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NESMA HAVATEK

Project Name : Lifting Beam


10
DESIGN OF LIFTING LUG
INPUT
Thickness t= 0.9843 inches
Diameter of hole d= 1.85 inches
Dimension a a= 1.45 inches
Dimension e e= 1.9685 inches
Ultimate steel strength F
u
= 58 ksi
Yeild strength
F
y
=
36 ksi
Geometric Guidelines:
Rule 1: OK
Rule 2: OK
Evaluation based on Failure Mode:
Failure Mode 1:
This failure mode involves tension failure on both sides of the hole.
Ultimate tensile load P
u
=2.a.t.F
u
165.55926 kips
Factor of safety FS= 5
P
w1
=P
u
/FS P
w1
= 33.112 kips
Failure Mode 2:
diameter of pin d
pin
= 1.35 inches
P
w2
=0.9.F
y
.t.d
pin
/1.8 P
w2
= 23.918 kips
Failure Mode 3:
P
w3
=2x0.4.F
y
.e.t/1.8 P
w3
= 31.002 kips
Failure Mode 4:
P
w4
=1.67x0.67F
y
.e
2
.t/1.8d P
w4
= 46.137 kips
Failure Mode 5:
Rule 3: OK
There are some geometric guidelines to be considered as recommended in
Ref 1. They will be called Rule 1 and Rule 2.
Rule 3: The thickness of lug is greater than or equal to 0.5 inches
This Failure mode involves bearing failure at the pin/lifting lug interface. Often
the pin diameter is much less than the hole diameter. Let us assume a pin
diameter 1/2" less than the hole diameter. Using a bearing stress of 0.9F
y
,
and a "factor" of 1.8
This Failure mode involves shear failure as the pin tries to push out a block of
steel through the edge of the lug plate. The shear area is twice the cross-
sectional area beyond the hole for the pin.
This failure mode involves tensile failure as the pin tries to push out of a block
of steel through the edge of the lug plate. Assume a block of steel 0.8d in
length.
This failure mode involves the out-of-plane buckling failure of the lug. Per Ref.
1, this failure is prevented by ensuring a minimum thickness of lug of 0.5
inches and 0.25 times the hloe diameter d. These are refered to as Rule 3 and
Rule 4 here.
Rule 1: The dimension "a" must be greater than or equal to half the hole
diameter, d.
Rule 2: The dimension "e" must be greater than or equal to 0.67 times the
hole diameter, d
a
e
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NESMA HAVATEK
Project Name : Lifting Beam
10
Rule 4: OK
AISC Code Checks per Section D3.2:
Requirement 1:
A
1
=t.e 1.93759455 in2
A
2
=2.a.t 2.85447 in2
Compare A1 and A2 A
1
>=2/3xA
2
Reduced dimension 'a' a
eff
= 1.45 inches
Requirement 2:
4xt>a
a
eff
1.45 inches
Requirement 3:
d>1.25.a
Reduced dimension 'a' a
eff
= 1.45 inches
Tensile capacity based on these 3 requirements
Use minimum a
eff
a
eff
1.45 inches
P
w5
=2.aeffx0.45.Fy.t/1.8 P
w5
25.690 kips
Weld between Lug and Base Plate:
This requirement states that the diameter of the pin hole shall not be less than 1.25 times
distance from the edge of pin hole to the edge of plate 'a'.
OK
This is typically the weakest link in the overhead lifting lug, due to off-set loading. In general,
the lug is rarely directly over the item to be rigged. Conservatively, let us assume that the off-
set is a maximum of 45 degrees in the plane of the lug and 20 degress normal to the plane
of the lug. The additional loads due to off-set can be determined by statics to be as follows:
This requirement states that the distance transverse to the axis of a pin-connected plate
from the edge of the pin hole to the edge of the member, that is dimension 'a' shall not
exceed 4 times the thickness at the pin hole.
OK
Rule 4: The thickness is greater than or equal to 0.25 times the hole diameter
The D3.2 section of AISC code has three separate geometry checks that can be applied to
the lifting lug. If these requirements are not met, a smaller value for "a" should be used for
the calculation of tensile capacity.
This requirement states that the minimum net area beyond the pin hole, parallel to the axis
of the member (A
1
), shall not be less than 2/3 of the net area across the pin hole (A
2
).
OK
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NESMA HAVATEK
Project Name : Lifting Beam
10
Load W= 16600 lbs
Length of weld along lug thickness t
w
= 2 inches
Lever arm l= 4.252 inches
Length of weld along lug width w= 7.6 inches

a 45 deg
b 20 deg
tan a 1
tan b 0.363970234
f
max
(for 3/8 inch weld) 1694 lbs/in
f
1
4467.086089 lbs
f
2
314.6825984 lbs
f
3
864.5833333 lbs
Resultant of f
1
, f
2
and f
3
4560.853824 lbs
Difference resultant and f
max
2866.853824 lbs Ref. 3
P
w6
= 16.600 kips
Lug Base Material:
Load W= 8283.176018 lbs
f
max
=0.75.Fy/1.8 f
max
= 15 kips
Lug width l
w
=2.a+d 4.75 inches
f
1
28000.19786 lbs
Difference between f
1
and f
max
13000.19786
The analysis is similar to the weld above except that there is no interaction
between tension and shear. The capacity is based on the maximum tensile
stress at the base of the lug.
In order to find P
w6
, the difference between the resultant and f
max
should be zero. To get this, go to Tools
menu and click on Goal Seek. You will get the following window. Fill in as shown below and click OK
This is typically the weakest link in the overhead lifting lug, due to off-set loading. In general,
the lug is rarely directly over the item to be rigged. Conservatively, let us assume that the off-
set is a maximum of 45 degrees in the plane of the lug and 20 degress normal to the plane
of the lug. The additional loads due to off-set can be determined by statics to be as follows:
From Table 3.24 of Steel Handbook,
for 3/8 inche weld factored shear
resistance is 5710 lbs/in. Divided by a
factor of safety of 1.8 we get 1694
lbs/in. (Ref. 4)
W
W tan a
a deg
W
W tan b
b deg
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NESMA HAVATEK
Project Name : Lifting Beam
10
P
w7
8.283 kips
CONCLUSION:
P
w1
= 33.112 kips
P
w2
= 23.918 kips
P
w3
= 31.002 kips
P
w4
= 46.137 kips
P
w5
= 25.690 kips
P
w6
= 16.600 kips
P
w7
=
8.283 kips
Capacity will be minimum of these 8.283 kips CAPACITY
References:
1. David T. Ricker, "Design and Construction of Lifting Beams", Engineering Journal, 4th Quarter, 1991.
2. AISC Manual of steel Construction (ASD), 9th edition, 1989.
3. Omer Blodgett, "Design of Welded Structures", 1966.
4. CISC Handbook of Steel Construction, 1997.
Notes:
1. As discussed in Ref. 1, using a factor of 1.8 on AISC allowables results in a factor of safety of 5 for A36 steel. This
is in line with ASME B30.20 which required a design factor of 3 on yield strength and ANSI N14.6 which requires a
design factor of 3 on yield strength and 5 on ultimate strength. This is also in line with the load ratings for other
components of the lifting assembly such as slings, shackles, etc.
If additional capacity is desired, the angles a and b can be restricted as needed to increase the capcity of
the lug.
In order to find P
w7
, the difference between f
1
and f
max
should be zero. To get this, go to Tools menu and
click on Goal Seek. You will get the following window. Fill in as shown below and click OK
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