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Human Resources (Student Version)

A worksheet investigating the recruitment process.

Worksheet on Human Resources (Student Version)

Background Info.
Aim of Task
Blank Table
Useful Links

This version differs from the student version in that it gives completed blank tables as
examples at the end of the worksheet, along with a few points for discussion.
This Online worksheet is designed to be undertaken within a single hour class, but leaves
several openings for further work.
It includes some basic background information so the task can be completed without extra
notes, and also utilises links to useful resources so those with time and online access may
explore the subject and relevant references in more detail.
It is assumed that students are familiar with the place of Human Resource Management in
relation to the rest of the business.

Background Information
Human Resource Management
Human Resource Systems
A Basic Model
Organisational Strategy
Organisational Structure
Human Resource Planning
Performance Appraisal
Organisational Strategy
Any efficient Human Resources department needs to integrate its departmental strategy to fall
in line with the strategy of the rest of the organisation. The HRM function needs to
communicate with other departments in order to ensure a streamlined ......
Organisational Structure
without which the staffing function becomes randomly inefficient and ineffective.
Human Resource Planning
is the development of a comprehensive staffing strategy that meets the organisations future
human resources needs. When applied to management selection it ought to ensure
recruitment of the right people for the right jobs at the right time. Rather than fill poosts when
they fall vacant, or a pressing need arises, efficient human resource planning needs to answer
these questions.
1. Are the right numbers and type of people doing the things that need doing?
2. Are we using our human resources well?
3. Do we have the people we need to satisfy our future requirements?
is maintaining a recruitment policy that guarantees a continuous supply of personnel in all
areas of the business, that meets needs caused by retirement, resignations, promotions,
maternity leave, business expansion or diversification across the organisation.
Performance Appraisal
is the appraisal of an employees performance in a way that ensures the output of an employee
matches the expectations of the organisation. This requires a proactive approach to thge
appraisal of the employee, in order that agreed targets can be set and analysed on a pre-
determined basis. Often this performance may be linked to pay structure and bonuses.
Once an employee is on a payroll, they must be included in a rolling programme of personal
development in order to maintain their interest and motivation. The organisation needs to
ensure that employees are able to meet the challenges of their role as the environment
undergos changes, especially in areas such as competition, technology and product

Aim of Task for student.
Your current personnel assistant is leaving to live abroad with his highly paid wife who is a
network programmer. He has been with the company for nearly 4 years, during which time he
has risen from trainee personnel assistant to his current post. You are required to examine the
recruitment process for a new personnel assistant for your organisation which is involved in
the manufacture of a product within the communications industry. This could be either a
computer component, telecommunications component or even a piece (or pieces) of software.
Some familiarity of the industry and evidence of previous knowledge will be an advantage.
The first task will be to complete the table below with, what you consider, to be the essential
needs in each area.
Your teacher will have some points of consideration, though in reality this task is one for you
to complete using your own previous skills and judgement.
Try to include both general answers that can apply to any post/industry as well as specific
answers to the scenario.

Blank Table to be completed using your own skill and Judgement
Area Requirements
Job Analysis Think of at least 3 areas of consideration by yourself and the outgoing
employ that will help analyse the job.
Person Specification Consider a minimum of 3 areas that you need to include in a person
Job Description What do you think should be included in a job description?
How will you reach potential applicants?
Initial Screening What will this involve?
What do you think this means and how what would you do in this
Final Selection What is this and how will it apply here?
Induction Process What is this and how might it affect this situation?
Training Needs What are these?
How will this be applied?
Anything else of relevance?

The Scenario
A medium sized business was seeking to recruit a product development manager in its
research and development (R&D) section. The new person would be responsible for
overseeing the process by which the new products the business was developing were
prepared for launch onto the market.
The recruitment process involved placing adverts in trade magazines and the national press
and the adverts resulted in over 60 applications. There were 5 people involved in the short
listing process: the direct line manager; the head of the HR division; the assistant head of that
division; and two members of the new product development department - one from R&D and
one from the launch team.
A short list of 7 candidates was drawn up. However, the assistant head of HR heard that a
former trainee of the firm wanted to apply but could not get the application in by the deadline
- she would be a strong candidate and the firm knew of her qualities. The head of HR agreed
to let the application come in three days late and she was duly added to the shortlist.
On the day of the selection, each candidate had to do a presentation on the extent to which
they matched the job description and person specification and what they felt they could bring
to the job to further the company's objectives. This was followed by an interview. The
candidate who had put in the late application did not turn up and the head of HR phoned her
up. She said that she had not received a letter inviting her for interview and was not therefore
aware that she was wanted. She agreed to come in and was allowed to miss doing the
presentation although would be questioned on it in the same way that other candidates were.
At the end of the process, two clear candidates emerged, one of which was the late applicant.
It was decided that she would be offered the position and after receiving the phone call from
the assistant manager of the HR department, she duly accepted. The rest of the selection team
took the responsibility of contacting the other candidates to tell them they were unsuccessful
and to give them some feedback about their performance and why they were unsuccessful.
Later that evening, the head of HR received a phone call from the successful candidate telling
her that she had gone back to her company where she had been working part time and told
them of her success. They had responded by offering her a full time position and increasing
her salary and she had decided to stay with them and thus did not want the position.
This meant that the candidate who was second had to be contacted and have the position
explained to him. Fortunately for the firm, he understood and was happy to accept the
position. Had he not, it could have involved the business in another round of selection which
is an expensive process.

The Task
Critically assess the recruitment and selection procedure of the firm in the light of this
experience and write a 500 word report to the head of Human Resources on recommendations
for any changes to the recruitment process for the firm.
Things to Consider
The following questions are provided to guide you in your thinking and critical analysis.
Is the method of advertising for new positions appropriate?
Is the method of sifting through the applications and shortlisting efficient and effective?
How effective a means of discrimination between candidates is the presentation and
interview process?
How far would you say that the firm's process meets employment legislation in terms of
equal opportunities?
What lessons might be learned about the selection process from what happened in the
What implications might there be on motivation, training and development from the way
the eventual appointment was made?
Is the method of providing feedback to unsuccessful candidates appropriate?
At the end of the lesson, students should be able to:
Demonstrate knowledge of different recruitment methods
Comment on the advantages and disadvantages of different selection processes
including interview, presentation and psychometric testing
Identify and explain some of the advantages and disadvantages of the process
described in the scenario
Produce a coherent, well argued and presented written report on the issues arising as a
result of the scenario Task

Chip and Pin technology is something we might think is fairly straightforward. For a
business, it is another change that they have to consider. Staff have to be confident in dealing
with all aspects of such a seemingly simple change. Copyright: Melodi T, from stock.xhcng.
Choose one business that you think is undergoing some form of change. You can get ideas
from looking through news articles. Alternatively, it could be a business in which you have
part-time work or a local business that you have visited or had work experience at.
Identify the main change that is affecting your chosen business - write 500 words stating
what the nature of the change is, where it is coming from (is it internal or external) and what
the main effects of the change are likely to be on the way the business operates.
Try to find out the main aims and objectives of the business - in what way do the changes
identified affect these aims and objectives?
Now turn your attention to the human resources in the business. What impact are the changes
likely to have on the employees?
Devise a plan for training staff to cope with these new changes - remember that the plan is
not just about telling them about the change, it is something that they are going to have to
come to terms with and may well have some anxieties about. How do you maintain morale
and motivation in the face of such changes? How do you go about identifying what sort of
training the employees might need?
For example, many firms have had to cope with the introduction of 'chip and pin' technology
in recent months. What are the training requirements that have to be put into place to meet
these needs? Do you need to do a skills audit (find out what skills the staff do and do not
have)? Do you need to send staff to an external training course or is it more appropriate to do
the training 'in-house'? What are the longer term implications for ensuring that the staff are
able to 'internalise' the training so that it becomes part of their everyday working pattern?

For some staff, changes might be a cause for some considerable anxiety and concern - how
do you manage the training needs of such people to ensure that the changes go smoothly and
productivity is maintained or even improved? Copyright: Tom Denham, from stock.xchng.
You may choose something more significant - for example, a business that has decided to
reorganise its management or re-locate to a different part of the country. The training needs
and how they are managed here are likely to be far more complex.
Finally, write a short 500-word evaluation of the training programme you have identified and
consider how appropriate it will be in helping staff to understand the change and also to be
able to cope with other, similar, sorts of changes.

Selling Skills in Travel and Tourism Activity

Football fans at the World Cup. Andreas Just, Stock.Xchng
Select one of the events listed below.
Fifa World Cup 2006 Germany
Ashes Cricket 2006-07 Australia
FA Cup Final 2006 Wembley or Cardiff
Spanish F1 GP May 2006 Barcelona
Cheltenham Festival (horse racing) March 14-17 2006
Vancouver 2010 Olympic and paralympic Winter Games
Working in pairs in the role of sales advisers in a specialist online or high street travel
agency, write a script for one of the following customer contact situations:
A telephone call
A face-to-face meeting
One of you should act the role of the adviser and the other the customer. The aim is to show
how to encourage the customer to book travel, accommodation, event tickets and
complementary services through your agency.
In order to do this, you will have to do the following:
1. Research into the event:
o Where will it be held?
o When does it take place?
o Is it a one-off or a continuing event?
o How much will it cost to attend?
o Are tickets still available?
o What are the main features of the location?
o How can you get there?
o If a continuing event, how easy is travel between venues?
2. Remember that important customer service selling skills include:
o Being approachable
o Being courteous
o Being friendly
o Having extensive product knowledge and an understanding of the alternatives
o Enthusiasm for events
o Knowledge of complementary products, for example entry to an event PLUS
accommodation, travel PLUS insurance, or possibly a flight PLUS onward transport.

Recruiting Staff
A lesson plan that introduces Recruitment at BTEC level.
Recruiting Staff
Every business, at some point in time, will have to recruit new staff. A vacancy may arise as
a result of someone leaving a post - possibly moving on to a new job - or because they are
retiring, or perhaps to have children, amongst other reasons. Vacancies may also arise
because of the expansion of the business, with new posts created to meet the needs of the
One thing that must be considered when looking at recruitment is that it can be a costly
operation. The planning, processing and selection process takes up many hours of time and
resources and is not something that many businesses approach lightly. In addition, it is vital
that the business gets the right person for the job; making the right choice is essential.
This resource will offer an overview of the recruitment process from the planning stage
through to selection and then provide you with an opportunity to work through the process.
The assessment for this unit is not just based on knowing how the process works but also in
evaluating the effectiveness of this process. Many businesses do get their selection wrong -
what lessons can be learnt in the process?
Planning for Recruitment
This resource is going to be based around applying for a job in the college/school that you are
studying in. The idea of using this as the case is that it is something that you are familiar
with, so will be able to understand more readily. It is also anticipated that you will be able to
access the sort of details necessary to look at the process properly.
Assume that your current lecturer/teacher is planning to leave at the end of the term and that
their position will need to be filled. You have 6 weeks remaining of the term to carry out all
the planning, selection and appointment for the new post. This is important, as time may be
relevant for more than one reason.
You will not only have to think about the drawing up of the relevant documentation and
receiving the applications, but also sorting through the applications, arranging the interviews,
confirming the appointment, giving the appointee the time to resign and completing the
arrangements to hand over the position.
First stages
The first stage in the process is to make sure that the job required is made clear. There are
two important documents that are likely to be part of this process - the job description and
the person specification.
Job Description

Qualifications and skills may be important, but having the right personality and attitude to fit
in with the organisation is also a vital aspect of good recruitment. The person specification
can make these qualities clear. Copyright: Kavitha Shivan, from stock.xchng
The job description will have been drawn up based on an analysis of the job itself. This may
have been discussed beforehand by various members of the department and senior managers.
The job description will contain details of what the job entails. It would normally include the
following information:
Job title: for example, Senior lecturer in business studies.
Department: for example, Faculty of Business and Management
Hours of work: for example, 35 hours per week
Responsible to: for example, Moses Kabba, Faculty Manager
Responsible for: for example, two junior members of the faculty
Scope of the post: for example, teaching on the BTEC and AS/A2 business programme and
for managing the adult learning facility in the college.
Responsibilities: for example, the post holder will contribute to the teaching of the BTEC
Business programme throughout the college and be expected to teach AS/A2 business
studies etc.
The job description gives the applicant details about what they would be expected to do and
helps them to decide whether they have the skills, experience and qualifications to carry out
the job. Applicants should therefore be able to demonstrate that they can do most of the tasks
specified. The job description also gives the selection team a clear outline of what the job
involves and helps them to match the skills of applicants with the job they are expecting them
to do.
Person Specification
The person specification will provide the applicant with details about the sort of person that
the organisation is seeking to fill the post. This will include details about the person's
qualifications and skills, their communication skills, the experience they are expected to have
and their ability to work as part of a team or individuality. Many organisations classify these
in two groups - 'essential' and 'desirable'. The table below gives a brief example.
Criteria Essential Desirable
Qualifications: Degree in Business or related subject area Higher degree
Ability to make clear written and verbal
Ability to present to a wider audience on whole
college matters.
Evidence of presentations at
Clear evidence of excellent results in

Working with adults in a college environment
Management of adult learning

Task 1
Your first task is to devise a job description and person specification for the post at your
college/school. You can either devise this from scratch or use an existing example on which
to base the task. You could ask your teacher/lecturer for a copy of their job description and
person specification or go to the human resources department and ask them for help in this.
You could also try looking at existing job adverts and getting a copy of the job description
and person specification from this - remember, however, that these things cost money to
produce, so be careful about obtaining information in this way.
Advertising the Post
The next stage is to advertise the post. This may be done on a local, regional, national or even
international basis depending on the type of job. The wider the post is advertised, the stronger
the field of candidates, in all likelihood. There is a downside to this - if you get a strong
candidate from the other end of the country, the cost of contributing to that person's
relocation is likely to be higher.

A newspaper might be the obvious source of advertising for jobs, but not the only one! The
Internet is now a major source of information for job hunters and job providers. Copyright:
Helmut Gevert, from stock.xchng
The local press is obviously one source of such adverts, but many businesses will advertise in
newspapers and magazines that are targeted at those interested in that business area - for
example, in trade papers and magazines. In teaching, the Times Educational Supplement
(TES) and the Guardian Education are two such examples.
Task 2
Get a copy of the TES or the Education Guardian. See if you can find out how much it would
cost to place an advert to recruit a new teacher/lecturer. The cost is likely to depend on the
size of the advert. Having found out the cost, devise the wording of your advert and how you
might like it to be formatted.
Having placed the advert, you will have to wait some time to start receiving applications.
There will normally be a closing date for the applications. What happens, though, if you
receive a good application after the closing date? Once the applications start to come in, they
will need to be acknowledged, with copies made and given to the members of staff who will
be part of the selection team. You will already have had to consider how the selection process
will be managed, with information given to candidates in the application pack - details about
when the interviews will take place, what the format of the interviews will be and so on.
Once the closing date has been reached, the applications will have to be screened and a
shortlist drawn up. Some firms will also draw up a 'long list'. A long list might be the top 10
candidates in terms of how far they meet the job description and person specification from all
the applications. Those who do not meet the criteria laid down can safely be discarded.
Question: Will you let the unlucky applicants know that they have been unsuccessful?
Many organisations have their own application forms that they ask candidates to complete.
Others will also ask for a written supporting statement where the candidate can outline how
they meet the criteria and what they feel they can bring to the post. Many candidates may
supply a curriculum vitae (CV) but some firms will not accept these if the proper application
form has not been completed as well.The shortlist will be the group of applicants to be
invited for interview. There is no set number that this could be but it is likely to be something
between 4 and 6 people. The firm will have to send out letters to these people inviting them
for interview. Assuming they accept (and that is not always the case), arrangements will have
to be made to accommodate them if they are travelling from a distance. In addition, the
candidates will have their expenses paid as well - more cost to add to the budget!
Task 3
Many firms will have strict rules on linking the applications to the criteria in the job
description and person specification when shortlisting. Why do you think they will do this?
(Hint - think about the legal issues involved).
Why might a firm insist that the application form is completed rather than the submission of a
The Selection Process
The interview day/s itself is likely to consist of a number of parts. These will differ according
to the organisation. Some firms, for example, will interview candidates on separate days so
the prospective candidates never meet; schools and colleges tend to have the interviews all on
the same day/s. The interview might last one or two (or sometimes even more) days and
consist of a series of interviews, discussion sessions, presentations, written tasks, tests and
sometimes a video session. The intention is to build up a picture of the candidate and decide
whether they can do the job (which is highly likely if they have got this far) but also to see
whether they can fit in with the organisation and work effectively with the rest of the people
in the organisation.

Part of the selection process might involve having to make a presentation to a panel - what
skills does this demonstrate and what do the panel learn as a result? Copyright: Tom Denham,
from stock.xchng.
The interview is a two-way process. The candidate has a chance of finding out whether they
like the feel of the place, whether they feel comfortable with the other staff, whether the job
provides the sort of challenge and opportunities they are looking for and so on.

The working environment differs in many institutions and organisations - the interview is not
only to find out if the candidate is suitable for the post but also whether the individual feels
they could work in that environment. Copyright: Ophelia Cherry, from stock.xchng.
At the end of the process, the decision has to be made whom to appoint. Even if an agreement
is reached, there can be problems. Sometimes people go away from the interview and reflect
on the experience and decide that the job is not for them after all. So even if the appointment
is made, there might be a period of waiting for the candidate to accept. After this, a written
confirmation might be expected. The selection team therefore might have a rank order of
whom they would most like to appoint, but have a reserve list if their preferred candidate
turns down the offer.
Task 4
You have been given a brief outline of the selection process. In your group, divide the class
into two groups. One group will act as the selection team who will conduct the interviews and
make the selection. Another will act as candidates. The candidates should write a letter of
application (not more than 1 side of A4) in relation to the job description and person
specification you devised in Task 1.
You should try to arrange to video the interviews - do this separately so that each candidate
cannot see what happens to the others. The selection team will then discuss each of the
candidates in terms of the interview and their application and make their judgement about
who to appoint.
Once you have completed this, you should come together as a group and look at each of the
interviews. Discuss the issues arising out of the interviews. This might include:
The sort of questions asked - were they the same for all candidates? Do they need to be?
How did each candidate perform in the interview - what were the good and bad points
about their interview technique?
Do you agree with the decision of the panel - if so, why, and if not, why not?

The discussions about who to choose might be long and sometimes difficult. How does a
selection panel arrive at its judgements to ensure the best candidate gets the job? Copyright:
Carl Dwyer, from stock.xchng.
Write a 500-word report assessing the effectiveness of an interview as a means of selecting a
suitable candidate for the post of teacher/lecturer at your college/school. Are other methods
of selection more appropriate?