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THE USE OF SONG LYRICS TO IMPROVE STUDENTS

VOCABULARY OF VERB
(An Experimental Research at the Eighth Grade Students of MTs Uswatun
Hasanah Mangkang Semarang in the Academic Year of 2009/2010)
A Final Project
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement
for the Degree of Bachelor of Education
in English Language Education
By:
MASNING ZAHRO
063411050
ENGLISHDEPARTMENT OF TARBIYAHFACULTY
WALISONGO STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES
SEMARANG
2010
ii
iii
iv
M0TTO
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Allah does not change a peoples lot unless they change what is in their hearts.
1
1
Muhammad M. Khan and Muhammad Tagi ud-Din Al-Hilali , The Quran, (English:
Curzon Press Ltd, 1981),p. 177
v
DEDICATION
In the name of Allah the Beneficent and the Merciful, the final project is
dedicated to:
My beloved parents, H. Abdul Ghofur and Hj. Sadiyatin. Thank you very much
for all.
vi
A FINAL PROJECT STATEMENT
I certify that this thesis is definitely my own work. I am completely
responsible for the content of this thesis. Other writers opinions or finding
included in the thesis are quoted or cited in accordance with ethical standards.
Semarang, 20
th
December 2010
The Writer,
Masning Zahro
NIM.63411050
vii
ABSTRACT
Masning Zahro (63411050) The Use of Song Lyrics to Improve Students
Vocabulary of Verb, (An Experimental Research at the Eighth Grade of MTs
Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang Semarang in Academic Year of 2009/2010). Thesis,
Semarang: Bachelor Program of English Language Education of State Institute for
Islamic Studies Walisongo Semarang, 2010.
Keyword:, verb, vocabulary, Song lyrics, non Song lyrics.
The background of the study in this research are the students still have
difficulties in remembering new vocabulary and confused to understand the
vocabulary. The teacher still uses conventional methods, the teacher only
translates the words and monotonous, so the students are easy to get bored. To
improve students vocabulary of verb, teacher can use song lyrics as teaching
medium to help her in teaching learning process.
This study is about The Use of Song Lyrics to Improve Students
Vocabulary of Verb, (An Experimental Research at the Eighth Grade of MTs
Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang in the academic year 2009/2010). The statement of
the problem in this study is; How effective does the use of song lyrics improve
students vocabulary of verb at the eighth grade of MTs. Uswatun Hasanah
Mangkang Semarang in the academic year 2009/2010? The objective of the study
is to find out the effectiveness of using song lyrics to improve students
vocabulary of verb for the eighth grade students of MTs Uswatun Hasanah
Mangkang.
The population of the research was the eighth grade students of MTs
Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang. The research methodology was an experimental
research, which conducted in two classes; the experimental group (VIIIA) and
control group (VIII B) as sample. The VIII A was taught by using song lyrics,
while the VIII B was taught without song lyrics (using conventional method).
The instruments used to collect the data were: documentation and test. The
documentation was used to get the data of students name list that become
respondents, lesson plan, etc. Test was used to know students competence before
and after the experiment run. There are two kinds of test. They are pre-test and
post test. Before items of the test were given to the students, the writer gave tryout
test to analyze validity, reliability, difficulty level and the discriminating power of
each item.
After the data had been collected by using test, it was found that the pre-
test average of the experimental group was 49.20 and control group was 51.00.
While, the post-test average of the experimental group was 68.00 and control
group were 63.60. The obtained t-test was 1.855, whereas the t-table was 1.68 for
a = 5%. The t-test score was higher than the t-table (1.855 > 1.68). It was meant
that Ha was accepted while Ho was rejected. Since t-test score was higher than the
t-table, Song Lyrics were effective media in improving students vocabulary of
verb at the eighth grade of MTs. Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang Semarang in the
academic year 2009/2010. Finally the writer suggests to the teachers that they
should use song lyrics as one of media in the teaching vocabulary of verb.
viii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Alhamdulillah, the researcher would like to thank to Allah for blessing,
health, and chance, and inspiration given to the researcher during the writing
this final project. The researcher could finish this final project because of
guidance, supports, and help from many people. So, that the researcher would
like to express her gratitude to the followings:
1. Dr. Sujai, M. Ag., the Dean of Tarbiyah Faculty of State Institute.
2. Dra.Hj. Siti Mariam, M.Pd., as the first advisor and the head of English
department. Thank you for the guidance, corrections, and suggestions.
3. H. Mursid, M. Ag., as the second advisor. Thank you for the guidance,
corrections and suggestions.
4. All the English lecturers for providing academicals assistance and support.
5. Inarotul Ulya, S.Pd., as the headmaster of MTs. Uswatun Hasanah
Mangkang and his administration officers who provided permission to
conduct the research.
6. Asep Saifuddin, S.Ag, M.Si., who assisted the researcher in conducting the
experiment and collecting data.
7. Her beloved sister and brother who always give support and help.
8. Her classmates in Class B of English Department of Tarbiyah Faculty,
community of 2006.
9. Everybody who helps her finishing the research.
Finally, the researcher expects that this final project may be helpful
for all. Amin.
Semarang, 20
th
December 2010
The researcher,
Masning Zahro
NIM.63411050
ix
TABLE OF CONTENT
PAGE OF TITLE ........................................................................................i
ADVISOR APPROVAL...............................................................................ii
APPROVAL ..................................................................................... iii
THESIS STATEMENT ...............................................................................iv
MOTTO ....................................................................................... v
DEDICATION............................................................................................. vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .......................................................................... vii
ABSTRACT.............................................................................................. viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................. ix
LIST OF TABLES...................................................................................... xii
LIST OF APPENDIXES............................................................................ xiii
CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study ............................................................ 1
B. Reasons for Choosing the Topic .................................................. 3
C. Definition of Key Terms.............................................................. 3
D. Statement of the Problem............................................................. 4
E. Objectives of the Study................................................................ 5
F. Limitation of the Study................................................................ 5
G. Significance of the Study ............................................................ 5
CHAPTER II : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. Theoretical Review...................................................................... 6
1. Vocabulary ............................................................................ 6
a. Definition of vocabulary .................................................. 6
b. Teaching vocabulary........................................................ 8
c. Some techniques in teaching vocabulary ........................ 9
d. The principle of teaching and learning vocabulary.......... 10
e. Verb ............................................................................. 11
x
2. Song lyrics in Teaching Vocabulary of Verb....................... 15
a. Definition of Song.......................................................... 15
b. Definition of Lyrics........................................................ 16
c. Song lyrics as media to teach vocabulary of verb
...................................................................... 17
d. The application of song lyrics in teaching vocabulary of
verb................................................................................. 20
e. The advantages and disadvantages of song...................... 20
B. Previous Research ..................................................................... 21
C. Hypothesis................................................................................. 23
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHOD
A. Setting ..................................................................................... 24
B. Participants
1. Population ............................................................................. 24
2. Sample and Technique Sampling ........................................... 25
C. Research Variables .................................................................... 25
D. Research Design........................................................................ 26
E. Data Collection Technique ........................................................ 27
F. Technique of Data Analyzing .................................................... 28
G. Research Procedures.................................................................. 33
CHAPTER IV: FINDING OF THE RESULT OF RESEARCH
A. First Analysis
1. Validity of Try Out Test ........................................................ 36
2. Reliability of Try Out Test .................................................... 37
3. Discriminating Power of Try Out Test ..................................38
4. Difficulty Level of Try Out Test ...........................................39
B. Second Analysis
1. Analysis of Pre-test................................................................ 40
2. Analysis of Post-test .............................................................. 44
xi
C. Discussions................................................................................ 49
D. Limitation of Research .............................................................. 50
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION
A. Conclusion.....................................................................51
B. Suggestion .....................................................................51
REFERENCES ..................................................................................... 52
xii
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
Table:
1. Table of List of time of the study .................................................... 24
2. Table of the Observation Frequency of Experimental Group........... 41
3. Table of the Observation Frequency of Control Group.................... 42
4. Test of Homogeneity (Pre-test) ....................................................... 42
5. Table of the Observation Frequency of Experimental Group........... 45
6. Table of the Observation Frequency of Control Group.................... 46
7. Test of Homogeneity (Post-test)...................................................... 47
8. The Pre-test and Post-test Students Average Values of the
Experimental and Control Group.................................................... 49
xiii
LIST OF APPENDIXES
Appendix: Page
1. Analysis Try Out........................................................................... 56
2. Names of Experimental group....................................................... 57
3. Names of Control group................................................................ 58
4. Scores of Experimental group and Control group .......................... 59
5. Test of Normality Data of Pre-test Experimental Group ............... 60
6. Test of Normality Data of Pre-test Control Group ....................... 61
7. Test of Normality Data of Post-test Experimental Group............... 62
8. Test of Normality Data of Post-test Control Group........................ 63
9. Test of Differences Between Two Variance In Post-test ................ 64
10. Lesson Plan Experimental Group................................................. 65
11. Lesson Plan Control Group........................................................... 69
12. Instrument for Try out ................................................................... 76
13. Instrument for Pre test ................................................................... 78
14. Instrument for Post test ................................................................. 80
15. Answers key of instruments ......................................................... 82
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study
Learning a language is not something new for people who have been
interested in it since a long time ago. It is caused by the main function of
language that is for communication.
2
In the learning process, one of the
important parts in creating and understanding the language is vocabulary
mastery. People can not express their opinion and ideas in English without
knowing their vocabulary. Low vocabulary mastery also makes them unable to
express the opinion properly. This statement appropriate with the Koran, Allah
said:
, , . ` ' , `, `,`, . , _ , `' .`' , . `, .
`,` ` .
And He taught Adam all the names of everything, then He showed
them to the angels and said: Tell Me the names of these if you are
truthful (Al Baqoroh: 31)
3
In the surah above, Allah shows us that we should learn vocabulary
enable we can create our language skill. We can choose appropriate words in
spoken or written language. A good vocabulary is a vital part of effective
language communication.
In Indonesia, English is a compulsory subject which is taught in Junior
High School and Senior High School as a second language. As a result, the
Indonesian government always makes effort to improve the quality of teacher
and other component which are involved in education process. The education
in Indonesia has been improved from time to time, one of them is established
by curriculum. According to the competence based curriculum of Junior High
2
Depdiknas, Kurikulum 2004 Standar Kompetensi Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris,
(Jakarta: Depdiknas, 2004), p. 9.
3
Muhammad M. Khan and Muhammad Tagi ud-Din Al-Hilali , The Quran, (English:
Curzon Press Ltd, 1981), p. 3.
2
School, the goal of foreign language learning is to learn how to communicate
by using the target language orally or writtenly.
4
So after learning English,
students should be able to communicate in English spoken or written.
As the writer said before that in Junior High School, English is taught
as one of compulsory subject. The students learn English for the second time
after finished in elementary school. So, they learn the English components
including vocabulary in junior high school.
The functions of learning English in Junior High School are; first, by
studying English students are expected to have a means to develop their
knowledge of science, technology and culture. The second is students are
expected to be able to support the development of tourism.
The acquisition an educating vocabulary is essential for successful
second language because without an extensive vocabulary we will be unable
to use structure and function. Of course, the vocabulary mentioned here is the
vocabulary in curriculum of Junior High School.
Students must be able to use a lot of vocabulary of English, if they
want to be successful in learning. Vocabulary is an important element in
language besides pronunciation and grammar. We cant not express ideas in
English without learning English vocabulary. So that, when students are given
a passage with word that are supposed to have been taught earlier, they still
find it difficult to understand the meaning.
To make students motivate and enjoyable to study vocabulary, the
teacher should be creatively in delivering material.
We should use variative strategies in teaching vocabulary. One of the
strategies that can be used by teacher is using media to support the teaching
learning process. There are some teaching media available now, so the writer
uses song lyrics to improve students vocabulary of verb.
Music is powerful stimulus for students engagement precisely because
it speaks directly to our emotions while still allowing to us to use our brains to
4
Depdiknas, Op Cit, p. 10.
3
analyze it and its effect if we so wish.
5
Music and song are included in teaching
media, the use of music and song in the classroom can stimulate very positive
associations to someone who study language. A piece of music can change
and prepare students for a new activity, it can amuse and entertain and it can
make a satisfactory connection between the world of leisure and the world of
learning.
6
B. Reasons for Choosing the Topic
1. There are some reasons why the writer chooses this topic. The Vocabulary
is essential to improve the language. Vocabulary learning has been
mastered by the students in order to be able to communicate in English
2. Most students in Junior High School still have difficulties in vocabulary,
so that they can not convey their ideas clearly because of their limited
vocabulary
3. Songs can be wonderful media for natural language, furthermore songs
will make the students relax and fun. By using songs, learning English
vocabulary will be interesting and enjoyable
C. Definition of Key Term
1. Use
According to the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, use is do
something with.
2. Song
Song is a piece of music sung or composed for singing
7
3. Lyrics
Lyrics are set of words that make up a song.
4. Improve
5
Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching 3 ed (United Kingdom:
Longman Publishing, 2002) p. 241.
6
Ibid. p. 241.
7
Michael Agnes, Websters New Words College Dictionary, (Wiley publishing Inc,
2000) 4
th
Ed, p. 1367.
4
To become or make something better, to increase the value or good
qualities of something.
8
5. Verb
Word that denote action.
9
6. Vocabulary
Vocabulary is a total number of words which (with roles for
combining them) make up a language
10
. This definition tells us not only
the number of words one knows but also the rules for combining the words
to make up a language. It means that vocabulary covers knowing the
meaning of words and their uses in context.
7. Experimental study
Experimental study is kind of research that is used to establish a
cause and effect relationship between two phenomena. The writer aims to
establish that one variable, independent variable cause changes in another
variable, the dependent variable.
8. Students
Student is one who studies or investigated, one who is enrolled for
study at School College etc.
D. Statement of the Problem
The statement of the problem in this study is How effective does
the use of song lyrics improve students vocabulary of verb at the eighth grade
of MTs. Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang Semarang in the academic year
2009/2010?
E. Objectives of the Study
8
A. S. Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 1315.
9
Hatch Evelyn and Brown Cheryl, Vocabulary, Semantic and Language Education,
(New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 222
10
A S. Hornby. Op Cit, p. 959.
5
The objective of the study is to find out the effectiveness of song lyrics
to improve students vocabulary of verb at the eighth grade of MTs. Uswatun
Hasanah Mangkang Semarang in the academic year 2009/2010
F. Scope of the Study
To limit the scope of the study, the writer will only discuss such as
follows:
1. This study will be done in the eighth grade students of MTs. Uswatun
Hasanah Mangkang Semarang in the academic year 2009/2010.
2. This study will talk about the use of song lyrics, which is effective to
improve students vocabulary of verb. It is done to find the effective way
to teach vocabulary of verb.
G. Significances of the study
The writer hopes, the finding of this study will be useful for:
1. Students
It is hoped that students can improve students vocabulary of verb
by using song lyrics.
2. English Teacher
Encouraging teacher to find the best method of teaching English
vocabulary to the students.
3. School
As an input for the improving of science related to the teaching
learning language.
4. The writer
The result of the study will answer this questions which are the
basic of reseach.
6
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. Theoretical Framework
1. Vocabulary
Studying language cannot be separated from studying vocabulary
because it is an essential component of language. Vocabulary is one
components of language beside grammar. Students who want to learn a
target language, have to learn those components.
a. Definition of vocabulary
Vocabulary is one of the language components which should
be mastered by English learners. Vocabulary has role, which parallel
with phonology and grammar to help the learner mastering four
language skills.
Finocciaro explains that the students vocabulary can be
divided into two kinds, namely active vocabulary and passive
vocabulary. Active vocabulary refers to the words in which the
students can understand and pronounce correctly can use them in
speaking or in writing used by person to encode his idea. Passive
vocabulary refers to the words in which the students can recognize and
understand while they are reading or listening to someone speaking,
but they do not use the words in speaking or in writing. The words or
vocabularies can be spoken and also written.
11
11
M.Finocchiaro, English As a Second Language From Theory to Practice(New York
: Regent Publishing Company,1974 )p.73.
7
Another opinion by Marianne Celce and Murcia Elite Olshtain,
There are two kinds of vocabulary: they are function words and
content words.
12
1) The function words are those vocabulary items that belong to
closed word classes (i.e. word classes that do not readily admit new
items or lose old ones: pronouns, auxiliary verbs, prepositions,
determiners and adverbs).
2) The content words are those vocabulary items that belong to open
word classes (words classes that readily accept new words and
discard old ones).
The content words can be divided into three general classes:
a) Words that refers to a person, a place or a thing that we might
call them nouns.
b) Words that express an action, an event or a state are called verbs
c) Words are used to describe the qualities of thing or action are
called adjectives and adverbs.
Thornbury (2002:13) stated without grammar very little can be
conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.
13
Only with
sufficient vocabulary one can express his ideas effectively, can
understand the language task and foreign language conversation. With
the limited vocabulary the students will have the difficulties in learning
and understanding the foreign language.
Parts of speech are classified into its various types. The types
of part of speech consist of pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb,
conjunction and preposition.
14
Each Part of speech will be classified into its various types.
Such classification will be based chiefly on differences in structural
12
Marianne Celce-Murcia Elite Olshtain, Discourse and Context in Language Teaching:
A Guide for Language Teachers, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), p. 76.
13
Scott Thornbury, How to Teach Vocabulary, (London: Longman,2002), p.13.
14
M, Frank, Modern English A Practical Reference Guide (New Jersey: Prentice
Hall,1972) p.4.
8
form or in grammatical behavior, after that the part of speech will be
described according to the observable signals that operate the
grammar, functions, position, form, markers under functions will be a
further consideration of how part of speech serves either as part of the
central core, or a modifier or connective.
15
From the statements above the writer concludes that vocabulary
is a list of words with their meanings that accompanies a text book in a
foreign language. So, it is important to teach vocabulary first to the
students. Vocabulary plays a significant role in supporting the mastery
of language skills such as listening, reading, speaking, and writing
which are called by four skills of language. In order to communicate
well in language, students should acquire an adequate number of
words and should know how to use them accurately.
b. Teaching vocabulary
Teaching vocabulary is a complex task because it includes the
meaning of the words. A good teacher should use appropriate
techniques and enough practice for certain words, so that the objectives
will be achieved. Concerning the appropriate techniques, a teacher
must choose suitable method to teach vocabulary. The teacher has to
teach not only the meaning of the words but also has to use appropriate
method for each other aspect of language.
Vocabulary is one of the most obvious components of language
and one of the first things applied linguists turned their attention to.
16
Learning language must be given special attention in order to get the
goal of language learning. According to the concept and function of
English state in 2006 curriculum the teaching English aims to develop
the four skills, they are, listening, reading, speaking and writing. To
15
Ibid. p 5.
16
Jack C. Richards, Curriculum Development in Language Teaching, (New
York: Cambridge University Press, 2001), p. 4.
9
support the developing of four language skills, English language
component, vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation or spellings are
also taught. Besides that in constructing a sentence, we do not need
just grammar and pronunciation correctly but also the appropriateness
of choosing vocabulary.
Teaching vocabulary is very significant for the students
because in the increasing of vocabulary extension. More vocabularies
the learners have, more chances they master the language.
In fact, teaching activities will be more fluently if the word is
in a context form because students will know it clearly.
Teaching vocabulary and grammar will be more effectively if it
has relation with childrens environment, so they can practice them
easily.
c. Some Techniques in teaching vocabulary
Teaching techniques is important in teaching learning process
not only determined by teacher and students competence but also with
in appropriate technique.
We have to learn vocabulary whenever we come into contact
with a new language and try to use it. However, studying language
causes some problems, because many students consider learning
vocabulary is a boring activity, teacher should keep looking for way to
make learning vocabulary easier and more pleasant.
Teaching techniques are very helpful for teacher. It is the
teachers task to use appropriate technique of vocabulary teaching, it
does not mean that if the teacher uses a certain technique.
From explanation above, its mean that techniques in teaching
learning is very importance and the teacher should use appropriate
technique to teach vocabulary, in order to motivate and help the
students in learning process.
10
Ruth Gairns and Stuart Redman say, There are many
techniques of vocabulary teaching. There are: visual aids, verbal
explanation, and contextual guesswork.
17
1) Visual Aids.
In this technique, a teacher can use paper of song lyrics and
whiteboard. The teacher use paper to song lyrics and underline the
words that we need. One of the visual aids is whiteboard. It is a
writing the words and their meaning on the whiteboard.
2) Verbal Explanation.
In this technique, a teacher should select and provide words
will be taught based on the students level, the aim and the time
allocated. A teacher can explain the meaning of the words. The use
of this technique is often a quick and efficient way of explaining
unknown words, but usually the students become bored in teaching
learning process.
3) Contextual Guesswork
In this technique, the students learn vocabulary from a text.
The students can understand the meaning of difficult words from a
text through song lyrics.
d. The principle of teaching and learning vocabulary
According to Wallace, there are six principles on which
teaching learning vocabulary is to be based, they are:
18
1. Aims
The aims have to be clear for the teacher. How many things
listed does the teacher expect the learner to be able to achieve the
17
Ruth Gairns and Stuart Redman, Working with Words: A Guide to Teaching
and Learning Vocabulary, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. 73.
18
Wallace and J Michael, Technique in Teaching Vocabulary,(London,
Heinemann Education books,1982) , p. 27.
11
vocabulary? What kinds of words? The aims of vocabulary items,
for both teaching vocabulary using song lyrics technique should be
based on the curriculum given.
2. Quantity
The teacher may have to decide the number of vocabulary
items to be learnt. How many new words in a lesson can be learnt
by learners? If they are too many words, the learner may become
confused.
From the statement above, it means that the teacher should
limit the number of words that will be taught to the students.
Therefore, in teaching vocabulary using song lyrics not all words
should be learnt by students. He should limit the words to be learnt
by underlying words or make a certain mark on the words occurred
on song lyrics.
3. Need
In some cases, one hopes that the choice of vocabulary will
relate to the aims of a course and the objective of an individual
lesson, it is also possible for the teacher to take responsibility of
choosing the vocabulary to be taught for her or his students. In
other words, the students put in a situation where they have to
communicate and get the words that they need.
4. Meaningful Presentation
The teacher must have a clear and specific understanding of
what it denotes or refers to i.e. sit is meaning involves many other
things as well. This requires that the words can be presented in
such a way that its denotation or reference is perfectly clear and
ambiguous.
The teacher must have a clear understanding about the
words or phrases given to the students.
e. Verb
12
In studying language, verb is a part of word classes in learning
vocabulary. It is include into important component. The words of verb
in English have the forms relevant to the time that they indicate.
Verb is learnt by every people in the word. It is also has
important role of forming the sentences.
There are definition of verb, are such as follow:
Verb is a word which asserts that something occurs or exists.
This means that the verb either narrates an action or affirms a state of
being.
According to Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar by Sylvia
Chalker and Edmund Weiner, verb is
19
:
1) A member of a major word class that is normally essential to
clause structure and which inflects and can show contrasts of
aspect, number, person, mood, tense and voice.
2) A major and usually essential, element of clause structure.
Verb is the most complex part of speech. Its varying
arrangements with noun determine the different kinds of sentences
statements, question, commands, and exclamation. Like the noun, the
verb has the grammatical properties of person and number. Properties
which require agreement with the subject. But the verb also has several
other grammatical properties that are shared with no other part of
speech.
20
1) Types of verbs
In language grammatical, verb can be classified into:
21
a) Based on the usage, verb is divided into :
(1) Infinitive verb
Infinitive verb or v1
Example: I like to sing a song
19
Sylvia C and Edmund W, Oxford Dictionary Of English Grammar, ( New York,
Oxford University press,1988) p. 415.
20
M, Frank, Op Cit, p. 47.
21
Satrio Nugroho, Complete English Grammar, (Surabaya,Kartika,1999) p. 168.
13
(2) Preterit
Preterit or past tense or v2
Example: They said farewell
(3) Past participle
Past participle or v3
Example: They will have gone if you come late tomorrow.
b) Based on the object, verb is divided into:
(1) Transitive verb
A transitive verb is the verb that needs object to complete
the meaning of sentences.
Example: Id get a thousand hugs
(2) Intransitive verb
An intransitive verb does not require an object
22
Example: Im asleep
c) Based on the function of the sentence, verb is divided into:
(1) Full verb or ordinary verb
Full verb is verb used to express an action and this verb has
complete meaning without using to
Example: Why do I tire of counting sheep?
(2) Auxiliary verb
Auxiliary verb is verb that helping other verb to complete
sentence.
Example: Im weird
(3) Linking verb
Linking verb is a verb of in complete predication; it merely
announces that the real predicate follows
23
. The more
common linking verb appear be, become, get, look, remain,
seem and feel
Example: I feel asleep
22
M, Frank, Op Cit, p. 49.
23
Ibid, p. 48.
14
d) Based on the form, verb is divided into:
(1) Regular verb
Regular verb is change of verb which systematic,
that is adding d or ed of first verb so to be v2 (past tense)
and v3 (past participle).
24
These following examples of
regular verbs form from present, past tense and past
participle :
Simple Form Simple Past Past Participle
Ask Asked Asked
Clean Cleaned Cleaned
Open Opened Opened
Play Played Played
Stay Stayed Stayed
(2) Irregular verb
Irregular verb is verb that have some functions with
regular verb, Irregular verb different with regular verb, in
regular verb the verb just added by ed, but in irregular verb,
the change of verb which not systematic.
25
These following
examples of irregular verbs form from present, past tense
and past participle:
Simple Form Simple Past Past Participle
Become Became Become
Bring Brought Brought
Drink Drank Drunk
Eat Ate Eaten
Find Found Found
Feel Felt Felt
2) Function of verbs
24
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar Second
ed, (New jersey; Prentice Hall Regent, 1989) p. 17.
25
Ibid, p. 17.
15
The verb functions as the grammatical center for the
predication about the subject. As we have seen, it may be
grammatical center expressing mere linkage, or it may be the
strongest predicating word in the central core of the sentence. The
verb is so basic that other functions (subject, object, complement)
are determined in relation to it.
26
3) Position of verb
The verb is used after a subject, or before an object or
complement. The verb appears before the subject in most
questions, and in sentences or clauses that begin with certain types
of negative adverb.
27
2. Song lyrics in Teaching Vocabulary of Verb
In this study, the writer uses one of teaching media to teach
vocabulary to make it pleasing and interesting to the students. The media
is song lyrics. By using song lyrics, students feel something new and
different from what they usually got in their class.
1) Definition of song
Song is short of music with words that be sung.
28
Song is a
short musical work set a poetic text with equal importance given to
music and to the words. It may be written for one or several voices and
it is generally performed with instrument accompaniment.
Song is an interesting media that offers the high imagination.
The language song usually easy to be understood. It gives motivation
and makes the relation between the teacher and students closer. And
the relation will make the students have bravery to ask the teacher
about everything including new vocabularies in song that they learn.
26
M, Frank, Op Cit, p. 51.
27
Ibid, p. 52.
28
Oxford Learners Pocket Dictionary, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), p.
412.
16
Siti Tarwiyah states that song in foreign language classes maybe use to
motivate students and to create a more relaxing foreign language
classes.
29
2) Definition of lyrics
Lyrics are set of words that make up a song. Lyric can be
studied from an academic perspective. Lyric can also be analyzed with
respect to sense of unity it has with its supporting music.
30
Lyric is simple word of song. The lyric or song texts do not
only as a complement of the song, but also as an important part of the
music elements which determine the theme, character and mission of
the song. It can also make sense be stable. To know the sense of the
song, we can feel the rhythm and melody, harmony and voice of the
singer by the singing of the song.
A music composition is not always a sequence of melody with
a lyric. The composition without a lyric on its melody called an
instrumental music. On the contrary, the one with lyric is called a
song.
31
The music composition performed by a song contains an
attractive aspect. The attractive aspect is language. The language
which consists of a sequence of words, give new dimension of the
music, which cannot be found in the other composition, instrumental
music.
32
The lyric in a song is actually non musical aspect. However,
besides giving new unique dimension, its presence in music is not only
as an embedded element but also as a part of the music. Many songs
are created from text or beautiful poem.
29
Siti Tarwiyah, Game, Song and Practical Ideas to Teach Language,
(Semarang: 2008), p. 2.
30
Http//wilkimedia//song lyrics. acceced 20/12/09.6.21 am.
31
Http//wilkimedia//composition of song lyrics .acceced 05/01/10.4.30 pm.
32
Ibid.
17
Basically a lyric of song is the same as lyric of a poem. The
difference is that a lyric of a song is written and combined with music.
We usually meet a poem as word on page and a song generally hear as
sounds in the air. However we can say that a song lyric are same. A
song lyric describes and show felling, experience, imagination and etc
and a poem lyric does too.
In this research, the researcher used three songs, entitled "I
Believe My Heart" by Duncan James & Keedie, "As Tears Go By" by
the Rolling Stones and Fireflies by Testo Letras. Researcher chooses
these songs because the songs are very easy listening, not too fast and
slow. It is hoped that students will enjoy with all songs.
3) Song lyrics as media to teach vocabulary of verb
Teaching media is important in teaching learning process not
only determined by teacher and students competence but also with in
appropriate media.
Song is very effective especially when one needs to memorize
something. Often, when music is used learning a certain concept or
lesson is more easily to be understood by the students.
33
In Indonesia, most of English students have difficulties in
learning English; they are less motivation in studying English because
they believe that English is hard subject. In that case, an English
teacher needs to be responsive to the students condition, the teacher
should make students enthusiastic in learning English. Teacher also
should consider some factors in teaching and learning process, Brown
states that teaching is helping someone to learn how to do something,
giving instruction, guiding in study of something, providing with
33
Espie Estrella, Music Education Guide, http//www.using music to teach other subject.
accessed on May 08,2010 /09.45.
18
knowledge, and causing to know or understand.
34
So, teacher as
facilitator in learning process should keep looking for way to make
learning vocabulary easier and more pleasant.
English is foreign language, so English learning for Indonesian
students is not easy. The teacher is asked to use suitable media to teach
effectively because an affective teaching is basic factor for the success
learning process that is including in learning vocabulary.
There are many kinds of teaching media to teach English, one
of them is song. Song could be used to teach vocabulary because of its
lyrics, teacher could choose song which has appropriate vocabulary
that would be taught.
According to Bovee as cited by Sanaky that Media is tool of
format used to convey information.
35
While NEA Education
Association as cited by Asnawir and Usman state that media are things
which can be manipulated, seen, heard, read, or spoken together their
instrument that can be used well in teaching learning activity and can
affect the effectiveness of instructional program.
36
Media in teaching
learning process very importance to help students become effective
and interesting in learning process.
There are many teaching media can be divided into various
forms, they can be classified in three kinds, they are:
37
1) Visual aids, it is media that can be seen such as picture, realia,
Google earth, flashcard, newspaper,etc.
2) Audio aids, it is teaching media that can be heard such as radio,
music or song, tape, MP3 player, etc.
34
H. Douglas Brown, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, Fourth Edition,
[NY: Pearson Education, 2005], p. 7.
35
Hujair AH. Sanaky, Media Pembelajaran,(Yogyakarta : Safiria Isnania Press.2009),
p.3.
36
H. Asnawir and M. Basyaruddin Usman, Media Pembelajaran, (Jakarta: Ciputat Press.
2002), p. 11.
37
Umi Machmudah and Abdul Wahab R, Active Learning Dalam Pembelajaran
Bahasa Arab,(UIN-Malang Press,2008),p. 110.
19
3) Audio visual aid, it is teaching media that can be seen and can be
heard such as video clips, film, TV news etc.
From the explanation above, the researcher uses song lyrics. It
can be classified as audio visual aids because it can be seen and can be
heard. In Arsyads Sudjana and Rifai said that they have benefits in
it.
38
They are:
1) The teaching process will be more interesting so that the
students are motivated to learn the material given by the teacher.
By using media, the teacher can attract the students attention to
the material given by him/ her. From explanations above, it is
expected that by using media in teaching learning process, students will be
motivated in the learning the material given by the teacher by heart. If they learn
by heart automatically they will get maximum result.
2) The material will be clear if the students can understand the
material easily. Media make students easy in catching the material
given by the teacher. Here, media acts as the means used by the
teacher to make the teaching material easily. If the students can
catch the material easily so, automatically they can understand too.
3) The teaching and learning process will be variatif. It makes
students enjoying the teaching learning process. Students will
bored if the teacher only uses the explanation when present the
material during teaching and learning process. Students will not
feel bored if the teacher uses media in teaching learning process.
From references definition above, the researcher concluded that
teaching media are needed in teaching learning process because
students are motivated to study. Students easily to catch the material
from the material clearly. The teaching learning process will be more
varieties so that the students enjoy it. Students also will be more active
in giving responses to the material given by the teacher.
4) The application of song lyrics in teaching vocabulary
38
Arsyad, Azhar. Media Pembelajaran. (Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 2006), p. 6.
20
In this case the writer will apply song lyrics in teaching
vocabulary of verbs by using procedures as follow: first, teacher
explains about verb, and then teacher gives paper of song lyric, and
then he plays the song and he asks the students to identify the
vocabulary of verb of song lyric and asks one of students to write on
the whiteboard. If the answer is wrong, the teacher will explain
correctly.
5) The advantages and disadvantages of song
As a teaching media, song prevents students boredom in
language classroom. The use of song in teaching learning process has
good implication, those are
39
:
1) Create a welcoming atmosphere. It is the function of song
as a warmer, students are expected to be enthusiastic in the
learning process.
2) Facilitate a positive learning mood and motivate students to
learning. Music helps students to focus on the material discussed
and raise their concentration in the learning activities.
3) Connect students to content topics. Students are expected to
understand the topic that they studied through song lyrics.
4) Reduce learning stress levels. As a filler, when students are
boring teacher can stimulate them by playing music to make they
active again.
5) Deepen understanding and reinforce memory through
emotional association because songs are familiar with students live
.So, students are easy to understand the material.
6) Stimulate imagination and creativity. Music is good
stimulus to imagine and it can explore students creativity.
39
ChrisBrewer,MusicinTheLearningCycle,http//www.songforteaching.com/teacingtips/mu
sicinthelearningcycle. accessed on May 08, 2010 /08.45.
21
7) Reinforce grammatical structures. Students are easy to
understand the grammatical structure of a song by analyze the
tenses from the lyrics of a song.
8) Embed new vocabulary. Students can enrich their
vocabulary after listen to a song.
9) Teach pronunciation efficiently. It is possible to us to
imitate the native speaker pronunciation by listening English song.
10) Make learning English fun for learners. They create a
relaxed atmosphere and get learners motivated with enthusiasm for
learning.
In other hand, the use of song in teaching learning process has
disadvantages. Those are
40
;
1) Music disturbs concentrations when applying to people who
hate a genre of music.
2) Music can hurt eardrums if it is set up so loud.
According the advantages and the disadvantages above, the
researcher concluded that the use of song in teaching learning process
has good effect than bad effect. It gives good effects to activate
understanding and make students easy to memorize the material.
B. Previous research
The previous reseaches that used by the reseacher are:
1. A thesis by Kustiana Dewi, students number 05420142, English
Education of IKIP PGRI Semarang 2009. The title is Improving Students
Vocabulary Mastery Through Listening English Song of the Eighth Year
Students of SMPN 25 Semarang 2009/ 2010.
41
She was using listening
English song to improve students vocabulary mastery. The population of
her study was the eighth year students of SMPN 25 Semarang 2009/ 2010.
40
http://www.eslbase.com/articles/songs.asp accessed on May 08, 2010/ 15.45.
41
Kustiana Dewi, unpublished thesis under title Improving Students Vocabulary Mastery
Through Listening English Song, (Semarang: IKIP PGRI, 2009).
22
She chooses two classes to be result. One class as a control class and one
class as experimental class.
For the experimental class, she used listening English song for students
and other class she did not use game. And the result was significant. There
is significance difference in score of Vocabulary test achieved by the
students after they have been taught using Listening English Song. Song
could give contribution in teaching vocabulary. Song that used in this
study can motivate the students to learn more about vocabulary. The
differences between this research and my research will be in specification
of the vocabulary, she did the research to know the vocabulary mastery of
students and to find out whether listening to English song can improve
their vocabulary mastery whereas the writer will do the research to know
whether or not song lyrics is effective to improve students Vocabulary of
verb. Besides that, this research was conducted with eighth grade of
SMPN 25 Semarang 2009/ 2010 and the writer will do the research with
eighth grade of MTs. Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang Semarang in the
academic year of 2009/2010.
2. A thesis by Agus Riyanto,students number 220 140 1092, Language And
Art Faculty State University of Semarang, 2006. The title is Teaching
Vocabulary Through Real Thing at Elementary School at Case of Study
on the Fifth Grade of SDN 1 Surodadi Kedung Jepara in Academic year
2005/2006.
42
He used real thing to teach vocabulary. The objectives of his
study are, finds out the effectiveness using real thing to teach vocabulary.
The population of his study was the fifth grade of SD. He chooses one
class and divided into two groups. And the result was significant. The
differences between this research and my research will be in specification
of the vocabulary. The population of his study was the fifth grade of SD
42
Agus Riyanto, unpublished thesis under title Teaching Vocabulary Through Real Thing
at Elementary School at Case of Study on the Fifth Grade of SDN 1 Surodadi Kedung Jepara,
(Semarang: UNNESS, 2006).
23
Surodadi Kedung in Academic year of 2005/2006. and the writer will do
the research with eighth grader of MTs. Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang
Semarang in the academic year of 2009/2010.
Basically, this study is almost the same to teach vocabulary. But it has
different media and focus. Kustiana Dewi used Listening English Song to
improve students vocabulary and Agus Riyanto used Real Thing to teach
vocabulary. But in this research, the writer will try to do another research
related to them. The writer will do another research to teach vocabulary
through song lyrics. In those two studies, my research will be further
research of those studies in order to improve students' vocabulary of verb.
C. Hypothesis
The hypothesis is the provisional answer to the problems of the
research the theoretically considered possibly or highest the level of the truth.
It is provisional truth determined by researcher that should be tested and
proved.
43
.
Kinds of hypothesis which are used here are: Zero hypothesis (Ho), is
the hypothesis which state that there is not any significant effect of the object
of the research. It is also called with Negative hypothesis and Alternative
hypothesis (Ha), is the hypothesis which state that there is any significant
effect of the object of the research. It is also called with positive hypothesis.
44
The criteria of the test of hypothesis as follow:
Ha : There is a significant effect of using song lyrics to improve students
vocabulary of verb at the eighth grade of MTs. Uswatun Hasanah
Mangkang Semarang in the academic year of 2009/2010.
Ho : There is not any significant effect of using song lyrics to improve
students vocabulary of verb at the eighth grade of MTs. Uswatun
Hasanah Mangkang Semarang in the academic year of 2009/2010.
43
Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedure Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktik, (Jakarta: PT
Rineka Cipta, 2006), p. 71.
44
Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R & D, (Bandung: Alfabeta,
2003), p. 65-66.
24
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD
This chapter discussed subject and setting of research, research variable,
research design, sources of data, instruments, and procedures of experimentation,
and method of data analysis.
A. Setting
This research was conducted on the second semester in the academic
year of 2009/2010. The writer conducted this research from 10
th
of May 2009
to 2
nd
of June 2010. It was conducted in MTs. Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang
Semarang.
Table 1. List of time of the study
Month/Date
Number Activity
May June
10
th
17
th
19
th
24
th
26
th
2
nd
1. Try out -
2. Pre test -
3. Treatment 1 -
4. Treatment 2 -
5. Treatment 3 -
6. Post test -
B. Participants (Population, Sample and Sampling Technique)
1. Population
The participants of this research are students of grade eight of MTs
Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang Semarang. Population is formulated as the
whole groups of people or object that have been formulated clearly.
45
The
population in this research was all students of grade eight of MTs Uswatun
45
Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian : Suatu Pendekatan Praktik, (Jakarta:PT. Asdi
Mahasatya, 2006), p.130.
25
Hasanah Mangkang in academic year of 2009/2010 which consisting of
three classes. Each class consists of twenty two and twenty five.
2. Sample and Technique Sampling
Sample is some of chosen population using certain procedure so
that can be expected to represent its population. Sampling is the process
done to choose and take sample correctly from population so that it can
be used as valid representative to the population.
46
In this research, the
researcher used purposive sampling technique. This technique was done
by taking the subject/sample which is not based on strata, random or area
but it is based on the consideration of a certain purpose.
47
. In this
research, researcher took two classes, because based on the result of the
pre test, these two classes gained similar average achievements and
considered as homogeneous class. In which the each class consists of 25
students. Class 8A was chosen as the experimental group which was
taught using song lyrics while class 8B was chosen as the control group
which was taught using non song lyrics.
C. Research Variables
According to Fred D. Kerlinger as cited by Arikunto, that all
experiments have one fundamental idea behind them; to test the effect of one
or more independent variables on a dependent variable (it is possible to have
more than one dependent variable in experiments).
48
In this study there are two variables. They are Independent Variable
(x) and Dependent Variable (y).
1. The independent variable (x)
46
Sugiharto, et al., Teknik Sampling, (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2003), 2
nd
Ed,
p.4
47
Suharsimi Arikunto, Op.Cit., p. 139.
48
Ibid , p. 119.
26
Independent variable is the variable that the experimenter expects to
influence the other.
49
The independent variable of this research was the use
of song lyrics to teach vocabulary of verb.
2. The dependent variable (y)
Dependent variable is variable that measures the influence of the
independent variable.
50
Dependent variable in this study was the use of
vocabulary achievement score of students for the second year students of
MTs.Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang Semarang.
D. Research Design
In this research, the writer used the form of quantitative approach to
analyze the data. It is quantitative because it emphasizes the systematic
measurement and quantification of variables and the data that was gained
were numeric and was analyzed by using statistical computation.
Quantitative approach stressed the analysis to the numerical data that is
processed by statistical method. It will explain the result of pre-test and post-
test.
1. Experimental Research
Experimental research is the appropriate method that used for
collecting and analysis data
51
.Of many types of research that might be
used, the experiment is the best way to establish cause-and-effect
relationships among variables.
An experimental research involved two groups: experimental group
and control group. The experimental and control group are consisting of
eight grade students of MTs.Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang Semarang. An
experimental group using song lyrics while control group using
conventional method. According to Nunan, experiment is designed to
49
David Nunan, Research Method in Language Learning, (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1992), p. 25.
50
Ibid, p.25.
51
Ibid, p 25.
27
collect data in such a way that threats to the reliability and validity of the
research are ministered.
52
This study used pre-test and post-test.
The design of the experiment could be described as follows:
In which: O
1
= Pretest value of experimental group
O
2 =
Posttest value of experimental group
O
3
= Pretest value of control group
O
4
= Posttest value of control group
X = Treatment of experimental group
Y = Treatment of control group
From the design above, subjects of research were grouped into an
experimental group (top line) and a control group (bottom line). The
quality of subjects was first checked by pre-testing them (O
1
and O
2
).
Then, the experimental treatment (taught by using song lyrics) was applied
to the experimental group, while the control group was taught without
song lyrics. The results of post-test (O
2
and O
4
) were then computed
statistically.
E. Data Collection Technique
In gaining the data, the researcher attempted to employ these
following methods.
1. Documentation
It refers to the archival data that helps the researcher to collect the
needed data. The researcher functioned the document related to the object
research such as students name list to be used in determining the team for
the experiment and students' examination score from the tests.
2. Test
52
Ibid, p.47.
28
Test is a question which is used to measure competence, knowledge,
intelligence, and ability of talent which is possessed by individual or
group to collect data.
53
In this research, there were two kinds of test, pre
test and post test that were given to the students as participants, either the
experimental or the control group. Before carrying out the teaching, the
pre test was given to both groups in order to make sure that the two
groups have similar and equal level of proficiencies. The post test was
given to the experimental group after being taught by song lyrics.
The instrument of the test in this research is objective test. Objective
test is frequently criticized on the grounds that they are simpler to answer
than subjective test. Objective tests are divided into transformation,
completion, combination, addition, rearrangement, matching, correct and
incorrect (true/false) and multiple choice.
54
The writer used multiple
choice forms.
F. Technique of Data Analysis
There are three kinds of test that will be held in experimental research,
they are try-out test, pre-requisite test, and hypothesis test.
1. Try out Test
To find out the effectiveness of song lyrics to improve students
vocabulary of verb, the researcher provided any test, one of them is tryout
test. Tryout test is conducted before the pre test is administered. The
instrument to be tried out was the composition test. The result of test was
used to find out the validity, reliability, difficulty level and also the
discriminating power of each item.
a. Validity
The validity is a measurement which shows validity of the
instrument. It is a condition in which a test can measure what is
supposed to be measured.
55
53
Suharsimi Arikunto, Op.Cit., p. 150
54
J.B Heaton, Writing English Language Tests (London: Longman, 1975), p. 12-13
55
Suharsimi Arikunto, Op Cit, p.168.
29
Heaton states that validity is the extent to which it measures
what is supposed to measure and nothing else.
56
The result was
consulted to critical score for r-product moment. If the obtained
coefficient of correlation was higher than the critical score for r-
product moment, it meant that a paragraph was valid at 5% alpha level
significance.
To calculate the validity, the writer used the formula as
follows:
57
( ) ( )
( ) { } ( ) { }


=
2 2 2 2
Y Y N X X N
Y X XY N
r
xy
Where:
r
xy
= the correlation coefficient between X variable and
Y variable
N = the number of the students
X = the sum of total score of X item
Y = the sum of total score of Y item
b. Reliability
Reliability refers to the stability or the consistency of the test
scores, besides having high validity, a good test should have high
reliability too. Heaton states that reliability is a necessary characteristic
of any good test; for it to be valid at all, a test must first be reliable as a
measuring instrument.
58
In this study, the reliability of the test was
measured by comparing the obtained score with r-score product
moment. Thus, if the obtained score was higher than the table r-score,
it could be said that the test was reliable.
56
J. B. Heaton, Op Cit, p. 153.
57
Karnadi Hasan, Modul Dasar-Dasar Statistika Terapan,(Fakultas Tarbiyah IAIN
Walisongo: Semarang) p.5.
58
J. B. Heaton, Op.Cit, p.155.
30
To calculate the reliability of the test, the writer used the
formula as follows:
59

=

2
11
1 S
pq S
n
n
r
Where:
r
11
= The reliability coefficient of items
n = The number of item in the test
P = The proportion of students who give the right answer
q = The proportion of students who give the wrong answer
2
S = The standard deviation of the test
Calculation result of r
11
is compared with r
table
of product
moment by 5% degree of significance. If r
11
is higher than r
table
, the
item of question is reliable.
60
c. Item Analysis
After scoring the try-out test, item analysis was carried out to
find out the effectiveness of the items. Item analysis discussed two
main things:
1) Difficulty Level
Heaton states that the index of difficulty of an item simply
shows how easy or difficult the particular item proved in the
test.
61
If a teacher knows deeply about item difficulty in making a
test, he can make his test easy, medium, or difficult. A good test is
a test that is not really difficult and not really easy. The writer used
the formula as follow:
JS
B
P =
Where:
59
Suharsimi Arikunto, Op Cit., p. 188.
60
Ibid, p. 198.
61
J. B. Heaton, Op.Cit., p.172
31
P = index of difficulty
B = the number of students who answer an item correctly
JS = the total number of students
The index of difficulty level can be classified as follows:
0.00 P < 0.30 is difficult
0.30 P< 0.70 is sufficient
0.70 P < 1.00 is easy
2) Discriminating Power
Item of discrimination power used to know how accurate
the question differ higher subject and lower subject.
To calculate the index of discriminating power, the writer
used the formula as follow:
B A
B
B
A
A
P P
J
B
J
B
D = =
Where:
A
J = Number of all participant in the upper group
B
J
= Number of all participant in the lower group
A
B
= Number of participant in the upper group who answered
the item correctly
B
B = Number of participant in the lower group who answered
the item correctly
A
P = The proportion of the upper group that answered true
B
P = The proportion of the upper group that answered true
62
The criterias of determining the index of discriminating are
below:
D = 0.00 0.20 : Less
D = 0.21 0.40 : Enough
D = 0.41 0.70 : Good
D = 0.71 1.00 : Excellent
62
Ibid p. 172
32
2. Pre-Requisite Test
Before the writer determines the statistical analysis technique used,
the writer examined the normality and homogeneity test of the data.
a. Normality Test
It is used to know the normality of the data that is going to be
analyzed whether both groups have normal distribution or not. The
normality test with Chi-square is done to find out the distribution data.
The writer used Chi-square formula, as follows:
( )
Ei
Ei Oi
X
k
i
2
1
2

=
=
Cited from Sudjana.
63
Where:
2
X
= Chi-square
i
O
= Frequency that was obtained from data
i
E
= Frequency that was hoped
k = the sum of interval class
If the obtained score was lower than t-table score by using 5%
alpha of significance, Ho was accepted. It was meant that Ha was not
accepted.
b. Homogeneity Test
Is used to know whether experiment class and control class, that
are taken from population have same variant or not. a test should be given
to both classes of students before the experiment just to make sure that the
both classes really are the same.
The writer used the formula as follows:
F =
Variance Smallest
Variance Biggest
63
Sudjana, Metode Statistika, (Bandung: Tarsito, 2002). p. 273
33
Cited from Sugiono.
64
3. Hypothesis Test
To respond the objectives of the study, the researcher examined the
data in the following steps. Firstly, the test was done in both groups,
experimental group that using song lyrics to teach vocabulary of verb and
control group without using song lyrics to teach vocabulary of verb (using
conventional method to teach vocabulary of verb). Secondly, the result of the
test was scored by using analytic scale. Thirdly, the means score of the two
groups were determined. Finally, the two means were compared by applying t-
test formula. T-test was used to differentiate if the students result of students
vocabulary of verb by using song lyrics and without using song lyrics was
significant or not.
2 1
2
1
1 1
n n
s
x x
t
+

=
Where:
2
) 1 ( ) 1 (
2 1
2
2 2
2
1 1
+
+
=
n n
s n s n
s
Cited from Sudjana.
65
Where:
1 x = the mean score of the experimental group
2 x = the mean score of control group
1
n = the number of the experimental group
2
n = the number of the control group
64
Sugiyono, Statistika Untuk Penelitian, (Bandung: Alfabeta, 2007), p. 140.
65
Sudjana, Op.Cit., p. 239
34
s = standard deviation
2
s = variance
If the obtained score was higher than t-table score by using 5%
alpha of significance, Ho was rejected. It meant that Ha was accepted.
G. Research Procedures
There are three stages in doing experiment research; they are pretest,
treatment and posttest.
1. Pretest
Pre-test was given before the treatments. First, the writer came to the
class. Then, the writer explained to the students what they had to do.
Finally, she distributed the instruments and asked them to do the test.
2. Treatment
a. In experimental group
1) First meeting
In the first meeting, the teacher introduced students about
verb, and then gave students song lyric in paper, then teacher
played the songs and asked students to listen it, and then teacher
asked the students to find the vocabulary of verb in song lyric, after
that teacher explained more the song lyric in order to make
students understanding vocabulary of verb.
2) Second meeting
In the second meeting, the teacher gave students song lyric in
paper, then teacher played the song and asked students to listen it,
and then teacher asked the students to find the vocabulary of verb
in song lyric, after that teacher explained more the song lyric in
order to make students understanding vocabulary of verb.
3) Third meeting
In the third meeting, the teacher gave students song lyric in
paper, then teacher played the song and asked students to listen it,
and then teacher asked the students to find the vocabulary of verb
35
in song lyric, after that teacher explained more the song lyric in
order to make students understanding vocabulary of verb.
b. In control group
1) First meeting
In the first meeting, the teacher introduced students about
verb, and then teacher explained about verb with conventional
method, and then teacher asked students to make example about
vocabulary of verb and to find the vocabulary of verb in text after
that teacher explained more the example in order to make students
understanding vocabulary of verb.
2) Second meeting
In the second meeting, the teacher gave warming up to the
students about verb, and then teacher explained about verb with
conventional method, and then teacher asked students to make
example about vocabulary of verb after that teacher explains more
the example in order to make students understanding vocabulary of
verb.
3) Third meeting
In the third meeting, the teacher gave warming up to the
students about verb, and then teacher explained about verb with
conventional method, and then teacher asked students to make
example about vocabulary of verb after that teacher explains more
the example in order to make students understanding vocabulary of
verb.
3. Post-test
Post-test was held after all treatments were conducted. This test was
used to measure students ability after they were given treatments. The
result of test was analyzed statistically.
36
CHAPTER IV
FINDING OF THE RESULT OF RESEARCH
To find out the difference between the students who are taught by using
song lyrics and the students who are not taught by using song lyrics in vocabulary
of verb, the writer did an analysis of quantitative data. The data is obtained by
giving test to the experimental class and control class after giving a different
method of learning both classes.
This chapter presents the data that was collected during the experimental
research. First analysis focuses on the validity, reliability, index difficulty, and
discriminating power of instruments. Second analysis represents the result of pre-
test and post-test that was done both in experimental and control group.
A. First Analysis
The first analysis item validity is used to know the index validity of the
test. To know the validity of instrument and reliable instrument. Try out tests
were conducted for VIII C of MTs Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang. Class VIII
C consisted of 22 respondents. They were given a try out using the instrument
that will be used in control and experiment class. The following is the
interpretation of the try out test to find out the validity and reliability of the
instrument.
1. Validity of Try Out Test
It is obtained that from 25 test items; there are 20 test items which
are valid and 5 test items which are invalid. They are to invalid with the
reason the computation result of their r
xy
value (the correlation of score
each item) is lower than their r
table
value.
The following is the example of item validity computation for item
number 5 and for the other items would use the same formula.
Formula:
N = 22

Y = 389
37

XY = 353

2
X = 19

X = 19

2
Y = 7363
xy
r
( ) ( )
( ) { } ( ) { }


=
2 2 2 2
Y Y N X X N
Y X XY N
Criteria:
The item is valid if
xy
r >
table
r
xy
r
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) { } ( ) ( ) { }
2 2
389 7363 22 19 19 22
389 19 353 22


=
= 0.481
Because of
xy
r >
table
r , so item number 5 is valid.
2. Reliability of Try Out Test
After validity items had been done, the next analysis was to test the
reliability of instrument. It was done to find out whether a test had higher
critical score and gave the stability or consistency of the test scores or not.
From the computation of reliability of the try out instruments, it was
obtained 0.783, for 5 % with N = 22 It was obtained 0.423.thus, the
value resulted from computation is higher than its critical value. It could
be concluded that the instruments that were used in this research was
reliable. The complete analysis and the computation as follow:
Before computing the reliability, the writer had to compute Varian
(S
2
) with the formula below:
N = 22

Y =389

2
Y = 7363

pq = 5,492
N
N
y
y
S

=
2
2
2
) (
38
22
22
) 389 (
7363
2
2

= S
22
6878 7363
2

= S
22
485
2
= S
S
2
= 22,05
The computation of the Varian (S
2
) is 20, 72. After finding the
Varian (S
2
) the writer computed the reliability of the test as follows:
Formula:

=

2
11
1 S
pq S
n
n
r

=
05 , 22
492 , 5 05 , 22
1 25
25
11
r

=
05 , 22
56 , 16
04 , 1
11
r
= 0.782
The result shows that 0.783 is more than 0,423, it meant that the
items of instrument were valid.
3. Discriminating Power of Try Out Test
The discrimination power of an item indicated the extent to which
the item discriminated between the tests, separating the more able tests
from the less able. To do this analysis, the number of try-out subjects was
divided into two groups, upper and lower groups.
Formula:
B A
B
B
A
A
P P
J
B
J
B
D = =
39
Criteria:
D = 0.00 0.20 : Less
D = 0.21 0.40 : Enough
D = 0.41 0.70 : Good
D = 0.71 1.00 : Excellent
Calculation:
Below is the example of the computation of discriminating power
on item number 5.
BA=11 BB=8
JA=11 JB=11
27 , 0
8
11
11
11
= = D
The result obtained D = 0, 27
Because of the result is between 0, 210, 40. So the item number
15 is enough.
4. Difficulty Level of Try Out Test
The following is the computation of the level difficulty for item
number 5 and for the other items would use the same formula.
Criteria:
0.00

P < 0.30 is difficult
0.30

P< 0.70 is sufficient
0.70

P < 1.00 is easy
Calculation
B=11+8=19
JS= 22
JS
B
P =
22
19
= P
P = 0,86
Because of the result is between 0.70 1.00, so the item number is
easy.
40
B. Second Analysis
The second analysis represents the result of pre-test and post-test that
was done both in experimental and control group. This analysis will answer
the research question How are song lyrics effective to improve students
vocabulary of verb? We can conclude song lyrics is effective when the result
of post test of the experimental class (using song lyrics technique) and control
class (using conventional technique) has significant differences or the
assumption that those classes is equal is not fulfilled.
Before the researcher tested the hypothesis that had been mentioned in
the chapter two, the researcher analyzed and tested hypothesis prerequisites
which contained of normality test and homogeneity test. Second analysis dealt
with normality test, homogeneity test, and t-test (test of difference two
variants) in pre-test and post-test.
1. Analysis of Pre-test
The experimental group (class VIII A) was given a pre-test on May
17, 2010 and control group (class VIII B) was given a pre-test on May 18,
2010.
a. Test of Normality
Test of normality was used to find out whether data of control
and experimental group which had been collected from the research
come from normal distribution normal or not. The result computation
of Chi-square (
2
score
X ) then was compared with table of Chi-Square
(
2
table
X ) by using 5% alpha of significance. If
2
score
X <
2
table
X meant that
the data spread of research result distributed normally.
Based on the result of VIII A students in experimental group,
before they were taught vocabulary of verb by using song lyrics, was
found that the maximum score was 65 and minimal score was 30. The
stretches of score were 35. So, there were 6 classes with length of
classes 6. From the computation of frequency distribution, it was
41
found (
i i
x f
.
) = 1233 and (
2
. i i
x f ) = 62922. So, the average score
( X ) was 51.46 and the standard deviation (S) was 9.4868. After
counting the average score and standard deviation, table of
observation frequency was needed to measure Chi-Square (
2
score
X ).
Table 2. Table of the Observation Frequency of Class VIII A
Class
Bk Z
i
P(Z
i
) Ld Ei Oi
29.5 -2.09 -0.4816
30 35 -2.09 0.0544 1.4 2 0.2999
35.5 -1.45 -0.4271 1.4
36 41 -1.45 0.1326 3.3 4 0.1415
41.5 -0.82 -0.2945 3.3
42 47 -0.82 0.2193 5.5 5 0.0424
47.5 -0.19 -0.0752 5.5
48 53 -0.19 0.2463 6.2 4 0.7553
53.5 0.44 0.1710 6.2
54 59 0.44 0.1878 4.7 6 0.3622
59.5 1.08 0.3589 4.7
60 65 1.08 0.0973 2.4 4 1.0103
65.5 1.71 0.4561
5,72
92
####
X = 2.6116
Based on the Chi-Square table (X
2
table
) for 5% alpha of
significance with df 6 3 = 3, it was found X
2
table
= 7.81. Because of
2
score
X <
2
table
X , so the initial data of control group distributed normally.
While from the research result of VIII B students in the control
group before they were taught vocabulary without song lyrics they
reached the maximum score 30 and minimum score 65. The stretches
of score were 35. So, there were 6 classes with length of classes 6.
From the computation of frequency distribution, it was found (
i i
x f
.
)
= 1287, and (
2
. i i
x f ) = 67908. So, the average score ( X ) was 51.46
and the standard deviation (S) was 8.4285. After counting the average
score and standard deviation, table of observation frequency was
needed to measure Chi-Square (
2
score
X ).
( )
i
i i
E
E O
2

42
Table 3. Table of the Observation Frequency of Class VIII B
Class
Bk Z
i
P(Z
i
) Ld Ei Oi
29.5 -2.61 -0.4954
30 35 -2.61 0.0246 0.6 1 0.2429
35.5 -1.89 -0.4709 0.6138
36 41 -1.89 0.0895 2.2 2 0.0253
41.5 -1.18 -0.3813 2.2380
42 47 -1.18 0.2006 5.0 5 0.0000
47.5 -0.47 -0.1808 5.0144
48 53 -0.47 0.2764 6.9 6 0.1198
53.5 0.24 0.0956 6.9097
54 59 0.24 0.2343 5.9 6 0.0035
59.5 0.95 0.3299 5.8578
60 65 0.95 0.1222 3.1 5 1.2389
65.5 1.67 0.4521 5,7292
####
X
= 1.6304
Based on the Chi-Square table (X
2
table
) for 5% alpha of
significance with df 6 3 = 3, it was found X
2
table
= 7.81. Because of
2
score
X <
2
table
X , so the initial data of control group distributed normally.
b. Test of Homogeneity
Test of homogeneity was done to know whether sample in the
research come from population that had same variance or not. In this
study, the homogeneity of the test was measured by comparing the
obtained score (
score
F ) with
table
F . Thus, if the obtained score (
score
F )
was lower than the
table
F or equal, it could be said that the Ho was
accepted. It meant that the variance was homogeneous.
Table 4. Test of Homogeneity
Variant Sources Control G Experimental G
Sum 1275 1230
N 25 25
X 51.00 49.20
Variants (s2) 66.67 80.58
Standart deviation (s) 8.16 8.98
( )
i
i i
E
E O
2

43
By knowing the mean and the variance, the writer was able to
test the similarity of the two variants in the pre-test between
experimental and control group. The formula of the test of
homogeneity as follows:
F =
Variance Smallest
Variance Biggest
= 80.58/66.67
= 1.209
On a 5% with df numerator (nb - 1) = 25 1 = 24 and df
denominator (nk 1) = 25 1 = 24, it was found
table
F = 1.98. Because
of
score
F
table
F , so it could be concluded that both experimental and
control group had no differences. The result showed both groups had
similar variants (homogenous).
c. Test of Difference Two Variants in Pre-test Between Experiment
and Control Group
After counting standard deviation and variance, it could be
concluded that both group have no differences in the test of similarity
between two variances in pre-test score. So, to differentiate whether
the students results of vocabulary in experimental and control group
were significant or not, the writer used t-test to test the hypothesis that
had been mentioned in the chapter two. The writer used formula:
2 1
2
1
1 1
n n
s
x x
t
+

=
Where:
2
) 1 ( ) 1 (
2 1
2
2 2
2
1 1
+
+
=
n n
s n s n
S
Based on table IV. first the writer had to find out S by using the
formula above:
44
S
( )
2 25 25
66.67 ) 1 25 ( 80.58 1 25
+
+
=
5805 . 8 =
After S was found, the next step was to measure t-test:
t
25
1
25
1
5805 . 8
51.00 49.20
+

=
742 . 0 =
After getting t-test result, then it would be consulted to the
critical score of
table
t to check whether the difference is significant or
not. For a = 5% with df 25 + 25 2 = 48, it was found
( ) ( ) 48 975 . 0 table
t =
2.048. Because of
score
t <
table
t , so it could be concluded that there was
no significance of difference between the experimental and control
group. It meant that both experimental and control group had same
condition before getting treatments.
2. Analysis of Post-test
The experimental group was given post test on June 02, 2009 and
control group was given a post test on June 03, 2009. Post-test was
conducted after all treatments were done. Song lyrics were used as media
in the teaching of vocabulary to students in experimental group. While for
students in control group, they were given treatments without song lyrics.
Post-test was aimed to measure students ability after they got treatments.
a. Test of Normality
Test of normality was used to find out whether data of control
and experimental group, which had been collected after they got
treatments, come from normal distribution normal or not. The formula,
that was used, was Chi-Square. The result computation of Chi-Square
(
2
score
X ) then was compared with table of Chi-square (
2
table
X ) by using
45
5% alpha of significance. If
2
score
X <
2
table
X meant that the data spread
of research result distributed normally.
Based on the result of VIII A students in experimental group,
after they were taught vocabulary of verb by using song lyrics, was
found that the maximum score was 80 and minimal score was 35. The
stretches of score were 45. So, there were 6 classes with length of
classes 6. From the computation of frequency distribution, it was found
(
i i
x f
.
) = 1721.5 and (
2
. i i
x f ) = 138348.3 So, the average score ( X )
was 68.86 and the standard deviation (S) was 8.32106 After counting
the average score and standard deviation, table of observation
frequency was needed to measure Chi-Square (
2
score
X ).
Table 5. Table of the Observation Frequency of Class VIII A
Class
Dk Z
i
P(Z
i
) Ld Ei Oi
44.5 -2.93 -0.4983
45 50 -2.93 0.0120 0.3 1 1.6415
50.5 -2.21 -0.4863 0.3
51 56 -2.21 0.0550 1.4 2 0.2829
56.5 -1.49 -0.4313 1.4
57 62 -1.49 0.1536 3.8 1 2.1008
62.5 -0.76 -0.2777 3.8
63 68 -0.76 0.2604 6.5 6 0.0400
68.5 -0.04 -0.0173 6.5
69 74 -0.04 0.2683 6.7 8 0.2490
74.5 0.68 0.2511 6.7
75 80 0.68 0.1680 4.2 7 1.8657
80.5 1.40 0.4191 5,7292
####
X
= 6.1798
Based on the Chi-Square table (X
2
table
) for 5% alpha of
significance with df 6 3 = 3, it was found X
2
table
= 7.81. Because of
2
score
X <
2
table
X , so the initial data of control group distributed normally.
While from the result of VIII B students in the control group
after they got usual treatments, they reached the maximum score 80
and minimum score 45. The stretches of score were 35. So, there were
6 classes with length of classes 6. From the computation of frequency
( )
i
i i
E
E O
2

46
distribution, it was found (
i i
x f
.
) = 1602, and (
2
. i i
x f ) = 104556. So,
the average score ( X ) was 64.06 and the standard deviation (S) was
9.04655. It meant that there was an improvement of students score
after they got treatments. After counting the average score and
standard deviation, table of observation frequency was needed to
measure Chi-Square (
2
score
X ).
Table 6. Table of the Observation Frequency of Class VIII B
Class
Bk Z
i
P(Z
i
) Ld Ei Oi
44.5 -2.16 -0.4847
45 50 -2.16 0.0516 1.3 3 2.2618
50.5 -1.50 -0.4331 1.3
51 56 -1.50 0.1347 3.4 3 0.0402
56.5 -0.84 -0.2983 3.4
57 62 -0.84 0.2299 5.7 7 0.2732
62.5 -0.17 -0.0685 5.7
63 68 -0.17 0.2567 6.4 7 0.0530
68.5 0.49 0.1882 6.4
69 74 0.49 0.1875 4.7 5 0.0207
74.5 1.15 0.3758 4.7
75 80 1.15 0.0897 2.2 3 0.2568
80.5 1.82 0.4654 5,7292
####
X
= 2.9057
Based on the Chi-Square table (X
2
table
) for 5% alpha of
significance with df 6 3 = 3, it was found X
2
table
= 7.81. Because of
2
score
X <
2
table
X , so the initial data of control group distributed normally.
b. Test of Homogeneity
The writer determined the mean and variance of the students
score either in experimental or control group. By knowing the mean
and variance, the writer was able to test the similarity of the two
variance in the post-test between experimental and control group.
( )
i
i i
E
E O
2

47
Table 7. Test of Homogeneity
Varians Sources Control G Experimental G
Sum 1590 1700
N 25 25
X 63.60 68.00
Variants (S
2
) 76.08 64.58
Standart deviation (S) 8.72 8.04
The formula of the test of homogeneity as follows:
F =
Variance Smallest
Variance Biggest
= 76.08/64.58
= 1.178
On a 5% with df numerator (nb - 1) = 25 1 = 24 and df
denominator (nk 1) = 25 1 = 24, it was found Ftable
(0.025)(24:24)
=
2,27 Because of
score
F
table
F , so it could be concluded that both
experimental and control group had no differences. The result showed
both groups had similar variance (homogenous).
c. Test of Difference Two Variants in Post-test Between Experiment
and Control Group
After counting standard deviation and variance, it could be
concluded that both group have no differences in the test of similarity
between two variances in post-test score. So, to differentiate if the
students results of vocabulary in experimental and control group after
getting treatments were significant or not, the writer used t-test to test
the hypothesis that had been mentioned in the chapter two. To see the
48
difference between the experimental and control group, the writer used
formula:
2 1
2
1
1 1
n n
s
x x
t
+

=
Where:
2
) 1 ( ) 1 (
2 1
2
2 2
2
1 1
+
+
=
n n
s n s n
S
Based on table VI, first the writer had to find out S by using the
formula above:
S
( ) ( )
2 25 25
76.08 1 25 64.58 1 25
+
+
=
3865 . 8 =
After S was found, the next step was to measure t-test:
t
25
1
25
1
3865 . 8
63.60 68.00
+

=
= 1.855
After getting t-test result, then it would be consulted to the
critical score of
table
t to check whether the difference is significant or
not. For a = 5% with df 25 + 25 2 = 48, it was found
( ) ( ) 48 95 . 0 table
t =
1.68. Because of
score
t >
table
t , so it could be concluded that there was
significance of difference between the experimental and control group.
It meant that experimental group was better that control group after
getting treatments.
Since the obtained t-score was higher than the critical score on
the table, the difference was statistically significance. Therefore, based
on the computation there was a significance difference in vocabulary
of verb achievement score between students were taught using song
lyrics and those were taught without using song lyrics for the eighth
49
grade students of MTs Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang Semarang. So it
can be said that using song lyrics is effective to improve students
vocabulary of verb, and so the action hypothesis is accepted.
C. Discussions
Based on the calculation of normality and homogeneity test form
class VIII A as the experimental class and VIIIB as a control class is
normal distribution and homogeneous. The data were obtained from the
students achievement scores of the test of vocabulary. They were pre-test
and post-test scores from the experimental and control group. The
following was the simple tables of pre and post-test students average.
Table 8.
Pre-test and Post-test Students Average Scores of the Experimental and
Control Group
No Group The Average
Percentage of Pre-test
The Average
Percentage of Post-test
1 Experimental 59.20 68.00
2 Control 51.00 63.60
The result of the research show that the experimental (the students
who are taught using song lyrics) class has the mean value 68.00.
Meanwhile, the control class (the students who are taught without using
song lyrics) has the mean value 63.60. It can be said that the vocabulary
achievement of experimental class is higher than the control class.
Based on t-test analysis that was done, it was found that the t-score
(1.855) was higher than t-table by using 5% alpha of significance (1.68).
Since
score
t >
table
t , it proved that there was a significant difference between
the improvement of students achievement that was given a new treatment
(using song lyrics) and the improvement of students achievement that was
given a usual treatment.
50
D. Limitation of Research
The writer realized that this research had not been done optimally.
There were some hindrances and barriers in doing this research. The
hindrances and barriers were not caused by inability of the researcher but
caused by the limitation of the research like time, fund, and equipment of
research.
51
CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusions
Based on the finding and discussion in previous chapter, it could be
concluded that the use of song lyrics to improve students vocabulary of verb
was very effective. The results of the data analysis are:
1. The average score of experimental group ( the students who were taught
by using song lyrics) was 49.20 for the pre test and 51.00 for the post test
2. The average score of control group ( the students who were not taught by
using song lyrics) was 56,80 for the pre test and 63.60 for the post test
3. Song lyric is effective to improve students vocabulary of verb at eighth
grade of MTs. Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang Semarang in academic year
of 2009/2010. It was proved by the obtained score of t-test. The t-test
showed that t-score 1.855 was higher than t-table 1.68. It meant that Ha
was accepted and Ho was rejected. Since the t-score was higher that the t-
table, there was a significance difference in the achievement between
students in class VIII A who were taught vocabulary of verb using song
lyrics and students in class VIII B who were taught vocabulary of verb
without using song lyrics (using conventional method).
B. Suggestions
From the conclusion above, there are some suggestions that are
proposed by the writer:
1. Teacher should use interesting media to teach English because students
believe that English language is difficult
2. This research has found out that teaching English vocabulary of verb using
song lyrics to improve students is effective. The writer hopes to support
the teacher using song lyrics in the teaching vocabulary of verb.
3. Teacher should plan the time well. They should be careful in selecting the
song.
52
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th
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Azar, Betty Schrampfer, Understanding and Using English Grammar, New
jersey; Prentice Hall Regent, 1989, 2
rd
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th
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Teaching, New York: Combridge University Press, 2000
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ChrisBrewer,MusicinTheLearningCycle,http//www.songforteaching.com/teac
ingtips/musicinthelearningcycle.accessed on May 08,2010 /08.45
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Depdiknas, 2004
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English Song, Semarang: IKIP PGRI, 2009
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subject. accessed on May 08,2010 /09.45
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Pembelajaran Bahasa Arab,UIN Malang Press,2008
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School at Case of Study on the Fifth Grade of SDN 1 Surodadi
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55
CURRICULUM VITAE
Name : Masning Zahro
Student Number : 063411050
Place and Date of Birth : Jepara, May 13, 1988
Address : Jl. KH. Abdul Wahab No.10 Surodadi Kedung Jepara
Phone : 085640254180
E-mail : Zahro_C@yahoo.com
Education:
RA Miftahul Falah Jepara graduated in 1994
MI Hidayatul Mubtadi Jepara graduated in 2000
MTs Mafatihuttullab annawawi Jepara graduated in 2003
MA Mafatihuttullab annawawi Jepara graduated in 2006
Tarbiyah Faculty of IAIN Walisongo Semarang
56
NAMES OF EXPERIMENT CLASS
NAMES
OF
CONTROL
CLASS
NO Name Code of Students
1 Aisatul Uffah E 1
2 Ana Wijayanti E 2
3 Andrianus Prasetyo Adi E 3
4 Chamdan Mudawwam E 4
5 Dian Setiyaningsih E 5
6 Fatimatul Khasanah E 6
7 Khirur Shovi'i E 7
8 Mohamad Fitriyanto E 8
9 Mohammad Hasan Basri E 9
10 Mudasir E 10
11 Muhamad Hasyim E 11
12 Muhamad Misbakhul M. E 12
13 Muhammad Alfiri E 13
14 Mukarom "AlBarokah" E 14
15 Nila Alfiyatun Nikmah E 15
16 Nur Ahmad Jafar E 16
17 Nur Hamidah E 17
18 Nur Latip E 18
19 Nuril Fitriana E 19
20 Rizky Maulina Farida E 20
21 Rizqi Akbar E 21
22 Supriyadi "alBarokah" E 22
23 Syaiful Atiqudin E 23
24 Ul Ridho E 24
25 Yahyan Asiamat
Syaifudin
E 25
57
NO Name Code of Students
1 Achmad Jailani C 1
2 Ahmad Bisri Mustofa C 2
3 Ahmad Ghufron C 3
4 Ahmad Saifuddin MZ C 4
5 Akromul Hadi C 5
6 Ayu Efnita Widyawati C 6
7 Ayu Farikhah C 7
8 Ayu Saraswati C 8
9 Choirul Hafis C 9
10 Devita Novi Arisandi C 10
11 Feliani Agustin C 11
12 Ianatur Rohmah C 12
13 Kamilin C 13
14 Moh. Syamsudin C 14
15 Muhammad Ni'mal Abdu C 15
16 Muhammad Shobirin C 16
17 Muhammad Susanto C 17
18 Putri Prida Liana C 18
19 Rizqi Noor Hidayah C 19
20 Ruslani C 20
21 Siti Maesaroh C 21
22 Supriyanto C 22
23 Wiwit Suheriyanto C 23
24 Yudi C 24
25 Zakki Misbahun C 25
LESSON PLAN
58
FOR EXPERIMENT GROUP
School : MTs Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang
Subject : English Lesson
Class/ Semester : VIII/2
Time allotment : 2 x 45 minutes
Topic : Experience
Skill focus : Listening and writing
Media : Song Lyric
Standard Competence : To understand the meaning of transactional and
interpersonal short conversation to communicate
with others especially in the text about vocabulary
of experience.
Basic competence : To give responses to the meaning of transactional
and interpersonal short conversation accurately,
fluently, and acceptable to communicate with other
especially in the text about vocabulary of
experience.
Indicator : Students are able to identify the vocabulary of
verb from the lyrics of song.
Learning outcomes :
By the end of the lesson, students will have been able to:
- Explain the definition and the use of verb.
- Mention the vocabulary of verb accurately and fluently
- Express meaning the vocabulary of verb form correctly.
A. Teaching and Learning Activities:
1. Pre activity
59
a.Teacher enters the room and greets the students.
b.Students respond the teachers greeting.
2. Main activity
a. First Meeting
1) BKoF (Building Knowledge of The Field) (10 minutes)
a) Teacher gives questions related to the topic.
b) Students answer teacher questions.
2) MoT (Modeling of Text) (30 minutes)
a) Teacher explains the verb and gives examples.
b) Students pay attention to the teacher explanation.
c) Teacher gives song lyric to students.
d) Students to listen carefully when teacher plays song and identify
the vocabulary of verb from the lyric.
3) JCoT (Join Construction of Text) (20 minutes)
a) Students identify the vocabulary verb from the lyric of song.
b) One of students writes their vocabulary of verb and the meaning of
the vocabulary in the whiteboard.
c) Teacher and students discuss the vocabulary of verb together.
4) ICoT (Independence Construction of Text) (30 minutes)
a) Teacher reviews the material.
b. Second Meeting
1) BKoF (Building Knowledge of The Field) (10 minutes)
a) Teacher gives questions related to the topic.
b) Students answer teacher questions.
2) MoT (Modeling of Text) (30 minutes)
a) Teacher explains the verb and gives examples.
b) Students pay attention to the teacher explanation.
c) Teacher gives song lyric to students.
60
d) Students to listen carefully when teacher plays song and identify
the verb from the lyric.
3) JCoT (Join Construction of Text) (20 minutes)
a) Students identify the vocabulary of verb from the lyric of song.
b) One of students writes their vocabulary of verb and the meaning of
the vocabulary of verb in the whiteboard.
c) Teacher and students discuss the verb together.
4) ICoT (Independence Construction of Text) (30 minutes)
a) Teacher reviews the material.
c. Third meeting
1) BKoF (Building Knowledge of The Field) (10 minutes)
a) Teacher gives questions related to the topic.
b) Students answer teacher questions.
2) MoT (Modeling of Text) (30 minutes)
a) Teacher explains the verb and gives examples.
b) Students pay attention to the teacher explanation.
c) Teacher gives song lyric to students.
d) Students to listen carefully when teacher plays song and identify
the vocabulary of verb from the lyric.
3) JCoT (Join Construction of Text) (20 minutes)
a) Students identify the vocabulary of verb from the lyrics of song.
b) One of students writes their vocabulary of verb and the meaning of
the vocabulary of verb in the whiteboard.
c) Teacher and students discuss the verb together.
4) ICoT (Independence Construction of Text) (30 minutes)
a) Teacher reviews the material.
3. Post Activity
a) The teacher review the explanation they have discussed.
61
b) The students have time to ask.
4) Teaher closes the lesson and says greeting.
B. References
1. English on Sky 2 for Junior High School Students Year VIII, 2007
2. Internet; song and the lyrics of song
3. Lks MODUL B. Inggris kls VII
C. Scoring :
1. Test item : 20
2. Score each item : 5
3. Total score of all items : 5 x 20 = 100
D. Assessment
1. Form : Written test
2. Technique : Students are asigned to choose the correct
answer
3. Aspect to be assessed : Vocabulary
Semarang, May 6
th
2010.
English Teacher The Reseascher
Asep S.Pd Masning Zahro
LESSON PLAN
62
FOR CONTROL GROUP
School : MTs Uswatun Hasanah Mangkang
Subject : English Lesson
Class/ Semester : VIII/2
Time allotment : 2 x 45 minutes
Topic : Experience
Skill focus : listening and writing
Standard Competence : To understand the meaning of transactional and
interpersonal short conversation to communicate
with others especially in the text about vocabulary
of experience.
Basic competence :To give responses to the meaning of transactional
and interpersonal short conversation accurately,
fluently, and acceptable to communicate with other
especially in the text about vocabulary of
experience.
Indicator : Students are able to identify the vocabulary of
verb from the topic.
Learning outcomes :
By the end of the lesson, students will have been able to:
- Explain the definition and the use of verb.
- Mention the vocabulary of verb accurately and fluently
- Express meaning the vocabulary of verb form correctly.
63
E. Teaching and Learning Activities:
`1. Pre activity
a. Teacher enters the room and greets the students.
b. Students respond the teachers greeting.
2. Main activity
a. First Meeting
5) BKoF (Building Knowledge of The Field) (10 minutes)
a) Teacher gives questions related to the topic.
b) Students answer teacher questions.
c) Teacher gives motivation to the students to learn vocabulary of
verb.
6) MoT (Modeling of Text) (30 minutes)
a) Students make example about vocabulary of verb.
b) Students discuss about verb and type of verb.
c) Teacher gives little explanation about verb and type of verb.
7) JCoT (Join Construction of Text) (30 minutes)
a) Students identify the vocabulary of verb from the topic.
b) Teacher checks the students.
c) Students come forward and write their vocabulary of verb and the
meaning of the vocabulary of verb in the whiteboard.
8) ICoT (Independence Construction of Text) (20 minutes)
a) Teacher reviews the material.
b. Second Meeting
1) BKoF (Building Knowledge of The Field) (10 minutes)
a) Teacher gives questions related to the topic.
b) Students answer teacher questions.
2) MoT (Modeling of Text) (30 minutes)
a) Teacher explains the verb and gives examples.
b) Students pay attention to the teacher explanation.
64
3) JCoT (Join Construction of Text) (30 minutes)
a) Students identify the vocabulary of verb from the topic.
b) Teacher checks the students.
c) Students come forward and write their vocabulary of verb and the
meaning of the vocabulary of verb in the whiteboard.
4) ICoT (Independence Construction of Text) (20 minutes)
- Teacher reviews the material.
c. Third meeting
1) BKoF (Building Knowledge of The Field) (10 minutes)
a) Teacher gives questions related to the topic.
b) Students answer teacher questions.
2) MoT (Modeling of Text) (30 minutes)
a) Teacher explains the verb and gives examples.
b) Students pay attention to the teacher explanation.
3) JCoT (Join Constriction of Text) (30 minutes)
a) Students identify the vocabulary of verb from the topic.
b) Teacher checks the students.
c) Students come forward and write their vocabulary of verb the
meaning of the vocabulary of verb in the whiteboard.
4) ICoT (Independence Construction of Text) (20 minutes)
a) Teacher reviews the material.
3. Post Activity
a) The teacher review the explanation they have discussed.
b) The students have time to ask.
c) Teaher closes the lesson and says greeting.
F. References
1. English on Sky 2 for Junior High School Students Year VIII, 2007
2. Lks MODUL B. Inggris kls VIII
65
G. Scoring :
1. Test item : 20
2. Score each item : 5
3. Total score of all items : 5 x 20 = 100
H. Assessment
1. Form : Written test
2. Technique : Students are asigned to choose the correct
answer
3. Aspect to be assessed : Vocabulary
Semarang, May 6
th
2010.
English Teacher The Reseascher
Asep S.Pd Masning Zahro
66
Treatment I
I Believe My Heart
by Duncan James & Keedie
Whenever I see your face the world disappears
All in a single glance so revealing
You smile and I feel us though I've know you for years
How do I know to trust what I'm feeling?
I believe my heart,
What else can I do
When every part of every thought leads me straight to you
I believe my heart
There's no other choice
For now whenever my heart speaks, I can only hear your voice
The life-time before we met has faded away
How did I live a moment without you?
You don't have to speak at all, I know what you'd say
And I know every secret about you
I believe my heart,
I believe in you
It's telling me that what I see is completely true
I believe my heart
How can it be wrong?
It says that what I feel for you I will feel my whole life long
I believe my heart,
I believe in you
It's telling me that what I see is completely true
I believe my heart
How can it be wrong?
The portrait that it paints of you is a perfect work of art
67
Treatment II
As tears go by
By M. Jagger & K. Richards
(The Rolling Stones)
It is the evening of the day
I sit and watch the children play
Smiling faces I can see
But not for me
I sit and watch
As tears go by
My riches can't buy everything
I want to hear the children sing
All I hear is the sound
Of rain falling on the ground
I sit and watch
As tears go by
It is the evening of the day
I sit and watch the children play
Doin' things I used to do
They think are new
I sit and watch
As tears go by
68
Treatment III
Fireflies
You would not believe your eyes
if ten million fireflies
Lit up the world as I fell asleep
cause they fill the open air
And leave teardrops everywhere
You'd think me rude, but I
Would just stand and stare.
I'd like to make myself believe
that planet Earth turns slowly.
It's hard to say that I'd
Rather stay awake when I'm asleep,
Cause everything is never as it seems.
Cause I'd get a thousand hugs
from ten thousand lightening bugs
as they tried to teach me how to dance.
A foxtrot above my head,
A sock-hop beneath my bed,
The disco ball is just hanging by a thread.
I'd like to make myself believe
that planet Earth turns slowly.
It's hard to say that I'd
Rather stay awake when I'm asleep,
Cause everything is never as it seems.
(When I fall asleep)
Leave my door open just a crack.
(Please take me away from here.)
Cause I feel like such an insomniac.
(Please take me away from here.)
Why do I tire of counting sheep?
(Please take me away from here.)
When I'm far too tired to fall asleep
to ten million fireflies.
69
I'm weird, cause I hate goodbyes
I got misty eyes as they said farewell.
But I'll know where several are
If my dreams get real bizarre
Cause I saved a few,
And I keep them in a jar.
I'd like to make myself believe
that planet Earth turns slowly.
It's hard to say that I'd
Rather stay awake when I'm asleep,
Cause everything is never as it seems.
(When I fall asleep.)
I'd like to make myself believe
That planet Earth turns slowly.
It's hard to say that I'd
Rather stay awake when I'm asleep
Because my dreams are bursting at the seams
70
Try Out Question
A. Choose the correct answer by crossing (X) for a, b, c or d!
1. Theythe Indonesia Raya song together
a.sing b. stand c. run d. stop
2. She . on the top of the mountain
a.rises b. stands c. treads d. dwells
3. I to school everyday
a.dance b. go c. eat d. sing
4. The sun in the east
a.rises b .turns c. stops d. rides
5. He.clever
a.it b. were c. am d. is
6. A doctor.. patients
a.treats b. turns c. stops d. serves
7. Tina .. the computer for work
a.rides b. deals c. uses d. holds
8. Carpenters ..furniture
a. play b. make c. work d. treat
9. She abroad with her father by plane
a. goes b. overtakes c. runs d. treads
10. We must .English seriously
a. laugh b. walk c. study d. run
11. Everyday I up at 6 o'clock
a. sleep b. wake c. run d. swim
12. A sailor. on a ship
a.works b. does c. stays d. lives
13. He on the internet
a.chats b. plays c. takes d. writes
14. Singers .people with songs
a.play b. entertain c. make d. amuse
15. John and Deny .homework together
71
a.work b. try c. do d. play
16. I a student
a.was b. am c. is d. it
17. The words below is verb, except
a.see b. look c. sea d. watch
18. The words below is verb, except
a.lose b. home c. know d. tell
B. For number 19-22, choose the synonym from the words that
underlined by crossing a, b, c, d!
19. Hani likes listening music to improve her vocabulary.
a.expand b. increase c. get d. choose
20. You would not believe your eyes
a.certain b. think c. sure d. trust
21. She learns English language
a.stands b. studies c. plays d. works
22. She lives in a fairy tale.
a.stays b. leaves c. stands d. dreams
C. For number 23-25, choose the antonym from the words that
underlined by crossing a, b, c, d!
23. I'm weird, cause I hate goodbyes
a.love b. get c. like d. cry
24. We stand on the top of the building
a.wake b. cry c. sleep d. sit
25. I love peaceful melody
a.like b. believe c. hate d. need
72
Pre Test Question
D. Choose the correct answer by crossing (X) for a, b, c or d!
26. Theythe Indonesia Raya song together
a.sing b. stand c. run d. stop
27. I to school everyday
a.dance b. go c. eat d. sing
28. The sun in the east
a.rises b .turns c. stops d. rides
29. He.clever
a.it b. were c. am d. is
30. A doctor.. patients
b. treats b. turns c. stops d. serves
31. Tina .. the computer for work
a.rides b. deals c. uses d. holds
32. We must .English seriously
a. laugh b. walk c. study d. run
33. Everyday I . at 9 o'clock
a. sleep b. wake c. take d. make
34. A sailor. on a ship
a.works b. does c. stays d. lives
35. He .games
a.chats b. plays c. takes d. writes
36. Carpenters ..furniture
a. play b. make c. work d. treat
37. Singers .people with songs
a.play b. entertain c. make d. amuse
38. Robert and Deny .homework together
a.work b. try c. do d. play
39. The words below is verb, except
a.read b. listen c. wri d. people
40. the words below is verb, except
73
a.melodyb. play c. work d. sing
E. For number 18-19, choose the synonym from the words that
underlined by crossing a, b, c, d!
41. Tommy likes listening music to improve her vocabulary.
a.expand b. increase c. get d. choose
42. You would not believe your eyes
a.certain b. think c. sure d. trust
43. She learns English language
a.stands b. studies c. plays d. works
F. For number 19-20, choose the antonym from the words that
underlined by crossing a, b, c, d!
44. We stand on the top of the building
a.wake b. cry c. sleep d. sit
45. They love peaceful melody
a.like b. believe c. hate d. need
74
Post Test Question
G. Choose the correct answer by crossing (X) for a, b, c or d!
46. Studentsthe Indonesia Raya song together
a.sing b. stand c. run
d. stop
47. I to school everyday
a.dance b. go c. eat d. sing
48. The sun in the west
a.sets b .turns c. stops
d. rides
49. I.clever
a.it b. was c. am
d. is
50. Ali .. the computer for work
a.rides b. deals c. uses
d. holds
51. Carpenters ..furniture
a. play b. make c. work
d. treat
52. We must .English seriously
a. laugh b. walk c. study
d. run
53. Everyday I up at 6 o'clock
a. sleep b. wake c. take
d. make
54. A doctor.. patients
c.treats b. turns c. stops
d. serves
55. A sailor. on a ship
a.works b. does c. stays d. lives
56. He on the internet
75
a.chats b. plays c. takes
d. writes
57. John and Deny .homework together
a.work b. try c. do
d. play
58. Singers .people with songs
a.play b. entertain c. make
d. amuse
59. The words below is verb, except
a.see b. look c. sea
d. watch
60. The words below is verb, except
a.stand b. home c. steal
d. leave
H. For number 16-18, choose the synonym from the words that
underlined by crossing a, b, c, d!
61. Hani likes listening music to improve her vocabulary.
a.expand b. get c. increase d.
choose
62. You would not believe your eyes
a.certain b. think c. trust d. sure
63. She learns English language
a.stands b. studies c. plays d.
works
I. For number 19-20, choose the antonym from the words that
underlined by crossing a, b, c, d!
64. We stand on the top of the building
76
a.wake b. cry c. sleep
d. sit
65. I love peaceful melody
a.believe b. like c. hate d. need
1
Answers Key
Try out Pre test Post test
1. A 1. A 1. A
2. B 2. B 2. B
3. B 3. A 3. A
4. A 4. D 4. C
5. D 5. A 5. C
6. A 6. C 6. B
7. C 7. C 7. C
8. B 8. A 8. B
9. A 9. A 9. A
10. C 10. B 10. A
11 B 11 B 11 A
12 A 12 B 12 C
13 A 13 C 13 B
14 B 14 D 14 C
15 C 15 A 15 B
16 B 16 B 16 C
17 C 17 C 17 D
18 B 18 B 18 B
19 B 19 D 19 D
20 C 20 C 20 C
21 B
22 A
23 A
24 D
25 C