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Innate Targeting of Pathogens

Pathogen Examples Facts Pattern recognition alerted


by
Viruses

flu, small pox, HIV,
polio, Ebola,
rhinovirus,
hepatitis, measles
Can only
reproduce
inside
cells
Foreign nucleic acids (double
stranded RNA, single
stranded DNA, foreign
methylation patterns),
reduced antigen
presentation by infected cells
So viruses are usually
recognized by something
unusual in their nucleic
acids.(Double RNA, normally,
RNA is a single strain)

Bacteria

Strep, staph, TB,
anthrax, leprosy,
bubonic plague,
pertussis, diphtheria

Reproduce
intracellularly
or
extracellularly,
depending on
type
Characteristic surface
carbohydrates
(peptidoglycan, mannose
repeats),
flagellar proteins (flagellin),
lipids
(lipotechoic acid)
characteristic DNA
methylation patterns
Fungi

Candida (thrush)
athletes foot,
Cryptococcus,
Ringworm(Dermatophytos
is )

Eukaryotic,
unicellular,
multicellular or
multinucleate
Cell wall: zymosan ( 1-3
glucan) and
chitin (cellulose with N-acetyl
glucosamine instead of just
glucose)

Protozoa

malaria, Chagas,
sleeping sickness,
amebic dysentery,
leishmaniasis



Unicellular
eukaryotes
Characteristic cell surface
proteins
(profilin) and lipids
(glycosylated
phosphatidyl inositols - GPI)
Worms (helminth parasites)

pin worms, hook
worms,
heartworms,
schistosomiasis,
flukes, tapeworms

Primarily
members of
Platyhelminthe
s
(flatworms)
and
Nematoda
(roundworms)
Characteristic cell surface
proteins

PAMPs (Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns) Recognized by PRRs
pattern recognition receptors
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or PAMPs
1
, are molecules
associated with groups of pathogens that are recognized by cells of the innate
immune system. These molecules can be referred to as small molecular motifs
2

conserved within a class of microbes. They are recognized by Toll-like
receptors (TLRs) and other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in both plants and
animals. PRR
3
s are proteins expressed by cells of the innate immune system to
identify PAMPs
1. Proteins - So far, we have identified very few proteins that we recognize
innately by their overall structure. The ones weve found are:

1
son pequeas secuencias de molculas encontradas en patgenos.
2
The smallestgroup of atoms in a polymer that, whenunder the influence of a rotation-translationoperator, will
assemble the rest of the atoms in the chain.
3
son protenas presentes en las clulas del sistema inmunitario, comofagocitos, para identificar
molculas asociadas con patgenos microbianos o estrs celular.

a. Flagellin bacteria
b. profilin surface protein of protozoan
(toxoplasmosis)
2. carbohydrates and glycopeptides
a. zymosan component of fungal cell
walls a vague term because it has not
been exactly characterized.
b. peptidoglycan
4
the cell wall component of both gram positive and gram
negative bacteria, although gram positive have a much thicker wall.
3. lipids, especially attach to signature carbohydrates or peptides.
4. Nucleic acids
a. DNA with specific methylation patterns - recall restriction endonucleases
5
.
b. wrong strandedness single stranded DNA and double stranded RNA are
usually signs of a potential threat.
c. Mice can specifically recognize the 23s component of bacterial ribosomes.
C. Categories of PRRs: Specific receptors bind to characteristic pathogen
molecules.
1. Extracellular
a. Lysozyme (mucus and tears) against peptidoglycans (figure 21)
b. Psoriacin (skin) against E. coli. Can be induced by sunlight (UVB) via
vitaminD.
c. AMPS
6
defensive peptides that that typically kill by disrupting bacterial
membranes.
d. Mannose-binding lectin
7
(plasma) activates complement
C-reactive protein (CRP) (plasma) also recognizes microbes and damaged self
cells

4
El peptidoglucano es muy resistente y protege a las bacterias de una ruptura osmtica en
ambientes acuticos y da a los tipos diferentes de bacterias sus formas. Granpositivas violetas,
gramnegativas rojizas
5
es aquella que puede reconocer una secuencia caracterstica de nucletidos dentro de una
molcula de ADN y cortar el ADN en ese punto en concreto,
6
2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS
7
MBL recognizes carbohydrate patterns, found on the surface of a large number of pathogenic
micro-organisms, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa andfungi. Binding of MBL to a micro-
organism results in activation of the lectin pathway of the complement system.