PersonalProtectiveEquipment . . . . . . . 30
4.6 ChemicalStorageandManagement . . . . 31
4.7 EmergencyEquipmentandShowers . . . 34
4.8 LaboratoryVentilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
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Chapter1-Introduction
1.1 Purpose
ThepurposeofthisManualistodetailsafetyandhealthconsiderationsforfacilitiesthatare
owned,leased,oroccupiedbytheEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA).Theconsiderations
orcriteriainthisManualdescribethefullscopeofthefacilityfeaturesrequiredinEPA-occupied
facilitiestomaintainasafeandhealthfulworkplace,andmayexceedlocalcodesorfederal
standards,whichgenerallydescribeminimumrequirementsnecessarytoprotectagainstinjury,
illness,andlossoflife.ThecriteriainthisManualareprovidedforEPAfacilitiesinorderto
establishthefollowingobjectives:
Providingreasonablesafeguardsagainstinjury,occupationalillness,andlossoflife
Preventingfireexposure,publichealthhazards,andenvironmentaldamagetothe
communitiesthatsurroundEPAfacilities
Preventinglossofgovernmentrealandpersonalproperty
Preventinginterruptionofgovernmentoperations
Promotingthehealth,well-being,andproductivityofoccupants.
1.2 Scope
ThefacilitysafetyandhealthcriteriadescribedinthisManualapplytofacilitiesownedorleased
byEPA,andfacilitiesassignedtoEPAbytheGeneralServicesAdministration(GSA)orother
governmentagencies.InthisManual,ownedandleasedfacilitiesshallbereferredtoasEPA
facilities. ThecriteriainthisManual,alongwiththecriteriaintheArchitectureand
EngineeringGuidelines(A&EGuidelines),aremandatoryfornewconstructionornewleased
space. Wheremeetingthesecriteriaatexistingfacilitiesdoesnotseemfeasible,consultthe
Architecture,EngineeringandAssetManagementBranch(AEAMB)foradviceorawaiver.
Underspecialcircumstances,awaivermaybegrantedbytheSafety,HealthandEnvironmental
ManagementDivision(SHEMD).
EPA-occupiedfacilitiesshallcomplywiththerequirementsprovidedbytheEPA,NFPA,
OccupationalSafetyandHealthAdministration(OSHA),GSA,andstateandlocalbuildingand
firepreventioncodes.Ifconflictsexistbetweenstateorlocalcriteriaandthecriteriasetforthin
thisManual,themorestringentcriteriashallapply.Ifthereareconflictsbetweenthelocalcode
andamodelcode,thediscrepancywillbebroughttotheattentionofAEAMBandSHEMDfor
resolution.
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1.3 Authority
AuthorityforthecriteriasetforthinthisManualisbasedonthelatestapprovededitionsofthe
followingcodes,references,andstandards.Yearsandpublicationdatesspecificallystatedinthis
ManualreflecttheversioninusewhentherevisedversionofthisManualwaswrittenand
published. Whenusingthereferencedstandardslistedbelow,ensurethatthelatesteditionor
versioniscurrentandhasnotbeensuperseded.
OccupationalSafetyandHealthActof1970
29CFRPart1910,GeneralIndustryStandards
EPAmanuals,directives,andSHEMDprogramrequirements
FederalExecutiveOrders
GSA,FacilitiesStandardsforthePublicBuildingsService(PBS-P100)
Modelbuildingcodes,suchastheInternationalBuildingCode(IBC)
UniformFederalAccessibilityStandards(UFAS).
AppendixA,ListofStandardsandReferences,providesamorecomprehensivelistofthe
sourcesmentionedintheManual.Inaddition,aglossaryisincludedasAppendixBtofacilitate
understandingoftheterminologyusedthroughouttheManual.
1.4 EPAResponsibilities
ThissectiondescribestheresponsibilitiesassignedtodivisionsordepartmentswithinEPAfor
enforcingthecriteriasetforthinthisManual.
AEAMBisresponsibleforensuringthatthedesignandconstructionofEPAfacilities
complywithlocalcodesaswellaswiththecriteriadescribedherein.
AEAMBandSHEMDarejointlyresponsibleforensuringthatEPAfacilitiesprovide
safe,healthful,andenvironmentallysoundworkspacesforEPApersonnel.
AEAMBandSHEMDarejointlyresponsible,whenappropriate,forreviewingand
approvingrequestsforawaiverforvariancesorexceptionstothecriteriasetforthinthis
Manual. Thefollowingcriteriaapplytorequestsforvariances:
(1) RequestsforvariancestothecriteriadescribedinthisManualmustbesubmitted
inwritingtoAEAMBandSHEMDforreview.
(2) Documentationofgrantedvariancesmustbemaintainedbythefacilityaslong
asapplicable.
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AEAMBandSHEMDarejointlyresponsibleforupdatingthisManual,asnecessary,to
reflectchangesintechnologyandrecognizedstandardpracticesinsafety,health,and
environmentalmanagementrelativetoEPAfacilities.
1.5 Requirements
Tomeetthepolicyandobjectivessetforthabove:
AEAMB,withSHEMDsassistance,willreviewthecriteriasetforthinProgramsof
Requirements(PORs)andSolicitationsforOffers(SFOs)fornewEPAfacilities,andfor
modificationstoexistingfacilities,beforeawardingadesigncontract.
Atsignificantdesignandconstructionpoints,AEAMB,withSHEMDsassistance,will
review,approve,andcommentonthedesignplansandconstructiondrawingsfornew
andmodifiedfacilities.
Duringconstruction,arepresentativeacceptabletoSHEMDshallinspectthecritical
safety,health,andenvironmentalmanagementfeaturesofanewormodifiedfacility,
suchasfumehoods,sprinklersystems,andfirealarms,againstthedesignand
constructionspecifications. Thesefeaturesalsoshallbeacceptance-testedagainstthe
designandconstructionspecificationspriortooccupancy.
AEAMB,withtheassistanceofSHEMD,shallinspectandtestleasedspacesagainstthe
criteriacontainedinthisManualbeforesigningtheleaseandshalldocumentthese
criteriaintheleasewhereappropriate.
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Chapter2-FireLifeSafety
2.1 Purpose
ThischapterprovidescriteriaforestablishingafirelifesafetyprogramatEPA-ownedor-leased
facilities. Thischapterincludesguidelinesonoccupancyclassification,firesafetycriteriafor
egress,flammablematerials,fireprotectionsystems,automaticsprinklersystems,fire
extinguishers,andsmokecontrol.
2.2 References
UnlessotherwisespecifiedinthisManualorapprovedbytheArchitecture,Engineeringand
AssetManagementBranch(AEAMB)andtheSafety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagement
Division(SHEMD),allbuildingmaterialsandstructuralcomponentsandassembliesshall
conformtotheapplicablerequirementsoftheNationalFireProtectionAssociation(NFPA)and
othersafetycodesspecifiedbelow,aswellasthedesignrequirementsintheArchitectureand
EngineeringGuidelines(A&EGuidelines).
NFPA10,StandardforPortableFireExtinguishers
NFPA12,StandardonCarbonDioxideExtinguishingSystems
NFPA13,StandardfortheInstallationofSprinklerSystems
NFPA14,StandardfortheInstallationofStandpipe,PrivateHydrant,andHoseSystems
NFPA17,StandardonDryChemicalExtinguishingSystems
NFPA17A,StandardforWetChemicalExtinguishingSystems
NFPA45,StandardonFireProtectionforLaboratoriesUsingChemicals
NFPA68,GuideforVentingofDeflagrations
NFPA70,NationalElectricCode(NEC)
NFPA72,NationalFireAlarmCode
NFPA75,StandardfortheProtectionofElectronicComputer/DataProcessing
Equipment
NFPA80,StandardforFireDoorsandWindows
NFPA80A,RecommendedPracticeforProtectionofBuildingsfromExteriorFire
Exposures
NFPA90A,StandardfortheInstallationofAir-ConditioningandVentilatingSystems
NFPA91,StandardforExhaustSystemsforAirConveyingofVapors,Gases,Mists,and
NoncombustibleParticulateSolids
NFPA92A,RecommendedPracticeforSmoke-ControlSystems
NFPA92B,GuideforSmokeManagementSystemsinMalls,Atria,andLargeAreas
NFPA96,StandardforVentilationControlandFireProtectionofCommercialCooking
Operations
NFPA101,LifeSafetyCode
NFPA110,StandardforEmergencyandStandbyPowerSystems
NFPA220,StandardonTypesofBuildingConstruction
NFPA221,StandardforFireWallsandFireBarrierWalls
NFPA230,StandardfortheFireProtectionofStorage
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NFPA251,StandardMethodsofTestsofFireEnduranceofBuildingConstructionand
Materials
NFPA780,StandardfortheInstallationofLightningProtectionSystems
NFPA1962,StandardfortheCare,Use,andServiceTestingofFireHoseIncluding
CouplingsandNozzles
InternationalBuildingCode
ASHRAEmanual,DesignofSmokeControlSystemsforBuildings
ASHRAEsHandbookofHVACSystemsandEquipment.
2.3 ClassificationofOccupancies
Buildingsandspacesshallbeclassifiedbyoccupancytodetermineseparationrequirements,
typesofconstruction,andotherfiresafeguards.Theuseofabuildingorstructuredeterminesits
occupancyoruseclassification.MethodsofclassificationarepresentedinChapter6ofNFPA
101,Chapter2ofNFPA45,Chapter2ofNFPA13,otherNFPAcodesandstandardsthatmay
applytospecificsituations,andlocalbuildingandfirepreventioncodes.Thebasisofthese
classificationsvarieswitheachcodeorstandard.Someofthemethodsofclassificationarelisted
below.
NFPA101classificationisbasedonuseofthebuildingorareaconsidered.Examples
arebusiness,assembly,andindustrialoccupancies.
Modelbuildingcodeclassificationisbasedonuseofthebuildingorareaconsidered.
ExamplesareUseGroupB(business),S-1(moderatehazardstorage),andF(factoryand
industrial)asdefinedbytheInternationalBuildingCode(IBC).
NFPA13classificationisbasedonthedegreeoffirehazardrepresentedbytheuseofthe
buildingorareatobeprotectedbysprinklers.ExamplesareLightHazardandOrdinary
Hazard(Group2).
NFPA45classificationisbasedontheamountofflammableandcombustibleliquids
andliquifiedflammablegasesperfloorareapresentinalaboratoryunit.Examplesare
ClassA,ClassB,andClassC.
NFPA230classificationisbasedonthetypeofmaterialsstoredandtheirburning
characteristics.
TheGeneralServicesAdministration(GSA)alsohasaspecialoccupancyclassificationforhigh-
severityoccupancy,whichincludesstorageareaslargerthan1,000squarefeetwithracksor
shelvestallerthan12feet,librarieswithstackstallerthan9feet,andrecordorarchivecenters
withopenfileshelves.ThespecialdesignconsiderationsoutlinedinPBS-P100mustbe
followedfortheseoccupancies.Furtherdetailsregardingclassificationofoccupancycanbe
foundinthestandardsreferencedabove.
Occupancyclassificationsshallbeclearlyidentifiedindesigndocuments,construction
documents,as-builtdrawingsandspecifications.Sinceoccupancyclassificationsarespecificto
therespectivecodesandstandards,allrelevantoccupancyclassificationsshallbeindicated.For
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example,aClassBlaboratoryasdefinedbyNFPA45couldbeeitherUseGroupB(business)or
H(highhazard)asdefinedbytheInternationalBuildingCode,andanIndustrialOccupancy as
definedbyNFPA101.Thefollowinglistcouldrepresenttheoccupancyclassificationsfora
singlelaboratoryproject.
NFPA45 ClassBLaboratory
NFPA101 Industrial
IBC Business
NFPA13 OrdinaryHazard(Group2)
NFPA10 OrdinaryHazard
IfthelocalbuildingcodeisnotbasedontheInternationalBuildingCode,orthereareconflicts
betweenthelocalcodeandamodelcode,thediscrepancywillbebroughttotheattentionof
AEAMBandSHEMDforresolution.
2.4 TypesofConstruction
Identificationofconstructionclassificationsisrequiredinordertomeetboththelocalbuilding
codecriteriaandthecriteriaofEPA,theGeneralServicesAdministration(GSA),andNFPA
standards. ThevarioustypesofconstructionaredefinedinNFPA220andthemodelbuilding
codes. Theconstructionclassificationsshallbeindicatedondesigndocumentsasapplicable.
ThetypeofconstructionofanEPAbuildingshallbetheonedeterminedtobethemostsuitable
andeconomicalfortheoccupancyclassificationandtheheightandarealimitationsdictatedthe
localbuildingcode.Heightandarea,includingtheareaofanyfloorinthebuildingshallnot
exceedthelimitssetforthinthelocalbuildingcode.Wheremorethanoneoccupancyishoused,
thehighergroupclassificationshallgovernfordeterminingarealimitations.
2.4.1 BUILDINGELEMENTS
Thefire-resistancehourlyratingsforbuildingelementsshallbedeterminedinaccordancewith
ASTME119/NFPA251.Thehourlyratingsforvariousmaterialsanddesignsshallbeobtained
eitherbyactualfiretestingorbyconformancetodesignslistedbyUnderwritersLaboratories,
Inc.,orFactoryMutual.
FireWallsandFireBarrierWalls. Firebarrierwalls,alsoknownasfirepartitionsorfire
separations,normallyhavelessfireresistancethandofirewallsandfailtomeetoneor
moreoftherequirementsforafirewall.Thefireresistanceofafirebarrierwall
generallydependsonthewallsintendeduseandthedegreeoffirepotential.These
wallsareusedtocreatefireareas,protectspecializedoccupancies,orprovideprotected
egresspaths. SeeSection13oftheA&EGuidelinesandNFPA221fortreatmentof
openingsinfirewallsandfirebarrierwalls.
VerticalOpeningsandShafts. RefertoSection13oftheA&EGuidelines.
Atriums. Becauseofatriumsmokecontrolrequirements,atriumhazard-level
requirements,andtheneedtomaintainliquid-tightfloorsinlaboratories,laboratory
roomsshallnotopenintoanatrium.Occupancieslocatedwithinanatriumandopening
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intoanatriummusthaveloworordinaryhazardcontentsasdefinedbyNFPA101.
Atriumsshouldnotbeusedasarequiredmeansoftransportingchemicalsorlaboratory
wastematerials. Forfurtherdetails,refertoSection13oftheA&EGuidelines.
AttachmentsandAdditions. Cornices,marquees,andskylightsshallbeof
noncombustibleconstruction.Attachmentsandadditionsforthepurposeofproviding
additionalspaceshallconformtothesameconstructionheightandarealimitationsasthe
basebuilding.
MonumentalStairs. RefertoSection13oftheA&EGuidelines.
Escalators. RefertoSection14oftheA&EGuidelines.
Elevators. RefertoSection14oftheA&EGuidelinesandNFPA101forcriteria,
technicalrequirements,andspecifications.
Penetrations. Firestoppingshallbeprovidedinallpenetrationsthroughwalls,
partitions,openingsbetweenexteriorwallsandfloorslabs,andopeningsinfloorsand
shaftenclosures,toformaneffectivefireandsmokebarrierbetweenstoriesandbetween
horizontalcompartments.Theinstallation,testing,andratingoffire-stoppingmaterials
andmethods(through-penetrationprotectionsystem)shallbeinaccordancewithNFPA
221. Thematerialsusedshallbecapableofmaintainingthefireresistanceofthe
assemblybeingpenetrated.RefertoSection13oftheA&EGuidelines.
Panel,Curtain,andSpandrelWalls.Fordetails,refertoSection7oftheA&E
Guidelines.
Windows. ThereshallbenooperablewindowsinEPAlaboratoryroomsorinother
locationswheretheymayinterferewithtemperatureorhumiditycontrolorcreate
undesirableairflows. Foradditionaldetails,refertoSection8oftheA&EGuidelines.
Ceilings. Floor-ceilingassembliesshallbeinaccordancewiththecriteriasetforthin
Section9oftheA&EGuidelines. Suspendedceilingsshallnotbeconsideredpartofa
fire-resistiveassemblyinlaboratoryareas.Theroutineoperationandmaintenanceof
laboratoriesrequireperiodicaccesstothespaceabovethesuspendedceiling.Ithasbeen
theexperienceofEPAthataratedfloor-ceilingassemblyisnotadesignthatcanbe
reasonablymaintainedasafire-resistiveassemblyoverthelifeofthelaboratory.
FireDoors. RefertoSection8oftheA&EGuidelinesandSection2.9ofthisManualfor
additionalrequirementsforexitdoors.
Utilities. Pipes,wires,cables,ducts,andotherutilitiesorservicesshallnotbeembedded
inorbetweentherequiredfireproofingandstructuralmembersunlesstheassemblyhas
beentestedandhasachievedtherequiredfireresistance.A1-inchorsmallersteel
conduitwithwiringtoclocks,receptacles,telephones,thermostats,orswitchesmaybe
embeddedinthefireproofingifthenecessarythicknessoffireproofingisnotreduced.In
suchcases,electricalboxesshallbesteel,limitedto4-inchnominalsize,securely
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anchoredinplace,andlocatedatleast2feetapartoronoppositesidesofthestructural
member.
FireExposures.Afireexposureisanybuilding,structure,yardstorage,orindustrial
operationcontainingcombustiblesubstancesthat,ifinvolvedinafire,wouldpresenta
dangertothebuildingbeingevaluated.Classificationofexposureseverityand
determinationofminimumseparationdistanceshallbeinaccordancewithNFPA80A,
andthelocalbuildingcode.Requirementsforexplosionventingshouldcomplywith
Chapter5ofNFPA45(forlaboratories),NFPA68,andthelocalbuildingcode,
whicheveristhemoststringent.Themethodsfordeterminingthemorestringent
requirementsshallbedocumentedintheprojectsubmittals.
2.4.2 HAZARDSEGREGATION
Ingeneral,occupanciesposingdifferentlevelsofriskshallbeseparatedbyfire-resistive
construction. Areasshallbesegregatedasnotedbelowandasrequiredbylocalbuildingcodes
andNFPA101.
AssemblyAreas. Becauseofthehighnumberofoccupantspermittedinauditoriums,
cafeterias,andotherplacesofassembly,itisnecessarytoprovideappropriateprotected
egresspathsfromtheselocationstotheoutsideofthebuilding.Wheneverpossible,such
occupanciesshallbelocatedontheexitlevelofthebuilding,oronafloorclosetothe
levelofexit. SeeNFPA101,Chapters12and13forminimumegressrequirements.
GeneralStorageAreas. StorageareasshallcomplywithNFPA101.Allareasusedfor
storageofmaintenancesupplies,pesticides,solvents,paints,artsupplies,orother
materialsthatmaycontainvolatileorganiccompounds(VOCs)shallbeequippedwith
adequateexhaustandshallhavenoairrecirculation.Inaddition,theseareasshallmeet
therequirementsforindoorairqualityinGSAsPBS-P100.Ataminimum,anysuch
storageareashallbeseparatedfromadjacentspaceswithfire-resistiveconstructionor
protectedwithsprinklersasrequiredbyNFPAorthelocalbuildingcode.
AncillaryOccupancies. Ancillaryoraccessoryoccupanciesareoccupanciesthattakeup
approximately10percentorlessofabuildingsoverallarea.Ancillaryoccupanciesdo
nothavetobesegregatedwithfireseparationsfromotheroccupancies.Themeansof
egress,construction,protection,andothersafeguardsshallbedeterminedbythe
requirementsofthepredominantoccupancy.
MixedOccupancies. Mixedorintermingledoccupanciesareareasinwhichtwoormore
classesofoccupancycoexistinsuchawaythatseparatesafeguardsareimpracticable.In
suchcases,themeansofegress,construction,protection,andothersafeguardsshallbe
basedontheoccupancythatdemandsthemorestringentrequirements.
BlindStandsandSelf-ServiceStores. Blindstandsandself-servicestoresshallbe
separatedfromtheremainderofthebuildingby1-hourfire-ratedenclosuresanddoors.
Iftheentirefloorisprotectedbyautomaticsprinklers,fire-ratedenclosuresarenot
needed.
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2.5 FixedFireSuppressionSystems
Thissectiondescribestheappropriatefiresuppressionsystemtobeinstalledfordifferent
occupancies. Allfiresuppressionsystemswillbetestedandmaintainedasrequiredbythe
applicableNFPAstandardandSection15oftheA&EGuidelines.
AutomaticSprinklerSystems. AllEPA-ownedor-leasedfacilitiesarerequiredtohave
sprinklerfireprotectionunlesssuchprotectionisnoteconomicallyfeasiblewithrespect
tomission-continuitycostorwithrespecttobuildingandcontentreplacementcost.An
analysisshallbeperformedtojustifynewfacilitieswithnosprinklerprotection.The
provisionofsprinklerprotection(whennotrequiredbyanothercodeorstandard)shall
notbeusedasabasisforreducingotherlevelsofprotectionprovidedforthatfacility.
However,whereacodeorstandardallowsalternativesbasedontheprovisionof
sprinklers,asinNFPA101,thealternativesallowedforsprinkleredspacemaybe
applied. AllsprinklersystemsshallcomplywithNFPA13. Theoccupancy
classificationwilloftenprovideabuilding-codebasisforrequiredsprinklerprotection.
StandpipesandHoseSystems.Alllaboratorybuildingsthataretwoormorestories
beloworabovegradelevelshallpossessstandpipesystemsinaccordancewithNFPA14.
Iflocalbuildingfirecoderequirementsdictatetheinstallationofhosesystems,hose
systemsshallcomplywithNFPA14andshallbepressuretestedannuallyinaccordance
withthemethodspresentedinNFPA1962.
Halon-1301Fire-ExtinguishingSystems.FireprotectionsystemsthatcontainHalon
1301shallnotbeusedinEPAfacilities.RefertotheEnvironmentalManagement
GuidelinesforinformationonremovalofhalonsystemsfromEPA-ownedor-leased
facilities.
GaseousFire-ExtinguishingSystems.Carbondioxidefireextinguishingsystemsmaybe
usedthoughitisnotrecommendedthattheybeusedasatotalfloodingagentinareas
thataretypicallyoccupied.RefertoNFPA12andSection15oftheA&EGuidelinesfor
technicalspecificationsandAEAMBandSHEMDcertificationrequirements.
Dry-ChemicalSystems. Dry-chemicalsystemsstopthechainreactionthatoccursin
combustion.Drychemicalisdifficulttoremovefromelectricalcontacts.Useis
generallyrestrictedtocafeteriaexhausthoodsandplenums,deep-fatfryers,andgrills.
Pre-engineeredsystemsaresatisfactoryforthisuse.RefertoNFPA17andSection15of
theA&EGuidelinesfortechnicalrequirementsandspecifications.
WetChemicalSystems. Wetchemicalsystemsaregenerallypre-engineeredandare
primarilyusedtoprotectexhausthoods,plenums,ductsandassociatedcooking
equipmentsuchasdeepfatfryersandgrills.RefertoNFPA17Afortechnical
requirements,applications,andspecifications.
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2.6 PortableFireExtinguishers
Portablefireextinguishersshallbeprovidedandlocatedwithinrecessedcabinets,inaccordance
withNFPA10.Portablefireextinguishersshallbeprovidedonthebasisoftheclassesof
anticipatedfiresandthesizeanddegreeofhazardaffectingtheextinguishersuse.Portablefire
extinguisherscontaininghalonshallnotbeused.
Fireextinguishermaintenanceandinspections.Portablefireextinguishersshallbeina
fullychargedandoperableconditionandshallbesuitablyplaced,distinctlymarked,and
readilyaccessible. Extinguishersinlaboratoriesandhazardousmaterialsmanagement
areasshallbeinspectedmonthly,andtagsshallbeattachedwiththeinspectiondate
clearlyrecorded.FireextinguishersplacedinEPAadministrativeandofficespacesshall
beinspectedannually.
Fireextinguisherlocations.Portablefireextinguishersshallbeprovidedinevery
laboratoryroom.InotherareasofanEPAownedorleasedfacility,theminimum
numberoffireextinguishersneededforprotectionshallbedeterminedinaccordance
withNFPA10,Chapter3,DistributionofFireExtinguishers.Oneextinguishermaybe
installedtoprovideprotectionforseveralhazardareasprovidedthattraveldistancesare
notexceeded.
(a) ClassBextinguishersshallbelocatedsothatthetraveldistancetothe
extinguishersdoesnotexceed50feet.
(b) ClassCextinguishersshallbelocatedonthebasisoftheanticipatedClassAand
Bhazard.
(c) ClassDextinguishersshallbelocatedsothatthetraveldistancetothe
extinguishersdoesnotexceed75feet.
(d) ClassKextinguishersforfireinvolvingcombustiblecookingmediashallbe
locatedasspecifiedinChapter3ofNFPA10.
Training.Whenportablefireextinguishersareprovidedforemployeestouse,the
employershallprovidetraininguponinitialemploymentandannuallythereafter.
2.7 FireandSmokeAlarmSystems
FirealarmsystemsshallbeinstalledinaccordancewithNFPA70,NationalElectricalCode
(NEC)Article760,andNFPA72.Firealarmactivationdevicesmustbecompletelyseparated
fromotherbuildingsystems.Ingeneral,firealarmsystemsatallfacilitiesownedoroperatedby
EPAmustcomplywiththefollowingstandardsandcodes:
SprinklerSystems,NFPA13
StandpipeandHoseSystems,NFPA14
NationalFireAlarmCode,NFPA72
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GSA/PBS-P100
AmericanswithDisabilitiesAct(ADA).
Firealarmsystemsarerequiredinanybuildingpossessingtwoormorestoriesabovethelevelof
exitdischarge,occupiedbymorethan100occupantsorconsistsofmorethan50,000squarefeet.
Firealarmsshallalsobeprovidedforalloccupancieswheretheoccupantscannotbeefficiently
warnedbyhumanvoice,gas-poweredhorns,orotherdevices.Storageoccupanciesequaltoor
largerthan100,000squarefeetshallhavefirealarmsystems.RefertoSection13oftheA&E
Guidelinesforadditionalinformationaboutfirealarmsystems.
Allair-handlingsystemsshallbeprovidedwiththesmokedetectionandcontrolsincompliance
withNFPA72.Allsupply,return,reliefandexhaustairventilationsystemsshallhaveinterlock
controlsthatinterfacewiththefireandsmokedetectionsystemcontrols.Intheeventoffire,
theseinterlockcontrolsshalleitherturnofforselectivelyoperatefansanddamperstoprevent
thespreadofsmokeandfirethroughthebuilding.Engineeredsmokepressurizationandsmoke
evacuationsystemsshallbeprovidedasdescribedinSection2.8ofthischapter.
2.8 SmokeControl
SmokecontrolsystemshallbeprovidedinaccordancewithNFPA72,NFPA90A,NFPA92A,
NFPA92B,ASHRAEmanualDesignofSmokeControlSystemsforBuildings,andASHRAEs
HandbookofHVACSystemsandEquipment. Smokecontrolsystemsincludestairandelevator
pressurization,atriumexhaust,zonedcontrolbywingorarea,andsimilarsystems.Smoke
controlsystemsshouldtakeintoaccountthebuildingorfacilitysgeneralHVACsystemand
shouldnotcompetewithit.Theneedforsmokecontrolshouldbeidentifiedearlyinthe
planningprocesssoastoincorporateitsdesigninconcertwiththebuildingsHVACsystem.
Thefollowingguidelinesshouldbefollowed.
Dedicatedlifesafetyfansshouldbecontrolledbythefirealarmsystem.
Operablesashandbreakablewindowsshouldbeconsideredinlieuofengineeredsmoke
controlifallowedbythecode.
Environmentalfansshouldnotbeusedforrequiredsmokecontrolifdedicatedfanscan
achievethesameresultsatasimilarcost,particularlyinbuildingswithcomplicated
ventilationandcontrolsystems.
Ifenvironmentalfansaretobeusedforsmokecontrol,thedirectdigitalcontrolmustbe
listedforthatpurposeandrespondinthetimeframerequiredbycode.Backuppower
maybenecessary.
Fansanddampersshouldnotbecontrolledbyboththefirealarmandthedirectdigital
control.
Manualoverridecontrolisrequiredandmustbeclearandusable.
Specialexhaustsystemsshallbedesignedtoincludefireandsmokesafetycontrolsasrequired
byNFPA91. Kitchenexhaustductworksystemsshallbedesignedtoincludeallfireandsmoke
safetycontrolsasrequiredbyNFPA96.RefertoSection13oftheA&EGuidelinesformore
informationonsmokecontrolsystems.
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2.9 MeansofEgress
EmergencyegresspathsfromEPAbuildingsshallbemaintainedwheneverthebuildingis
occupied. Egressfrombuildingsortoanareaofrefugeshallbeinaccordancewithtimed
calculations.
Personnelinthefireareacantraveltowardthefirefornomorethan15seconds.
Personnelinthefireareashouldbeabletorelocatefromthefireareawithin90seconds.
Unimpededhorizontalmovementiscalculatedat3feetpersecond.
Itshouldtakenolongerthan8minutestoexitdownwardorupwardtotheoutsideofthe
building.
Areassuchasstorageroomswithlimitedornoventilationoraccessshallbeevaluatedtoensure
thereliabilityoftheexitsusingtheegresscriteriasetforthbyNFPA101.Ifblockingasingle
exitcouldcreateahazardouscondition,provisionswillbemadeeithertopreventtheexitfrom
beingblocked,toprovideameansofcommunicationfrominsidethespace,toprovideadequate
ventilation,ortootherwisepreventtheareafrombecomingaconfinedspaceasdefinedby29
CFR1910.146.Refertodiscussiononhazardsegregationinthischapterforventilation
requirementsforstoragerooms.
2.9.1 EXITFACILITIES
ExceptasnotedbeloworelsewhereinthisManual,theexitprovisionsofNFPA101shallbe
followedforallEPAfacilities.
ExitAvailabilityandDistance. Atleasttwoseparateexitsshallbeavailableonevery
floor. Exitsshallbeasfarawayfromeachotheraspossible,inaccordancewiththe
localbuildingcodeorNFPA101,whicheverrequirementismorestringent.Exitsshall
bearrangedtominimizethepossibilitythatbothmaybeblockedduringanemergency.
Emergencyegresspathsfromthebuildingshallbecontinuouslymaintainedfreeofall
obstructionsandimpedimentswheneverthebuildingisoccupied.
ExitStairs. Allexitstairsinnewconstruction,andallexitstairsaddedtoexisting
buildings,shallconformtotherequirementsinNFPA101forClassAstairsandshall
haveaminimumwidthof44inches.Fireescapestairs,asdefinedinNFPA101,arenot
anacceptablecomponentofthemeansofegress.
ExitMerging. Wheremeansofegressfromstoriesaboveandbelowconvergeatan
intermediatestory,thecapacityofthemeansofegressfromthepointofconvergence
shallbeatleastthesumofthetwoindividualstairwaycapacities.
ExitDoors. Allexitstairdoorsandallotherdoorsopeningontoexitroutes,exceptthose
openingdirectlytotheoutside,shallbeself-closingorshallbeautomaticallyreleasedby
smokedetectors.Doorsshallbelocatedorrecessedtoensurethattheydonotswingto
impedepedestrianflowincorridorsorotheregressroutes.Innewlaboratoriesand
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whererequiredbyNFPA101,NFPA45,orothercodesorstandards,exitandexit-access
doorsshallswinginthedirectionofegress.Visionpanels,inaccordancewithNFPA80,
shouldalwaysbeprovidedinstairwayandhorizontalexitdoorsandanywhereelse
wheretheyarenecessaryforalleviationofpotentialpersonneltraffichazards.
Latches. Latchesonstairdoorsshallbeoperablefromboththestairsandtheoccupied
spacesideofthedoors.Innoinstanceshalldoorsatthetop(ornexttothetop)andthe
bottomstairlevelsbesecured.Forsecurityreasons,ingressmayberestrictedasfollows
aslongassuchrestrictiondoesnotimpedeemergencyegress:
(a) Thedoormayopendirectlytotheexterior.
(b) Thedoormayopenfromastairtoanexit-accessdoor(e.g.,lobbyorcourtyard)
totheoutside.
(c) Anindividualstairdoormaybelockedagainstingressfromthestairwaywhen
thisdecisionhasbeenfullyjustifiedinwritingandwherenootherreasonable
meanscanbedevelopedtoprovidenecessarysecurity.
(d) Eachsecureddoorshallbeclearlymarkedanddirectionsshallbeposted
showingthenearestfloors,aboveandbelow,wherereentrycanbemade.In
buildingsthatareequippedforrelocationofpersonnelviaavoicefire-alarm
system,theuseofsecureddoorsandthemodeofreentryshallbecoordinated
(e.g.,reentryintothebuildingmustbecoordinatedbecausethedoorbecomes
secureafterthefirealarmresets).
Corridors. Thefireresistanceofexit-accesscorridorsshallbeinaccordancewithNFPA
101andthelocalbuildingcode.Thewidthofanycorridorservingasarequiredexitor
asameansoftraveltoorfromarequiredexitshallnotbelessthan44inchesclear
width. Obstructionssuchaspartitions,columns,doors,andotherprojectionsshallnot
impingeonthe44-inchclearance.ThewidthofpassagewayswillcomplywithNFPA
101. Exceptinopen-planofficespace,continuouscorridorsshallbeprovided
connectingtoeveryexit.(Continuouscorridorsconnectexitsinsuchawaythataccess
toalltheexitscanbegainedwithoutleavingthecorridorsystem.)
ExitDischarge. Exceptasprovidedbelow,andasdetailedinNFPA101,everyexitstair
shalldischargedirectlytotheoutsideortoaprotectedcorridorleadingdirectlytothe
outside. Aprotectedcorridorshallconsistofatotallyunoccupiedpassagewayorother
space,suchasalobby,separatedfromalloccupiedareasbyfirebarrierwallswith1-
hourorgreaterfireresistance;alldoorwaysinthesewallsshallbeprotectedbyClassC
orhigherfiredoorsthateitherareself-closing,orautomaticclosingandcontrolledby
ionizationsmokedetectorslocatedontheoccupiedsideofthewall.
Two-DoorwayDischarge. Whenastairdischargesthroughtwoseparatedoorwaysinto
twoseparatefireareasatgroundlevel,exitpassagewaysarenotnecessary. Underthese
conditions,appropriatemarkingsshallbeprovidedwithinthestairwelltoindicateeach
exitandtheavailabilityofalternateexits.Forexample,thesignoveranexitdoormight
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read,ExittoMainStreet,andaclearlyvisiblesignnearbywouldreadExittoMarket
Street-DownOneFloor.
PanicHardware. Panichardware(e.g.,metalbaronexitdoor)maybeusedanywhere,
butitmustbeusedforalldoorsthatexittotheoutsideandallinterior-latchedexitdoors
fromclassrooms,theaters,andotherplacesofassemblywithacapacityofmorethan100
people.
SmokeproofTowers. SmokeprooftowersthatconformtotherequirementsofNFPA101
areacceptablebutarenotrequiredunlessspecifiedbythelocalbuildingcode.
Fireareasorsubdivisionsmaybedevelopedtoimprovelife-safetyconditionsinexistingEPA
buildingswherecompletecorrectionofexistingstairandexitdeficienciesisnotfeasible.Fire
areas/subdivisionsmaybeusedtodevelophorizontalexitsincaseswherelargenumbersof
handicappedoccupantsmustbeprovidedwithsafeexitfacilities.Fireareas/subdivisionsmaybe
usedinconjunctionwithasmoke-controlsystem.Unlessgreaterfireresistanceisrequiredfor
otherpurposes,firebarrierwallsinstalledtoimproveexistingexitfacilities,orforsmoke
control,shallbeof1-hourfire-resistiveconstruction.Ahigherfire-resistanceratingshouldbe
usedtoenclosesuchareasashorizontalexitsandareasofrefuge.
2.9.2 EXITLIGHTINGANDMARKINGS
TherequirementsforexitlightingandmarkingarecontainedinNFPA101andthelocalbuilding
code. Exitlightingandexitsignsshallbeprovidedtoclearlyindicatethelocationofexitsin
conformancewith29CFR1910.36and1910.37andNFPA101.Themeansofegress,
exteriorstepsandrampsshallbeadequatelylightedtopreventaccidents.Internallyilluminated
signsshallmeetthefollowingcriteria:
EmergencylightingfortheareashallconformtoOSHAandLifeSafetyCodeandshall
provideatleast5footcandlesonthesignsurface.
Exitsignsshallbeatleast8incheshighby12incheslong.
Lettersshallbe6incheshigh.
Themaximumphysicaldistancetoavisualsignshallnotexceed100feet.Inaddition,
anexitsignshallbevisiblefromallpointsinthecorridor.
Exitsignsshallbeinspectedmonthlytoinsurethattheemergencypowerforthesignsis
functioningproperly.
2.9.3 OCCUPANTEMERGENCYANDFIREPREVENTIONPLANS
AwrittenoccupantemergencyplanshallbeprovidedforallEPA-ownedor-leasedfacilities.
Thefollowingelements,ataminimum,shallbeincludedintheplan:
Emergencyescapeproceduresandevacuationrouteassignments.Postingsofthe
evacuationroutesshallbepostedatkeypointsthroughoutthebuildingtofacilitate
efficientevacuationduringemergencies.
Proceduresforthoseemployeeswhomustremaintooperatecriticalfacilityoperations
Proceduresforaccountingforallemployeesafteremergencyevacuationhasbeen
completed
Rescueandmedicaldutiesofthoseemployeeswhoaretoperformthem.
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Preferredmeansofreportingfiresandotheremergenciesandwhotocontact.
Namesandjobtitlesofthosepersonsordepartmentswhocanbecontactedforfurther
informationorexplanationofdutiesundertheplan.
Trainingforemployees,includingperiodicpracticeemergencyevacuations(firedrills)
sothatpersonnelwillbefamiliarwithevacuationproceduresincasesofactual
emergencies.
EPAfacilitiesshallalsohavefirepreventionplans,eitherasaseparatedocumentorcombined
withtheoccupantemergencyplan.Requiredelementsofafirepreventionplansinclude,ata
minimum:
Listofthemajorworkplacefirehazardsandignitionsources,aswellasassociatedfire
protectionequipmentorsystems
Namesorjobtitlesofpersonnelresponsibleformaintenanceoffirepreventionand
controlequipmentandsystems
Housekeepingproceduresforflammableandcombustiblematerials
Maintenanceproceduresforheatproducingequipmenttopreventaccidentalignitionof
combustible.
2.10 FireLifeSafetyRequirementsforSpecificRoomTypes
Thissectiondescribespecial,andoftenmorestringent,firelifesafetyconsiderationsthatshall
befollowedforspecificroomtypes.
2.10.1 OPEN-PLANOFFICESPACE
Thefiresafetyobjectiveinopen-planofficesistomaintainadequateegressfacilitiesandalow-
riskenvironment.Thisobjectivecanbeachievedthroughprovisionofcompleteautomatic
sprinklerprotection,limitationofopen-planareastolow-hazardoccupancies(suchasoffice
space),maintenanceofwell-markedegresspaths,andfulfillmentoftherequirementsofNFPA
101. Thefollowingconditionsshallbemetforemergencyegressinopen-planofficespace:
Thespacelayoutshallensuremaintenanceofrationalexitrouteswithwell-marked
secondaryexits.
Colordynamics(e.g.,coloredlines,walls)andotherinnovativedirectionalguidancemay
beneededinlargeinstallations.
Theheightofdividersandacousticalpartitionsshouldbelimited(discussedinSection6
oftheA&EGuidelines),andpartitionsshouldbearrangedtoallowaircirculationand
permitoccupantstoquicklyidentifyproblemsthatmayarisefromfireintheareaandto
locateavailableexitroutes.Partitionstallerthan5feet,whichwouldobstructviewof
theopen-planspace,shouldbeavoidedwherepossibleorlimitedtotheperiphery.
Freestandingspacedividersshallresistanoverturningforceof25poundsperpendicular
tothefaceappliedataheightof60inchesabovethefloorandshallbearrangedsoasnot
tointerferewithegress.
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2.10.2 LABORATORIES
Firesafety,personalsafety,andhealthissuesinlaboratoriespresentaneedforcarefuldesign
andconstructiontoensurepersonnelandpropertyprotectionandefficientoperations.Itis
desirabletoconsolidatelaboratoryspaceintoseparatefireareasexclusiveofotheroccupancies.
Laboratoriesthathandleorstorehazardouschemicals,flammablegases,flammableliquids,or
explosives,andbiologicallaboratoriesshouldnotbeincorporatedintoplansforEPAoffice
buildingsorintobuildingsthatarebeingconsideredforEPA-leasedofficespace.Laboratories
shallnotbeestablishedorexpandedinexistingEPAbuildingsthataremainlyoccupiedwith
officespace. RefertoChapter4ofthisManualforadditionalinformationonlaboratorysafety.
RefertoSection1oftheA&EGuidelinesfortechnicaldataandrequirementsconcerning
laboratories.
2.10.3 FLAMMABLEANDCOMBUSTIBLEMATERIALSTORAGEAREAS
RefertoSection4.6ofthisManualforinformationonstorageandhandlingrequirementsfor
flammableandcombustiblechemicalsinhazardouschemicalstorageareas.
Nonflammable/noncombustiblesubstitutesshouldbeconsideredwheneverpossiblewhen
choosingthefollowingbuildingmaintenancematerials:
Cleaningsolvents Paints
Adhesives Finishes/varnishes
Caulking Woodpaneling
Sealants Floorcoverings
2.10.4 TRASH/RECYCLINGROOMS
Inanybuildingwherecombustibletrashisexpectedtoaccumulateortobecollectedinacentral
location,aproperlyprotectedtrashroomshallbeprovided.Trashroomsshallbeenclosedand
separatedfromtheremainderofthebuildingby1-hourfire-resistiveconstruction.Thedoorto
thetrashroomshallbeatleasta45-minuteself-closingfiredoor.Trashroomsandanyareas
usedasastagingareafortrashcollectionshallbesprinklerprotected.Thewatersupplyforthe
sprinklersintrashroomsorstagingareasthatarelessthan250squarefeetinsizemaybethe
domesticwatersystem.
Facilitiesshallprovideforspacesthatfacilitatethecollection,separation,compaction,storage
andtransportationofrecyclablematerials.Recyclablematerialsstorageroomsshouldbekeptin
orderandageneralhousekeepingscheduleforthestorageroomshouldbemaintainedtoreduce
thechanceoffire.Recycledpaperandothercombustiblematerialsshouldnotbeallowedto
accumulateinlargequantitiesandshallbekeptinappropriatecontainers.
2.10.5 COMMUNICATIONSROOMS
Whencommunicationsequipmentisessentialtothecontinuityofoperationofthebuildingoris
otherwisecritical,thecommunicationsroomshallbeprotectedbyfirebarrierwalls.
CommunicationsinstallationsshallmeettherequirementsofNFPA70.
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2.10.6 ELECTRONICEQUIPMENTROOMS
ExceptasnotedbeloworelsewhereinthisManual,theprovisionsofNFPA75shallbefollowed
forelectronicequipmentrooms.ThescopeofNFPA75shallbeusedtodetermineapplicability
ofthissection.
Construction.Alloperationsshallbehousedinabuildingoffire-resistantor
noncombustibleconstructionandshallbeseparatedfromotheroccupancieswithinthe
buildingby1-hourfire-ratedconstruction.Allmaterialsusedinconstructionshallhave
aflamespreadratingof25orlessandasmokedevelopmentratingof450orless(Class
AratingperNFPA101).Raisedfloorsshallbeofnoncombustibleconstruction.Except
forsmallsupervisoryofficesdirectlyrelatedtotheelectronicequipmentoperations,no
activityshallbelocatedwithinthefire-ratedenclosure.Importantandvitalrecordsthat
havenotbeenduplicatedandstoredatadifferentlocationshallbestoredinaroomwith
2-hourfire-ratedenclosure.Class1501-hour-or-betterdatastorageequipmentshallbe
providedonlyforvitaldatathathavenotbeenduplicatedandthatarebeingstored
withintheelectronicequipmentoperationsarea.
Ventilation.Aseparateair-conditioningsystemshouldbeprovidedfortheelectronic
equipmentoperationarea.Ifthesystemservesotherareas,damperstoprotectagainst
bothsmokeandfireshallbeprovidedfortheductworkateverypenetrationofthe
electronicequipmentareafireseparation.Nootherductsshallpassthoughtheelectronic
equipmentareas.
EmergencyAccessories. Emergencylights,alarms,strobelights,andallnecessary
appurtenancesshallbeprovidedasrequiredbyNFPA75.Smokedetectorsshallbe
providedatceilingsandinraisedfloorsandfordatastorageareas,inaccordancewith
NFPA72. RefertoSection13oftheA&EGuidelinesfordetails.
FireSuppression. Automaticwet-pipesprinklerprotectionshallbeprovidedthroughout
alllaboratoryareascontainingelectronicequipmentoperationsareas,includingdata
storageareas.InaccordancewithNFPA13,thesprinklersystemsshallbedesignedto
provide0.10gallonsperminute(gpm)persquarefootover1,500squarefeetfor
electronicequipmentareas,and0.15gpmpersquarefootfor3,000squarefeetfortape
librariesandstorageareasthatarelessthan9feetabovefloorlevel.Forstorageheights
of9feetorhigher,systemsshallbedesignedtoprovide0.18gpmpersquarefootfor
3,000squarefeet. Thesprinklerpipingmaybevalvedseparately,butvalvesshallbe
providedwithtamperswitchesconnectedtothebuildingfirealarmsystem.Referto
Section15oftheA&EGuidelinesforinformationaboutmechanicalaspectsofautomatic
sprinklerprotection.
Automaticdry-pipesprinklerprotectionmaybeprovidedthroughoutcomputerrooms
thatarenotassociatedwithlaboratoryareas.Thedry-pipesystemshallbeprovidedby
meansofadualsensingpre-actionsprinklermechanismandcontrolledbyadeluge
valve.Thedelugevalvewillbeoperatedbyacontrolpaneltowhichtheassociatedfire
zonesmokedetectorswillbeconnected.Thesprinklerheadsusedwiththepre-action
typesystemshallbependantstyleormaybeoftheflowcontrol(FC)type.Thepre-
actiondrytypesprinklersystemwilloperateasfollows:
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(a) Undernormalconditions,sprinklersystempipeswillbefilledwithlow-pressure
air. Acheckvalvemountedimmediatelyabovethedelugevalveretainsthe
supervisoryairpressure.Sprinklerheadorsprinklerpipingdamagecausesloss
ofairpressure,resultingintroublealarmswithoutoperationofthedelugevalve.
(b) Atwo-zonedsmokedetectionsystemwillbeprovided(e.g.,zoneAandzone
B). WhenasmokedetectorfromzoneAisactivated,awarningalarmwill
sound. IfasmokedetectorfromzoneBisactivatedwhilethesmokedetector
fromzoneAisactivated,thecontrolpanelwilldepressurizethepipes,the
delugevalvewillopen,thepipeswillfillwithwater,andthesprinklerheadswill
activateinaccordancewiththeambienttemperature.Oncethedelugevalveis
activated,thefirealarmsystemwillalsobeactivated,powertocomputer
equipmentwillbecutoff,andtheassociatedheating,ventilation,andair-
conditioning(HVAC)equipmentwilloperateundersmokeand/orfiremode
automatically.Smokedetectoractuationshallsoundanalarmattheannunciator
panelandautomaticallynotifythelocalfiredepartmentorcentralmonitoring
station. Othermethodsofachievingthiszonedapproachshallbereviewedfor
acceptancebyAEAMB.
ElectricalSwitches. Emergencyshutoffswitchesshallbeprovidedatallexitsfromthe
electronicequipmentarea.Theseswitcheswillallowforthedisconnectionofallpower
totheelectronicequipmentandair-conditioningsystems.Thesameshutoffswitchshall
beconnectedtoasprinklerwaterflowdevicesothatthepowertothecomputerroom,
includingtheairhandlers,willbeshutoffautomaticallywhenthesprinklersystem
operates. Thewaterflowdeviceusedtodisconnectpowertotheequipmentshallbe
equippedwithasupervisedbypassswitchsothatmaintenancetestingcanbeconducted
withoutdisconnectingpowertothecomputerroomequipment.
2.10.7 STAGES
Allstages,platformsinauditoriums,andsimilararrangementsshallconformtotherequirements
ofNFPA101.InteriorfinishshallcomplywithNFPA101andSection9oftheA&EGuidelines.
Allcurtainsanddraperiesforstagesandplatformsshallbeofanoncombustiblematerial,suchas
fiberglass,orshallbeofmaterialimpregnatedtobeflameresistantforthelifeofthefabric(25
washings).
Stagesarrangedorintendedfortheatricaloroperaticusethatinvolvesmovablescenery,rigging
loft,andthelikeshallconformtotherequirementslistedbelow.
Stagesshallbeseparatedfromallotherpartsofthebuildingbyfirepartitionshavingat
leasta2-hourfire-resistiverating.Theprosceniumwallsshallalsohaveatleasta2-hour
fire-resistiverating.
Theentirestageandalldressingrooms,storagerooms,proprooms,andotherbackstage
areasshallbeprotectedbyautomaticsprinklers.
Theroomsoverthestageshallhaveatleast1-hourfire-resistiveconstructionandshall
beprovidedwithemergencyventingofnotlessthanone-eighthoftheareaofthestage.
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Theprosceniumopeningshallbeprotectedbyastandardfire-resistiveproscenium
curtainarrangedforautomaticclosingwithouttheuseofappliedpower.
Allinteriorconstructionforriggingandlightingshallbenoncombustible.
2.10.8 DAY-CAREFACILITIES
Day-carecentersmustcomplywithNFPA101,aswellasEPAsguidelines,GSAsChildCare
CenterDesignGuide(PBS3425-13/PBS-P140),andthelicensingrequirementsofthelocal
jurisdiction.Minimumrequirementsaredescribedbelow.
Construction. Theday-carecentermustbeseparatedfromtherestofthebuildingbyat
least1-hourfire-resistiveconstructionwith45-minutefiredoors.Nohigherhazard
areas,suchaslaboratories,shallbelocatedinthesamefireareaastheday-carecenter.
Allhigherhazardareasshallbeseparatedfromtheday-carecenterbyatleast2-hour
fire-resistiveconstructionregardlessofsprinklerprotection.Laboratoriesandother
hazardsshallnotbelocatedwheretheycouldpresentahazardtooccupantsoftheday-
carecenterorexposetheegressroutesfromtheday-carecentertohazard.
Egress. Day-carecentersmustbelocatedalongagrade-levelexitdischargeandalongan
outsidewallwithoperablewindows.Preferably,thereshouldbeadoorleadingdirectly
outsidefromtheday-carecenter.Thetraveldistancetoanexit-accessdoorfromany
pointwithinanysleepingroommustnotexceed50feet.Thetraveldistancetoanexit
fromanydoorusedasanexit-accessmustnotexceed100feet.Thetraveldistancefrom
anypointinaroomtoanexitmustnotexceed150feet.Increasedtraveldistancesdueto
sprinklerprotectionshallbeallowedinaccordancewithNFPA101.
EmergencyAccessories. Emergencylightsandexitsignsshallbeprovidedfortheday-
carecenterandassociatedegressroutes.Smokedetectorsmustbeinstalledthroughout
theday-carecenter,includinginteriorcorridors,sleepingareas,andlounges.Referto
Section16oftheA&EGuidelinesforspecifictechnicaldataconcerningsmoke
detectors.
OccupantEmergencyPlans. Thefacilitysoccupantemergencyplanmustspecifically
addresstheday-carecenter,andallemployeesofthecentermustbetrainedand
proficientinexecutingtheplan.
ToxicSubstances. Theday-carecentershallnotbelocatedinanareawithasbestos-
containingmaterials,lead-basedpaints,orpolychlorinatedbiphenyls(PCBs).Paintand
similarsurface-coatingmaterialsthatcontainmercury,asbestos,lead,orleadcompounds
areprohibited. Alltoys;articlesoffurniture;equipmentforplay,amusement,education,
andphysicalfitness;andotherproductsusedforcareofchildrenshallhavenontoxic
paintsorcoverings.Lockablestoragespacesfortoxins,suchascleaningmaterials,must
beprovided. Additionally,theremustbeshelvinginthelockedstorageareathatisout
ofreachofpreschoolchildren.
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Security. Thecentermustbeprovidedwithsufficientphysicalsecuritytoprevententry
byunauthorizedpersons.Outsideplayareasshallbesolocatedandsecuredasto
minimizeexposureofchildrentounauthorizedpersons,vehiculartraffic(consideralso
thepossibilityofrunawayvehicles),animals,overheadelectricalpowerlines,and
oversprayfromHVACcoolingtowerwater.
AdditionalSafetyConcerns.
(a) Allunusedelectricalreceptacleswithinreachofpreschoolchildrenmustbe
equippedwithsocketguards.
(b) Ameansmustbeprovidedtolimithotwatertemperatureto120Finfixtures
thatareaccessibletochildren.Inaddition,waterfixturesthatareaccessibleto
childrenshouldbeofthemixertypetolimitthetemperatureofthewater.
(c) Ameansmustbeprovidedtopreventchildrenfromgainingaccesstothekitchen
area.
(d) Fansmustbelocatedatleast7feetabovefloorlevel,andthefanbladesmustbe
guarded.
2.11 SafetyfortheDisabled
EPAfacilitiesmusttakeintoaccountthespecialneedsofdisabledindividualsandensurethatin
casesofemergency,allpersonnelareabletoevacuate;orincasesofpotentialchemical
exposures,haveaccessibilitytoemergencyequipment.CompliancewiththeUniformFederal
AccessibilityStandards(UFAS),ismandatoryonallEPAprojects.BecausetheAmericanswith
DisabilitiesAct(ADA)isamorecontemporarydocument,therequirementsofADATitleIII
standardsshallbefollowedwherethoserequirementsaremorestrictthanUFASstandards.This
policyisderivedfromGSAPBS-P100andshallremainineffectuntiltheUFASrequirements
havebeenupdatedandreissued.(UFASrequirementswerelastupdatedin1989.)
ThecriteriabelowaddresssafetyissuesrelatingtogeneralaccesstoEPAfacilities.Forspecific
designguidanceandrequirementsrelatedtothefollowingissues,refertoUFAS;ADA;and
AmericanNationalStandardsInstitute(ANSI)A117.1,ProvidingAccessibilityandUsabilityfor
PhysicallyHandicappedPeople.
Firealarms. Providevisualwarningdevicestoalertthehearingimpaired.(Referto
Section13oftheA&EGuidelinesfortechnicalrequirementsconcerningfirealarms.)
Ramps. Examinetheslope,length,surface-frictionattributes,andexposuretoweather
ofaccessrampstoensurethattheymeettheapplicableUFAS,ADA,andANSI
requirements.
Exitpaths. Ensurethatexitpathsarewideenoughtopermitaccessbywheelchairsand
electricallypoweredcarts.Alsoensurethattherearenoitemsstoredinexitpathsthat
wouldimpedetheexitofapersoninawheelchairoranelectriccart.
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Elevatorcontrols. Ensurethatthecontrolsandemergencytelephonesofself-service
elevatorsarewithinreachofapersoninawheelchair.Technicalspecificationsfor
elevatorsaregiveninSection14oftheA&EGuidelines.
Firedoors. Ensurethatthehardwareoffireandexitdoors,particularlyself-closingfire
doors,canbeoperatedbyapersoninawheelchair.(RefertoSection8oftheA&E
Guidelinesfortechnicalrequirementsconcerningfiredoors.)
Occupantemergencyplans. Theseplansshallspecificallyaddresstheneedsof
handicappedpersonsingeneral,andtheparticularneedsofEPAemployeesassignedto
thefacility.
Theabovecriteriadonotaddresstheoccupationalexposuresofindividualswithdisabilities.
Whenfacilitydesignsaremodifiedtoaccommodateadisabledperson,thefacilitydesign
attributeswillrequireacarefulanalysisofthehazardsassociatedwiththeworktobeperformed
andthespecificneedsofindividualemployees.Thefollowinglistdelineatesthemorecommon
issuestobeaddressedforindividualEPAemployees:
Accessibilityofemergencyequipment,suchasemergencyshowers,eyewashes,and
alarms
Appropriateness,accessibility,transportation,anduseofhazardousmaterialswithinthe
facility
Accessibilityoffumehoods,heightofworkbenches,andaccessibilityofcontrolsontest
equipment.
2.12 EmergencyPower
Whererequired,emergencypowersystemsshallmeettherequirementsofSection16oftheA&E
Guidelines,NFPA101,andNFPA110.
2.13 LightningProtection
LightningprotectionshallcomplywithSection13oftheA&EGuidelinesandNFPA780.
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Chapter3-ElectricalSafety
3.1 Purpose
Thepurposeofthischapteristodescribeproceduresandprotocolsforensuringthesafe
construction,operation,andmaintenanceofelectricalsystems.Topicsaddressedinclude
overcurrentprotection,grounding,lockout/tagout,classifiedlocations,powerdistributionand
transmission,undergroundelectricalinstallations,andenergizedsubstations.
3.2 References
UnlessotherwisespecifiedinthisManualorapprovedbytheArchitecture,Engineeringand
AssetManagementBranch(AEAMB)andtheSafety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagement
Division(SHEMD),allelectricalinstallationsshallconformtotheapplicablerequirementsof
thecurrentnationalstandardsspecifiedbelowandinSection16oftheArchitectureand
EngineeringGuidelines(A&EGuidelines).
NFPA70,NationalElectricalCode,(NEC),NationalFireProtectionAssociation
NationalElectricSafetyCode(NESC)(ANSIC2),AmericanNationalStandards
Institute
3.3 OvercurrentProtection
Inordertoprotectoperatorsagainstelectrocution,allcircuitsshallbeprotectedagainstoverload.
Overcurrentprotectiondevicesmustbereadilyaccessible,clearlylabeled,notexposedto
physicaldamageandshieldedsuchthattheiroperationwillnotcauseexposuretoinjurydueto
archingorsuddenmovementofparts.Fusecabinetsshallhavetightfittingdoorsthatcanbe
locked.
Disconnectsshallbeprovidedandlocatedorshieldedsothatinjurywillnotoccurwhenthe
disconnectisoperated. Switches,fusesandautomaticcircuitbreakersshallbemarked,labeled,
orarrangedforreadyidentificationofthecircuitsorequipmentwhichtheysupply.Switches,
circuitbreakers,fusepanelsandmotorcontrollerslocatedout-of-doorsorinwetlocationsshall
beinaweatherproofenclosureorcabinet.
3.4 Grounding
AllelectricalcircuitsshallbegroundedinaccordancewiththeNECandNESC.Agroundshall
beprovidedfornoncurrentcarryingmetallicpartsofgenerators,switches,motorcontrolcases,
fuseboxes,anddistributioncabinets.Portableelectricaltoolsandequipmentshallbegrounded
withamulticonductorcordpossessinganidentifiedgroundingconductorandamulti-contact
polarizedplug-inreceptacle.
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Groundingrodpipesandelectrodesshallbefreeofnon-conductingcoatingsand,ifpracticable,
shallbeembeddedbelowpermanentmoisturelevels.Permanentgroundingshallbein
accordancewithNECArticle250.
Allreceptacleoutletsthatprovidetemporaryelectricalpowerduringconstructionshallhave
ground-faultcircuitinterrupter(GFCI)protectionforpersonnel.Receptacleoutletsthatarepart
ofthepermanentwiringofthefacilityshalluseaportableGFCIdeviceifthereceptacleoutlets
arenotalreadyGFCIprotected.TheportableGFCIdeviceshallbeasnearaspracticabletothe
receptacleoutlet. GFCIsshallbeinstalledinaccordancewiththeNEC;thepermanentwiring
shallconsistofelectricalcurrentsgroundedinaccordancewiththeNEC.
3.5 Lockout/Tagout
Priortoanyservicingormaintenanceonasystemwheretheunexpectedenergizing,start-up,or
releaseofkineticenergycouldoccurandcauseinjuryordamage,thesystemshallbeisolated.
Allpersonnelshallbetrainedinthelockout/tagoutprocedurepriortocommencinganywork.
Lockoutandtagoutdevicesshallbecapableofwithstandingtheenvironmenttowhichtheyare
exposedforthemaximumperiodoftimetheexposureisexpectedandindicatetheidentityofthe
employeeapplyingthedevice.Lockoutdevicesshallbesubstantialenoughtopreventremoval.
Tagoutdevicesshallhaveastandardizedprintandformat,beweatherproof,andwarnagainstthe
hazardousconditionresultingfromsystemenergization.
Theauthorizedemployeeshallensurethatallenergyisolatingdevicesneededtocontrolenergy
to,orwithinthesystemareidentifiedandthatthesystemisshutdown,isolated,blockedand
securedinaccordancewiththehazardousenergycontrolprocedure.Anysystemoperatedbya
remotelycontrolledsourcewillbecompletelyisolatedsuchthatitcantbeoperatedbythator
anyothersource.Theauthorizedemployeeshallaffixlockoutand/ortagoutdevicestoeach
energyisolatingdeviceinaccordancewiththeestablishedlockout/tagoutprocedure.
Inareasnotunderstrictcontrolofpersonnelinvolvedwithhazardousenergycontrolactivities
andinareaswithpublicaccess,padlocksmustbeinstalledontheisolationdevicesalongwith
appropriatetags. Priortostartingworkonsystemsthathavebeenlockedoutortaggedout,
verificationthatisolationanddeenergizationofthesystemshallbesuccessfullyaccomplished.
Beforelockoutortagoutdevicesareremovedandenergyrestoredtothesystem,itshallbe
ensuredthattheworkhasbeeninspectedandnonessentialitemshavebeenremovedfromthe
system,thesystemcomponentsareoperationallyintact,andallemployeeshavebeensafely
positionedorremovedfromthearea;andallaffectedpersonnelhavebeennotifiedthatthe
lockoutortagoutdevicesareabouttoberemoved.
3.6 ClassifiedLocations
Locationsofelectricalequipmentandwiringshallbeclassifiedonthepropertiesofthe
flammablevapors,liquidsorgasesorcombustibledustsorfiberswhichmaybepresentandthe
likelihoodthataflammableorcombustibleconcentrationispresent.Eachroom,sectionorarea
shallbeclassifiedinaccordancewithNFPA70Article500andTable3-1.
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Table3-1. ClassifiedLocations
ClassI
HighlyFlammableGasesor
Vapors
ClassII
CombustibleDusts
ClassIII
CombustibleFibers
Division1 Division2 Division1 Division2 Division1 Division2
Allequipment,wiringmethodsandinstallationsofequipmentinclassifiedlocationsshallbe
eitherapprovedasintrinsicallysafe,approvedforthehazardouslocation,ordemonstratedtobe
safeinthatlocation.Equipmentandwiringapprovedasintrinsicallysafeshallbepermittedin
thoseclassifiedlocationsincludedinitslabelingorlisting.Equipmentandwiringapprovedfor
thehazardouslocationshallbeapprovednotonlyfortheclassoflocationbutalsoforthe
ignitibleorcombustionpropertiesofthespecificvapor,gas,dustorfiber.Equipmentapproved
foraspecifichazardouslocationshallnotbeinstalledandintermixedwithequipmentapproved
foranotherspecifichazardouslocation.Allwiringcomponentsrequiredtobeexplosionproof
shallbemaintainedinthatcondition.
3.7 PowerTransmissionandDistribution
Beforestartingwork,existingconditionsshouldbedeterminedbyinspectionand/ortesting.
Suchconditionsshallincludethelocationofenergizedlinesandequipment,conditionsofpoles
andthelocationofcircuitsandequipmentincludingpowerandcommunicationlinesandfire
alarmcircuits. Electricequipmentshallbeconsideredenergizeduntildeterminedtobe
deenergizedbytestsorothermeans,andgroundsapplied.Theoperatingvoltageofequipment
andlinesshallbedeterminedbeforeworkingonornearenergizedparts.
TheminimumphasetogroundworkingdistanceandclearhotstickdistancesinTable3-2shall
notbeviolated. Theminimumclearhotstickdistancereferstothedistancefromthehotendof
live-linetoolstopersonnelwhenperforminglive-linework.
Uponcompletionofworkondeenergizedlinesorequipment,itshallbedeterminedthatall
personnelareclearandthatprotectivegroundshavebeenremovedandthatalltagsandlocks
havebeenremovedpriortoenergization.
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Table3-2.AlternatingCurrentMinimumDistances
VoltageRange(phasetophase) Minimumworkingandclearhotstick
distance(phasetoground)
2.1-15kV 2ft(24")
15.1-35kV 2.25ft(27")
35.1-46kV 2.5ft(30")
46.1-72.5kV 3ft(36")
72.6-121kV 3.25ft(39")
138-145kV 3.6ft(43")
161-169kV 3.6ft(43")
230-242kV 5ft(60")
345-362kV 6.8ft(82")
*
500-552kV 10.8ft(130")
*
700-765kV 11.8ft(142")
*
*
theminimumworkingdistanceandtheminimumclearhotstickdistanceforthesevoltagesmaybereducedprovidedthatsuch
distancesarenotlessthantheshortestdistancebetweentheenergizedpartandagroundedsurface.
3.8 UndergroundElectricalInstallations
Warningsignsandbarricadesshallbeplacedwhencoversofmanholes,handholesandvaultsare
removed.Maintenanceholesandunventedvaultsshallbetreatedasandsubjecttothe
requirementsofconfinedspaces.Priortousingopenflamesinmaintenanceholesorvaults,they
shallbetestedandfoundsafeorclearedofanycombustiblegasesorliquids.
Whenundergroundfacilitiesareexposed(electric,gas,water,telephoneorcablesotherthanthe
onebeingworkedon)theyshallbeprotectedtoavoiddamage.Beforecuttingintoacableor
openingasplice,thecableshallbeidentifiedandverifiedtobethepropercableanddeenergized.
Whenworkingonburiedcableoroncableinmanholes,metallicsheathcontinuityshallbe
maintainedbybondingacrosstheopening.
3.9 EnergizedSubstations
Whenworkinginanenergizedsubstation,authorizationshallbeobtainedpriorto
commencementofwork.Extraordinarycautionshallbeexercisedinthehandlingofbusbars,
towersteel,materialsandequipmentnearenergizedfacilities.Workonoradjacenttoenergized
controlpanelsshallbeperformedbyqualifiedpersonnel.Precautionsshallbetakentoprevent
accidentaloperationofrelaysorotherprotectivedevicesduetojarring,vibrationorimproper
wiring. Allmobilecranesshallbeeffectivelygroundedwhenbeingmovedoroperatednear
energizedlinesorequipmentortheequipmentshallbeconsideredenergized.
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Whenasubstationfencemustbeexpandedorremoved,atemporaryfenceaffordingsimilar
protectionshallbeprovided.Adequateinterconnectionwithgroundshallbemaintainedbetween
thetemporaryandpermanentfences.Allgatestoallunattendedsubstationsshallbelockedatall
times.
3.10 UseofPortableSpaceHeaters
Portableelectricspaceheatersmaybeusedininadequatelyheatedareasprovidedthe
requirementslistedbelowaremet:
TheheaterisapprovedorlistedbytheAmericanGasAssociation,UL,oranother
nationallyrecognizedtestingauthority.
Theheatercontainsatleasttwowattagesettings,thermostatcontrol,andsafetyswitches
thatturntheheateroffwhentiltedtoofaroroverheated.
ThebranchcircuitcarryingtheheaterconformswithrequirementsofNFPA70,National
ElectricCode,2002Edition,asapplicable.
Combustionspaceheatersaredirectlyventedtotheoutsidebyafluetoavoidthe
contaminationoftheoccupiedspacewithcombustiongases.
Portableliquid-fueledspaceheatersshallnotbeusedinEPA-occupiedspaces.
Allheatersareinstalledinaccordancewithalloftherequirementsofthemanufacturer,
andwiththeinvolvementofthefacilityownerandtheEPASafety,Healthand
EnvironmentalManagementManager.
Inaddition,useoftheheatershouldconformwithsafetytipsrecommendedbytheU.S.
ConsumerProductSafetyCommissioninthepublicationtitledElectricSpaceHeatersFact
Sheet,CPSCDocument#098. Whileallrequirementsareimportant,thoseparticularly
emphasizedbytheCommissionarelistedbelow:
Theheatersshouldhaveaguardaroundtheheatingelement,suchasawiregrillto
protectfingers,orfabricsfromtouchingtheelement.
Beforeusing,besuretoreadandunderstandinstructionsforoperationandmaintenance
oftheheater.
Whilenotencouraged,ifanextensioncordmustbeused,thecord,connector,or
attachmentplugandreceptacleshouldconformwithrequirementsofNFPA70,Chap.4,
Article422mentionedunderItem2,above.
Theheatercord(oranyelectriccord)mustneverberununderrugsorcarpets.
Theheatermustneverbeoperatedunattended.
Toavoidpotentialelectricalshockand/orelectrocution,neverplaceheatersnearwater,
orhandleheaterswhenwet.
Theheatershouldneverbeusedasameanstodryclothesorthawfrozenwaterpipes.
Theheatershouldbemaintainedingoodoperatingcondition.
Theheatershouldalwaysbeplacedonasolidlevelsurface.
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Chapter4-ChemicalandLaboratorySafety
4.1 Purpose
Thischapterdescribesthemanagementofhazardsinlaboratoriesandchemicalstorageareasat
EPA-ownedor-leasedfacilities.Specifictopicsdiscussedinthischapterincludeguidanceon
establishingwrittenasafetyandhealthprogram,safehandlingandstorageofchemical
substances,laboratoryventilation,andradiationsafety.RefertotheEPAsArchitectureand
EngineeringGuidelines(A&EGuidelines)forinformationondesignissuesforlaboratories.
4.2 References
TheseguidelinesaredesignedtocomplywiththeOccupationalSafetyandHealth
Administrations(OSHA)SafetyandHealthStandardsforGeneralIndustry(29CFRPart1910).
Unlessotherwisespecifiedherein,thesafetyfeaturesoflaboratoriesandchemicalstorageareas
shallconformtotheapplicablerequirementsofthefollowingNationalFireProtection
Association(NFPA)standardsandothercitedreferences:
C NFPA30,FlammableandCombustibleLiquidsCode
C NFPA45,StandardonFireProtectionforLaboratoriesUsingChemicals
C NFPA50A,StandardforGaseousHydrogenSystemsatConsumerSites
C NFPA51,StandardfortheDesignandInstallationofOxygen-FuelGasSystemsfor
Welding,Cutting,andAlliedProcesses
C NFPA54/ANSIZ223.1,NationalFuelGasCode
C NFPA55,StandardfortheStorage,Use,andHandlingofCompressedandLiquefied
GasesinPortableCylinders
C NFPA58,LiquefiedPetroleumGasCode
C NFPA59A,StandardfortheProduction,StorageandHandlingofLiquefiedNaturalGas
(LNG)
C NFPA70,NationalElectricCode(NEC)
C NFPA80A,RecommendedPracticeforProtectionofBuildingsfromExteriorFire
Exposure
C NFPA91,StandardforExhaustSystemsforAirConveyingofVapors,Gases,Mists,and
NoncombustibleParticulateSolids
C NFPA115,RecommendedPracticeonLaserFireProtection
C Safety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagementGuidelines,Safety,Healthand
EnvironmentalManagementDivision(SHEMD),EnvironmentalProtectionAgency
(EPA),1997
C ProceduresManualforCertifyingLaboratoryFumeHoodstoMeetEPAStandard,
SHEMD,EPA
C HandbookofCompressedGases,CompressedGasAssociation,Inc.
C PrudentPracticesintheLaboratory:HandlingandDisposalofChemicals,National
ResearchCouncil.
C SafetyGuidelinesfortheInstallationandOperationofX-RayGeneratingEquipmentat
EPAFacilities
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4.3 SafetyandHealthProgram
AllEPA-ownedor-leasedfacilitieswithemployeeswhoengageinworkrequiringtheuseor
managementofhazardouschemicalsshallmaintainawrittensafetyandhealthprogramin
accordancewiththeEPASHEMDsSafety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagementGuidelines;
andOSHAs29CFRPart1910,GeneralSafetyandHealthStandardsforGeneralIndustry.
Thisprogramshallincludeawrittenhazardcommunication(HAZCOM)programthat
establishespolicy,procedures,andresponsibilitiesfordisseminatinginformationtoemployees
onthesafehandlingofhazardouschemicals(29CFR1910.1200).Theprogrammustinclude
provisionsforidentifyingandlistinghazards,trainingprograms,containerlabeling,andtheuse
ofmaterialsafetydatasheets(MSDSs).
Forlaboratories,OSHArequiresthedevelopmentofawrittenChemicalHygienePlanthat
definesworkpracticesandprocedurestohelpensurethatlaboratoryworkersareprotectedfrom
healthhazardsassociatedwiththehazardouschemicals(29CFR1910.1450).Theelementsof
awrittenlaboratorysafetyprogramshallinclude:
C Standardoperatingproceduresforhazardrecognition,controlandcontainment
C Controlmeasurestoreduceemployeeexposuretohazardouschemicals
C Provisionsforemployeeinformationandtraining
C Provisionsformedicalconsultationandmedicalexaminations
C DesignationofpersonnelresponsibleforimplementationoftheChemicalHygienePlan.
4.4 EmployeeTraining
AwrittencomprehensivetrainingprogrammustbedevelopedatEPAownedorleasedfacilities
foremployeesworkinginlaboratoriesorotherwisehandlinghazardousmaterials.Employers
withemployeesworkingineachoftheseareasshallmaintainrespectiveprogramsrequiredby
OSHA29CFR1910.1200,HazardCommunicationStandard;29CFR1910.120,Hazardous
WasteOperationsandEmergencyResponse;and29CFR1910.1450,OccupationalExposureto
ChemicalsinLaboratories.Thetrainingprogramshallinclude,butnotlimitedto,hazard
recognition;hazardcontainmentandcontrolmeasures;hazardassessment;chemicalhandling
andstorage;employeepersonalprotectionequipmentselectionanduse;respiratoryprotection(if
applicable);andchemicalhygieneplans(ifdutiesinvolveworkingwithchemicalsina
laboratory). ForspecificemployeetrainingrequirementsforEPAfacilities,refertotheEPA
Safety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagementGuidelines.
4.5 PersonalProtectiveEquipment
CarefulselectionanduseofPPEisessentialtoprotectthehealthandsafetyofworkers.The
purposeofPPEistoshieldorisolateworkersfromthechemical,physical,radiological,and
biologicalhazardsthatmaybeencounteredatthesite.PPEuseshouldnotbeconsideredthe
primaryshieldforthesafetyandhealthofemployees.InconjunctionwithPPE,managers
shouldimplementengineeringcontrolssuchasventilationorbarriersandadministrativecontrols
suchassubstitutinghazardouschemicalsforlesstoxicsubstances.ThebasicelementsofaPPE
programare:
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C AssessmentoftheworkplacehazardstodetermineifPPEuseiswarranted
C SelectionofPPEthatwilladequatelyprotectemployeesfromidentifiedhazards
C ProceduresforretiringdefectiveordamagedPPE
C Assurancethatemployeeownedequipmentisadequate
C ProceduresfortrainingemployeewhomustusePPE.
Ifemployeesarerequiredtouserespiratoryprotection,OSHAStandardforRespiratory
Protection,29CFR1910.134,requiresthatarespiratoryprotectionprogrambeestablished.
Therespiratoryprogramshallincludestandardoperatingproceduresgoverningtheselectionand
useofrespirators.
4.6 ChemicalStorageandManagement
Facilitiesshallbeprovidedwithstoragearrangementsforthehazardouschemicalsthatare
necessaryfortheoperationofthelaboratoryorfacility.Chemicalstorageareasshallconformto
NFPA45ortherequirementscontainedinthelocalbuildingandfirepreventioncodes.
Wheneverthesitearrangementspermit,thestorageoflargequantitiesofhazardouschemicals,
suchasthoserequiredtosupportchemicallaboratoryoperations,shouldbesegregatedin
accordancewithNFPA30orlocalcodes,orseparatedinaccordancewithNFPA80A.Facilities
storingflammableliquidsshallconformtoNFPA30.
Insidestorageareasforhazardouschemicalsorflammableliquidsshallbeseparatedfrom
adjacentspacesbyatleast2-hourfire-resistiveconstruction.Theroomshallotherwisecomply
withtherequirementspresentedinSection4-4ofNFPA30andlocalbuildingandfire
preventioncodes.Thissectionappliestonewchemicalstorageaswellastowastechemical
storage. Ifaroomisusedformixedwaste-chemicalstorage,propersegregationshallbe
providedtopreventmixingofincompatiblechemicals.Thissegregationshallinclude,butnotbe
limitedto,dikingprovisionsbetweenstorageareasofincompatiblechemicals.Additional
requirementsspecifictodifferenttypesofhazardouschemicalsarelistedbelow.
4.6.1 COMPRESSEDGASES
NFPAstandardsshallbeusedasabasisfordeterminingrequirements.Dependingonthetypeof
installation,NFPAstandards50A,51,54,55,58and59Ashallbeused.Therequirementsfor
chemicallaboratoriesareoutlinedinNFPA45.InsituationsnotcoveredbyNFPAstandards,the
CompressedGasAssociationpublicationsshallbeusedasguidelines.Generally,management
ofcompressedgasesshalladheretothefollowingrequirements.
C CylinderSizeandQuantity. Cylindersizeandnumberpermittedwithinafacilitywill
dependuponsystemsize,roomsize,construction,roomventilation,cylindercontents
andtheavailabilityoffiresuppressionmechanisms.Agaseoussystemincludesall
regulators,reliefdevices,manifolds,pipingandcontrolsleadingfromthecylindersto
pointofuse.
Nosingleflammablegasoroxygencylindershallexceed220cubicfeet(approximately
10inchesindiameterby50inchesinlength).Thetotalnumberofflammablegasand
oxygencylindersinalaboratoryshallnotexceedtheamountspecifiedinChapter8of
NFPA45. Generally,withina500square-footarea,nomorethansixcylindersina
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Safety,Health,andEnvironmentalManual:
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sprinkleredspaceandnomorethanthreecylindersinanonsprinkleredareallowed.
Liquifiedflammablegasesarelimitedtothreecylindersinasprinkleredareaandtotwo
cylindersinanonsprinkleredspace.
CylinderConstructionandUse. Allcylindersshallbeconstructed,charged,shippedand
maintainedinaccordancewithapplicableDOTHazardousMaterialsTransportation
Regulations(49CFR171-179)andNFPA45.Compressedgascylindersshallbe
visuallyinspectedbytheemployerpursuantto49CFR171-179toensurethatthe
cylindersundertheircontrolareinasafecondition.ForinstanceswhenDOTinspection
requirementsdonotapply,inspectionsshallcomplywithCGApamphletsC-1-1968
(StandardsfortheVisualInspectionofCompressedGasCylinders)andC-8-1962
(StandardforRequalificationofICG-3HTCylinders).
C PressureReliefDevices. Compressedgascylinders,portabletanks,andcargotanksshall
befittedwithpressurereliefdevicesandmaintainedinaccordancewithCGAPamphlets
S-1.1-1963with1965addenda(SafetyReleaseDeviceStandards-Cylindersfor
CompressedGases),andS-1.2-1963(SafetyReleaseDeviceStandards-Cargoand
PortableTanksforCompressedGases).
C Anchoring. Gascylindersshallbestoredinanuprightsecurepositionbyachain,nylon
strap,ormetalchannelassemblyattachedtoacountertop,wall,column,orsubstantial
pipe. Cylindersshallnotbesecuredtotablesordesksthatarenotattachedtothe
structure. Cylinderstandsattachedtoornearthebaseofgascylindersshallnotbeused.
Cylindersshouldberestrainednearorabovethecenterofgravity,butnotsohighasto
allowthecylindertoslideout.Inseismicareas,asecondstrapshallbeusedbelowthe
centerofgravity.Cylindersmustbesecuredindividually.Inalaboratory,cylinders
shallnotbegroupedtogetherwithasinglestrap,thoughthispracticeispermissiblein
storageareasorwheregascylindersaredelivered.
C Supplylines. Supplylinesleadingfromhigh-pressurecylindersshallbesecurely
fastenedoranchoredeveryfivefeettominimizewhippingofthelineincaseoffailureof
thelineand/orfitting.SupplylinesshallmeetthepressurereliefrequirementsofNFPA
45. Toreducetheprobabilityofaninappropriateuse,permanentpipingandpiping
whichpassesthroughwallsshallbelabeledatthesupplypointandeachdischargepoint
withthenameofthematerialused.
4.6.2 CRYOGENICGASES
Forthepurposesofthismanual,cryogenicgasesaredefinedasanysubstancestoredatorbelow
thetemperatureof-73.3C(-100F).Abovethistemperaturethesubstanceexistsonlyasa
vapor. Therequirementsforstorageanduseofcryogenicmaterialsare:
Theductilityandchemicalreactivityofmaterialsmustbeconsideredaccordingly.When
selectingfacilityrelatedmaterialsforcryogenicuse,refertotheAmericanSocietyof
MechanicalEngineers(ASME)MechanicalEngineersBoilerandPressureVessel
Code-SectionVIIforguidance.
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Toreducethechancesofpersonnelexposurestoextremetemperatures,cryogenic
materialsshallnotbestoredorusedincorridorsorotherplacesofroutineaccessbynon-
involvedpersonnel.
Ventlinesshouldberoutedtotheoutdoorstoprecludeahazardousaccumulationof
flammable,toxicorinertgasintheworkarea.
4.6.3 FLAMMABLEANDCOMBUSTIBLEGASES
Flammablegasesshallbeseparatedfromoxidizinggases,suchasoxygen,compressedair,and
chlorine,andfromcombustibleorflammablematerials.Flammable-gascontainersshallbe
storedoutsidethebuildingwheneverpossible,withthegaspipedtotheworkplaceinaccordance
withNFPAcriteria.Asalastresort,gascontainersshallbelocatedinsidethebuildingina
ventilated,fire-resistantroomconformingtoNFPAstandards.Ventilationratesinanyroom
usingflammablegascylindersshallbesufficienttopreventthegasconcentrationfromreaching
thelowerexplosivelimit(LEL)resultingfromleakagefromonecylinder.SeeNFPA55for
requiredventilationrates.
4.6.4 FLAMMABLEANDCOMBUSTIBLELIQUIDS
Flammableliquids(liquidspossessingaflashpointoflessthan100F)andcombustibleliquids
(liquidswithaflashpointabove100F)shallbestoredandhandledinamannerthatwillreduce
theriskoffireand/orexplosion.Chemicallaboratoryrequirementsforspecificquantitiesof
flammableliquidsareoutlinedinNFPA45andarebasedontheclassificationofthelaboratory
unit. Managementofflammable/combustibleliquidsatEPAownedorleasedfacilitiesshould
practicethefollowingguidance:
Allflammable/combustibleliquidsshouldbestoredawayfromheatandignitionsources
inadesignatedflammableliquidsstorageroomwithsuitablefireprotection,ventilation,
spillcontainmenttrays,andwithequipmentsatisfyingtherequirementsofOSHA.Areas
forstorageshouldnotbeindirectsunlight,ontherooforinthecenterofthebuilding.
Thestorageroomshouldhaveatleastoneexteriorwall.
Flammable/combustibleliquidsshouldbestoredinlaboratorycabinetsapprovedbya
nationallyrecognizedtestinglaboratoryinaccordancewithNFPA30.Iftestingor
evaluationidentifiesthatahealthhazardexistsfromthestorageofchemicalsinthe
cabinetandadministrativecontrolsareineffective,ventingtotheoutsideatmosphereof
thecabinetsismandatedinordertocontroltherisk.RefertoSection4.6.8ofthis
chapterforventilationcriteria.
C Allflammable/combustibleliquidsshouldbesegregatedfromotherhazardousmaterials
suchasacids,bases,andoxidizers.
C Storagecabinetsshouldnotbeoverfilled;freefrompaper,cardboardandother
combustiblematerials.
C ClassIflammableliquidsshouldnotbestoredinrefrigerators.Ifthematerialsmustbe
storedinlowtemperatures,theyshouldbestoredinexplosion-proofrefrigerators(listed
forClassI,DivisionI,GroupCandD)andapprovedbyUnderwritersLaboratoryasa
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SpecialPurposeRefrigeratorand/orfreezer.Allexplosion-proofrefrigeratorsshallbe
labeledassuch.
C Transferofflammableliquidsshallbeperformedindesignatedstorageareasorovera
spilltrayinaneffectivefumehood.Drumsshouldbeelectricallygroundedandbonded,
andshouldbeequippedwithpressurereliefdevicesanddead-manvalves.
C Safetycansshouldbeusedforamountslessthan2gallons,andusersshouldnever
disablethespring-loadedclosure.
C Additionalsite-specificprovisionsmaybenecessarytocomplywithOSHA29CFR
1910.106,FlammableandCombustibleLiquids,intheChemicalHygienePlanand
EPAsSafety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagementGuidelines.
Forinformationspecifictostorageandmanagementofhazardouswasteandpetroleumfuelsfor
compliancewithenvironmentalregulations,refertoEnvironmentalManagementGuidelines
(EPAFacilitiesManual,Volume4),Chapters4and5,respectively.Formoreinformation
regardingdesignofhazardouschemicalstorageareasandspacemanagement,refertotheA&E
Guidelines(EPAFacilitiesManual,Volume2).
4.7 EmergencyEyewashandShowerEquipment
Emergencyeyewashandshowerequipmentshallbeprovidedwithintheworkareaswherethe
eyesorbodyofanemployeemaybeexposedtocorrosiveorhazardousmaterials,includingin
hazardousmaterialsorhazardouswastestorerooms.
Emergencyeyewashandshowerequipmentshallbeinaccessiblelocationsthatcanbereachedin
nomorethan10secondswalkingtimefromthelocationofthehazard.Theeyewashandshower
shallbelocatedonthesamelevelasthehazardandthepathoftravelshallbefreeofobstructions
thatmayinhibittheimmediateuseoftheequipment.Forastrongacidorstrongcaustic,the
eyewashandshowershouldbeimmediatelyadjacenttothehazard.
Theshowerandeyewashshouldbeplumbedtoprovideacontinuoussupplyofpotablewaterfor
atleast15minutes.
Theeyewashandshowerwillmeettheminimumperformanceanduserequirementsincorporated
intheAmericanNationalStandardsInstitute(ANSI)standardforEmergencyEyewashand
ShowerEquipment,ANSIZ358.1-1998(orcurrentANSIrevision).Otherrequirementsare
discussedbelow.
Fornewlaboratoryconstruction,eyewashesinrepetitivelaboratorymodulesshallbe
fullyplumbed(supplyanddrain)tofacilitateperiodictestingandannualinspectionof
theequipment.Inlocationswhereeyewashstationsorshowersarerequiredbutwhere
plumb-inwaterorheatisnotprovided,self-containedunitsfacilitatingtheabovecriteria
willbealloweduponapprovalbySHEMD.
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Neweyewashandshowerequipmentshouldbeplumedtotepidpotablewater.The
temperatureofthetepidwatershouldhaveanmeantemperatureof85degrees
Fahrenheit(30degreesCentigrade)andnotbeinexcessof100degreesFahrenheit(38
degreesCentigrade).
Theneedforafloordrainforanemergencyshowerisdeterminedbyanassessmentof
localconditions.Floordrainsmaybeprovidedforshowersystemsiflaboratoryrunoff
canbeinterceptedandisolatedfordisposalortreatmentinawastewatersystem.
Dischargefromemergencyshowersshouldnotimpingeonpoweredelectrical
equipment.
Fornewlaboratoryconstruction,eyewashesandshowersshallbeinstalledwith
activationalarmsforeachunit.
Fornewlaboratoryconstruction,alleyewashandshowers,willbelocatedwithaminium
clearfloorspacethatallowsunitaccessabilitytoallemployees.
4.8 LaboratoryVentilation
Buildingheating,ventilationandairconditioning(HVAC)systemsmusthaveadequate
ventilationcapacitytocontrolvapors/gases,odors,andairbornecontaminants,permitsafe
operationofexhausthoods,andcoolthesignificantheatloadswhichcanbegeneratedin
laboratories. DesignandinstallationrequirementsforventilationsystemsaredetailedinSection
15oftheA&EGuidelines. Generallaboratoryventilation,however,shouldnotbereliedonfor
protectionfromtoxicsubstances.Localexhaustventilationdevices,suchaslaboratoryfume
hoods,aretheprimarymethodofcontaminantcontrolinlaboratories.Therequirementsforlocal
ventilationaredescribedbelow.
4.8.1 LABORATORYFUMEHOODS
Fumehoodsareanintegralpartofalaboratoryventilationsystemandareconsideredprimary
hazardcontroldevicesforpersonnelworkingwithhazardoussubstancesinlaboratories.All
laboratoryfumehoodspurchasedforusebyEPAshallcomplywithEPAsfumehooddesign,
installation,andperformancecriteriadescribedinSection15oftheA&EGuidelinesand
Chapter6ofNFPA45.EachhoodshallhaveanASHRAE110standardperformanceratingas
manufactured(AM)of4.0AM0.05.Inaddition,facilitymanagersandlaboratorypersonnel
shouldunderstandandcomplywiththefollowinggeneraloperatingandmaintenancerules
regardingfumehoods:
FumeHoodOperation. Thehoodexhaustfansshallremaininoperationatalltimes
whenhoodsareinuseandforasufficienttimethereaftertocleanthehoodsofairborne
hazardoussubstances.Hoodfacevelocityforairshouldbe100linearfeetperminute
(fpm)10fpmwiththesash80%open.SHEMDwillconsiderrequeststooperate
hoodsat80fpmaveragefacevelocitywithasashopeningof80%.Anyrequestfora
loweroperatingaveragefacevelocityshouldincludeinformationontheperformanceof
thehoodatloweroperatingvelocities,thelocationofthehoodandthetypeandlocation
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ofceilingsupplyairdiffusers.Undernocircumstancescanthecontrolvelocitybeless
than80fpmatanysashheight.
Fumehoodwindowsshallbeclosedatalltimesexceptwhenperformingworkor
adjustingapparatusinsidehood.Hoodsandexhaustductsshouldbecheckedbefore
eachusetoensurehoodisclearedofforeignobjects.Anyapparatusplacedinthehood
shouldbeplacedonthefloorofthehoodatleast6inchesawayfromthefrontedgeto
maintainsufficientventilation.
AllowableUses. Fumehoodsshouldnotbeusedaschemicalstorageunits.Fumehoods
alsoshallnotbeusedasdisposalunitsforhazardoussubstances.Chemicalsarenotto
bedisposedofthroughevaporationunlessvaporsaretrappedandrecoveredforproper
disposal.
FumeHoodPerformance. Hoodsshallbecheckedperiodicallytoensureoperating
parametersaremet.Whenperformanceofexistinghoodsinunsatisfactory,attention
shouldfirstbedirectedtoachievingthespecifiedhoodfacevelocities.Whencorrect
facevelocitieshavebeenachieved,attentionshouldbedirectedtoexternalfactorssuch
ashoodlocationandroomventilation.Whenthebestenvironmentforthehoodhasbeen
achieved,theremainingfeatures,suchasairfoils,airvolumemoved,andcontrolofthe
airpatterninthezoneoftheoperator,shouldbeconsidered.Incasesofhoodfailure,
personnelshallbeawareofemergencyshutdownprocedurestoreducevaporgeneration.
Proceduresshouldincludeshutdownoperations,vesselorcontainerclosureandhood
sashclosure. Ifanewhoodisneeded,refertoSection15oftheA&EGuidelinesfor
designandtechnicalrequirements.
AnnualCertification. Theperformanceoffumehoodsshallbecertifiedannuallyand
afteranysignificantmaintenancehasbeenperformedontheexhaustsystemorroomair
supplysystem.Theperformancecertificationshallbeperformedinaccordancewiththe
ProceduresManualforCertifyingLaboratoryFumeHoodstoMeetEPAStandardand
shallbeapprovedbyrepresentativesfromSHEMD.Recordsofthecertificationmustbe
maintainedonsite.
4.8.2 FLAMMABLELIQUIDANDCHEMICALSTORAGEROOMS
Theinsidestorageareasforhazardouschemicalsandflammableliquidsshouldbeventedtothe
outsideatmospherebyamechanicalexhaustsystemthatmeetsthefollowingcriteria:
Theventilationratemustbeatleast1cubicfootperminuteofexhaustpersquarefootof
floorarea,butnotlessthan150cubicfeetperminute.
Thesourceofairsupplyshouldbewithin12inchesofthefloorononesideoftheroom.
Exhaustshouldbetakenfromwithin12inchesofthefloorontheoppositewallofthe
roomfromthemakeupair.
Exhaustmustnotbeventedintoafumehoodoritsassociatedexhaustsystem.
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Ifductsareusedfortheventilationsystem,theyshallcomplywithNFPA91.
4.8.3 OTHERVENTILATEDENCLOSURES
LaboratoryCabinets.Laboratorycabinetsusedforhazardouschemicalstoragemustbe
appropriatefortheirintendeduse.Cabinetventingtotheoutsideatmosphereisnecessarywhen
healthhazardexposureswarrantventilationandadministrativecontrolsareineffectivein
controllingtherisk.Whenacabinetisvented,itshallbeventedbyamechanicalexhaustsystem
thatmeetsthecriteriaofNFPA91andAppendixAofNFPA30asdiscussedbelow.
Theventilationratemustbe5to20cubicfeetperminute(cfm).
Airshouldbesuppliedatthetopofacabinet,exhaustedfromthebottom,andswept
acrossalltheshelvesbyarrangingtheshelvesasbafflesorconstructingtheshelvesof
perforatedmetal.
Theinletfittingshouldincorporateaflamearrestor.
Ifaseparateexhaustfanisused,itmustberoof-mountedandsparkproof,anditshould
beweatherproof.
Thecabinetexhaustmustnotbeventedintoafumehoodbutmaybeconnectedand
ventedthroughafumehoodsassociatedexhaustsystemiftheoperationsservedbythat
exhaustsystemarenotincompatiblewiththematerialsstoredinthecabinet.
Theventsystems(e.g.,tubingorpiping)forflammablestoragecabinetsshallbefire-
ratedinaccordancewithNFPA30unlessothermethodsofprotectingthefireintegrityof
theventopeningsareprovided.Meansofachievingthisprotectionmayinclude
thermallyactuateddampersand/orsufficientlyinsulatedventtubing.
Flammable/combustiblestoragecabinets. Flammable/combustiblestoragecabinetsshallnotbe
ventedunlessahealthhazardexistsfromthestorageofchemicalsinthecabinetand
administrativecontrolsareineffective.Metalcapsshallbeusedtosealcabinetopeningsinplace
offlasharrestorscreens. Ifventingisnecessary,thefollowingrequirementsmustbefollowed:
C Metalcapsshallbereplacedwithflasharrestorscreens,andtop-mostinletshouldserve
asthefreshairinlet.
C Thebottomcabinetopeningwillbeusedasanexhaust,andbeconnectedtorigidsteel
tubingwithadiameternosmallerthanthecabinetopening.
C Afanwithnon-sparkingbladesandashroudwhichexhaustsdirectlytotheoutside
shouldbeused.
C Thetotalexhaustductlengthshallnotexceed25feet.
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4.9 RadiationSafety
ARadiationSafetyProgrammustbedevelopedandimplementedforEPAlaboratoriesthatuse
radioactivematerialsand/orradiationproducingdevices.Theprogramshallbedevisedtoassure
thatlevelsofEPAworkersexposurestoradiationareaslowasreasonablyachievable
(ALARA). ThebasicelementsoftheRadiationSafetyProgramincludedosemonitoringand
control,training,recordkeeping,SOPs,andemergencyresponseplans.
AspartofaRadiationSafetyProgram,theworkpracticesrelatedtoradioactivematerialsshall
bedesignedtoensurecompliancewiththeradiationexposurelimitsestablishedin10CFRPart
20. ReferChapter8oftheEnvironmentalManagementGuidelines(Volume4oftheEPA
FacilitiesManual)forinformationonmanagingradioactivematerialsanddisposingof
radioactivewaste.
EPAlaboratoriesmayalsocontainequipmentanddevicesthatmayproduceionizing(e.g.,x-ray
machines)andnonionizing(e.g.,lasers,microwaves,andUVlamps)radiation. Operationof
thesedevicesrequiresstringentphysicalandadministrativecontrolstopreventoverexposureto
operatingandsupportpersonnelandthoseinadjacentworkareas. Thefollowingsections
describethehazardsassociatedwithsomeofthesedevicesandtheengineeringcontrolstobe
consideredduringtheirdesignandinstallation.
4.9.1 X-RAYMACHINES
SourcesofexposuretoradiationfromX-raymachinesincludetheprimarybeam,leakageof
primarybeamthroughcracksinshielding,diffractedbeams,aswellasradiationgeneratedby
rectifiersinthehighbeamvoltagepowersupply.Severeburnscanresultfromexposuresofthe
hands,arms,oreyestothedirectordiffractedbeams.Installationofnon-medicalx-ray
equipmentshallcomplywithEPAsSafetyGuidelinesfortheInstallationandOperationofX-
RayGeneratingEquipmentatEPAFacilitiesandNFPA70,Article660.Analyticalx-ray
equipmentshallbeequippedwithengineeringcontrolsasfollows:
SafetyDevices. Devicesthatpreventtheentryofanyportionofanindividualsbody
intotheprimaryx-raybeampathorwhichcausesthebeamtobeshutoffuponentryinto
itspathmustbeprovidedonallopen-beamconfigurations.Failsafeinterlocksonall
protectivebarriersoftheunitneededtomeetthe0.25mR/hrlimitation.Interlocksshall
betestedatleastannually.
Shielding. Shieldingadequatetoreducetheexposurerateat5cmfromanyaccessible
surfacetolessthan0.25mR/hrfornormaloperationsshallbeprovided.
WarningDevices.Open-beamconfigurationsmustbelabeledsothattheirpurposeis
easilyidentified,andhavefail-safecharacteristics.Inaddition,theyshouldbeprovided
withareadilydiscernibleindicationof:
S X-raytubestatus-whetherthetubeisonoroff;locatedneartheradiation
sourcehousing,iftheprimarybeamiscontrolledinthismanner
S Shutterstatus-whethertheshutterisopenorclosed;locatedneareachporton
theradiationsourcehousing,iftheprimarybeamiscontrolledinthismanner.
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Ports.Unusedportsonradiationmachinesourcehousingsmustbesecuredintheclosed
positioninamannerwhichwillpreventcasualopening.
Labeling.Thesystemshallbearalabel"Caution:ThisequipmentproducesX-Rayswhen
energized-tobeoperatedonlybyqualifiedpersonnel,"ortheequivalent.
Shutters.Onopen-beamconfigurations,eachportontheradiationsourcehousingshall
beequippedwithashutterthatcannotbeopenedunlessacollimatororacouplinghas
beenconnectedtotheport.
WarningLights.Awarninglightofadequatesizeandbrightnesslabeledwiththewords
X-RAYONshallbelocatednearanyswitchthatenergizesx-raytubeandmustbe
illuminatedonlywhenthetubeisenergized.Warninglightsmusthavefail-safe
characteristics.
4.9.2 LASERS
Safetyconcernswithlasersincludeeyeandskindamage,electricalhazardsfromhigh-energy
powersources,chemicalexposure,fire/explosionhazards,andexposuretocryogenicmaterials
suchashydrogenandoxygen.Manylasersemitinvisibleultravioletorinfraredradiation.
Additionalinformationandguidanceregardingfireandexplosionhazardmitigationisprovided
byNFPA115.Lasersareclassifiedintofourbasiccategories:
C Class1. Lowestpowerlasersthatdonotemithazardouslevels.
C Class2. Low-powerlasersthatposeahazardonlyifvieweddirectlyforextended
periods.
C Class3. Medium-powerlasersthatposemoderateriskandcancauseinjury.
C Class4. High-energy,high-risklasersthatcancauseinjurytotheeyesandskinfrom
directordiffusedreflection.
Engineeringcontrolsshallbeconsideredwhendesigningandinstallinglaserequipmentto
provideforsafety.Inmostinstances,engineeringcontrolsareincludedontheequipmentas
providedbythelasermanufacturerbecauseoftheperformancerequirementsmandatedbythe
FederalLaserProductPerformanceStandard(FLPPS).Thefollowingengineeringcontrols
recommendedintheANSIZ136.1standard,SafeUseofLasers,shallbeconsidered:
C Protectivehousing
C Masterswitchcontrols
C Opticalfilterinterlocks
C Beamstopsorattenuators
C Laseractivationwarningsystems
C Interlockedserviceaccesspanels
C Remoteinterlockconnectors.
9.3 ULTRAVIOLET(UV)LAMPS
EPAlaboratoriesmayhaveavarietyofartificialsourcesofUVradiation,includingbiological
safetycabinets,germicidallamps,UV-transluminators(UVlightboxes),andcrosslinkers. The
effectofUVradiationoverexposuredependsonUVdosage,wavelength,portionofbody
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exposed,andthesensitivityoftheindividual.Overexposureoftheeyesmayproducepainful
inflammation,agrittysensation,and/ortearswithinthreetotwelvehours.Overexposureofthe
skinwillproducereddening(i.e.,sunburn)withinonetoeighthours.
AdequateeyeandskinprotectionareessentialwhenworkingaroundUVradiation.Inaddition,
engineeringcontrolsshallbeconsideredwheninstallingUVequipmenttoensuresafety,
including:
C ContainingorconfiningUVradiationtoarestrictedareawhenpracticable.
C ContainingUVradiationwithopaquematerials,suchascardboardorwood.Transparent
materials,suchasglass,polyvinylchloride(PVC),plexiglassandperspex,blockUV
radiationinvaryingdegrees.Generally,carbonatedplasticsprovideadequateUV
protection. Somekindsofclearglass(includingsomekindsofwindowglassandoptical
glass)transmitsignificantamountsofUV-Aradiation.
C Providinginterlockedaccesstohigh-powerUVsources,sothattheyareshutoffwhen
theprotectiveenclosureisopen.
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Chapter5-IndoorAirQuality
5.1 Purpose
Thepurposeofthischapteristodescribegeneralstrategicplanningandmaintenanceactivities
forfacilityindoorairquality(IAQ).Specifictopicscoveredbythissectionincludeguidanceon
preventing,identifying,andcorrectingIAQproblems.RefertoSection15oftheArchitecture
andEngineeringGuidelines(A&EGuidelines)fordesignspecificationsforheating,ventilation,
andairconditioning(HVAC)systems,includingventilationrequirementsforlaboratories,
offices,andotherEPAspaces.
5.2 References
UnlessotherwisespecifiedinthisManualorapprovedbytheArchitecture,Engineeringand
AssetManagementBranch(AEAMB)andtheSafety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagement
Division(SHEMD),allventilationsysteminstallationsshallconformtotheapplicable
requirementsoftheAmericanSocietyofHeating,RefrigeratingandAir-ConditioningEngineers
(ASHRAE)standardsandtheAmericanNationalStandardsInstitute(ANSI)safetycodes
referencedintheA&EGuidelines,Section15,includingthefollowing.
BuildingAirQuality:AGuideforBuildingOwnersandFacilityManagers.U.S.EPA
andtheNationalInstituteforOccupationalSafetyandHealth(NIOSH)
BuildingAirQualityActionPlan. U.S.EPAandNIOSH.December1991.
ASHRAEStandard55,ThermalEnvironmentalConditionsforHumanOccupancy
ASHRAEStandard62,VentilationforAcceptableIndoorAirQuality.
5.3 GeneralRequirements
GoodIAQisanimportantcomponentofahealthyworkplaceenvironment,contributingtothe
productivity,comfort,andwell-beingofallemployees.Indoorairmustbefreeofsignificant
odors,dust,andcontaminantsandmustbecirculatedatanacceptablerate.FacilityIAQshallbe
maintainedatthebestpracticallevelemployingthemostcurrentknowledgeandproven
technologiesthatarecosteffectiveandconsistentwiththenormalfunctionoftheEPA
laboratoryfacilityand/oroffice.
ThemajorityofIAQproblemscanbepreventedbyutilizingeffectivebuildingdesign,operation
practices,andfacilityIAQmaintenanceprograms.AnIAQControlPlanshallbedevelopedto
addressindetailbuildingmaterialsselection,measurestominimizeintroductionofoutdoorair
pollution,pre-occupancyprocedurestoaccelerateoff-gassing,andoperationsandmaintenance
proceduresthatlimitintroductionofharmfulchemicals.
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5.4 SourcesofAirborneContaminants
Indooraircontaminantscanoriginatefrominsideprocessesormaybeintroducedfromexterior
sources. Ifthesourceofcontaminationisoutside,theintroducedairmayneedtobefilteredor
cleanedpriortodistributingintoabuilding.Contaminatedinsideairmayneedtobeexhausted.
Thissectiondiscussesthesourcesofcontaminantswhichmayaffecttheworkplaceenvironment.
Table5-1. CommonIndoorAirPollutants
Contaminant Sources AcuteHealthEffects
Noacutehealtheffectsareknownbutchronic
Radon Seepagefrombuildingfoundation
exposuremayleadtoincreasedriskoflung
cancerfromalpharadiation
Carbondioxide
Metabolichumanactivities Difficultyconcentrating,drowsiness,increased
respirationrate
Tobaccosmoke Dizziness,headache,nausea,cyanosis,
Carbonmonoxide Incompletecombustion
cardiovasculareffects,anddeath
Automobiletraffic
Automobileexhaust Eye,respiratorytract,mucousmembraneirritation;
Ozone
Copymachines
aggravationofchronicrespiratorydiseases
Electrostaticaircleaners
Off-gassingfromfoaminsulation,plywood, Hypersensitiveorallergicreactions;skinrashes;eye,
Formaldehyde
particleboard,andpaneling respiratoryandmucousmembraneirritation;odor
annoyance
Carpeting
Volatileorganiccompounds Cleaningsolvents Nausea;dizziness;eye,respiratorytract,andmucous
(VOCs)
Lacquers,paints
membraneirritation;headache;fatigue
Adhesives
Airhandlingsystemcondensate Hypersensitivitydiseases,Legionellosis
Microorganisms Damporganicmaterialandporouswetsurfaces
5.4.1 EXTERIORSOURCES
Exteriorsourcesofpollutionincludeadjacentandnearbystationarypollutionsources,for
example,exhaustsfromotherresearchfacilitiesorfromcommercialbuildingssuchasdry-
cleaningestablishments,restaurants,photographdevelopingbusinesses,chemicalstorageareas,
laboratoryfacilities,nearbyroadways,parkinglots,loadingdocks,trashstorage,andgarageand
theirmotorvehicletrafficpatterns.
PrevioususesofthepropertycanalsohaveagreateffectonIAQ.Propertieswhichcontain
contaminatedsoilandgroundwatermayemitvolatileorganiccompoundswhichseepintoa
buildingthroughcracksinthefoundationorupthroughthesepticsystem.Someexamplesof
potentiallysignificantpriorusesarewoodpreservationandtreatment;solidorhazardouswaste
handling,storage,treatment,ordisposal;dry-cleaningprocesses;leather,paint,orchemical
manufacturing;refrigeratedstorage;gasolinestorageordispensing;andagriculture.Even
nearbybuildingdemolitioncanresultinsignificantsitecontaminationthroughreleaseof
buildingmaterialssuchasasbestosintoairorintosoil,whichmayremainon-siteorbe
backfilledontoit.Asiteevaluationshouldbeconductedtoevaluatetheenvironmentalimpacts
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ofpastusesoftheproperty.RefertoSection2oftheA&EGuidelinesfordetailedinformation
onsiteevaluation.
5.4.2 INTERIORSOURCES
Buildinglayout,constructionmaterials,andoccupantactivitiesmayaffectIAQwhendesigning
andconstructinganEPAownedorleasedfacility. Thebuildingfabricitself,floormaterials,
caulking,adhesives,wallandceilingcoverings,cleaningproducts,furnishings,pesticides;and
humanmetabolismandactivitiesmayallhaveaneffectonIAQ.Forexample,duetoitslarge
surfacearea,carpetingmaybeasignificantindoorsourceofVOCemissions.
Table5-2. PotentialSourcesofIndoorAirPollutants
A Adhesives A Woodpaneling
A Sealants A Compositewoodproductssuchasparticleboard,chipboard,
A Caulking
waferboard,cardboard,etc.
A Woodpreservativesandfinishes
A Gaskets
A Pesticides
A Glazingcompounds
A Fungicides
A Controljointfillers
A Carpet
A Floorcoverings
A Carpetpadding
A Wallcoverings
A Paints
A Ceilingtiles,panels
A Insulations: thermal,fire,andacoustic
A Standingwater,waterleaks/floods
5.5 DiagnosingIAQProblems
PoorIAQismostoftenidentifiedthroughoccupantconcerns.IAQconcernsmustbeaddressed
assoonastheyareidentifiedtopreventtheproblemfromcompounding.Successful
investigationofIAQproblemsrequiresthecooperationofthebuildingcontractors,EPA
employees,otheroccupants(iftheEPAfacilitysharesthebuilding),managers,andinvestigators.
ThegeneralprocessforinvestigatingandmitigatinganIAQissueis:
Initialwalkthrough:investigationpreparationandvisualinspectiontodetermineifthere
isareasonforthecomplaint
Probleminvestigation:observationofoccupantactivities,HVACsysteminspection,
determiningpollutionpathways,andsearchingforpollutantsources(airsampling)
Hypothesistesting:manipulationofbuildingconditionsandtesting
Implementationofcontrolstrategy:observationtovalidatechanges
Verification:involvesfollow-upsurveysandwalkthroughs.
RefertoBuildingAirQuality:AGuideforBuildingOwnersandFacilityManagersfor
additionalguidanceforinvestigatingIAQconcerns.
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5.6 MitigatingIAQProblems
SuccessfulpreventionandmitigationofIAQproblemscaninvolveacombinationofstrategies,
includingsourcecontrol,ventilationcontrols,andproperoperationandmaintenanceofHVAC
systems. IAQproblemmitigationalsorequiresthecooperationofbuildingoccupants.
Therefore,alloccupantsshouldbeeducatedaboutthecausesofIAQproblemsandaboutthe
actionsthatmustbetakenoravoidedtopreventandsolveIAQproblems.
5.6.1 SOURCECONTROL
Themosteffectivemeansofindoorairpollutioncontrolistoeliminate,reduce,orcontainthe
sourcesofindoorairpollution.Effectivesourcecontrolrequiresthatpotentialsourcesbeclearly
identifiedandaddressed. Section4ofthischapterdiscusscommonsourcesofindoorand
outdoorairpollution.Evidencemustbeprovidedthatthisstrategyhasbeenappliedtoevery
aspectofthebuildingdesign,constructionrequirements,andoperationalrequirements.
Approachestocontrolinternalsourcesofindoorpollutantsarethoughtfulbuildingdesign,
carefulmaterialselection,materialsmodificationandtreatment;isolatingandmanagementof
pollution-generatingactivities.Thedesignprofessionalmustreviewandevaluateallproducts
andmaterialsthatarelikelytoemitoroff-gastoxicorirritatingchemicalsinthecompleted
facility. TheseincludeHVACsystemdesignandcomponents,insulation,sealants,finish
materials,andfurnishings,amongothers.EPAreservestherighttorequireemissionstestingof
selectedproducts,atnocosttothegovernment,todeterminechemicalcontent,emissionsrate,or
changeincompositionduetoenvironmentalexposure.Basedontestresults,EPAmaydisallow
installationofagivenproductormaterialinthecompletedfacility.
Tocontrolexteriorsourcesofpollution,theHVACsystemshouldcontainafresh-airintake
whichislocatedasfarfromapollutionsourceaspossible,andplacementshouldtakeinto
accountprevailingweatherandwinddirection.Temporalandspatialvariationsinwind
directionandvelocity,trafficpatterns,andemissionsfromindustrialprocessesthataffectair
qualityatthesitemustbeconsidered.Thelocationsandformsofadjacentbuildingsthatmight
resultinlocalwindpatternscausingreentrainmentofthefacilitysownexhaustsmustbe
consideredandaddressed.RefertoChapter15oftheA&EGuidelinesforHVACdesign
requirements.
5.6.2 VENTILATIONCONTROLS
Outsideairventilation. Ventilationmodificationisoftenusedtocorrectorpreventindoorair
qualityproblems.HVACsystemsmustbedesignedtoprovideaminimumfreshairrequirement
of20cubicfeetperminuteperpersoninofficespaces.ThisrequirementalsoappliestoHVAC
systemspossessingavariableair-flowcomponent(VAVsystems).However,thisrequirementis
basedontheassumptionthatthetotalairsupplywillbefreeofpollutants.Iftheindoor
environmentisfoundtocontainunavoidableaircontaminants,thecontaminantsmaybediluted
byincreasingthesupplyrateofoutdoorair.Wheremultiplespaceswithdissimilarratiosof
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outsideairtototalairareservedbyacommonHVACsystem,refertoASHRAE62-2001for
calculatingairsupplynecessity.
Aircleaning. Thereareseveralfactorsthatdeterminewhetherairsupplymayneedtobe
cleaned. HVACsystemsmustbeabletoadapttocircumstanceswhichmayariseduringnormal
operationsthroughtheuseofabuildingautomationsystem(BAS).AviableBASmustbeable
todetectcriticalfactorsthatwillallowtheautomaticselectionofthemostcost-effectivemixof
aircleaning,outsideairsupplyandrecirculatedair.Thecriticalfactorsarethethermal
propertiesandcontaminantcontentsofboththeoutsideairandthereturnairrelativetothe
designconditions.
Whereoutdoorairpollutantsperiodicallyexceedestablishedstandards(NationalAmbientAir
QualityStandards[NAAQS]andTableE-1,AmbientAirQualityGuidelinesfromASHRAE
62),air-cleaningdevices(e.g.,scrubbers)mayberequired.Thismayinvolvetheprovisionofair
cleaningbeyondtheusualpaneltypeparticulatefilterscurrentlyusedinmostcommercial
buildings.However,precipitators,absorbers,andscrubbersshouldbeavoidedbecauseoftheir
highmaintenancecosts.Wherethesesystemsareproposed,acost/benefitstudymustbe
submitted.
Airdistribution. Thismethodofindoorcontaminantcontrolpresentsalargepotentialfor
significantimprovementinventilationefficiencyand,thereby,inindoorairquality. Poor
ventilationefficiencyresultsindeteriorationofindoorairqualityandincreasedoperational
costs. Awrittendescriptionoftheapproachandcalculationsillustratingventilationefficiency
mustbecompletedbyadesignprofessionalknowledgeableinHVACsystemdesign.AnAir
DistributionPerformanceIndex(ADPI)ofatleast80%isrequiredforofficespaces.Ceiling
plenumsmaybeusedforreturnairprovidedthatsufficientreturndampersandductheadersare
providedtopermitaccurateairbalancingandprovidedthatallcodewiringprovisionsare
followedforsmokeandfiresafety.RefertoSection15oftheA&EGuidelinesforHVAC
efficiencydesignconsiderationsforEPA-ownedorleasedofficespaceandlaboratories.
Air-out. OneoftheproceduresthatmaybeemployedinmitigatingIAQproblemsisconducting
anair-out.Thoughmostindoorfurnishingsareselectedtominimizeemissions,theremaybe
somematerialsthatmayhaveoff-gassingoforganicsandvaporsoveraperiodoftimeafter
installation. Thepurposeoftheair-outistoremovechemicalemissionsfrommaterialsinthe
buildinginordertoreduceoccupantexposuretothesechemicalsonceoccupancycommences
Anair-outwillbeemployedaftercompletionofthebuilding,commissioningoftheequipment,
andinstallationofmajorfurnishings.Theair-outisachievedbytheuseofadequateventilation
foranextendedperiodoftime.Somematerial,suchascarpetsandotherflooringsystems,may
alsorequireelevatedairtemperaturestoacceleratetheirchemicalemissions.Supplementalair
movementdevicessuchasportablefansshallbeusedtoincreaseairflowwithinenclosedspaces
toimprovetheefficacyoftheair-outprocedure.
Anair-outrequiresanadditionaltimeperiodof1to3weeksaftercommissioningandpriorto
occupancy. TheGovernmentwillprovideanoccupancyscheduleforpurposesofplanningthe
45
Safety,Health,andEnvironmentalManual:
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air-outprocess.Theair-outmustalsobecarefullyplannedandconductedtoavoidadverse
effectsonbuildingcomponentsandequipment.
5.6.3 OPERATIONANDMAINTENANCE
ProperoperationandmaintenanceofthefacilitiesandtheirHVACsystemsarecriticalto
maintaininggoodIAQ.HVACsystemsmustbedesignedtoallowformaintenance,frequent
inspection,andcleaningofsurfacesexposedtotheairstream.Explicitassumptionsregarding
operationandmaintenancemustbemadeduringdesignandmustbedocumentedinafacilities
operationmanual.Theymustreflectaclearintenttomaintainindoorairqualityatthehighest
practicablelevel.EPAfacilitiesshallinstituteanddocumentamaintenanceprogramtoensure
thatdesignedHVACperformancelevelsaremaintained.Thisprogram,ataminimum,shall
addressperiodic:
Filtercleaningandreplacement
CleaningandmaintenanceoftheHVACduct,coil,condensatedrippan,andair-handler
room
Biologicaltesting,orbiocidemonitoring,ofthewaterincoolingtowersandcondensate
drippans
Performancetesting,including,butnotlimitedto,fanefficiency,airdistribution,and
amountofoutsideair
Trainingofoperationsandmaintenancepersonnel,aswellasoccupants,inHVAC
operations.
RefertoBuildingAirQuality:AGuideforBuildingOwnersandFacilityManagersforamodel
HVACmaintenanceprogram.
5.7 AcceptableWorkplaceTemperatureandHumidity
Generalindooraircomplaintscanoftenbereducedbymaintainingproperindoorair
temperature. Thetypeofworkactivity,age,andphysiologyofemployeesmustbeconsidered
whendeterminingacomfortableindoortemperaturefortheworkplaceenvironment.Facility
indoorairtemperatureshouldrangeaccordingtotheseasonandemployeecomfort.Facility
temperatureshouldbeuniformthroughout,andHVACsystemsmustbedesignedtopreventair
stratification. RefertoASHRAE55,ThermalEnvironmentalConditionsforHumanOccupancy
andtheA&EGuidelinesforspecificdesignrequirementsforHVACsystemsandfacilityindoor
airtemperature.
MoisturecontrolisalsoimportanttopreventandcontrolIAQproblems.Indicationsthata
buildingmayhaveamoistureproblemincludeamustyodor,adampclammyfeelingtoones
skinwhenentering,moldgrowingincornersandonwalls;orcondensationonwalls,onthe
insideofwindows,orpipes.Possiblehealtheffectsandsymptomsassociatedwithhuman
exposurestomoldsporesincludeallergicreactions,asthmaandotherrespiratorycomplaints.In
somecases,severereactionscanoccurtooverexposuretomolds;andinexcessivelydamp
environments,somemoldsmayproducemycotoxins.
46
Safety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagement:
SafetyandHealthRequirements July2004
Facilitymanagersmusttakestepstoaddressbuildingfacilitiesthathavebeendamagedby
moisture. Forexample,drywallthathasretainedmorethan20%moistureafter48hoursorthat
hasevidenceofmoldshouldbereplaced.Water-damagedfurnitureandwetpaperproducts
shouldbedisposed,andwetnon-poroussurfacesshouldbecleanedwithaCloroxsolutionora
biocidetopreventmicrobialgrowth.
HVACsystemsmustbedesignedtominimizeconditionsofaccumulatedmoisturethat,together
withwarmthanddarkness,encouragethegrowthofmicroorganisms.Therecommendationfor
thecontrolthegrowthofmoldandothermicroorganismsistolimitindoorhumidityto30-60%.
Buildingswithbasementsmayrequiredehumidificationsystems.ForHVACdesign
requirementsinthecontrolofhumidity,refertoSection15oftheA&EGuidelines.
47
AppendixA-ListofStandardsandReferences
Safety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagement:
SafetyandHealthRequirements July2004
AppendixA-ListofStandardsandReferences
ThisappendixliststhestandardsandreferencesusedinthisManual.Wherepossible,contact
informationisprovided.
StandardsoftheAmericanNationalStandardsInstitute(ANSI)(arrangedalphabetically)
- Elevators,Dumbwaiters,EscalatorsandMovingWalks(ANSIA17.1)
- EmergencyEyewashandShowerEquipment(ANSIZ358.1)
- FundamentalsGoverningtheDesignandOperationofLocalExhaustSystems(ANSIZ9.2)
- GeneralRadiationSafetyInstallationsUsingNon-MedicalX-rayandSealedGammaRay
SourcesforEnergiesupto10MeV(ANSIN43.3)
- LaboratoryVentilation(ANSI/AIHIZ9.5)
- LiquidPetroleumTransportationPipingSystem(ANSIB31.4)
- MethodofTestingPerformanceofLaboratoryFumeHoods(ANSI/ASHRAE110)
- NuclearPowerPlantAirCleaningUnitsandComponents(ANSI/ASMEN509)
- ProtectiveCoatingsforNuclearApplications(ANSIN512)
- ProvidingAccessibilityandUsabilityforPhysicallyHandicappedPeople(ANSIA117.1)
- SafeUseofLasers(ANSIZ136.1-1993)
- SafetyCodeforMechanicalRefrigeration(ANSI/ASHRAE15)
- ThermalEnvironmentalConditionsforHumanOccupancy(ANSI/ASHRAE55)
- VentilationforAcceptableIndoorAirQuality(ANSI/ASHRAE62)
StandardsoftheAmericanSocietyofHeating,RefrigeratingandAir-ConditioningEngineers,Inc.
(ASHRAE)(arrangedalphabetically)
- MethodofTestingPerformanceofLaboratoryFumeHoods(ANSI/ASHRAE110)
- SafetyCodeforMechanicalRefrigeration(ANSI/ASHRAE15)
- VentilationforAcceptableIndoorAirQuality(ANSI/ASHRAE62)
NationalFireCodesoftheNationalFireProtectionAssociation(NFPA)(arrangedbyNFPA
number)
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Safety,Health,andEnvironmentalManual:
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- StandardforPortableFireExtinguishers(NFPA10)
- StandardonCarbonDioxideExtinguishingSystems(NFPA12)
- StandardfortheInstallationofSprinklerSystems(NFPA13)
- StandardfortheInstallationofStandpipeandHoseSystems(NFPA14)
- StandardonDryChemicalExtinguishingSystems(NFPA17)
- StandardforWetChemicalExtinguishingSystems(NFPA17A)
- InstallationofPrivateFireServiceMainsandTheirAppurtenances(NFPA24)
- Inspection,Testing,andMaintenanceofWater-BasedFireProtectionSystems(NFPA25)
- FlammableandCombustibleLiquidsCode(NFPA30)
- StandardonFireProtectionforLaboratoriesUsingChemicals(NFPA45)
- GaseousHydrogenSystemsatConsumerSites(NFPA50A)
- NationalFuelGasCode(NFPA54)
- CompressedandLiquefiedGasesinPortableCylinders(NFPA55)
- StorageandHandlingofLiquefiedPetroleumGases(NFPA58)
- StorageandHandlingofLiquefiedNaturalGas(NFPA59A)
- GuideforVentingofDeflagrations(NFPA68)
- NationalElectricalCode(NEC)(NFPA70)
- NationalFireAlarmCode(NFPA72)
- ProtectionofElectronicComputer/DataProcessingEquipment(NFPA75)
- StandardforFireDoorsandWindows(NFPA80)
- RecommendedPracticeforProtectionofBuildingsfromExteriorFireExposures(NFPA80A)
- StandardfortheInstallationofAir-ConditioningandVentilatingSystems(NFPA90A)
- StandardforExhaustSystemsforAirConveyingofVapors,Gases,Mists,andNoncombustible
ParticulateSolids(NFPA91)
- RecommendedPracticeforSmokeControlSystems(NFPA92A)
- GuideforSmokeManagementSystemsinMalls,Atria,andLargeAreas(NFPA92B)
- VentilationControlandFireProtectionofCommercialCookingOperations(NFPA96)
- LifeSafetyCode(NFPA101)
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Safety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagement:
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- EmergencyandStandbyPowerSystems(NFPA110)
- StoredElectricalEnergyEmergencyandStandbyPowerSystems(NFPA111)
- WaterCoolingTowers(NFPA214)
- StandardonTypesofBuildingConstruction(NFPA220)
- StandardforFireWallsandFireBarrierWalls(NFPA221)
- StandardforGeneralStorage(NFPA231)
- StandardMethodsofTestsofFireEnduranceofBuildingConstructionandMaterials
(ASTME119/NFPA251)
- StandardMethodsofFireTestsofDoorAssemblies(ASTME152/NFPA252)
- TestforCriticalRadiantFluxofFloorCoveringSystemsUsingaRadiantHeatEnergySource
(NFPA253)
- StandardMethodsofFireTestsforFlameResistantTextilesandFilms(NFPA701)
- HazardClassificationSystem(NFPA704)
- LightningProtectionSystems(NFPA780)
- WaterSuppliesforSuburbanandRuralFirefighting(NFPA1231)
- StandardfortheCare,Use,andServiceTestingofFireHoseIncludingCouplingsandNozzles
(NFPA1962)
- CleanAgentFireExtinguishingSystems(NFPA2001)
10CFRPart20,StandardsforProtectionAgainstRadiation
29CFRPart1910,OccupationalSafetyandHealthActof1970
29CFRPart1960,BasicProgramElementsforFederalEmployeeOccupationalSafetyandHealth
ProgramsandRelatedMatters
41CFR101-20,FederalPropertyManagementRegulations
49CFR,Parts100-181,DOTHazardousMaterialsTransportationRegulations
BuildingAirQuality: AGuideforBuildingOwnersandFacilityManagers. U.S.Departmentof
HealthandHumanServices(DHHS),CenterforDiseaseControl(CDC),NationalInstituteof
OccupationalSafetyandHealth(NIOSH)Pub.No.91-114
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Safety,Health,andEnvironmentalManual:
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CriteriaforSitingofLaboratoryFacilitiesBasedonSafetyEnvironmentalFactors,preparedfor
U.S.EPAbyJohnsHopkinsUniversity,SchoolofHygieneandPublicHealth,PeterS.J.Leesand
MortonCorn,1981
EPAsStandardChemicalLaboratoryDesignRecommendationsforVAVFumeHoods
EPASafety,Health,andEnvironmentalManagementGuidelines
FacilitiesStandardsforthePublicBuildingsService(GSAPBS-P100)
FireSuppressionRatingSchedule(InsuranceServicesOffice)
HandbookofCompressedGases,CompressedGasAssociation,Inc.
IndustrialVentilation,AManualofRecommendedPractice,AmericanConferenceofGovernmental
IndustrialHygienists(ACGIH)
InternationalBuildingCode(IBC)
Localbuildingcodes
ProceduresManualforCertifyingLaboratoryFumeHoodstoMeetEPAStandard
PrudentPracticesintheLaboratory:HandlingandDisposalofChemicals,NationalResearch
Council,1995
StandardsfortheAmericanswithDisabilitiesActof1990,TitleIII
StandardsforBio-SafetyCabinetsoftheNationalSanitationFoundation(NSF)
UniformFederalAccessibilityStandards(UFAS)
Mostofthedocumentslistedabovecanbeobtainedbycontactingtheagencieslistedhere.Insomecases,the
agencythatpublishedthedocumentmayneedtobecontacted.
ANSI
Attn:CustomerService
11West42ndStreet
NewYork,NY 10036
(212)642-4900
http://www.ansi.org/catalog.html
ASHRAE
1791TullieCircle, NE
NFPA
1BatteryMarchPark
P.O.Box9101
Quincy,MA02269-9101
(617)770-3000
http://www.wpt.edu/nfpe/nfpa.html
NationalTechnicalInformationService
SalesDesk
A-4
AppendixB-Glossary
Safety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagement:
SafetyandHealthRequirements July2004
AppendixB-Glossary
Unlessotherwisenoted,thefollowingdefinitionsweredevelopedbyusingWebstersCollegiate
Dictionary,10thedition;NFPACodes;InternationalBuildingCode;andothermiscellaneoussources.
AirFoil Acurvedshapeusedatthesillcornerstoreducetheproductionof
turbulenceasairflowspasttheobject.
BusDuctorBusway Agroundedmetalenclosurecontainingfactory-mounted,bareorinsulated
conductors,whichareusuallycopperoraluminumbars,rods,ortubes.
BlindStand Aconvenienceshoplocatedinanofficebuilding,whichretailssnacksand
beverageswithnocookingorfoodpreparation.
ChemicalHygiene Writtenplanwhichsetsformalprocedures,equipment,personalprotection
Plan equipmentandworkpracticesforprotectingpersonnelfromthehealth
hazardspresentedbyhazardouschemicalsinalaboratory.
CodedAlarm Afirealarmsysteminwhichthealarmindicatingdevicesaresounded
System intermittentlywithaprescribedpattern.Theintermittentpatternis
associatedwithanalarmdeviceorareaofthebuilding.
Contaminant Alaboratoryoperationorothereventthatresultsintheemissionof
Generation potentiallyhazardousmaterialsintothelaboratoryenvironment.
CurtainWall Anonbearingenclosurewallnotsupportedateachstory.
Ductility Theflexibilityofamaterialoritsabilitytobeshapedintoanewform.As
relatedtocryogenics,theabilityofamaterialundertheexpected
operatingtemperaturestoresistfracturing.
Eddies Acircularorcontraryaircurrentthatcontributestoreducedcapture
efficiencyofalaboratoryfumehood.
ElevatorCapture SeeElevatorRecall.
Elevator Theprovisionthatautomaticallyreturnsanelevatororelevatorstoa
Recall predesignatedfloor,typicallythegroundfloor,thustakingthemoutof
service,orpermittingfirefighterstooverridethecontrolsmanuallyand
usetheelevatorsasnecessary.
Etiological Anorganismthathasthepotentialtocauseadiseaseorabnormal
Organisms condition.
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Safety,Health,andEnvironmentalManual:
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Exit Theportionofameansofegressthatisseparatedfromotherspacesofa
buildingtoprovideanappropriatelevelofprotection.
ExitAccess Theportionofameansofegressthatleadstoanexit.
FireArea Thefloorareaenclosedandboundedbyfirewalls,fireseparation
assemblies,orexteriorwallsofabuildingtorestrictthespreadoffire.
FireFlow Thecalculatedportionofthetotalwatersupplythatisnecessaryto
adequatelysupplyhosesusedbythefiredepartmentduringafireincident.
Fire-Resistance Thetime,inminutesorhours,thatmaterialsorassemblieshavewithstood
Rating afiretestexposureasestablishedinaccordancewiththetestprocedures
ofNFPA251oranotherrecognizedtest.
Fire-Stopped Theprotectionofpenetrationsthroughassembliesormaterialsthathavea
fire-resistanceratinginaccordancewiththecriteriaofNFPA101and
NFPA221.
Fire-Subdivision Anareaofabuildingseparatedfromallotherareasbyfireresistive
construction.
FlameSpread Anindexusedtocomparetheabilityofflametopropagateoverasurface.
Rating
FlameSupervision Acontrolthatrespondsdirectlytoflamepropertiesandindicatesthe
presenceorabsenceofflameand,intheeventofignitionfailureor
unintentionalflameextinguishment,causesasafetyshutdownofthe
system.
Floor-Ceiling Constructioncomposedofthefloorandceilingbelow,usedasintegral
Assembly componentstoprovidetherequiredfireresistancebetweenoccupied
levelsofabuilding.
Footcandle Aunitofillumination,whichrepresentsadirectmeasureofthevisible
radiationfallingonasurface.
FuelLoad Alsoreferredtoasfireload,itistheweightpersquarefootofordinary
combustiblespotentiallyinvolvedinafireincident.Theweightis
normalizedforpotentialheatofcombustionofthematerialsinvolved.
FurringStrips Thinwoodtrimorliningusedtoformalevelorplumbsurfacetoattach
wallboardorpaneling.
B-2
Safety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagement:
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GangChaining Usingchainstosupportonecompressedgascylinderfromanotherin
serieswithonlytheendssupportedbyawallorotherstructuralelement.
GlazingArea Theareaofadoororwindowopeningthatissealedwithatransparentor
translucentmaterialsuchasannealedglass,organiccoatedglass,tempered
glass,laminatedglass,wiredglass,oracombinationthereof.(Adapted
from16CFRPart1201)
HourlyRating Seefire-resistancerating.
MaterialSafety Adocumentwhichdescribesthechemicalandphysicalpropertiesofa
DataSheet chemicalandexplainsthehazardspresentedtothoseworkingwiththe
substance. TheMSDSaidsinestablishingaprogramforthesafeand
properhandlingofthesubstanceinquestion.
MeansofEgress Acontinuousandunobstructedwayofexittravelfromthebuildingor
structuretoapublicway.
MixerType Afaucetfixturethatensuresthatthetemperatureofthewaterbeing
FaucetFixtures dischargedwillnotscaldorotherwiseinjureapersonorequipment.
MonumentalStairs Wide,oftenunenclosed,stairsthataredesignedmoreforarchitectural
aestheticsthanexitcapacity.Theseareoftenfoundinassembly
occupanciesorhistoricstructures.
Noncombustible Constructionthatusesmaterialsthatwillnotignite,burn,support
Construction combustion,orreleaseflammablevaporswhensubjectedtofireorheat.
Off-gassing Thereleaseofvapors(typicallyvolatileorganiccompounds)tothe
environmentfrominteriorfurnishingorfinishes.
One-PassAir Airfromoutsidethebuildingthatisconditionedandintroducedintothe
workspace,thenexhaustedbacktotheoutsideofthebuilding.Thereisno
recirculationofairwithinthebuilding.
On/OffSprinklers Asprinklerheadthatopensandclosesautomaticallyasheatconditions
dictate.
OpenPlanOffice Alargefloorareathatissubdividedintocubiclesbyusingofficefurniture
andpartitionsthatdonotextendfromfloortoceiling.(Adaptedfrom
NFPAInspectionManual)
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Safety,Health,andEnvironmentalManual:
July2004 SafetyandHealthRequirements
PanelWall Anonbearingwallsupportedbyeachstoryonaskeletonframe.Also
referredtoasaskeletonwall.
PhasetoPhase Amethodofdefiningthevoltagewhenmeasuredbetweentwodifferent
alternating-currentelectricallinessuppliedbythesamegenerationor
supplysource.Thephasesinathree-phaseserviceare120degreesapart.
Proscenium Thewallthatseparatesthestagefromanauditoriumorthestageareain
frontofacurtain.
Sash Theglassandframepartinstalledonthefrontofalaboratoryfumehood
thatcanberaised,opened,andclosed.
Setback Therequiredphysicaldistanceofabuildingwithrespecttoapropertyline
orotherbuilding.
SmokeDevelopment Anindexusedtocomparethedensityofsmokegeneratedbyamaterial.
Rating
SpandrelWall Thatportionofapanelwallabovetheheadofanexteriorwindowordoor.
Supervisory Asignalatthefirealarmpanelthatindicatestheneedforcorrectiveor
Condition preventiveactionwithregardstothefireorlifesafetyfeaturesofthe
facility.
WalkingSurface Anyfloororothersurfaceavailableforuse(asinwalkingonorover)
duringthenormalcourseofjob-relatedduties.
Windowless Abuilding,orportionthereof,whichlacksameansofdirectaccesstothe
BuildingorArea outsidefromtheenclosingwallsorlacksoutsideopeningsforventilation
orrescuethroughwindows.SeeNFPA101orlocalbuildingcodefor
criteriatodetermineifanareaisconsideredwindowless.Various
exemptionsexistfordifferentconditions.
Zoneof Theareaaroundalaboratoryprocessoroperationthatisaffectedby
Contaminant potentiallyhazardousemissions.
Generation
ZoneofInfluence Theareainfrontofthehoodopeningthatisaffectedbytheoperationof
(ofFumeHood) thefumehoodandthatcanbeimpactedbyotherenvironmentalsources
(e.g.,airsupply,people).
B-4
AppendixC-ListofAcronymsandAbbreviations
Safety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagement:
SafetyandHealthRequirements July2004
AppendixC-ListofAcronymsandAbbreviations
ACGIH AmericanConferenceofGovernmentIndustrialHygienists
ACM asbestos-containingmaterials
ADA AmericanswithDisabilitiesAct
A&E ArchitectureandEngineering
AEAMB Architecture,EngineeringandAssetManagementBranch
AI asinstalled
AIHA AmericanIndustrialHygieneAssociation
ALARA aslowasreasonablyachievable
AM asmanufactured
AMCA AirMovementandControlAssociation
ANSI AmericanNationalStandardsInstitute
API AmericanPetroleumInstitute
ARI AmericanRefrigerationInstitute
ASHRAE AmericanSocietyofHeating,RefrigeratingandAir-ConditioningEngineers,Inc.
ASME AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers
AST abovegroundstoragetank
ASTM AmericanSocietyforTestingandMaterials
BACT bestavailablecontroltechnology
BAT bestavailabletechnology
Btu Britishthermalunits
CDC CentersforDiseaseControl
CEQ CouncilonEnvironmentalQuality
CF
3
Br ahalogenatedfluorocarbon
CFC Chlorofluorocarbon
CFM Cubicfeetperminute
CFR CodeofFederalRegulations
CGA CompressedGasAssociation,Inc.
CHP ChemicalHygienePlan
cm centimeters
CPSC ConsumerProductSafetyCommission
CX CategoricalExclusion
C degreesCelsius
DHHS DepartmentofHealthandHumanServices
DoD DepartmentofDefense
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DOT DepartmentofTransportation
EA EnvironmentalAssessment
EIS EnvironmentalImpactStatement
EPA EnvironmentalProtectionAgency
EPO emergencypoweroff
ERDA EnergyResearchandDevelopmentAdministration
F degreesFahrenheit
FC flowcontrol
FM FactoryMutual
FMSD FacilitiesManagementandServicesDivision
FNSI FindingofNoSignificantImpact
fpm feetperminute
FPMR FederalPropertyManagementRegulations
GFCI ground-faultcircuitinterrupter
gpm gallonsperminute
GSA GeneralServicesAdministration
HAP hazardousairpollutant
HAZMAT hazardousmaterials
HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbon
HEPA High-EfficiencyParticulateAir
HFC hydrofluorocarbon
HVAC heating,ventilation,andair-conditioning
IAQ indoorairquality
IBC InternationalBuildingCode
lbs. pounds
LEL lowerexplosivelimit
Laser lightamplifiedbystimulatedemittingradiation
LNG liquefiednaturalgas
LPG liquefiedpropanegas
g/L microgramsperliter
mg/L milligramsperliter
MSDS materialsafetydatasheet
NC/LC noncombustible/limitedcombustible
NEC NationalElectricalCode
NEPA NationalEnvironmentalPolicyAct
NESHAP NationalEmissionsStandardsforHazardousAirPollutants
NFPA NationalFireProtectionAssociation
C-2
Safety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagement:
SafetyandHealthRequirements July2004
NIOSH NationalInstituteofOccupationalSafetyandHealth
NOI NoticeofIntent
NPDES NationalPollutantDischargeEliminationSystem
NRC NuclearRegulatoryCommission
NSF NationalSanitationFoundation
NSPS NewSourcePerformanceStandards
OSHA OccupationalSafetyandHealthAdministration
PBS PublicBuildingsService
PCBs polychlorinatedbiphenyls
pCi/L picocuriesperliter
Pd Probabilityofdetection
PEI PetroleumEngineersInstitute
Pfa Probabilityoffalsealarm
PM particulatematter
PNL PacificNorthwestLaboratory
POR ProgramofRequirements
POTW publiclyownedtreatmentworks
PPE PersonalProtectiveEquipment
ppm partspermillion
QA/QC qualityassurance/qualitycontrol
RACT ReasonablyAvailableControlTechnology
RCRA ResourceConservationandRecoveryAct
RSO RadiationSafetyOfficer
RTP ResearchTriangleParkNorthCarolina
SBC StandardBuildingCode
SBCCI StandardBuildingCodeCongressInternational
SEFA ScientificEquipmentandFurnitureAssociation
SF StandardForm
SFO SolicitationforOffers
SHEMD Safety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagementDivision
SHEMP Safety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagementProgram
SNAP SignificantNewAlternativesPolicy
SOP standardoperatingprocedure
SPCC spillpreventioncontrolandcountermeasureplan
TBT tributyltin
UFAS UniformFederalAccessibilityStandards
UL UnderwritersLaboratory,Incorporated
C-3
Safety,Health,andEnvironmentalManual:
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UBC UniformBuildingCode
UPS uninterruptiblepowersupply
UST undergroundstoragetank
VAV variableairvolume
VOCs volatileorganiccompounds
C-4
Index
Safety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagement:
SafetyandHealthRequirements July2004
Index
The SafetyandHealthManualisindexedbymajorsubjectareaandpagenumber.Whereaparagraph
containsonlyacross-referencetoanothersectionofthismanualortoanotherpublication,thenumbers
havebeensetin italictype.
Additions,Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
AirCleaning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
AirDistribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
AirPollutants
Exterior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Interior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Air-Out,SeeOff-Gassing
AlternatingCurrent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
AncillaryOccupancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Anchoring,Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
AreaLimitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Asbestos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
AssemblyAreas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Atriums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Attachments,Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
AutomaticSprinklerProtection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
forElectronicEquipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
BlindStands,HazardSegregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
BuildingElements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Cabinets
FlammableStorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Ceilings,FireProtection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Classification
ofConstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
ofOccupancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
CombustibleDusts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
CommunicationsEquipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
CompressedGases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Corridors,Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
HandicappedRequirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
CryogenicGases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Cylinders.SeeGasCylinders
Day-CareFacilities,Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
DisabledPersons,Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
DistributionSystems,Electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Doors
Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,20
Latches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
PanicHardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Dry-ChemicalSystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Egress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Day-careFacilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
ElectricalSafety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
ElectronicEquipmentRooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
EmergencyAccessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
FireSuppression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Shutoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
SmokeDetectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
SprinklerProtection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Elevators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
HandicappedRequirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
EmergencyExits.SeeExits
EmergencyEquipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Eyewash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Shower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
EmergencyLighting.SeeLighting
EmergencyPower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
EnergizedSubstations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Equipment.Seealsospecificsystems
Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Electronic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Emergency,Laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Fire-Extinguishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
FumeHoods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Ground-FaultProtection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Escalators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Exits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Corridors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
I-1
Safety,Health,andEnvironmentalManual:
July2004 SafetyandHealthRequirements
Day-CareFacilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Discharge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Two-Doorway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Distancebetween . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
HandicappedRequirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Latches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
LightingandMarking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Merging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Stairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
TimedExitCalculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Eyewashes,Emergency.SeeEmergencyEquipment
FireAlarmSystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
HandicappedRequirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
FireAreas/Subdivisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
FireBarrierWalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
FireDoors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
HandicappedRequirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
FireEscapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
FireExposures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
FireExtinguishers,Portable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
FirePreventionPlans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Fire-ResistanceRatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
FireStopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
FireSuppressionSystems,Fixed
Dry-Chemical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Gaseous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Halon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
WetChemical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
FireWalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Fireproofing,Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
FlammableLiquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
IndoorStorageRooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
LaboratoryCabinets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33,37
FlammableGases.SeealsoGasCylinders . . . . . 33
FumeHoods,Laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
AllowableUses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Furniture
Day-CareFacilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
GasCylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Anchoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Cryogenics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
SizeandQuantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
SupplyLines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
GaseousFire-ExtinguishingSystems . . . . . . . . . . 10
GeneralStorageAreas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Grounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Ground-FaultCircuitInterrupter . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
HalonFire-ExtinguishingSystems . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
HandicappedAccessibility.SeeDisabledPersons
HazardSegregation
AncillaryOccupancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
AssemblyAreas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Day-CareFacilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
ElectronicEquipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
GeneralStorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
MixedOccupancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
IndoorStorageRooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,31
LaboratoryCabinets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33,36
HeightLimitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
HoseSystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
HumidityControl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
IndoorAirQuality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
IndoorStorageRooms
Flammable-Liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31,36
HazardousChemical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Laboratories
Cabinets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
FumeHoods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
HazardSegregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Lasers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Lead-BasedPaint
Day-CareFacilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
LightingSystems
Emergency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
LightningProtectionSystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
LimitedAccessAreas
Exits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Lockout/Tagout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
MeansofEgress.SeeEgress
MixedOccupancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
I-2
Safety,HealthandEnvironmentalManagement:
SafetyandHealthRequirements July2004
MonumentalStairs.SeeStairs
Occupancies
Ancillary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
AssemblyAreas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
BlindStands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
ElectronicEquipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
GeneralStorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Mixed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
OfficeSpace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Self-ServiceStores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
OccupantEmergencyPlans . . . . . . . . . . . 15,20,22
Off-Gassing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
OfficeSpace,Open-Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
OvercurrentProtection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Panel,Curtain,andSpandrelWalls . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
PanicHardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
PCBs
Day-CareFacilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Penetrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
PersonalProtectiveEquipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
PolychlorinatedBiphenyls.SeePCBs
PowerTransmissionandDistribution . . . . . . . . . 25
Purpose,ofManual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
RadiationSafety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Records,FireProtection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
RecyclingRooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Requirements,ofManual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Responsibilities,forEnforcingManual . . . . . . . . . 2
Scope,ofManual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Security
Day-CareFacilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Self-serviceStores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Showers,Emergency.SeeEmergencyEquipment
SmokeControl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
SmokeDetectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Day-CareFacilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
ElectronicEquipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
SmokeproofTowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
SpaceHeaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
SprinklerProtection.SeeAutomaticSprinkler
Protection
Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Stairs. SeealsoEscalators
Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Monumental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Standpipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Storage
CombustibleDusts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
CompressedGases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
FlammableGas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17,31,33
HazardousChemicals/Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
FlammableLiquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16,33
TrashRooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Stores,Self-Service,HazardSegregation . . . . . 10
SupplyLines,GasCylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
TrashRooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Ultraviolet(UV)Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
UndergroundElectricalInstallations . . . . . . . . . . 26
Utilities,Fireproofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Ventilation
ElectronicEquipmentRooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
FlammableGasStorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
GeneralStorageAreas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
LaboratoryCabinets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
LaboratoryFumeHoods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
VerticalOpenings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
VolatileOrganicCompounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42,45
Walls
FireBarrierWalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
FireWalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Panel,CurtainandSpandrelWalls . . . . . . . . . . . 8
WetChemicalSystems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
X-RayEquipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
I-3

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