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.. , .. , .. , ..

-,


2008
The Federal Agency in Health Protection and Social Development
The Stavropol State Medical Academy
Russian as Foreign Language Department
V.I. Lysenko, N.K. Mayatskaya, L.M. Belik, E.V. Bolkunova

WE LEARN RUSSIAN
PRACTICAL COURSE FOR ENGLISH-SPEAKING
MEDICAL STUDENTS

Stavropol
2

2008
808.2/802.0:37 (075,8)
81.2 73

39
.

-,

. . : -
. 2008. 304 .
-,
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,
, .
.
, , .
.
530
.

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.
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.
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808.2/802.0:37 (075,8)
81.2 73
39
3

1. LESSON 1
RUSSIAN ALPHABET. VOWELS AND CONSONANTS. SYLLABLES.
WORD RHYTHM, STRESS, REDUCTION OF VOWELS.
DEVOCALIZATION OF VOICED CONSONANTS. HARD AND SOFT
CONSONANTS
1. Listen, repeat, read Russian sounds, write the letters of the Russian alphabet.
Letter

Handwritten

English
equivalent
a as in
father
b as in
bank
v as in vet

Sound

Letter

[]

[]

[]

g as in
gas
d as in
day
ye as in
yet
yo as in
your
zh as in
pleasure
z as in
Zoo
ee as in
meet
y as in
may
k as in
book
l as in
lamp
m as in
map
n as in no

[]

[]

[]

[]

[]

[]

[]

[]

English
equivalent
p as in
spoon
trilled r
as in rock
s as in
son
t as in tap

Sound

u as in
book
f as in fat

[]

[]

kh as in
hand
ts as in
cats
ch as in
chin
sh as in
short
shch

[]

hard sign

[]
[]

[]

y as in we []
soft sign
e as in
[]
map
yu as in
[]

Handwritten

[]
[]
[]
[]

[]

[]
[]
[]
[]

youth

o as in
[]

ya as in
[]
stop
yard
2. , , , . Listen, repeat, read, write
syllables (the combinations of a vowel and a consonant or a consonant and a
vowel):
, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
3. ! Memorize!

Hard and Soft Consonants. .


Russian consonants may be hard or soft. Fifteen hard consonants have their soft
counterparts. The consonants , , are invariably hard, whereas the consonants ,
, are invariably soft.
Correlative
Pairs

Hard:

Always
hard:
Soft: Always

soft:

The softness of consonants is indicated in writing by the soft mark , which


follows it or by the letters , , , , . Letters , , are not written after
consonants , , , , , , .
) [a]
[] after
[] consonants
[]

[]
[]
[]
[]

at the beginning of the


words, after vowels

, , , . Listen, repeat, read,


write syllables (the combinations of a vowel and a consonant or a consonant and
a vowel):
a, , , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , ;
) ! Memorize!
Voiced consonants
Voiceless consonants

, , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , ,
, , , ,

We pronounce voiced consonants like their voiceless counterparts at the end


of the word and before the voiceless consonant.
, [], , [], , [], , [], , [], , []
4. ! Memorize!
) . . Every word
consists of syllables. There is the stress in every word.
) , , ,
. Read, listen, repeat, write the words according to the rhythmic
models:
____

/
___ ___ ___

/
___ ___

/
____ ____

[]

/
___ ___ ___

[] ,

[] ,
if the letter o is
not stressed, it is
necessary to pronounce it like [a]
/
___ ___ ___

[]

[]

/
___ ___ ___ ___

VERY USEFUL WORDS


) . Greetings
!
!
!
!
!

[zdrastvuyte]
[dobraye utra]
[dobryi den]
[dobryi vecher]
[privet]

How do you do! Hello!


Good morning!
Good day!
Good evening!
Hi!

) . Farewells, goodbye-words
!
!

[da svidanya]
[da zaftra]

Good bye!
See you tomorrow!
6

! [fsivo harosheva] All the best!


!
[paka]
Bye! So long!
!
[da fstrechi]
See you soon!
) . Polite Phrases:
!
[spasiba]
Thank You!
!
[pazhalusta]
Please You are welcome!
!
[ochin priyatna]
Nice to meet you!

[nichivo]
No problem
?
[mozhna]
May I?
?
[vi ni znayite]
Do you know?
.
[ya ni znayu]
I dont know.
, ?
[skazhiti pazhalusta] Can you, please, tell me?
, [paftariti pazhalusta] Repeat, please
, [peridaiti pazhalusta] Please tell
,
[daiti pazhalusta]
Please give me
,
[pakazhiti pazhalusta] Please show me

. WORK AT HOME
1. Read and write syllables:
) , , , , , , , ,
, , , ,
) , , , , , , , ,
,
) , , , , ,

2. . ,
[].Read and write the words. Underline the vowel
where it is pronounced like [a].
, , , , , , , , .

3. . ,
. Read and write the words. Underline
voiced consonants which are pronounced like their voiceless counterparts.

, , , , , , , , , ,
, .
/
____

____

4. .
/
____ ____

Read the words. Write out the words according to the model
, , , , , , , , , .
/
____ ____

5. .
/
____ ____

Read the words. Write out the words according to the model
, , , , , , , , , .
/
___ ___ ___

6. .
/
___ ___ ___

Read the words. Write out the words according to the model
, , , , , , .

(COMMENTARY)

sounds

vowels

consonants

voiced consonants

voiceless consonants

letters

syllables

words

stress

.The
quantity of the syllables depends upon the quantity of the vowels in the words.
,
. . Vowels in stressed syllables are
articulated with greater muscular tension than vowels in unstressed syllables. The
unstressed vowels are reduced.

2. LESSON 2
INTONATION OF AFFIRMATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE
SENTENCES LIKE , ?, ?, ?.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS. GENDER OF NOUNS. COMPOUND SENTENCES
WITH THE CONJUNCTIONS ,
1. , , , . Read, listen,
repeat, write the combinations of words.

2. . How to
introduce a person, to point at a person or an object.
__ __

__

__
.

, , . Read, listen, repeat sentences.


. . . . . . .
. . . . . .
3. . How to ask about a person or an object.
9

3
_ _ --_ _ -- ? ?
, , . Listen, repeat, read:
? , .
? , .
? , .
4. . Learn the table.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

(person)
1
2
3


(singular)

, ,


(plural)

5. . Pay attention.
?
, .

?
, .

?
, .

6. . Learn the table.



GENDER OF NOUNS

(gender)

(examples)

10


(end of the word)

-
-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-

. Memorize the exceptions: , , ,


, ( masculine gender).
7. . Fill in the table.

...

...

...

: , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , ,
, .
8. . Answer the questions according to the
example.
: ?
, .
?
?
?
?
?
?

?
?
?
?
?

?
?
?
?

,
, .
9. . Read.
. , . , . ,
. , .
10. . Insert the conjunctions or .

11

, .
, .
, .

, .
, .
, .

11. . How to find out a persons name.


. How to ask about animate
and inanimate object.
2

__

__

__ __

__ __

? [shto eta?]

?
.

?
.

12. . ? ?. Read the


words. Ask the questions ? ?.
, , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , ,
.
, , . Listen, repeat, and read:
?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.

, ?
.
?
.
?
.
?

13. 4
__
__
) . ?
.
) ?
12

, ?
.
?
.
?
.

__
__ __
. ?
VERY USEFUL WORDS
) ?
?
?

[kak dela?]
[kak vashi dela?]
[kak tvai dela?]
[atlichna]
[prikrasna]
[kharasho]
[narmalna]
[fso fparyatki]
[nichivo]
[plokha]
[ochin plokha]
[taksibe]
[uzhasna]

How are you?


How is your doing?
How are you?
Very well
Fine!
Good
O.K!
Everything is well
Not bad
Bad
Very bad
So-so
Awful

) () [ochin rat vas (tibya) vidt] Im very glad to


see you
() [ochin rada vas (tibya) vidt] Im very glad to
see you

[ya tozhi rat]


[ya tozhi rada]
[izviniti]
[izvini]
[ya ne panimayu]

Im glad to see you too (m.)


Im glad to see you too (f.)
Excuse me ( form)
Excuse me ( form)
I dont understand

(DIALOGUES)
, , . Listen, repeat, read dialogues.
1 !
!
?
, .
?
,
.

2. !
!
?
! ?
.

13

3. !
!
, ?
. ?
!

. Complete the next dialogues:


1. !

?
, !

2. !
!

. ?
. .

. Compose your own dialogues:

. WORK AT HOME
1. . Read the sentences.
) . . . . . . .
. . .
) . . . .
. , . , . .
.
) . . . . ,
.
) ?
, .
?
.

?
, .
, ?
.

?
, .
, ?
.

2. .Fill in the table.

: , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , ,
, , .

14

3. . .Write the
answers. Write the question according to the example
: . ? .
1. . 2. . . 3. . . 4. . . 5.
. . 6. . . 7. . . 8. . . 9. .
. 10. . .

4. . Read the dialogues.


) , !
, !
?
, .
?
.
.
.

) , !
, !
!
.
?
, . ?
.
!
!

5. . Fill in the answers.


) ?
) ! ) !

) ? ) , !
) ?

6. . Fill in the questions.


)
.
)
.

)
.
)
, .

)
.
)
!

7. . Translate the dialogues into


Russian.
A) Good afternoon, Ira!
Good afternoon, Olya! Im very
glad to see you.
Im glad to see you too.
How are you?

) Good morning, John.


Good morning, Sasha.
How are you doing, John.?
Fine, thanks. And you?
Also fine.
15

Good

Goodbye
See you tomorrow.

(COMMENTARY)
1.

combinations of words

sentences

2. onstructions of Russian intonation


1 information, statements or answering the question the tune is slowly falling
down :
. . .
2 question beginning with question-word (Who? What?) high falling tune:
? .

? .

3 question without question word tune is quickly rising up on the logical center of
the question. This kind of question needs the answer yes or no:
? . (, ).
? . (, ).
4 short question beginning with A Slow and smoothly rising tune.
. ?
.
We use this kind of questions only in dialogues.
3. Gender of nouns
There are three types of nouns in Russian: masculine, feminine and neuter.
Masculine nouns end in consonants: , , . Feminine nouns end in
- and -: , , . Nouns ending in - can be either masculine or
feminine: (m), (f). Neuter nouns end in -o, -e, -: ,
, , .

16

3. LESSON 3
CONSTRUCTIONS LIKE . NOMINATIVE
AND ACCUSATIVE CASE OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. POSSESSIVE
PRONOUNS. PLURAL OF NOUNS AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

. Vocabulary
, , . Listen, repeat and memorize.
?
?

?

?

?

!
,
,

What is your name?


What is your name?
My name is
What is your last name (surname)?
My last name (sername) is
What is your patronymic?
My patronymic is
What is your name?
My name is
Lets get acquainted.
Let me introduce you
Let me introduce you

1. : Read the dialogues:


1. ?
. ?
.
.
2. !
!
. ?
.
.
() .
() .

Memorize!
17

() . [yevo]

We pronouns letter in the position


between letters and o or and
as :
-- [yevo]
-- [ovo]

() .
() .
() ?
() .



NOMINATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE CASES OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS
Nominative:
Accusative:

.
.

Nominative - Accusative

I me

you you

he him

she her

it it

we us

you you

they them

2. . Put the words in brackets in


the correct form.
() . () . () . () . ()
. () . () .
3. . Read.
. . , . ,
. . . . .
4. . Pay attention.
?
.

?
.

18

?
.

5. , . Read, analse.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

6. . Learn the table.



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
?

7. . Answer the questions according to the


example.
: ?
().

?
.

?
().

?
().

?
().

?
().

?
().

?
().

?
().

?
().
19

?
().

8. . Do exercises according to the model.


: . . . .
1. . . 2. . . 3. . . 4.
. . 5. . . 6. . . 7. .
. 8. . .
9. . Reconstruct the dialogues.
?
.
?
.
?
,
?
.
?
, . .
10. . Read.
) . . . .
. . . . . .
) . . .
. . .
, . .
) . . .
. . . , .
?
) . . .
. . ,
. . . . ,
, .
) ?
) . Speak about your family using
their photos.
20

11. , . Read, analse.


. . .
. .
.
12. . Learn the table.

( 1)
PLURAL OF NOUNS
(Nominative case 1)

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

! Memorise! , , , , , ,
-: In the plural after , , , , , , the ending is -:




21



13. . Form the plural.
, , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, , , , , .
14. . Put the
nouns in the plural.
: . .
1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5.
6. . 7. . 8. . 9.
. 10. . 11. . 12. . 13. . 14.
.
15.
. Put the nouns in the plural according to the endings.
-

: , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , , , , ,
, .
?
.
16. . Read the table.


? (, ,
, , , )
? (, , ,
, , ).
? (, ,
, , , ).

? (,
, , , , )
? (, , ,
, , ).
? (, ,
, , , ).
22

17. C, . Ask who the things belong to.


: ?
.
, , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , .
18. , . Ask friend if the
things belong to him.
: ? ?
, .
, , , , , , , ,
, , , , , .
19. . Read the dialogues.
) . . . ?
.
.
.
) ! . .
. ?
. ?
, .
, .
) ! .
.
. .
.
. , ?
, . ?
, .
20. . Compose your own dialogues.

P . WORK AT HOME

23

1. . Put the personal


pronouns in correct form.
: () . .
1. () . 2. () . 3. () . 4.
() , ? 5. () . 6. () ? 7. () .

2. . Insert the possessive


pronouns:
, , :
. . . . .
. . .
, , :
. . . .
. . .
, , :
. . . .
. .
, , :
. . . . .
. . .

3. . Do the exercise as in the model.


: , .
, .

, .
, .

, . , . ,
. , . , . , .
, . , . ,
.

4. . . Complete
the sentences. Use the words in brackets.
24

: . .
1. . 2. ? 3. . 4. . 5.
6. ? 7. . 8. ? 9. . 10. . 11.
?
: , , , , , , ,
.

5.
. Write the nouns in the plural form according to the example.
: .
. .
1. . . 2. . . 3. . . 4.
. . 5. . . 6. . . 7. .
. 8. . . 9. . . 10. . . 11. .
12. . . 13. . . 14. . .

6.
. Put the nouns and possessive pronouns in
the singular form.
: . .
1. . 2. . 3. . 4.
. 5. . 6. . 7. . 8.
. 9. . 10. . 11.
. 12. . 13. . 14. ? 15.
. 16. ? 17. . 18. . 19.
. 20. .

7. . Read the texts.


) . .
. . . . .
. . . . .
) , . . .
. . . . .
. . .
.

25

) . . .
. . . .
. .
.
) . . . .
. , ,
- . .
. , , ,
, , ? .
.

8. , , . Lets talk about


your country, your city, your family.
9. . Read and repeat the dialogues.
) , . .
, .
) . You are speaking on the phone.
! ?
, .
?
.
! .
, .
) ! ! . ?
.
.
.
) , , , . .
. .
.
) , ?
, .
?
. ?
, . .

26

) . .
. , ?
.
?
. .

(COMMENTARY)
1. The Plural of Nouns. .
a) Nouns in Russian may be used in singular and plural. The plural is indicated
through an ending. In the plural, masculine and feminine nouns take the ending - or
-, and neuter nouns the ending - or -.
b) Some nouns are invariably used in the singular. Used in the singular only are
those nouns which denote natural goods, chemical elements, kinds of sports, sum
total of subjects, collective nouns, feelings, periods of life, fields of knowledge,
science and technology, months, countries of the world and some abstract notions:

) Some nouns are invariably used in the plural. Used in the plural only are those
nouns which denote subjects consisting of the two equal parts, and also a number of
nouns which must be remembered.

27

d) Masculine nouns in - and - drop the vowel -- or -- in the plural:


, , , ,
, , .
e) Some nouns are not declined, i. e. have no cases. The majority of these nouns
is neuter (except for , which is masculine) and has no plural:

2. Possessive pronouns.
Possessive pronouns agree in number, gender and case with nouns they modify:
, , , , ,
.
3. Cases of nouns.
In Russian, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, numerals may change their forms
getting the case endings. They are changing for case (are declined). It depends on
what role they play in a sentence. There are six cases in the Russian language:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

The Nominative
The Genitive
The Dative
The Accusative
The Instrumental
The Prepositional

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Each case has its own meaning and the case forms to express a certain meaning a
concrete case form is used.
The nominative case is the initial form. All nouns listed in any dictionary are
given in nominative case.
In the construction ? the corresponding personal pronoun stands in
the accusative case, because this pronoun is the object in the question. And in
Russian asking your name sounds as:
(, , , )
?

How do they call you (him,


her, us, them)?
28

(, , , )

They call me (him, her, us,


them)

4. LESSON 4
VERBS OF THE Ist AND IInd CONJUGATION (INFINITIVE, PRESENT
TENSE AND IMPERATIVE). SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. ACCUSATIVE
CASE OF INANIMATE NOUNS DENOTING A DIRECT OBJECT.
ACCUSATIVE CASE OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. ADVERBS OF
MODIFIER OF MANNER
1. . Read and repeat the dialogues.
) ? ?
, , .
?
.
) , .
, . ?
.
?
, . . , ,
. , , .
, .
, .
, .
. At the Lesson
) : , , , -.
: . . .
.
: -! ,
?
: , ,
, -.
) , , -?
.
, , - ?
29

Friend.
.
.
) ?
, .
?
, . .
.
.
2. . Learn the table.
I II
(, )
VERBS OF THE Ist AND IInd CONJUGATION
(INFINITIVE, PRESENT TENSE)

, I

II

3. . Conjugate the verbs.


I, II, I, I, II, II, I,
I, I, I, I, I, I,
I, I, I, I, I.
4. . Insert the personal pronouns.
: .



30










5. . Write the endings of the verbs.
1. . 2. . 3. . 4.
, 5. . 6.
? 7. . 8. . 9.
, .

?
? .

? .
? .

6. . . Read the
sentences. Ask the questions to the subject and predicate.
1. . 2. 3.
. 4. . 5. . 6. .
! !
!
7. . Learn the table.

(resent tense)
(1. ..)

(Imperative mood)
(2. ..)
!
!

(Imperative mood)
(2. ..)

!
!

!
!

!
!

!
!

7. . Form the imperative.

31

, , , , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , , .
S1
P
S1
P
O4
. .
9. . Read and analyze.
.
.

? .

.
.

? .

.
.

? .

, ,
.
, ,

?
, , .

10. . Learn the table.



( )
ACCUSATIVE CASE OF INANIMATE NOUNS (SINGULAR)

(?)

(?)

-
-
-
-

32

-
-
-

(PLURAL)

(Gender and
number)

I (?)
(Nominative caseI)

(?)
(usative case 4)

(The endings of
the accusative
case)

(Plural)

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

11. . Pay attention.

,
,
,
,
,
,


,
,


,

,
33

12. . Ask your friend according to the model.


: .
, ?
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7. . 8.
. 9. . 10.
. 11. . 12. . 13.
.
13. , . Answer the questions
using the words given in brackets.
: ? () .
1. ? () 2. ? () 3.
? ( ) 4. ? () 5.
? () 6. ? (). 7.
? () 8. ? (). 9.
? () 10. ? (). 11.
? (). 12. ? ().
14. . Write the combinations of the
words with the verbs.
( , , , , , ,
)
(, , )
(, , , , )
(, , , , )
(, , , , )
(, , , )
(, , )
, .
15. , . Read and analyze.

34

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

16. . Learn the table.



(ACCUSATIVE CASE OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS)

(? ?)


(? ? )

17. . Answer the questions as in the model.


: ?
, .
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5. ? 6.
? 7. ? 8. ? ?
?
, .
18. , . Read, analyze.
.

?
.

?
.

19. . Pay attention.

35

?
=/=
=/=
=/=
=/=

=/=
=/= =
=/=
=/=

20. C . Ask your friend.


:
?
1. . 2.
. 3. .4. . 5.
. 6. . 7.
. 8. .
21. . Ask the questions to each other.
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5. ? 6.
?
22. , . Read, analyze.
-.
, -. -?
23. ) . Read the text.
. -.
. -.
. . . -.
. -.
-. -,
(native) .
) . Answer the questions.
- ? - ?
- ? - ?
- ? - ?
-? -? -? 36

? -? -?
-?
24. , - (-,
- . .). Ask your friends if they speak Russian.
: , , -?
, . ( . ).
25. , . Read, analyze.

?
-

26. .
-. Write the sentences. Insert the words -.
1. . 2. . 3.
? 4. . 5. .
6. . 7. .8. ?
27. . Read the text.
) . . ,
. Write the text. Use the pronoun . Tell what
your friend is doing at the lesson.
. . ,
. , .
. . , .
. , . .
. . -.
) , .
: . Write the text. Use the pronoun .
Start it from the sentence: .
) , .
: , Write the text. Use the pronoun . Start
it from the sentence: ,
28. ) . Read the text.
37


. . ,
. .
. .
. ,
. , .
, .
, .
, .
, .
.
) . Answer the questions.
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5.
? 6. ? 7.
? 8. ?

. WORK AT HOME
1. . Insert the appropriate
pronouns.
?


.
.

?


.
.

? ?
.
.

.
.
.
. .

2. ,
. Answer the question using the appropriate forms of verbs.
? ? ? ?
? ?

3. . Ask the questions to the


subject and predicate.

38

1. . 2. . 3. . 4.
. 5. . 6. .

4. , . Answer the
questions using the words given in brackets.
1. ? (, , , , , )
2. ? (, , , ) 3. ? (,
, ) 4. ? (, , ).

5. , . Answer the
questions using the words given in brackets.
1. ? () 2. ? () 3.
? ( ) 4. ? () 5.
? ( ) 6. ?
() 7. ? () 8. ? () 9.
? () 10. c ? () 11.
? ()

6. . Answer the questions, as in the


example.
: ?
, .
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5. ? 6.
? 7. ? 8. ?

7. , . Answer the
questions using the words given in brackets.
1. -? () 2. -?
() 3. ? () 4. ?
() 5. ? () 6. ?
() 7. ? () 8. ?
() 9. -? () 10.
? ().

8. . Answer the questions, as in the


example.
39

: -? , -.
, -.
1. -? 2. -? 3.
-? 4. -? 5.
-? -?

9. . Answer the questions, as in the


example.
: -?
, -.
, -.
1. -? 2. ? 3. -? 4. ? 5. -? 6. ? 7. -?

10. ) . Read the text.



-. . ,
. . , -.
.
. : , , .
, !
. , . ,
, . .
: , . , .
. . : ,
, .
. , ,
. ,
. , .
: 5. ,
. . . :
, ? , ,
, . , , ,
. .

40

) . Answer the questions.


, ? ? ?
? ? ? ,
? ? , ?
? ? , ?
? 5? ?
?

11. ) . Read the text.



. . . .
. . .
. . ,
, . .
, , .
.
. .
, .
, .
. : , !
: !
. -. , .

) . Answer the question.


-?

12. ?
. How do you understand the following proverbs?
Find equivalents in your native language.
, , , .
, .
, .

(COMMENTARY)
41

1. The Verb. Present Tense. (. ).


Verbs are used to name an action or state. Verbs play a specific role in a
sentence. It is not often that the verb is used separately; as a rule, it is used in a
combination of words which depend on it or with the forms of the related words.
Actions expressed by verbs may take place at different time; therefore, the verbs have
three tense forms: present, past and future. Verbs in the dictionaries are given in their
initial form of infinitive.
The present tense form is used when we speak about the action which:
a. take place at the moment of speech:
?
.
b. take place constantly:
.
.
c. began earlier and continue at the moment of speech:
, .
.
The actions can be performed by a person who is speaking, by the one he is
speaking to, or by the third person, as well as by one of several persons. Thus, the
verb in the present tense has the forms of a person and number and acquires the
corresponding endings.
In accordance with their personal endings verbs fall into two groups verbs of
the 1st conjugation (there are lots of them) and verbs of the second conjugation (they
are much fewer in number).
2. Imperative.
The form of imperative is used to express a request, an advice, an order, and a
demand to carry an action, to invite to an action.
Imperative is formed from the stem of the verb in the form of first person.
If in the first person - follows a vowel, the imperative form ends in -.

(-)!
(-)!

If in the first person - (-) follows a consonant, and the stress falls on the
ending, then the imperative form ends in -.

(-)!
42

(-)!

If in the first person - (-) follows a consonant, and the stress falls on a stem,
then the imperative form ends in -.


(-)!


(-)!
3. The Accusative case 4 (of an object).
To name an object (a person or a thing) to which the action refers, you need to
put the question ? if the nouns are inanimate, or ? if the nouns are
animate (people, living beings) and put the noun in the accusative case (4).
4.Adverbs. Adverbs of manner. (. ).
Adverbs are used to show how the action takes place, to determine a character of
action. The adverbs fall into several groups depending on their meaning and the
question they answer.
Adverbs of manner modify a verb and like all adverbs are invariable.
( =/= , =/= , =/= )
The majority of adverbs of manner ends in -o.

5. LESSON 5
GENDER AND NUMBER OF ADJECTIVES (NOMINATIVE CASE).
USE OF ADJECTIVES AND CORRESPONDING ADVERBS. INFINITIVE
CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE VERBS , , .
PRONOUN , , , , (, , , ). ACCUSATIVE
CASE OF ADJECTIVES AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS
1. . Read the dialogues.
) ?
.
, ? ?
, . .
, .
, .
) , ?
, . ?
. .
43

) , -?
.
) , -?
, . . ?
, -.
.
) , ?
, . .
) , ? ?
, .
.
) ?
. ,
, , , .
.
.
2. , . Read, analyze.
-. .
-.
. .
3. . Learn the table.

( )
GENDER AND NUMBER OF ADJECTIVES
(NOMINATIVE CASE)

?

-
-
-

44

-
-
-
-


-
-

-
-

-
-

-
-

4. . . Read the
sentences. Ask the questions according to the example.
: . ?
1. . 2. . 3. . 4. .
5. . 6. . 7. . 8. .
9. . 10. . 11. . 12.
. 13. . 14. .
5. . . Read the
combinations of the words. Write endings in the form of singular.
, , , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
, .
6. . Put the adjectives in the
appropriate form.
: , , , , , ,
, , .
: , , , , .
: , , , , ,
, , , .
: , , , , , ,
, , , .
: , , , , ,
.
: , , , .
7. . Learn the adjectives.
: =/= , =/= , =/= ,
=/= , =/= , =/= ,
=/= , =/= .

45

: =/= , =/= , =/= ,


=/= .
: , , , , ,
, .
: , , , , , , ,
.
: , =/= .
8. . Write the endings of the adjectives.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. ! 5. . 6.
. 7. .8. . 9.
! 10. .
9. , . Please, tell what color of
the objects in the classroom is.
: . .
. .
10. . Learn the table.
(, )?


(, )?


11. , ,
. Read the sentences, find adjectives, ask the
questions.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. .
12. II . Learn the new verb of the IInd
conjugation.
II




46

13. ) . Read the text.


-. .
. , .
. ,
. .
) . Answer the questions.
? ? ? ?
? ?
14. . Learn the new verbs.
I





15. .
Insert an adverb or a verb in the correct form.
1. . -. (, ) 2.
. -. (, ) 3.
. . (, ) 4. .
. (, ) 5. .
. . (-,
). 6. . . ,
. (-, ) 7. .
. .
. . (-, )
.
-.
-.
16. . Learn the conjugation of
the verbs .

47









17. , , .
Insert the verbs , in the appropriate form.
1. . () 2. ? () 3. . () 4.
(). 5. -. () 6.
. () 7. . () 8.
. () 9. ? () 10.
. () 11. . () 12. ?
() 13. -? () 14.
. () 15. . () 16.
.. () 17. -? () 18.
. () 19. . () 20.
. ()
18 . Open the brackets.
1. () - 2. () . 3. (). 4. (). 5.
() . 6. () . 7.
(). 8. (). 9. () . 10. () -. 11.
(). 12. () .
19. ) . Read the text.
-. ,
. . .
. .
, .
.
.
.
-.
.
, . ,
. .
. . .
) . Answer the questions.
48

? ? ?
? ?
? -?
? ? ? ?
? ?
20. , . Read, analyze.
.

. ?
? .

.
? ? .

. ?
? .

. ?
? .

21. . Answer the questions according to the


example.
: ? , .
1. -? 2.
? 3. ? 4. ?
5. ? 6. ?
22. . Complete the sentences according to
the example.
: . .
. .
1. . . 2. .
. 3. . . 4.
. . 5. .
. 6. . , .
23. , . Read, analyze.
?

4 S1
?
49

S1 P
O4
.

4 S1

S1
P
O4
.

4 S1

S1
P
O4
.

, ,
?
,
.

4
4
4 S1

, ?
, ,
.

24. . Learn the table.

(1)

(4)

.. .

.. .

(ending)

.. = ..

.
..

- / -
- / -

25. . . Answer the


questions. Use the words in brackets.

50

1. ? ( ) 2. ? (
) 3. ? ( ) 4.
? ( ) 5. ? (
) 6. ? ( ) 7.
? ( )
26. . . Answer the
questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. ? ( ). 2.
? ( ) 3. ? ( ) 4.
? ( ) 5. ? (
, , , , , ) 6. ?
( ) 7. ? ( ) 8.
? ( ) 9. ? ( ) 10.
? ( ).
27. , . Read, analyze.
. .
: .
. .
: .
. .
: .
. .
: .
. .
: .
. .
: .
. .
:
28. . . Read the words. Find
their meanings in dictionary.
, , =/= , , .

51

29. . Insert pronouns.


: . .
. .
1. . . .
. 2. . ? 3.
. . 4. .
. 5. .
?
30. ) . Read the text.

. , .
.
. .
. -.
.
-, .
. ,
, . -
, . .
, ,
. . .
.
. ,
, -.
, . ,
, . , .
, , .
. .
. .
. -,
, . ,
!, !, ?,
? !.
) . Answer the questions.
? ? ?
?

52

31. . Tell about your friend.


? ? ?
?
32. ,
. Read the characteristic of some students. Do you know such persons?
1. .
, ,
, .
2. . . ,
, . ,
.
3. . ,
. . ,
.
4. . .
. ,
.
5. .
. , .
, .
, . .
.

. WORK AT HOME
1. . Memorize the adjectives.
=/=
=/=
=/=

=/=
=/=
=/=

2. . Insert the
endings of the adjectives.
, , , ; ,
, , ; ,
53

, , ; , .. ,
, ; , ,
, ; , ; ,
, .

3. . Ask the question according to the


example.
: . ?
1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7. . 8. . 9. .
10. . 11. . 12. . 13. . 14.
.

4. . Answer the question according to


the example.
: ? , .
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. ?
9. ?

5. ,
. Insert the adjectives or adverbs which are given on the right.
1. .
2. , .

(, )

3 ?
4. ?

(, )

5. , .
6. , .

(, )

7. .
54

8. ,

(, )

9.
10. , .

(, )

6. . Insert the verb


in the appropriate form.
1. -. 2. -? 3.
-. 4. . 5.
? 6. . 7. .
8. ?

7. . Insert the verb in


the appropriate form.
1. -. 2. - ? 3.
- -. 4.
-? 5. -. 6.
-, . 7. .

8. . Open the brackets.


1. () . 2. () . 3. (). 4.
(). 5. (). 6. () . 7.
() . 8. () ? 9. ()
. 10. (). 11. (). 12.
(). 13. () . 14. () . 15.
() -. 16. () . 17. () . 18. () .

9. . Change the sentences according


to the model.
: . .
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5. 6.
. 7. . 8. . 9.
.

55

10. . Put the words in


brackets in the appropriate form.
1. ( ). 2. (
). 3. ( ). 4. (
). 5. ( ). 6. (
). 7. ( ).
( ). ( ).

11. . Read the text.



, .
.
.
. , , :
? ?.
!
!
.
!
. . .
. . .
. . . . .
. .
. , , ?
. , .
, . .
?
: . ,
. , .
, . : .
, .
, ?
, , !
. ?
. ,
. , , .
?
. .
.
, ?

56

.
?
, . . ,
, . .
.

12. . Learn the proverbs.


1. , . Better to have a hundred friends
than a hundred roubles.
2. , ! Look for a friend, and when you have
found one, try to keep him.

(COMMENTARY)
1. In order to qualify a subject, a person, an abstract notion (directly or through its
attitude to other subjects) adjectives are used. They answer the question ?
? ? ?
Adjectives are closely linked with nouns they define, therefore, they agree with
them in gender, number and case.
The masculine adjectives have the endings:
- in the stressed stem:
- according to the general rule (after , , , , , , , instead of you
should write );
- in the stressed ending.
The neuter adjectives as a rule have ending -.
The feminine adjectives as a rule have the ending -.
In plural the adjectives of all three genders have the ending -, after , , , ,
, , , -.

=/=
=/=
=/=
=/=
=/=

=/=
=/=
,
, ,
57

=/=

=/=

,
=/=

,
,

=/=
=/=
=/=

,
, ,
, ,

2. The Possessive pronoun .


In order to show that a subject belongs to any acting person (1, 2, 3) or acting
persons, a special possessive pronoun c (, , ) is used in Russian.
Remember!
If a subject doesnt belong to an acting person, then the pronoun c cant be
used.
As a rule the pronoun c isnt used in the nominative case.
The pronoun c may be substituted by the corresponding pronouns (,
, , ) without changing the meaning only in case a subject (an acting
person) is expressed by the personal pronoun of the 1st or the 2nd person (, ,
, ).
If a subject is expressed by a noun or personal pronoun of the 3rd person (,
, , ), then such a substitution leads to the change in the sentence meaning.
(Except for the construction of the type: ( ) .

6. LESSON 6
ACCUSATIVE CASE OF ANIMATE NOUNS. ACCUSATIVE CASE OF
ADJECTIVES, POSSESSIVE AND DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. PAST
TENSE OF THE VERB. ADVERBS OF TIME
1. . Read the dialogues.
1. , ?
, .
58

2. , ?
. ?
. , .
2. . Learn the table.


ACCUSATIVE CASE OF ANIMATE NOUNS

(gender and number)

(1)
(?)

(4)
(?)

(endings)

-
-
-

-
-
-
-. + -
-
-
-
-
-, , , + -

3. . Read the dialogues.


)
? ?
, . .
) .
? ?
, . .
) .
? ?
, .
) , ?
?
, .

59

, , . .
, .
4. . Learn the conjugation of the new
verbs.
I ? ?
II ? ?
I ?
?








5. . Learn the table.
,



(? ? ?)
(? ? ?)
.

-
.
-
.
.

.
. -
.
-
.

.

.
.
.

6. . Pay attention.

60

-
-


7. . Open the brackets.
1. (). 2.
(). 3. ( )? 4.
(). 5. ( )? 6. ().
8. . . Answer the questions.
Use the words in brackets.
1. ? ( ) 2.
? ( ) 3. ? () 4.
? (, , , ,
) 5. ? (). 6.
? () 7. ? ( ) 8.
? () 9. ? ()
9. . . Answer the questions.
Use the words in brackets.
1. ? ( ) 2.
? ( ) 3. ? (- ) 4.
? ( ). 5.
? ( ) 6. ? (
).
10. . Pay attention.
, .
, .
11. . Learn the table.

THE PAST TENSE OF THE VERBS

61

12. . Form
the past tense.
, , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, , .
13. . Change the sentences according to the
example.
: .
. .
1. . 2. .
3. . 4. . 5.
. 6. .
7. . 8. ..
. 9. . 10. .

14. . .
. Read the text. Write it. Put the verbs in the past.
? , -.
-.
. , . .
. .
, .
.
?

15. . Pay attention.

62

16. , ( ..).
Ask your friend what he did yesterday.
: , ?
. ?
.
17. . Pay attention.
?
.

?
.

18. . Ask the questions according to the example.


: .


.
?

1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7. .
19. . . Answer the
questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. ? () 2. ?
( ) 3. ? () 4. ?
(, , , , ) 5.
? (, , , ) 6. ?
(, , ) 7. ? (, ,
, ) 8. ? ( ).
20. ) . Read the text.

.
. .
10 . .
. . .
9 .
. - . ,
.
63

:
, ?
. ,
, , .
. . ,
-. ,
. .
.
. ,
.
.
, , , .
, , .
, .
,
.
) , . Tell what you did
yesterday.
21. ) . Read the words and expressions.



) . Read the text.
.
, .
, .
, .
,
: , . .
. .
, , . ,
. , . ,
. . ?
) . Ask the questions to the
underlined words.
) ? What do you think?

64

?
?
, ?
) , ? Answer the Maxs question,
what to do?

. WORK AT HOME
1. . Put the words in the
appropriate form.
1. (, , , , ).
2. (, , , ).
3. (, , , , ).
4. (, , , , , ).
5. (, , , , ).
6. (, , , , , ).
7. (, , , , ,
).

2. . Put the words in the


appropriate form.
1. ( ). 2.
( ). 3. ( ). 4.
( ).

3. . . Answer the
questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. ? ( ) 2. ? (
) 3. ? ( ) 4.
? ( ) 5.
? ( )

4. . . Answer the
questions. Use the words in brackets.
65

1. ? ( ). 2. ?
( ) 3. ? ( ) 4.
? ( ) 5. ? (
) 6. ? ( ) 7.
? ( ) 8. ? (
)

5. : ? ? Answer the question: ? ?


1. . . 2. .
. 3. .
. 4. .
. 5. .
?

6. . . Write the answers.


Use the words on the right.
1. ?
?

, ,

2. ?
?

3. ?
?

4. ?
?

5. ?
?

7. ) . Read the text.



, .
.
.
: , ,
.
66

.
. . .
. , , , ,
. , .
. , ,
, , . -.
-. ,
.
.
. .
.
-. , .
, .
. ,
. .
: , ,
. .
, .

) . Answer the questions.


? ?
? ? ? ?
? -? ?
? ? ?
?

) ? What were you


and your friends doing yesterday in class?
(COMMENTARY)
1. The Past Tense. In order to describe events or actions which took place in the
past, the past tense form of the verb is used. There is only one form of the past tense
in Russian.
, ,
, ,
, ,

In the present tense verbs are changed for person and number. In the past tense
verbs are changed for gender and number.
In order to understand which person the past tense is attributed to (outside the
context), the personal pronoun or noun must be used: . But:
? , (The person is clear from the context).
67

The 1st and the 2nd conjugation verbs (regular and majority of irregular ones
form the past tense according to the same pattern: stem of infinitive, suffix -- and
gender endings: -- for feminine, -- for neuter, and -- for all genders in plural:
, , .
Certain irregular verbs form the past tense in a peculiar way. But such verbs
arent numerous. For example:
, ,
, ,
, ,
2. Adverbs of Time. Adverbs of time are used to indicate the time when an action
takes place, to show the duration of an action or how frequently it is repeated. They
also modify a verb.


?
,
,
,

/
/

7. LESSON 7
ADVERBS OF PLACE. THE PREPOSITIONAL CASE (OBJECT OF
PLACE) OF NOUNS, ADJECTIVES, POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. THE
PREPOSITIONS , . THE VERB IN THE PAST. THE
VERB .THE VERBS , WITH THE
NOUNS IN THE PREPOSITIONAL CASE
, , ?
, .
1. . Pay attention.






68


()

(, , )
2. , , , . . Ask where the shop,
square, street are situated.
: , , ?
. ( , . , )
?
.
3. , . Read the dialogues, analyze.
?
, .
?
?
,
, .

?
.
? ?
,
.

.
?

,
?
:
, ,
.

4. . Learn the table.



( )
PREPOSITIONAL CASE OF NOUNS ( SINGULAR AND PLURAL)

?







69

-
-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

. Memorize
the forms of nouns in prepositional case.
? (.. 1)

? (.. 6)
()
()




5. , . ? You do not know,


where your friend is. How will you ask about it?
: , , , ?
.
6. . Pay attention.

! Pay attention to the pronunciation!


= []
= []

70

= []
= []
= []
.
. Read. Pay attention to the pronunciation of the
preposition with nouns.
, , , , -, ,
, , , , , , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , .
7. . Learn the conjugation of Russian verbs.
, II





, I





8. . Pay attention.
(?)

(?)


9. . Put the words given in


brackets in the appropriate form.
1. (), ().
2. (), (). 3.
(), (). 4. ()
(, ). 5. (). 6. (),
().

71

10. , , .
Pay attention to the difference between the verbs , , .
(?)

(?)

(?)

11. , , . Insert the


verbs , , .
1. . . .
. . 2. .
. 3. . .
. 4. .
. .
12. , . Invite your
friend to your place and tell him where you live.
: , , , . ,
10, 5.
, .
13. , , , ,
, , ,
. Tell where you live, study, what you learn, where your
brothers and sisters study.
14. . Pay attention.

(?)

72

15. , .
Read the text and tell where Sergey Petrovich and his wife work.
.
.
, , . .
. ,
, .
-. ,
.
. . .
.
. .
, . .
16. . Put the words given in
brackets in the appropriate form.
1. . (). 2.
. (). 3. .
(). 4. . (). 5.
. (). 6.
. (). 7. .
(). 8. (),
().
17. ) . Read the text.
.
. .
. .
. .
. . .
. .
.
) . Answer the questions.
? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?
? ?
18. , . Tell where your parents work.

73

19. . Pay attention.

20. . Answer the questions according to the


example.
: . ?
.
1. . ? 2. .
? 3. . ? 4.
. ? 5. .
? 6. . ? 7. .
?
21. ) . Read the text.
.
. ,
. .
.
. ,
. . .
.
, .
. . .
) . Answer the questions.
? ? ?
? ? ? ?
? ? ?
, ?

! Memorize!


74



22. . Pay attention.
.
.

.




.
.

.

23. . Do exercise according to the example.


: .
. .
1. . 2. .
3. . 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7.
. 8. .
24. , , , , o. Ask
your friend whether he has been to the theatre, circus, museum.
: , ?
, .
, .
25. , . Ask your friend where he
was yesterday evening.
: , ?
, , .
?
.
26. . Pay attention.
?
(,
, , , ).

?
(
)

27. , . , . You
know what day it is today. Tell what day was yesterday.
75

28. . . Read the


dialogue. Analyze the meaning of the new forms.
, ?
, .
, ?
.
29. . Learn the table.

(? ?
? ?)

(, , ?
? ?)

-
-
-
-
-

30. . Ask the questions to the adjectives.


: .
?
1. . 2.
. 3. .4.
. 5. . 6.
.
31. . .
Answer the questions. Use the words in the brackets and the prepositions or
.

76

1. ? ( ) 2.
? ( ) 3. ?
( ) 4. ? (
) 5. ? ( )
6. ? ( ).
32. .
Write underlined words in the form of prepositional case.
: . ,
. ,
.
1. . 2.
. . 3.
. 4.
. 5. .
6. . .
33. ) . Read the text.


. .
. ,
, , , , ,
. . , .
. , .
, . .
. .
. , , ,
, . ,
. .
. : , , .
. . . , ?
. .
. , .
. ,
, , .
) . Answer the questions.

77

? ?
? ? ?
? ? ? ?
?
34. . Learn the verbs.
, II

, II

, II

35. .
. . Write the sentences.
Put the words in the brackets in the form of the prepositional case. Use the
prepositions or .
1. (). 2. (). 3.
(). 4. (). 5. (). 6.
(). 7. (). 8. (). 9. ().
10. ().
36. . . Answer the
questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. ? () 2. ?
() 3. ? () 4. ?
() 5. ? () 6. ? () 7.
? () 8. ? (). 9.
? () 10. ? ().
37. , . . Tell where you live.
Describe your room.
.
?
38. . Pay attention to the form of
questions.


.
.
?
78


.
.
?
.
.
39. . Ask the question to the subject.
: . ?
. ?
1. . 2.
3. . 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7.
. 8. . 9. . 10.
. 11. . 12.
. 13. 14.
. 15. . 16
.
.
.
.
.
40. . Learn the table.
?






?
,
,
,

,

41. . Put the words in


brackets in the appropriate form.
1. (). 2. (, ). 3.
(). 4.
(). 5. (, ). 6.
79

(, ). 7. (,
).
42. , . Answer the
questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. ? (, ). 2. ?
(). 3. ? ( ) 4.
? (, ) 5. ? ()
6. ? () 7. ? (,
) 8. ? (, ).
43. .

(?)

44. . . Answer the


questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. ? (, ) 2.
? () 3. ? (, ) 4.
? () 5. ?
()
45. ) . Read the text.
.
: ?, ?,
?, .
, ,
. .
. .
,
. , ,
, . ,
. , .
. ,
. , .

80

, .
. . . ?
, , , .
) . Answer the questions.
?
? ?
? ?
? ?
46. , , .
Ask your friend where he usually has a rest in the evening, in summer.
47. . Pay attention.

(?)

:
:
:
:

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

48. . . Answer the


questions. Use the words in brackets.
) 1. ? () 2. ? ()
3. ? () 4. ? () 5.
? () 6. ? ().
) 1. ? () 2. ? () 3.
? () 4. ? () 5.
? ( ) 6. ? ( ).
) 1. -? ( ) 2. ?
( ) 3. ? ( ) 4. ? ().
49. , - , ,
. Ask your friend whether he has been to a city, country, continent.
: , , , ?
, . (, ).

81

50. ) . Read the text.


,
. , .
, .
. ,
, .
. , .
. . .
. . .
.
. .
. , , , , .
. .
, .
, , ,
. , ,
.
) . Answer the questions.
? ?
? ? ?
? ? ?
51. . Tell about your city.
52. .
. Interpret the following proverbs and sayings. Find equivalents
in your native language.
; ; ;
; ; ;
; ; ; ;
, ; .

. WORK AT HOME
1. . Answer the questions.
: ? , .

82

1. ? 2.
? 3. ? 4.
? 5. ? 6. ? 7.
? 8. ?

2. . Ask the questions according to the


model.
: . ?
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. .

3. . Answer the questions according to


the model.
: . ?
.
1. . ? 2. .
? 3. . ? 4. .
? 5. . ?
4. . . Answer the

questions. Use the words given in brackets.


1. ? ( ). 2. ? ( ).
3. ? ( ). 4. ? (). 5.
? (). 6. ? ().

5. . . Answer the
questions. Use the words given in brackets.
1. ? (). 2.
? (). 3. ? (). 4.
? (). 5. ? (). 6. ?
(). 7. ? (). 8. ?
().

6. . . Answer the
questions. Use the words given in brackets.
83

1. ? ( ). 2.
? ( ). 3.
? ( ). 4. ? ( ,
). 5. ? ( ).
6. ? ( ). 7.
? ( ). 8.
? ( ).

7. . Fill in the questions.


) ?
.
) ?
.
) ?
.
) ?
.
) ?
.

8. . Translate into Russian.


I am sitting in a classroom at a lesson. The teacher is explaining new material
and is writing sentences on the blackboard. I am writing in my exercise-book. My
bag is on the desk. There are books and dictionary in the bag.

9. . Read the text.



. . .
.
. .
.
, .
. , .
84

- - . ,
- -,
. ,
.
: , , , .
, , , , .
, , , ,
. . ,
.
. .
. .
. , , .
.
, .
. , , .
. . .
: . ! .

10. . Describe your room.


11. . Do exercise according to the
example.
:
.
.
1. 2.
3. 4.
5. 6.

12. . ,
. Write the text. Underline the words, which answer the
question .
.
. . , ,
, . - .
. .
. . .
, . . ,
.
85

13. .
Insert the verbs given in brackets in the past tense.
() ?
().
() ?
(). ().

14. . Ask the question to the subject.


: . ?
. ?
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5. . 6.
. 7. . 8.
. 9. .

15. ) . Read the text.



-. .
. (
) .
.
. .
, , ,
, .
. : ,
, .
, .
-.
. .
, , . ,
, , ,
. ? ?
, ,
.
. , , ,
, , , , , .

86

11 .
, - .
, . , . .
. ,
. ,
, , .
-, , .
.
? .

) ?
? .
(COMMENTARY)
The Prepositional of nouns.
In answers to the question ?, adverbs of place are used ( ?
.), or nouns in the prepositional case with the preposition or .
Preposition denotes the presence inside a subject, within the boundary of
something. Preposition denotes the presence on the surface, in open place.
Besides, the preposition shows participation in an event or an action, or presence
in the place, where an action is carried out. For example: but
, , , but .
After verbs of the type , , (in the meaning of
whereabouts) the use of the models of place is necessary. After verbs of the type
, , , , , etc. the use of the models of
place is optional.

8. LESSON 8
FUTURE COMPLEX TENSE OF THE VERB. ACCUSATIVE CASE
FOR EXPRESSION OF TIME. THE PREPOSITIONAL CASE IN THE
MEANING OF THE OBJECT OF SPEECH OR THOUGHT.
THE PREPOSITIONAL CASE FOR EXPRESSION OF TIME
. Read the dialogues.
) , ?
87

, , .
.
.
) , . ?
: , , .
, , .
) ?
, . . , , .
, , ?
, , , , . .
.
1. , . Read, analse.
. . ,
, -.
.
, ,
.
.
2. . Learn the table.




3. . Put the verbs in the future


form.
1. () . 2. () . 3.
() . 4. (). 5. ()
. 6. () ? 7.
() , () . 8. () .
9. () ?

88

4. .
. Write the text. Use future tense instead of present.

. ,
. .
, .
. .
. .
. .
5. , , , , . Say that you,
he, she, they will do the same tomorrow.
: . .
1. , , . 2.
. 3. ,
, , . 4.
. 5. . 6.
. 7.
. 8. .
.
6. . Pay attention.
?
( )

?
( )






7. . . Answer the questions.


Use the verbs in brackets.
1. ? () 2.
? () 3. ?
() 5. ? () 6.
() 7. ?
()
89

8. , , ,
. . Ask what your friends will do today, tomorrow, on Monday
and so on.
9. ) . Read the text.
.
. . .
. . .
. .
.
. .
.
) . Answer the questions.
? ?
? ? ?
10. . Ask the questions to
every word in the sentence.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. .
.
11. ) .
. Read the text. Analyze the new meaning of the prepositional case.
. , ,
. , , .
. , .
) . Analyze the questions and answers.
O ?

90

12. .

(?)

( ?)

(?)


13. ) . Pay attention.

? ?

( ?)




()

: , .
) . . Complete the
sentences. Use the words in brackets.
1. 2. 3.
4. 5. 6. 7.
8.
(, , , , , , , , )
14. . . Answer the
questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. ? (). 2. ?
(). 3. ? (). 4. ?
(). 5. ? (). 6. ?
().

91

15. . Pay attention.





16. . . Answer the


questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. ? () 2. ?
() 3. ? () 4.
? () 5. ? () 6.
? () 7. ? () 8.
? ()
17. ! Memorize!
?

18. . . Complete the


sentences. Use the words in brackets.
1. (). 2. (,
). 3. (). 4. (
). 5. (). 6.
(). 7. (). 8. ().
19. . . Answer the
questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. ? ( ) 2.
? (-) 3. ? ( ) 4. ?
( ) 5. ? () 6.
? () 7. ?
() 8. ? ()
20. , .
Ask your friend to tell about the city he has lived before.
: , ?
92

.
, , .
?
, .

21. . Learn the table.




(? ?)


( ? ?)

22. . Insert the


pronoun according to the sense.
1. .
2. . 3.
. 4. ? ,
, 5. . .
6. , . 7.
.
23. . Pay attention!
, !
.
Memorize the names of the months!
They are masculine nouns.

93

? ( 1)

? ?
( 6)

! Memorize!
?

24. . . Answer the


questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. ? (, ) 2. ?
() 3. ? () 4.
? (, ) 5. ? ( ) 6.
? ( ) 7.
? ( ) 8. -? ( )
9. ? ( ) 10. ?
( ) 11. ? ( )
25. ) . . Read the
text. Write out and translate new words.

94

: .
. . , ,
.
: . , .
. ,
. .
.
: ?
.
. , .
: .
.
. -. ,
.
: . .
, , . , .
.
) . Pay attention!
: ? free.
? ( ) , , .
? ( ) , , ,
.
) 1- .
to spend

come

26. :
) .
) , .
) .
95

. WORK AT HOME
1. .Write the sentences in

the future form.


1. : , ,
, . 2. : ,
. 3. . 4. .
5. . 6.
.

2. . . Answer
the questions. Use the days of the week in answers.
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ?
5. ? 6. ?
7. ? 8. ? 9.
?

3. ,
. Complete the sentences. Use underlined words.
1. . 2. .
3. . 4.
. 5. . 6. .
7. .
8. .

4. . ,
? Read the Kumars letter. Answer the question
about what and about whom Kumar is writing home.
. ,
. . .
. . ,
, .

96

5. . .
Complete the sentences. Use the personal pronouns.
1. ? 2. ?
3. ? 4.
? 5. ? .
, ,

6. , . Complete
the sentences. Use the words in brackets.
1. , (). 2. ,
(). 3. , ().
4. , (). 5. ,
. , (). 6. ,
().

7. ) .
. . Read the text.
Pay attention to the words in the form of prepositional case. Ask the
questions to these words.

.
. .
, , , .
. .
, , .
, .
, ,
, , ,
, .
, , . , ,
.
. ,
. , , ,
. , , .
.
, , .

97

) . Tell about your life


in Stavropol.
8. . Read the jokes.
) ?
?
, , : .
) ?
: ,
, , .
) ?
, ,
?
, , , .
to merry
) .
, . ,
. . ,
, .
, , . ,
3 : 0
wedding
score
to win
) , .

8. . Read the
poems of the famous poet Rasul Gamzatov.
, .
. , , .

98

,
,
,
.

(COMMENTARY)
1. The Future Tense. In order to describe events which will take place after
moment of speech, the forms of the future tense are used.
If there is no indication that an action will be completed or will have a result,
then the so called compound future is used. It is formed by the future tense of the
auxiliary verb (to be) and the infinitive of the corresponding verb. Only
auxiliary verb changes for person and number. The main verb has the form of
infinitive, i.e. remains unchanged.
2. The Prepositional Case (of an object of thought or speech). In order to
point out an object (theme, content) of a thought or a conversation, a question ?
? should be asked, and a noun indicating a person or a subject in question
should be used in the prepositional case followed by the preposition o ( if a word
begins with a vowel).
3. The Prepositional Case for expression of time. If in an answer to the
question a week is named, a preposition should be used. The word
is used in the prepositional case.
If in an answer to the question a month, a year or a century are named, a
preposition with the corresponding word in the prepositional case should be used.

9. LESSON 9
GENERAL NOTION ABOUT THE VERB ASPECTS. USE OF THE
IMPERFECTIVE AND PERFECTIVE VERBS. INFINITIVE
CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE WORDS AND
1. . Read the dialogues.
) , ? .
: , , .
99

, .
?
, . . .
) , ?
, .
. . .
?
, .
2. , . Read, analyze.
.
3. .
. Read the text. Pay attention to the meanings of the verbs
.
. , ,
. : ,
, .
.
, . .
. , .
4. . Learn the table.




?
?

100

-- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- - -- --- --- --- --- - -- -
- -- --

5.
. Pay attention to the formation of the past tense of the
next verbs.

, ,
, ,
.

6. . Analyze the table.


)
?
?


101

?

30

(, ,
,
)?






1-4


5-20





2-4


5-20
7. , ,
. . Ask how long the students has been writing the exercises, learning the
words and etc.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5. . 6.
. 7. . 8. . 9.
. 10. . 11. . 12.
. 13. . 14. .
8. . Insert the words according to the
sense.
1. . 2. . 3. 4.
. 5. . 6. . 7. . 8.
. 9. . 10. . 11.
. 12. 13.
9. , . Ask your
friend how long he has been doing that work.
: , ?
, .
?
.
.
.
10. . Complete the sentences.
1. . 2.
. 3. , .
4. . 5.
102

. 6. .
7. . 8.
.
11. , -. Tell why you arent doing
anything.
: , ?
.
1. ? 2. ?
3. ? 4.
? 5. ? 6.
? 7. ? 8.
?
12. .
. Compose the dialogues according to the example. Use the
imperfective and perfective verbs.
: , ?
. .
.
: , ,
, ,
, ,
.
13. . Insert the words according to the
sense.
1. ... 2. 3.
4. 5.
6. .

14 ) ,
. ? Read the text and tell what
foreign students did yesterday. What have they done and what have they not
done?

103

. ,
.
. , , , ,
. .
. ,
. ,
:
, ,
4 . 21 ,
. , :
.
.
. , ,
, .
. .
, ,
, , , .
. , ,
, .
: , ?, :
.
, .
, , ,
. , : , ,
? , . .
) busy:
: , ,
: , ,
: , ,
) , . Tell what
you and your friends did this weekend.
.
.
15. . Analyze the table.


104

?
,

,

,
,

16. . Pay attention.


(, ,

, )?


17. , -,
. Ask how often your friends did something when studying at school.
: , ?
. .
: , ,
, .
18. , - . Ask how
often your friends do something nowdays.
: , ?
. .
19. . Insert the words according to the
sense.
1. , 2.
, 3. , 4.
, 5.
, 6. ,

105

20. ) , .
Read the text and tell how Kumar learned English.
. .
. , , ,
, .
.
, -,
. ,
. .
-
. .
, ,
.

. . , ,
.
) , , , .Write
what you often, always, sometimes did in your native country.
,
,
21. , , ,
. Tell that you always did it, but didnt yesterday and tell why.
: , ,
.
: , ,
, , , .
22. , , . Tell that
yesterday you did the other thing than usually.
: , 24
.
: Use this table:
?
?

(,
)


106

(,
)











- ?
.
23. . Pay attention.

(, )
+

()

24. , - , . . Ask your


friend where you can buy something, you can watch something and so on.
: .
, , ?
. .
.





25. , . Tell your friend what you need
to do tomorrow
: , .
, .
.
.

107

26. . Open the brackets.


1. () . 2. ()
. 3. () . 4. ()
. 5. () . 6. ()
. 7. () . 8.
() . 9. ()
. 10. (). 11.
() . 12. ()
. 13. () .
27. ) . Read the text.
?

. , ,
, , ,
. , .
,
, , ,
. ,
, . ,
, . ,
, ,
. , ,
, : .
, .
. :
, , ,
.
? ? . ?
:
, , . ,
, , ,
, . ,
, .
, ,
.

108

, , .
,
, .
, , ,
, , .
, , , ,
. ,
, , , .
, : , , , ,
. , ,
. .
) , ?
? Tell why teacher was unpleased. Is your
teacher always pleased with you?

. WORK AT HOME
1. . .
Complete the sentences. Use the appropriate verbs and words.
: 30 .
1. 2. 3.
4. 5. 6

2. , . Write that your have done it.


: .
.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. .

3. . .
Answer the questions. Use the imperfective verbs.
: ? ,
.

109

1. ? 2.
? 3. ? 4.
? 5. ? 6.
?

4. . , .
Write answers to the questions. Use the words given below.
1. ? 2.
? 3. ? 4.
? 5. ? 6. ?
7. ? 8. ?
: , , , , , ,
.

5. . ,
, , , ,
..Write the sentences according to the example. Use the words often,
seldom, every evening, every Saturday, always, sometimes,
and etc.
: .
.
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5. . 6.
.

6. , . Write that they didnt do it.


: , ? , .
1. , ? 2. ? 3. ,
? 4. ? 5. ? 6.
? 7. ?

7. , , . Write that the


action took place, but without result.
: , ?
, .

110

1. ? 2. , ? 3. ,
? 4. , ? 5. ,
? 6. , ? 7. ,
?

8. .
. Write the exercises. Use the
imperfective or perfective verbs.
1. ( ). 2.
. ( ). 3. .
. 3 ( ). 4.
.
( ). 5. 5 . (
). 6. 5 . ( ). 7.
2 . 10 ( ).

9. . . Write the
answers. Use the model:

: . ?
.
1. . ? 2. .
? 3. . ?
4. . ? 5. .
. 6. . ? 7.
. ? 8. . ?

10. ) : Read the words and their


meanings.
countryman, compatriot
at once
nice
affable, friendly
reprimand

111

) . .Read
the words. Explain the meanings of the relative words.
, ,
, ,

) . , .
Read the combinations of the words. Explain how you can understand
them.
, , -,
? ?

) , (6)
(4). . Read the text; find
the words in the form of prepositional (6) and accusative (4) cases. Ask
the questions to them.

. ,
!
. , .
.
. . .
. , .
. .
. , , .
. .
, , , ,
. , .
-. ,
. , , -,
! . ,
. ?
?

) . Find
the imperfective and perfective verbs.
) . Retell the text.

112

11. . Memorize the proverb.


, , , .

(COMMENTARY)
1. Verb Aspects. The main peculiarity of the Russian verbs is that they have
aspects, namely, perfective () and imperfective
() ones. These verbs make aspectual pair. They have one
lexical meaning, name one and the same action, but at the same time the imperfective
verbs only name the action, not indicating its completion or result, whereas the
perfective verbs indicate that the action was completed, or that it had (in the past
tense) or will have (in the future tense) a result.
Imperfective verbs may denote an action which took place in the past, occurs in
present or will be held in future, therefore, they are used in the past, present and
future tenses (composite future).
Perfective verbs indicating the unity of action, its completion cant have the
present tense, thus they are used only in the past or future tenses (the simple future).
The Meaning of Verbal Aspects
The Imperfective Aspect.
1. Presents an action as a process, in its development, evolving in time.
.
2. Denotes habitual, repeated actions. .
3. States that the action took place. .
The Perfective Aspect.
1. Denotes the completion of an action, its result. .
2. Denotes a single specific action occurring at a specific moment.

2. The Construction + an Infinitive.
Impersonal sentences have no subject. The English counterparts of such
sentences must have a subject (it, one, you) or are passive constructions.

10. LESSON 10

113

USE OF THE PERFECTIVE VERBS IN FUTURE TENSE. FUTURE


SIMPLE AND FUTURE COMPOUND TENSE. ACCUSATIVE CASE OF
NOUNS DENOTING THE DIRECTION OF THE MOVEMENT. VERBS OF
MOTION , , , , , .
PREPOSITIONAL CASE OF NOUNS WITH THE PREPOSITION
DENOTING THE MEANS OF CONVEYANCE. USE OF THE
PREPOSITIONS , . VERBS ,
; ,
1. . . Read the dialogues.
Analyze the meanings of the verbs.
) , ?
: .
,
?
, .
, ?
, , .
) . ?
, . , . .
?
. , .
.
, .
) , !
!
?
. ?
.
.
. ?
. ?
. .
) , ? ( ?)
8 25 .
. 8 30 .
. 10 .
.
, .
114

2. . Learn the table.



( )






( )





3. )
. Analyze conjugation of the perfective verbs in the future tense.
, I
, I
, I
, I
, I
, I
, I
, I
, I

, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,

, I
, I
, I
, I
, I
, I
, I
, I
, I
, I
, I
, I
, I
, II
, II
, II
, II
, II
, II

, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,

115

, II
, II
, II
, II
, II
, II
, II
, II
, II
, I

, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, , , , ,

) . Compose the sentences


using the verbs.
4. . . Read
the verbs. Form the future tense.
, , , , , , ,
, , , , , , ,
, , , , , .
5. , , . Tell, that
you and your friends will do what they want.
: .
. , .
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5. .
6. .
6. , , . Tell that you
will do the same.
: .
. .
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5. . 6.
. 7. .

116

7. , , . Write, that the action


took place, but without result.
: , ?
, , .
1. ? 2. , ? 3. ,
? 4. , ? 5. ,
? 6. ?
8. . Write the sentences in the
future form.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7.
. 8. . 9. .
9. , . Tell what they will do
in these situations.
: . ?
.
. ?
. ?
. ?
. ?
. ?
- . ?
10. . Insert the verbs in the
form of correct aspect.
1. . , .
( ) 2. . ,
. ( ). 3. .
, . ( ). 4.
. , ( ). 5.
. , . ( ).
6. , . (
). 7. . ,
117

. ( ). 8. .
, . ( ).
11. . . Read. Analyze.
,
.
12. . Insert the verbs in the
forms of the perfective or imperfective aspects in future.
1. . ,
. ( ). 2. .
, ( ). 3.
. ,
( ). 4.
. ,
( ). 5. . . .
, ( ). 6. ,
. , (
). 7. . ,
( ).
13. , . Read. Analyze.


VERB ASPECTS FOR EXPRESSION
OF THE SIMULTANEOUS AND CONSECUTIVE ACTIONS
(..)
(..)

(,
)

(simultaneous actions).

(..)
(..) .
(, )
:
,

(consecutive actions).

118

14. . : ) ,
; ) .
Read the sentences. Write: a) sentences which denote simultaneous actions;
b) sentences which denote consecutive actions;
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5.
. 6.
.

, .

15. ) . Learn the table.



(?) 1


(?) 4

()
()
()

) . Pay attention.
?




?





119

16. , . Answer the


questions. Use the words in brackets.
: ? ()
.
1. ? () 2. ? () 3.
? () 4. ?
() 5. ? () 6.
? () 7. ? () 8.
? (, )
17. , . Say where you are going and explain
why.
: . , ?
. - .
: 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6.
. 7. . 8. . 9. . 10. .
18. . Pay attention.
)
()
()
, ,

, ,

, ,
,



)
()
()
, ,
,
, ,

, ,
,


120

()


,



()


,


19. . Open the brackets.


1. (). 2. (). 3.
(). 4. (). 5. (). 6.
(). 7. ().
20. , . Ask your friend where he is going to.
: ?
.
21. , (,
). Tell where you will go tomorrow (after tomorrow, on Sunday).
: , ?
.
22. , (, ).
Tell where you went yesterday (day before yesterday, on Monday).
: , ?
.
?
, .
23. . Pay attention.
(?)
.
.
.

, (?)
.
.
.

24. /
. Use the model instead of model / .
: .
.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7.
. 8. .

121

25.
. Insert the verbs or in the form of past tense.
1. ?
, .
?
, , .
2. ?
, , , , .
?
, .
3. , ?
, .
?
.
26. . . Answer the
questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. ? (-) 2.
? () 3. ? () 4.
? () 5. ? () 6.
? () 7. ? () 8.
? () 9. ? () 10.
? () 11. ? () 12.
? () 13. ? () 14. ?
() 15. ? ( ) 16.
? ( ).
27. ,
. Read the text and answer where Anton Petrov and Valery
Kuznetsov want to go to on summer.
.
. ,
, . ,
.
.
. .
,
, . ,
.

122

, .
. , , .
, ,
, .
.
28. . Pay attention.

? ?

29. , ,
. You want to know what transport your friend used to come to the
theatre, museum .
: .
?
.
30. ) . Read the text.


. .
-. .
.
7 . , ,
. , , ,
. . ,
, . .
9 . ,
. ,
, -.

123

. , ,
. . , ,
, , , , , .
6
: , ,
.
9 .
. . 12
, ,
.
) . Answer the questions.
? ? ?
?
9 .
9 .
31. ) . Compare.

9 .

15 .

9 .
15

) . Learn the table.


/ +

32. . Write the verbs in the correct form.


) ,
1. . 2. 9 . 3.
? 4. 5 . 5.
8 30 . 6. 8 30 .

124

) ,
1. ? 2. . 3. 11 30
. 4. 9 . 5.
15 , 13 . 6.
.
) ,
1. , ? 2. ? 3.
, , ,
.

+ ..(4)
+ .. (2)

.
33. . . Write the
sentences. Insert the prepositions or .
1. 40 . 2. . 3.
? . 4. ,
. 5. , . 6.
. 7. . 8.
.

. WORK AT HOME
1. , . Write that they will do it
tomorrow.
1. , 2. ,
3. , 4.
, 5. , 6.
,

2. , , ,
. Write that they will do it tomorrow, after tomorrow,
next week.
125

1. .
2. . 3.
. 4.
. 5. .
6. .

3. . Write the
word in the correct form.
1. , ? . ?
. 2. , ? ,
. 3. , , ? ,
. 4. ?
.

4. . Write the
word in the correct form.
1. , ! , ?
, .
?
.
2 ?
, . ?
.

5. . Answer the questions according to


the model.
: ?
, . ( , .)
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4.
? 5. ? 6.
? 7. -? 8.
? 9. ?

6.
. Write the verbs or in the form of present.
126

1. , . 2.
. 3. . 4. ,
. 5.
, . 6. ,
.
7. . Use the verbs

instead of the verb .


: .
.
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5. ,
.

8. , / . Tell that
you will go to this place tomorrow.
: . .
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6.
. 7. . 8. .

9. . . Answer the
questions. Use the verbs in brackets.
1. ? ( ). 2.
? (). 3. ? ( ). 4.
? () 5. ?
( ) 6. ? ( ). 7.
? ( ) 8.
? ( ).

10. . . Answer the


questions. Use the words on the right.
1. ?

127

?
2. ?
?

3. ?
?
4. ?
?

5. ?
?

11. ) . Read the text.



.
, , , .
,
, .
, : 7 ,
, , , . 9 15
. 14 20
. , .
: , ,
, , , , . ,
.
,
, .
. ,
, .
, .
, , . :
, , ,
. , ,
.
.
. ,
. .
, . ,
, . ,
.

128

.
, .
, , . ,
. .
.
. .
. ,
.
,
. .
. , .
: , ,
, . ,
. ,
. . ,
.
. ?
, , ?

) . Compose the questions to the text.


12. . Read the text independently.

. ,
. , .
, .
:
. .
! . . ,
, , , .
, , ,
. ,
, , .
. ,
, :
, ,
.
.
? .
!
? .
, . , , .

129

. :
, , , . ,
.
.
- . ,
.
. .
:
? ?
?
, , .
. , . :
! . .
, .
, .

(COMMENTARY)
1. The use of the verb aspects in the future tense.
Perfective (CB) verbs indicating the unity of action, its completion cant have
the present tense, thus they are used only in the past or future tenses. Moreover, a
verb in the future tense has the same endings as the imperfective verb in the present
tense (the simple future).
To show an aim of performing a concrete single action in the future, you need to
use a perfective (CB) verb.
2. The accusative case (direction). Verbs of motion.
In order to ask about the place a motion or an action is directed at, question
? should be asked. In an answer to this question, as well as in an answer to the
question ?, the prepositions and are used. The noun determining the place
the action is directed at is used in the accusative case.
There is a special group of verbs in Russian, the so-called verbs of motion. Their
peculiarity is that one and the same mode of motion may be named by two verbs.
They are all imperfective. There are 14 pair 8 pair are most frequently used. To
define a group (a group or ) that must be used in the given situation,
we should, beak in mind how the motions is executed.
1) whether directions indicated or not;
2) whether the motion is in one direction or in the opposite directions.
Verbs of the group
1. A motion in one direction only (a movement in one, concrete direction, single
or repeated). Ex.: .
130

Verbs of the group


1. A motion there and back (single or repeated). Ex.: .
.
2. A motion taking place in various directions. Ex.: .
3. A motion as a property or skill. Ex.: , ,
.
In the present tense the verbs of the group are most frequently used when
the conversation is held at the moment of movement.
Ex.: ?
.
In the past tense the verbs of the group without prefixes, as a rule, are not
used independently. The action expressed by such a verb usually serves as a
background for another action or information.
Ex.: . 40 .
But:
.
.
In order to express desire or intention to go somewhere, prefix no- and a verb of
the group should be used.
Ex.: . .
.
Verbs , are of perfective aspect.
Note the use of the verbs of motion of the group in figurative meaning:
Ex.: (, ). . . .
.
Time moves in one direction only, therefore, the verbs of the group are
used.
Verbs of motion (without prefixes)
1

131

On foot

On any kind of transport

By air

By water

Faster movement on foot

Shifting of a static object with no transport involved

Shifting of an object using any kind of transport

Shifting of the moving object (living) with no transport involved

11. LESSON 11
VERBS OF MOTION OF THE GROUP / WITH THE
PREFIXES - - GENITIVE CASE OF NOUNS, PERSONAL
PRONOUNS, ADJECTIVES IN NEGATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS, IN
CONSTRUCTION AND FOR DENOTING THE PLACE
OF STARTING MOTION. GENITIVE CASE WITH THE WORDS
DENOTING AMOUNT OF OBJECTS AND MEASURE OF SUBSTANCE
1. . Read the dialogues.
) , ! ?
, . .
, ?
. ,
2 .
, .
) ?
.
?
. .

132

) , , ?
. , .
- ?
.
.
) , ?
.
, , ?
.
, .
, .
) , , ! ?
, . . ?
. .
) ?
, , .
) , , ?
, .
.
) ?
, .
?
.
) , , ?
.
, , . ?
.
2. . Learn the table.


: ,


: , ,
,


.

.

133

.
, .
,

,
.
2
,
.

3. .
. Read the sentences. Define the tense and the meaning of
the verbs .
1. , . , .
2. .
3. .
.
4. . 8
.
5. . . .
4. . ,
. Write the sentences. Write the verbs ,
in the correct form.
: ?
, . , .
1. . ,
. 2. , .
. 3. . ,
. 4. ? , 10
.
5. . , ,
, . Read the dialogues. Write the verbs
, , , in the correct form.
1. , ?
. . , .
, .
2. , ?
. , .
, , .

134

3. , .
.
?
.
4. ?
, .
, ?
, .

6. . Analyze the text.
!
! .
, !
, , ?
, . , .
?
. , 8 9 .
. . .
7. . Pay attention.
? ?
( 1)
.
.
.

? ?
( 2)

.
.
.

8. . Learn the table.


(2 )
( )


(? ?)


(? ?)

135

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-

! .. , , , , , ,
.. -, .. -
(, , , , , , )/
!

9. . Give the negative answer.


: ?
, .
1. ? 2. ? 3. ? 4.
? 5. ? 6. ? 7.
? 8. ? 9. ? 10.
?
10. . Analyze the models.
6
S1
,
O6
O2
,
11. . Give the negative answer.
: ?
, .
1. ? 2. 35 ? 3.
? 4. ? 5. ?
6. ? 7. ? 8.
?
136

12. . Pay attention.


.
.
.

.
.

.

.
.
.

.
.

.

.
.

.

.
.

.

13. . .
Read the sentences. Write them in the form of the Past Tense.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5. . 6.
. 7. . 8. .
14. . .
Read the sentences. Write them in the form of the Future Tense.
1. .2. . 3.
. 4. . 5. . 6.
. 7. .
15. . Give the negative answer.
: ?
, .
1. ? 2.
? 3. ? 4. ? 5.
? 6. ? 7.
? 8. ? 9. ?
?
137

, .
16. . Learn the table.

(? ?)
(? ?)

, ,
,

(? ?)
(? ?)

17. . Open the brackets.


1. . () . 2.
. () . 3. ()
. . 4. () ? 5.
. () . 6. ,
. () . 7. . ()
.
18. . Answer the questions according to the
model.
: ?
, .
?
, .
, ?
, . .
1. ? 2. ? 3. ? 4.
? 5. ? 6. ? 7.
?
.
19. . Analyze the models.

S S
/
O

O
138

/
20. .
. Read the text. Analyze meanings of the
new words and forms of the Genitive case with the preposition .
, ?
.
?
, . ?
, . .
?
, . .
21. . Pay attention.
, ,
, ,
?
, , ,
, ,
22. , , ,
, , , .. Ask your friends, whether they have
an elder brother, a younger brother, an elder sister, a younger sister, a father, a
mother, etc.
O: ?
.
?
.
?
.
23. , , , , ,
, . Ask your friends, whether they have a book, a notebook, a
newspaper, a dictionary, etc.
: , - ?
.
?
-, .
24. . Open the brackets.
: () . .

139

1. () . 2. ( ) . 3. ( )
. 4. () . 5. ( )
. 6. ( ) .
25. . Open the brackets.
1. () . 2. () - ? 3. ()
. 4. () . 5. () . 6. ()
? 7. () .
26. . Pay attention.


1 , ?
?

2
, , ?
? -, -
? -, -
?

-, -

27. . . Open the


brackets. Use the words in the correct form.
1. ( ). 2. (
). 3. ( ). 4. (
). 5. ( ). 6. (
). 7. ( ). 8.
( ). 9. ( ).
?
.
28. ) .
. Read the text. Analyze the meaning of the Genitive case with the
preposition .
, !
, !
?
.
?

?
, .

140

) . Answer the questions.


1. ?
2. ?
29. . Pay attention.
?

, ,
, , ,
, ,

30. . Pay attention.


?
?
( 4) ( 2)








31. , / ? Ask your friend where he
returned from.
: , ?
.
: , , , , ,

32. , (, , ) . Write
where these people are coming (returned) from.
: (). .
1. (). 2.
(). 3. (). 4. (). 5.
(). 6.
(). 7. (). 8.
().
33. . Answer the questions.
: . ?
.
1. . ? 2.
. ? 3. .
? 4. . ? 5.
141

. ? 6. .
? 7. .
? 8. . ? 9.
. ? 10.
. ?
34. , , , . Write where
these people returned from.
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5. . 6.
. 7. .
35. . Ask the questions to the italicized
words.
1. . . . 2.
. . . 3.
. . .
36. . . Answer the
questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. () ? ?
?
2. () ? ?
?
3. () ? ?
?
4. () ? ? ?
5. () ? ?
?
6. () ? ?
?
37. . Pay attention.
: . ?
. ?
. ?
. ?
38. . Answer the questions.

142

1. ? ? ( ). 2.
? ? ( ). 3.
? ? ( ). 4.
? ? ( ). 5.
? ? ( ). 6. ?
? ( ). 7.
? ? ( ).
39. ,
. Read the text and answer where Dmitriy Antonovs friends come
from every year.
.
.
, . .
. -.
. . .
.
,
. , ,
-, . .
, .
, . ,
. , ,
, . ,
, , .
. ,
, . , .
.
40. . Put the questions to the
italicized words.
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5. . 6.
. 7. . 8.
. 9. . 10.
. 11. . 12.
.
?
, .

143

41. . Learn the table.



( )

, ,


(? ?)
(? ?)

-
42.
. Pay attention
to the formation of feminine and neuter nouns in Genitive plural case.

(..)
(..)

(..)
(..)

43.
. Pay attention
to the formation of masculine and neuter nouns in Genitive plural case.

(..)


(..)

144


(..)

44. . Give the negative answer to the


question.
: ?
, .
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5. ? 6.
? 7. ? 8. ? 9.
? 10. ? 11. ? 12.
? 13. ? 14.
? 15. ? 16.
? 17. ?
45. ) ,
. Read the text and answer why there was nothing in the
Munirs and Ashoks refrigerator.
. .
, .
456.
. .
, , :
, , , .
? .
, . , . ,
, , , , , , . .
? . ?
, . :
. .
? . .
, , , .
.
! 10 .
. 24 .
. . ,
.
, .

145

) . Answer the questions.


1. ? 2. ? 3. ?
4. ? 5. , ? 6.
? 7. ? 8.
?
) , .
. What do you think about the events which took place then? Write the
continuation of this story.
?
.
. + .. (2)
46. .
. Read the sentences. Analyze the use of Genitive case.
?
.
?
.
?
.
?
.
47. . . Answer the questions.
Use the words in brackets.
: ? ( )
.
1. ? ( ). 2. ? (
). 3. ? ( ). 4. ? ( ).
5. ? ( ). 6. ? (
). 7. ? ( ). 8. ? ( ).
?
.
48. . Ask the questions to the italicized
words.
: . ?

146

1. . 2.
.3. . 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7. .
49. . . Write the
sentences. Use the words in brackets.
1. (). 2. (
). 3. ( ). 4. -
( ). 5. ().
.
50. . Pay attention.

51. . Open the brackets.

1. (). 2.
(). 3. ( ). 4. .
(). 5. (). 6.
(, , ).
( ).
52. , ? ? Ask them
how many they have? How many they have bought?
: . ?
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5. .
6. . 7. .
53. . Answer the questions according to the
example.
: ?
, .
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5. ?
147

54. , , . Say that you have bought


the same thing as your friend.
: -.
-.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5. . 6.
.
420 .
55. ) . )
. ) , ,
, . A) Read the text. B) Analyze the use of Genitive case after
numerals. C) Answer how many theatres, museums, libraries there are in
Moscow.
, .
30 . (
). 420 , 4
. .
40 . 65 .
..
.
56. . Pay attention.
1 ()
2 ()
3-4
5-20

1 ()
2 ()
3-4
5-20

1 ()
2 ()
3-4
5-20

! Memorize!
2, 3, 4 + . .
5 20 + ..
57. . Memorize the exceptions.
1
2 4

1
2 4
148

1
2 4

5 20

?

5 20
()
!

5 20
,

58. . Open the brackets.


1. 124 (). 2. 218 (). 3. 335
(). 4. 10 (). 5. 12 (). 6.
3 () 5 (). 7. 131 ().
59. , . Ask, how much these things are.
: .
?
1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. .
6. . 7. . 8. . 9. .
60. . Pay attention.
1 ( )
2 4
5 20

1 ( )
2 4
5 20

61. , . Tell, how much these things are.


: ? (51)
.
1. ? (4) 2. ? (5) 3.
? (82) 4. ? (5). 5.
? (55) 6. ? (350).
?
.
62. . Analyze these combinations of
words.







149

63. . Compose the combinations of


words according to this example.
: , , .
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,

, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,

64. . Open the brackets.


1. () (). 2.
(),
() (). 3. ()
(). 4. () . 5.
() ().
65. ) . Read the text.

, 6 ,
, : , , , .
.
,
.
, : , ,
, . . , , .
, , , , .
, , .
. , , , , .
, , , ,
, . , , , , ,
, . , ,
, .
, ,
, .
, , , , ,
, , , ,
.
150

, :
, , ? .
, .
, . ,
.
.
, , .
) . .
Read the text. Put the points of plan correctly.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.
.
.
.
.

) . Answer the questions.


1. ? 2.
? 3. ? 4. ,
?
, ?
5- .
, ?
1- () .
?
20- 2007 .
66.
. Pay attention to the use of the prepositional and
Genitive cases in the meaning of time.

) -) -) .. (2)

- + .. (6)
.. (2)

+ .. (6)
. . (2)
.. (2)

2007- .
2007- .
1 ()
2007- .

67. . Complete the sentences.


) , ?
151

(26, ).
) , !
.
?
(10, , 1989 ).
) , ?
(20, ).
.
?
(20 22, ).
) , ?
(3, ).
) , , ?
(25, ).
68. . Read the sentences.
1. 2007 . 2.
1941 . . 3.
1945 . 4.
1961. 5. 1935 .
69. . . Read the sentences.
Answer the questions.
) . .
?
) , .
?
) 1999 . .
?
) .
. ?
) . .
.
?

152

70. ) . Read the text.



. 13.05.59 . 1.09.66 .
1976 . . 1977 .
. .
1982 . 1982 . . 1985 .
. 15.03.86 .
) . Answer the questions.
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5.
? 6. ? 7.
? 8. ? 9.
? 10. ? 11.
?

. WORK AT HOME
1. : (),
(), , . Use the verbs of motion:
(), (), , .
) ?
, . .
) ?
. 9 . .
) ?
. .
) ?
, . .
5 . .

2. : (),
(), , . Use the verbs of motion:
(), (), , .
) ?
, .
153

?
10 .
) ?
, .
) ?
, 9 . .
) ?
, .
) ?
, . .

3. . Write the sentences according


to the model.
) : ?
, .
1. ? 2. ? 3. ? 4.
? 5. ? 6. ? 7. ?
) : ?
, .
1. ? 2. ?
3. , , ? 4.
? 5. ? 6.
?

4. . Put the questions to the


italicized words.
: . ?
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. .

5. . Answer the questions according to


the model.

154

: ?
, .
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5. ? 6.
? 7. ?

6. . . Answer the
questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. ? (, ). 2. ? (). 3. ? (,
). 4. ? (). 5. ?
(). 6. ? ().

7. .
. Write the questions and answer them. Use the words in the
brackets.
1. ()? 2. ()? 3.
()? 4. ()? 5. ()? 6.
()? 7. ()? 8. ( )?

8. . . Answer the
questions. Use the words in the brackets.
1. ? (). 2. ? (). 3.
? (). 4. ? (). 5.
? ().

9. .
. : / .
Answer the questions. Put the words in brackets in the Genitive form. Use
the model: / .
1. () ? 2. () ? 3. () ? 4.
() ? 5. () ? 6. () ? 7. ()
? 8. () ?

10. . Answer the questions


negatively.
155

: ?
.
1. ? 2. - ? 3.
? 4. ? 5.
? 6. ? 7.
? 8. ?

11. . Answer the questions


negatively.
1. ? 2.
? 3. ? 4.
? 5. ? 6.
? 7. ?

12. . Write the sentences according


to the model.
: . .
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7. .

13. . . Answer the


questions. Use the words on the right.
1. ?
?
?

2. ?
?
?

3. ?
?
?

4. ?
?
?

156

5. ?
?
?

14. ? What questions do


the italicized words answer?
: . ?
. ?
1. . . 2.
. . 3. .
. 4. .
. 5. .
.

15. , , . Answer
the questions using the words given on the right.
: ?

.
1. ?

2. ?

3. ?

4. ?

5. ?

6. ?

16. . Answer the questions


negatively.
: ? .
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4.
? 5. ? 6.
? 7. ? 8.
?

157

17. , , . Answer
the questions using the words given on the right.
: ?
.

1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?
8. ?

18. , , . Answer
the questions using the words given on the right.
: ?
.
1. ?
2. ?
3. ?
4. ?
5. ?
6. ?
7. ?

19. , . Answer the


questions using the words given in brackets.
1. ? ( ) 2.
? ( ) 3.
? ( ) 5. ? (
) 6. ? ( ) 7.
? ( ) 8.
? ( , ).

20. . : ? ? ? Open
the brackets. Ask the questions: ? ? ?
1. (). 2. () 3.
(). 4. (). 5.
158

(). 6. (). 7.
().

21. . Open the brackets.


1. ( ). 2.
(, ). 3. ( ). 4.
(, , ). 5.
(, , ). 6.
( ).7. (). 8.
(, , , ) 9.
(). 10. ().

22. . , :
, , . Open the brackets. Answer the questions using
the words: , , .
1. ( ) ? 2. (
) ? 3. ( )
? 4. ( ) ? 5.
( ) ? 6. ( ) ?

23. . Open the brackets.


1. (10, ). 2.
(3, ). 3. (2, ). 4.
(5, ). 5. (22, ). 6. (3, ,
). 7. 2 (, ). 8. (2, ,
).

24. . Answer the questions according


to the model.
: ? (3)
, .
1. ? (4) 2. ? (2) 3.
? (2) 4. ? (2) 5.
? ( 3) 6. ? (10) 7.
4 ? (6) 8. 3 ? (6) 9. ? (5) 10.
5 ? (3) 11. 5 ? (4).

25. ) . Read the text.


159


. .
: , , .
, , . .
, .
, , -.
. - .
, .
. .
. .
5 . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
. , .
.
. .
, .
, . .
.
.
. . ,
.
,
.
. , .
. ,
, .
.
, :
! , !

) . Ask the questions to the


italicized words.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
.

160

)
. Write the pronouns instead of the italicized words.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
, .

). . Read the
text again and answer the questions.
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5. ? 6.
? 7. ? 8.
? 9. ? 10. ? 11.
? 12. ? 13.
? 14. ? 15. ? 16.
, ?

) . Tell about your friends


family.
26. ) . Read independently.

.
, : .
. . ,
,
.
.
, ,
.
? .
! , , , !
, . .
,
. , .
, .
.
:
. . .
?
161

? ? ? ! !
. .
, .
. , .
, . , .
! . .

) ?
. How do you understand the
following proverbs and sayings? Find equivalents in your own language.
; ; ;
; ; , .

(COMMENTARY)
The Genitive Case.
1. If we state that something or somebody is in a certain place, the construction
() is used. Ex.: .
An impersonal construction ()? is used to negate the presence
of anything or anybody in any place. A noun or a pronoun determining what is being
negated is used in the genitive case. Ex.: .
2. A special construction ()? exists in the Russian language
to indicate possession. A noun or a pronoun proceeded by the preposition denotes a
person or a subject in possession of something, and is always used in the genitive
case.
In order to find out about possession of something, a question ?
should be asked.
The verb is used only in the present tense. In the past and future tenses the
same construction with the verb is used in the past and the future tenses
respectively.
The verb is used when the presence of something or somebody is found out
or established.
The verb is never used in case a quality, a quantity, a reason, a state, an
action or an event are emphasized.
The construction ()? is used to denote that any person or
any subject doesnt have something. A noun or a pronoun determining what is being
negated is used in the genitive case.

162

The sentence with the words , , is impersonal (a noun or a


pronoun in the nominative case is missing), thus the question ? or ? should
not be asked.
3. In order to name the initial point of motion, a question ? should be
asked. In answer to this question prepositions and are used with the noun in the
genitive case. The choice of a preposition depends on the place a person or a subject
was before the motion began. In this case the verbs of motion with the prefix (, ) are used. Ex.: ?
.
4. To name an owner of an object, to determine him with another object, to show
the characteristic feature of a person, or an object, you need to use the genitive case
without preposition.
A noun in genitive case in this case answers the questions ? ? ?
? (?). Ex.: , .
If a person in whose possession the subjects, is denoted, or ? ?
? ? (? ?). Ex.: , ,
.
In the combination noun + noun the second word is usually used in the
genitive case.
The genitive case is used after several words to show the object of achievement,
wish, dismission ( , , , ).
If after verbs , , , , there is a concrete
noun, then the accusative case is used ( , ,
, ).
If after those verbs there is an abstract noun, then the genitive case is used
( , , )
5. The numeral (, ), as well as compound numerals ending in 1
agree with a noun in gender, number and case.
Numeral belongs to the masculine and neuter nouns, whereas numeral
belongs to the feminine nouns. Other numerals dont change for genders.
After the numerals 2, 3, 4, as well as after compound numerals ending in 2, 3, 4,
the nouns are used in the genitive case, singular.
After the numerals 5, 6 20, 30, 100 the nouns are used in the genitive case,
plural.
6. In an answer to the question ? all parts of the date, i.e. the date itself,
month and year are used in the genitive case. In the compound ordinal numerals it is
the last word only that is changed. For example:
.
In an answer to the question ? the numeral denoting the exact date is used
without preposition.
163

12. LESSON 12
INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE WORD .
DATIVE CASE OF NOUNS (SINGULAR AND PLURAL) DENOTING THE
RECIPIENT. DATIVE CASE OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND OF
ADJECTIVES. DATIVE CASE OF NOUNS DENOTING THE AGE, IN
IMPERSONAL SENTENCES, WITH PREPOSITION
1. . Read the dialogues.
) , !
, !
? .
?
,
. .
) ?
. .
?
. .
.
) , , . ,
.
, .
) , ? .
.
! ?
, , 35 -37 .
) , ? .
, , .
.
, . , .
, .
) ?
, .
?
164

, .
.
) . .
. .
: ?
.
2. . Pay attention.
( , ) .
( , ) .
( , ) .
3. . Insert the word
in necessary form.
1. . 2.
-. 3. . 4.
. . 5. . 6.
. 7. . 8.
. 9. , .
.
4. ? What should these students do?
: .
.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7.
. 8. -.
5. . Define the meanings of the new words.
) (?)
. .
, I


165

) / , I
. . , .
, I




,
) , II
( , , ). , .
, II
(, )

) / , I (?)
. .
) / , II (? ?)
.
6. . Read the text.

. , ,
, .
, .
. .
:
, , - ?
. 15 .
, , .
166

?
.
?
.
?
, 112.
17. .
.
15 30 .
.
. . ?
.
?
.
. ,

.
. . .
7. . Insert the
verbs .
1. , 2. ? 3.
. 4. ? . 5.
? 6. , . 7.
, 8. ?
8. . Compose the dialogues according
to the topics.
. .
. .
. .
.

.

.
?
? .
167

9. . Learn the table.




(? ?)


(? ?)

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-

!
?

?
168

,
,
,
10. . Pay attention.
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
?
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

:
+
+
+
+ . + .
+ . + . .

169

.. -, -
.. -, -
.. -, -

11. . Ask the questions.


: .
?
1. , . 2.
. 3. , . 4.
. 5. ,
. 6. . 7.

. 8. .
12. . . Answer the
questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. ? () 2.
? () 3. ? ()
4. ? () 5.
? ( ) 6. ? () 7.
? ( ) 8.
( )? 9. ? ()
10. , ? ( ) 11.
? () 12.
? () 13. ? () 14.
? ()
13. , . Insert
the appropriate forms of the words given in brackets.
1. () . 2. ()
. 3. () 4. , ()
. 5. (). 6.
(). 7. ( ) . 8.
()? 9. (). 10.
() . 11. ()
. 12. ().
14. , . Insert
the appropriate forms of the words given in brackets.
: (, )
.

170

1. (, ). 2. (, ). 3.
(, ). 4. (, ). 5.
(, ). 6. (,
). 7. (, ).
15. , . Insert
the appropriate forms of the words given in brackets.
1. (, ). 2. ( ,
). 3. () ( ). 4.
( , ). 5. ( ,
). 6. ( , ).
( ).
16. . Complete the sentences.
1. (? ?). 2. (? ?) 3.
(? ?) 4. (? ?) 5.
(? ?) 6. (? ?) 7.
(? ?) 8. (? ?). 9. (?
?) 10. (? ?)
17. . (). Answer the questions. Give
him / her a piece of advice.
: .
.
1. . 2. .
3. . 4.
.
17. .
/ . Look at the picture of an envelope with a
stamp. Write your parents / friends address according to the model.

171

.__________
-,. , .13, 7

190121

, . , . 34, . 98
____________________________

295234

295234

.
.
19. . . Read the text. Analyze
the new words.
.
.
.
?

? (..)
? (..)
?
?
.

.



.
20. . Write the verb
in the appropriate form.

172

1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5. .
5. . .
.
21. .
.Complete the sentences. Use the verb in
the form of past tense.
1. . 2.
. ? 3. . ?
4. . 5.
.
22. , . Write that these
people liked these things.
: . .
1. . 2. .. .
3. . 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7.
.
23. , , , . Ask
what films, translations, books your friends like.
: ?
.
24. . Read the joke.
:
, , , ,
.
? .
,
, .
.
25. .
. Read the dialogue. Analyze the new meaning of Dative case.

173

, , ?
24 .
?
19 .
?
21 .
26. . Pay attention.
1
21

2 4
22 24

5 20
25 30

27. , , . Insert the words , , .


19 26 56 31 24
32 51
28. ) . Read the text.

, ,
.
. . 35 .
, .
33 . .
, , .
. 31 . ,
.
, , .
. .
.
. : , .
) . Answer the questions.
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5.
, ?
) . Tell about your friends.
. .

174

29. . Pay attention.

.
.
.
-.
.
.
.
.
?


?
?

30. . Insert adjectives or


adverbs.
1. . (,
). 2. . (, ).
3. . (,
). 4. (, ). 5.
. (, ). 6.
! (, ) 7.
. (, ). 8. .
. (, ).
( ?) ?
.

?
.

( ?) ( ?) ?
?
(..) (..)
(..)
(..)

( ?)
?
(..)
(..).

31. ) . ) . Read the text. Retell it.

175


.
. 1000 . .

, ,
.
: , .
, .
?
? .
, .
, . , .
.
, , ,
. , .
, . ,
: , , ,
. , ?
: ? .
. , - . ,
.
! ,
.
, , ,
?
) ,
. Find the nouns, pronouns in the form of Dative case.
32. ) . Read the text.

.
. .
.
. .
. , ,
.. .
. , ,
, .
.. , .
, .
176

, .
. .
. ,
.
,
. . ,
. , 1777
, .
. ,
. ,
.
. ,
. ,
, .
. , .
. 100 .
, . .
. .
) . Compose the
plan of the text and retell the text according to the plan.

. WORK AT HOME
1. (, , )
.
. Insert the word
(, , ) in the appropriate form. Use the verb
in the past and future tense in the appropriate form.
1. ?
, . 2.
? . 3.
? . 4. ?
, . 5.
? . 6. ? ,
.

177

2. (, , )
. Insert the word (, ,
) in the appropriate form.
1. -. 2. , . 3.
. 4.
. 5.
. 6. ,
. 7. , . 8.
. 9. 11 .

3. . Open the brackets.


1. ().2. ( ).
3. (). 4. () . 5.
(). 6.
() . 7. () .

4. . Answer the questions.


1. ? 2.
? 3. ? 4.
? 5. ?

5. . Open the
brackets and change the form of pronouns.
1. () . 2. () . 3.
() . 4. () . 5.
() . 6. ()
. 7. () - .

6. . Write the sentences according


to the model.
: .
, , .
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5. ,
. 6. . 7. .

178

7. . Answer the questions.


1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5.
? 6. ?

8. . Complete the sentences.


1. 19 2. 18 3. 21 4. 55 ,
4 5. 38 6. 7. 16

9. . Write the
sentences with the opposite meaning.
: . .
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5. . 6.
. 7. . 8.
. 9. . 10. . 11.
. 12. . 13.
.

10. . Open the brackets.


( , ). 2.
( ) 3. ( ). 4.
( ) . 5.
( ). 6. ( )
. 7. ( ) . 8.
( ).

11. ) . . Read the text. How


many parts this text has?

. 20 . .
. .
. ,
, .
. . , ,
179

. ,
.
. ,
. .
. . :
?. , .
.
38,5. : . .
, , .
, , ,
. ,
.
.
.
.
, . ,
. .
, ,
. .
.
. , ,
. . ,
,
.

) . Answer the questions.


1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5. ? 6.
? 7. ? 8.
? 9. ?

) Tell how you or your friend were ill.


(NTARY)
1. The Dative Case. In order to name an object or a person to whom information
or an action or a subject is addressed, the question / should be posed and
a noun should be used in the dative case.
A noun in the dative case may be an addressee of not only speech or concrete
action, but of feeling, state or perception.
180

Expressing a good or a bad attitude towards somebody or something a verb


or and a pronoun or a noun in the dative case should be
used.
In order to express necessity motivated by a subjects personal needs or to stress
the necessity of a certain action, the impersonal construction with the word
/ is used. A logical subject in this case is used in the dative.
The impersonal construction with the word is used to express a
possibility of performing an action, and of getting a permission, a possibility should
depend on the outer circumstances.
Verb means physical possibility of an action. Adverb means
permission for performing an action.
The impersonal construction with the word is used to express
prohibition.

13. LESSON 13
INSTRUMENTAL CASE OF NOUNS, PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES
DENOTING JOINT ACTION, DENOTING THE INSTRUMENT OF
ACTION, IN COMBINATION WITH THE PREPOSITION C, IN THE
CONSTRUCTIONS WITH VERBS , ,
1. . Read the dialogues.
) ?
.
?
. .
?
, , .
) .
.
. .
) ?
, .

181

?
. .
, . ?
.
. . , .
. !
) , ? ?
.
, . ?
. .
) , ?
, ?
.
?
.
. .
.
2. . Learn the table.


(? ?)

182


(? ?)

-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-

,
, , , , !

! Memorize!

183


,
,
,

.. - /-
.. - / -
.. - / -

3. . Pay attention.
/

?
/
/
/
/
/

4. . Ask again your friend.


: .
, ?
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5.
. 6. . 7.
.
5. . Open the brackets.
1. ( ). 2.
(). 3. (), ().
4. (). 5. (). 6.
(). 7. (). 8.
(). 9. ().
( ).
6. . . Answer the questions.
Use the words in brackets.
1. ? () 2.
? () 3. ?
184

( ) 4. ? ()
5. ? () 6.
? () 7. ? () 8.
? () 9. ? () 10.
? () 11. ?
() 12. ? (
).
7. . Insert the personal pronouns.
: . .
. .
1. . . 2. .
. 3. ? . 4.
. . 5. .
. 6. .
.7. . ?
8. -. . Read the joke. Retell it.
:
? , ,
.
, . ,
, .
.
9. , . Read the text and answer
what Kurt ate yesterday.
.
, , ,
. , , .
, ,
.
10. . Put the words in
brackets in the appropriate form.
: ().
.

185

1. (). 2. (). 3.
( ) (). 4.
()? 5. (). 6.
() (). 7. ().
11. . . Answer the
questions. Use the words in brackets.
1. ? () 2. ? (, ) 3.
? () 4. ? () 5.
? (, ) 6. ?
(, ) 7. ? ()
12. , . Ask your classmates what
kind of food they like.
: .
, ?
, . (, )
1. . 2. . 3. . 4.
. 5. . 6. . 7. . 8.
. 9. .
13. ) . Read the text.

.
. ? 500 , 35
, 5 , 2 1/3 ( ) .
. ,
, .
.
.
) , . Say what kind of food you like.
?
, .
. Pay attention.
186

14. . Do exercise according to the model.


: ?
, , .
1 ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5. ? 6.
? 7. ?
15. . Read the text.

. .
.
.
. , , , ,
, , , , .
,
. , . ,
. .
16. , . Tell
about your lunch in a canteen, describe the canteen.
17. : ,
, . Tell about your experience: when you went on a visit,
what you were doing there, what you were eating and drinking.
.
18. . Pay attention.

?
187

19. , . Answer the questions.


Use the words in brackets.
1. ? () 2. ? () 3.
? () 4. ? ()
5. ? () 6.
? () 7. ? ().
20. . Pay attention.


(..)
(..)
. (..)
(..)

21. . Do exercise according to the example.


: .
. .
1. . 2. .
3. . 4.
. 5.
.
22. . Do exercise according to the example.
: , ?
, .
1. , ? 2. ,
? 3. , ? 4.
, ? 5. ,
? 6. , ? 7. ,
?
23. . Do exercise according to the example.
: .
.
.

188

1. . 2.
. 3.
. 4. . 5.
.
24. . Pay attention.
?
?
?
25. , , . Insert the
verbs , , .
1. , . 2.
, .
3. . 4. ,
. 5. . 6.
, . 7.
.
26. . Answer the questions.
, :
;
;
;
;
;
;
;

.
! !
27. . Pay attention.

, ,
,

,
189

28. . Put the words in brackets in


the correct form.
1. (, ). 2.
( ), (). 3.
(). 4. (), (). 5.
().
29. . . Read the jokes. Retell them.
)
.
, , . ,
, , .
)
:
, ? ? ? ?
, , .
?
, .
)
, :
, ,
, ,
!
, , , !
30. .
. Vladimir Mayakovsky is the famous Russian
poet. Read the extract from his poem.

,

,
190

,
,
?

!..
,
,
,

,
,
,
.

.
, !
?
,
?..
,
,
,
,
!

31. ) . Read the text.



-. 7 9 ,
, 17 .
,
. :
. , .
?

. WORK AT HOME
1. . Change the sentences according
to the example.
: . .
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. 10 . 7.
. 8. .

2. . Complete the sentences.

191

1. (, , , ). 2.
(, , ). 3.
(, ). 4.
(, ).

3.
. Insert the endings of nouns in the appropriate form.
1. 2.
. 3.
-. 4. 5.
. 6.
7.
.

4.
. Insert the endings of nouns in the appropriate form.
1. 2.
? 3. , , 4.
5. 6.
,

5. . .
Complete the sentences. Use the words given after exercise.
1. 2. ,
3. 4. 5.
6. 7.
: , , , , , , .

6. . Insert the personal pronouns.


1. () . 2. () . 3.
() . 4. ().
5. () () 3 . 6. (). 7.
(). 8. () ?

7. , , . Insert the verbs


, , .
: .

192

.
1. . 2. . 3.
, . 4.
. 5. . 6. ? 7.
10 , . 8. ? 9.
? 10. 5 .

8. . Answer the questions.


, ?
( , , , ).

9. . Answer the questions.


1.
2.
3.
4.

, ?
, ?
, ?
,
?
5. ,
?
6. ,
?

10. . Answer the questions.


1. , ? 2.
, ? 3.
, ? 4.
, ?

11. . Write the story Our


Entertainments.
12. ) . Read the text.
?
, ,
. .
, , ,
193

. ,
. .
. .
. , ,
. , ,
; ,
?.
. ,
. .
. , ,
, , .
, .
. ,
. . .
. .
. ,
.
. ,
, , .
: ,

, . , ,
, .

) . Write about your future


profession.

(COMMENTARY)
1. In order to name a person with whom a joint action is performed, to express
this joint action or state, the question ? or ? should be asked, and the noun
answering this question ? or ?, should be used in the instrumental case.
In order to denote a subject of occupation or interest or an object of guidance, as
well as in some other verbal combinations the instrumental case is used (
, ).
In order to denote the instrument of action, the manner of action, the
instrumental case without preposition should be used ( ,
).
In order to qualify a person or a subject in the present tense, or to indicate a
group or a category to which a person or a subject belong, are the nominative case
194

should be used. The linking verb () as a rule is not used in the present
tense.
In order to render such qualification in the past or future tense, the
corresponding forms of the verb should be used. A noun, denoting a group r a
category to which a person or an object belong, is usually used in the instrumental
case after the verb .
To indicate a gradual transition from one state to another the verbs
, are used. ( . ).

14. LESSON I4
VERBAL FORMS (ASPECTS AND TENSES). DECLENSION OF NOUNS
AND PRONOUNS. MAIN MEANINGS OF CASES. COMPLEX SENTENCES
(REPETITION)
1. . . Read the table.
Remember the forms of the verb.

, ,
, ,
, ,

, ,
, ,
, ,



,





,


! !

! !

195

------

2. . Form the forms of the next verbs.


, , ,
, , , , ,
, , ,
.
3. , . Remember
how the verbs of motion are changed.
4. . Answer the questions according to the
model.
: ?
, , .
?
,

?
,

?
,

?
,

?
,

?
,

5. , . Say that they always do it.


: .
.
1. 7 . 2. .
3. . 4. . 5.
. 6.
, . 7. . 8.
. 9. 4 .
10. . 11.
. 12.
.
6., . Say that you want to do it also.
: .
.

196

1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5. . 6.
. 7.
. 8. 7 .
7. , . Write that you must do it.
: ?
, .
1. ? 2.
? 3. ? 4. ? 5.
? 6. ? 7.
? 8. ?
8. . Write the text in the Past Tense.
.
, , , .
, , . ,
, -.
. . ,
, , , .
, .
9. . Answer the questions according to the
example.
: ?
? .
1. ? 2.
? 3. ? 4.
? 5. ? 6.
?
10. . Answer the questions according to the
model.
: ?
, , .
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5. ? 6.

197

? 7. ? 8.
?
11. , . Write what these people will do?
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5. . 6. .
7. . 8. .
12. . Answer the questions according to the
model.
: ?
, , .
1. ? 2. ?
3. ? 4. ? 5.
? 6. ? 7.
? 8. ? 9.
? 10. ? 11.
? 12. ?
13. . Do the exercise according to the
model.
: .
: , , , .
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5.
. 6.
. 7. .
14. . Take part in the conversation
with your friends.
1. . , ,
.
2. . ?
3. , ,
. ?
198

4. , .
.
15. . Put the verbs in brackets
in the correct form.
() () .
() , ()
() . () (). () ,
() . (). (),
() () . ()
, () . ()
() .
16. . Put the verbs in brackets
in the correct form.
(), () .
(), () , () ,
() . () , 4 ()
. () ()
.
(), , , ()
.
17. ,
. Read the tables, remember the forms of the nouns which
you have learnt.

? ?

199

? ?

? ?

? ?

? ?

? ?

? ?

? ?

200


? ?

? ?

? ?

? ?
?

201

18. .
Write all the forms of the words in singular and plural.
, , , , , , ,
18. . Remember the meanings of the cases.

202

? ?

. .
.
.
.

?
?
?
?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
?
?

? ?
?
?
?

.
24 .
.
.
.
.

? ?
?
?

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

? ?
? ?

. .

.
.

?
.
?
.
?

20. . Compose the combinations of the
words with the verbs.
, , , , , , ,
, , , , , , , .

203

21. . Put the words in brackets in


the correct form.
1. () . 2. ()
. 3. () (). 4.
() . 5. () (). 6. ()
.7. ( ) . 8.
( ) . 9. (). 10. ()
. 11. ()
. 12. (). 13.
(). 14. (). 15.
().
22. , . Answer the questions. Use
the words in brackets.
1. () ? ?
? ? ?
2. () ? ?
? ?
? ?
3. () ? ?
? ? ?
?
4. () ? ? ?
? ?
5. () ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
?
23. , . Answer the questions. Use
the words in brackets.
1. () ? ?
?
2. () ? ?
?

204

3. () ? ?
?
4. () ? ?
?
5. () ? ?
?
6. () ? ?
?
24. , . Say where these people go
every morning.
: .
.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. .
25. , . Say where these people go
from every evening.
: .
.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
.
26. , . Say where these people work.
: .
.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6. . 7.
.
27. . Form the combinations of the words.
: , .
205

.
1. , . 2. , . 3. , . 4.
, . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , .
8. , . 9. , . 10. , . 11. ,
. 12. , .
28. , . Read the
table. Remember the forms of personal pronouns.

? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?

,
,

? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?

29. . Insert the personal


pronouns in the correct form.
. . 20 . .
. . .
. .
. .
. .
. .
30. . Insert the personal pronouns.
: . .
206

. .
1. ? . 2. .
. 3. . . 4.
. . 5. .
. 6. .
. 7. ?
31. . Open the brackets.
1. , , () . 2. ()? 3.
() . 4. () ? 5.
() . 6. ()? 7. () !
8. () . 9. , , () . 10.
() . 11. , () . 12.
().
32. , . Answer the
questions. Use the personal pronouns.
: ?
, .
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5.
? 6. ? 7. ? 8.
? 9. ? 10.
? 11. ? 12. ? 13.
? 14. ?
33. .
? Read the text with the dictionary. Why is the text named
?

. .
. . .
, , .
.
:
?
, .
?
207

. .
?
.
?
.
:
?
:
? ?
.
, .
.
. ,
. . ,
.
, :
?
.
?
.
,
. . .
. .
, .
. .
, , .
. . .
. ...
.
. !
34. ) . Read the words
and find their meanings in the dictionary.
, , , (), , , ,
, ,
) ,
. Read the text and tell why the text is named
.

( .. )

208

. ,
.
.
;
, .
: : ,
, .
, , .
, , .
: ,
, , .
, ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, .
) . Answer the questions.
?
? ?
? , ,
? , ? ,
, ?
?
, .
- , , .
, .
, .
, , .
, . , .

15
. .
,
, .
1. .
.
209

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

() ,

2. .
1. , 2. , 3. , 4. ,
5. , 6. , 7. , 8.
, 9. , 10. ,
. 11. , 12. , 13.
, 14. , 15. ,
16. ,
, .
, .
3. .
1. -, 2.
, 3. ,
4. -, 5. ,
6. , 7.
, 8. -,
9. , 10. ,

, .
4. , .

210

. .

,
.
.
,
.
.
.
,
.
.
. ,
.
.
5. .
1. , . . 2. ,
, . 3. ,
. 4. , . 5.
, . 6. ,
. 7. , .
6. .
: .
. ,
1. .
. 2. ? . 3.
. . 4.
. . 5.
? . .
, .
7.
, , .
1. . . 2.
. . 3. .
. 4. .
. 5. . . 6.
. . 7. . . 8.
. . 9. .
. 10. . . 11.
. . 12. .
. 13. .
.


1. . .
211

A. .
?
(..) ?
.
.

?
?
.
.

(..) ? = ?
, , .
, -, -
. .

. .
?
?

, -
.
?
, -, -, -
. .

. .
.
, , , , , , ,
.

. :
, ,

. :
) :
+ , +
, .
,
, , .
212

) , :
.
994 .

. :
1147 ( )

. ?
. . ,
?

. :
9 , 994 .
. 1147
.
. .
. ,
, , .
, , . .
, ,
.
. .
: , , .
.
. ?
, .
. .. ,
XX , , .
, , , , .
.
. , .
, , . 93
.
.
. , , ,
, .
.
, 76 800 .

213

..
. ,
, .
1250 .
. 30 , .
. .
. . 47
: , , , . ,
, . , .
.
.
, , , ,
.
, , , :
, , , .
. : , , .
.

2. .
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5.
? 6. ? 7.
? 8. ? 9.
? 10. ? 11.
? 12.
? 13. ? 14.
? 15. ?

3. .
.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .

4. , .
1. , ?
2. ?
214

3. ?
4. , ?
5. ?
6. , ?
7. ?
8. , ?

5. ) , .
:
, , , ,
, , ..
, , , .

) .
:
, 76 , 800 ,
, , ,
, , , , .

) .
:
, , , , , ,
, .

) , .
:
, , , , , , , .

6. . .
7. .
.
8. .
?

215

. .
?

9. .
, -, -, -
.
=
=/=
=/=

10. .
, ,

11. .
? (. 2)
.

12. . ,
?

: , .
, -, .
. . ,
, .
, .
. , , .
, , , .
.
- .. .
. , ,
, , . : ,

216

, , .
.
. ,
, . .
, , . 11 , 3 , 2
, 18 , , 2 .
, . !
, , .
! , , .
. . . !
. .
, .
. .
, . ,
. .

13. :
1. ? 2.
? 3. ? 4.
? 5. , ?
6. ? 7. ?

14. .
.
1. , , . 2.
.. . 3.
, . 4.
. 5. . 6.
.

15. . .
1. ? ? ?
? ?
?
2. ? ?
? ?

217

3. . ,
? ? ?
?
4. , ?
, .

16. , ( ),
.
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ,
, , , , ? 5. ,
, ? 6. ? 7.
?

16
,
, ,
.
.
1. , .
) .
?
, .
) .
?
, .
) .
?
, .
2. .
,

218


(, , ?)


(, , ?)


(, , ?)

(, , ?)

3. , , ,
, , , .
1. . . 2.
. . 3.
. ? 4. .
. 5. . . 6.
, . . 7.
! .. ? 8.
. , ?
4. .
1. . 2. .
3. . 4. . 5.
. 6. ? 7.
. 8. .

219

5. .
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5.
. 6. .
6. , (, ..).
: .
, ?
.
?
.
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
.
7. .
.
1. (, ). 2.
(). 3. (). 4.
(). 5. 205
(). 6. .
( ). 7.
(). 8. (). 9.
(). 10. (
).
8. , .
1. ( ). 2.
( ). 3. ( ). 4.
( ). 5. ( ). 6.
( ). 7. ( ). 8.
( ). 9.
( ).

9. . .

220

: , ?
: . .
: .
, .
10. .

---

.
,
.

.

.

11. .
1. 2.
. 3. 4.
. 5. . 6.
, .
12. .
. ?
. ?
. ?
. ?
, .
13. .
.


: ,
221

?
.
: ,
.
.

14. .
/

? (..4)

/
/
/

? (.. 3)

,
,
,
,
,
,

15. .
1. : ? 2. :
? 3. : ? 4.
: ? 5.
: ? 6. :
? 7. :
? 8. :
?
16. .
1. : . 2.
: . 3.
: . 4. :
. 5. :
. 6. : . 7.
: . 8. :
.
17. . .
:
: , ?

,
.
,
.

: .
1. : , ?
: .

2. : , ?
222

: , .
3. : , ?
: .


1. . .
. .
?

?
+ (2)

. = .
I .. = ;
, .
= ,
.
.. = , ;
=
=
=
, .

. .
II .. I ..






..
, ,

I ..

?
?


223

I .. ..





I .. I ..


I .. I ..


) 1. ,
: , , , .

2. ,
: , , .

3. ,
: , , , , , ,
, , .

4. ,
: , , , ,
, , .

. .
1. . 2.
. 3. - . 4.
. 5. . 6.
.

2. . ,
.. ?
..
.
224

1711 , ,
. . ,
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.
,
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.
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.
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. 1736 ,
.
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.
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.
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. , .
.
,
. 1755 ,

225

.
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,
.
. 15 .
,
. ,
.

.. .
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.

3. , .
1. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5.
? 6. ? 7.
? 8. ? 9.
? 10. ? 11.
? 12. ? 13.
, ? 14.
? 15. ? 16.
? 17. ? 18.
? 19. ? 20.
? 21. .. ?

4. .
.
1711
:
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,
,
,
.
.
.
.

226

5. .
1. , 2.
, 3.
, 4. ,
5. , 6.
, 7.
,

6. .
1. , .
2. .
3. ; ,
.
4. ?
5. ?
6. .. ?

7. . .
. .
8. ,
.
, , , ,
, , , .

9. .
1) ()
.
.
2) / /
/ /
/ .
. , ,
, . , ,
. , .
227

10. . ,
.

, -, 1834
.
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,
.
1850
.
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,
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.
,
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.
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.
.
.
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1907 , 1911
.. .
.

11. .
1. .. ? 2. ? 3.
? 4. ? 5.
? 6. ?
7. ? 8. .. ?

228

12. .

17
,
,
. .
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)
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.
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.
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.
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.
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(? ?)


(? ?)












229

(? ?)










3. , , , , , , ,
.
1. , ? ? 2.
? , . 3. .
. 4. . ? 5.
. . 6. .
, ? 7. ?
. 8. ? .
4. .
1. . 2. , , . 3.
. 4. . 5.
? 6. ? 7. . 8.
. 9. ? 10.
.
5. .
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4. . 5.
. 6. .
6. .
,



(? ?)










(? ?)








230


(? ?)










7. . .
1. ( ). 2. ( ). 3.
( ). 4. (
) 5. ( ). 6.
( )? 7. (
).
8. .
1. ?
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?
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.
2. ?
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.
.
3. ?
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.
?
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. .
4. ?
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.
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5. ?
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.
231

9. . .

10. .
.
1. . 2. . 3.
, . 4. . 5.
, . ? .6. ,
, .
.
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4. ,
. 5. ?
.
1. . 2. ?
. ? . 3. . 4.
. 5. ?
. 6. ? .
.
1. ? . 2. .
3. ? . . 4. ?
, .
.
232

1. ? , . 2.
, . 3. 4.
. 5. .
.
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. 5.
? 302. 6. .
.
1. . 2. . 3.
. 4. . 5.
. 6.
.
.
1. . 2.
. 3. . 4.
. -. 5.
, . 6.
.
11. .

( )

-, -, -

233


/
/
/
/
/
/
/

-, -, -, -, -

-, -, -

/
/
/ ..
,


:
)
)
)


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/
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/
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/
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12. , .

( .. )
,
, .
. ;
.

234

. ,
. ,
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. ,
. , .
, - , .
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, : .
13. .
,

, ,

, ,



, ,

, ,

, ,


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,

, , , ,


, ,

, ,
, ,

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14. , .
1. () , . 2.
() 7 . 3. (),
. 4. () 6 . 5.
() . 6. ,
(). 7. () . 8. ,
, ( )? 9.

235

, ( ). 10.
, ( ).
15. .
. 8 ,
5 .
. . . 15
. .
. ,
. , 6 .
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, .
.
. ,
10 .
16. , .
1. ( )
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) . 4. , .
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( ) , . 6.
( ) , . 7.
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8 . 8. . ( )
. 9. ( )
. 10. ( )
8 . 11. ( ) . 12.
( ) 100 .
17. .
1. ( ). 2.
( , ). 3.
( ). 4. (
). 5. ( ). 6.
( ). 7.
( ). 8. (
).

236

18. .
1. ( ). 2. (
). 3. ( ). 4. (
). 5. ( ). 6.
( ).7.
( ). 8. ( ) . 9.
( ). 10. ( )
. 11. (
). ( )
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