Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 33








Kajang is located in the eastern part of Selangor, Malaysia. It is the district capital for Hulu
Langat. In the past few years, the number of population has grown rapidly. Its position is
strategic, in the middle of three major cities (Kuala Lumpur, Seremban and
Putrajaya).Sungai Chua is developed as the location gravity of growth in Kajang. The
soon-to-be-realized Klang Valley MRT station in Bandar Kajang will boost the
property value in Sungai Chua. Many major highway and expressway like Kajang
Dispersal Link Expressway as a ring road of Kajang, Cheras-Kajang Expressway, North-
South Expressway (NSE) and Kajang-Seremban Expressway were well connected Kajang
to other locations. All these factors are contributing to traffic congestion, ageing
population and pollution. These scenarios require the new sustainable urban design for


Traffic congestion is a major problem occur in Kajang. The problem is mainly due to rapid
growing of the population in Kajang. The city of Kajang provides employment in the
service sector and manufacturing for 300,775 in 2007. The number is estimated will
increase to404,772 by year 2020.

Demographic trends, including an ageing population and employment are contributed
to the growing prosperities and wealth. This situation was increased the demands for an
improved the quality of life. By hook or by crook, more amenities are needed to be
providing to fulfill peoples satisfaction.

As of 2004, a few townships have been developed in Kajang, such as Taman Prima
Saujana, Sungai Chua, Taman Kajang Perdana. Lately, many high-end developments have
mushroomed in Kajang such as Twin Palms, Sri Banyan, Country Heights, Jade Hills and
Prima Paramount. However, with the soon-to-be-realized Klang Valley MRT station in
Bandar Kajang, this township seems not enough for Kajang population. Growth of small
and single person per households, are adding to demands for new housing and to the
pressures for suburbanization in rural areas.

On the other hands, as other urbanization city, Kajang also features with
environmental issues. The transport of goods and mobility of people continues to grow
steadily every year. The pollution of the global environment is occurred due to rising
quantity of transport and industrial development.

Presently, no unused land left to develop in Kajang. Valuable agricultural land and
natural reserves of biodiversity are being lost. Besides that, the increasing land values and
property prices in cities also make housing in location that are accessible to livelihood
opportunities and services increasingly unaffordable for many sections of the population.

The activities in around a region whose width is getting smaller while becoming more
and more about the number of visitors. Furthermore , the traffic congestion will be worse
when it's a weekend, public holidays and festive days as more people are entering the city
for shopping and searching their needs.


The main objective of the study is to create Kajang as sustainable city. The objectives are
stated as follow:

i) To maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and employment

ii) To promoting the long term of health of the citizens, including addressing the
relationship between social and psychological well-being and the possibility of
experiencing elements of nature locally (particularly important for children)

iii) To maintain the protection of the natural environment and conservation of natural
resources at the local and regional scale.

iv) To reduce the impact on the natural environment at the global scale and in the
longer term; reducing ecological footprints and achieving balanced production and
consumption systems.


Kajang is a compact city. No more development can be done owing to the high densities of
population, commercial and industrial. Build the city inward is the best solution to
sustain the city. This intention can be achieve by reusing already develop area, respecting
and enhancing the character of the City and improve the public transport.

The proposed program Urban Renewal for Kajang Town from sites recovery
brownfield in Bangi Town to accommodate the needs of Local Planning for Kajang area
until year 2020. The Vertical development proposal for the development of existing cities
especially at Bandar Baru Bangi-Kajang area (refer picture 30). Thus. the organized design
will be create in order to facilitate the population because all the facilities are provided
within close distance. Strengthening the city limits can also be done through the provision
of building schematic color, building texture and lighting of buildings. The hardscape and
soft landscape have different character for every settlement center or block planning that
were set can distinguish clearly an urban area.

The urban design issues such as traffic congestion and environmental problem can be
solve by closing the road from allowing private transport entering the City. Only public
transports have permission to go into the City. More park, porous car park and pedestrian
walkway will be built to create green space area.

Public transport has to be enhanced in order to attract the users. Better services can be
offered by providing dedicated bus lane in the City and giving more license to the bus
operator. Therefore, level of service, waiting time and travel time can be improved.
Outside the city, more interchange station and parking space shall be built.


Sustainable development is generally thought to have three components which are related
to the quality of life in a community, consist of the economic, social and environmental
systems. These components make up the community are providing a healthy, productive,
meaningful life for all community residents, present and future. It is the ability to make
development which respects the relationship between the three "E's" -economy, ecology
and equity. Economic activity should serve the common good, be self-renewing, and build
local assets and self-reliance. Ecology considers humans are part of nature, nature has
limits, and communities are responsible for protecting and building natural assets. The
equity means the opportunity given for full participation in all activities, benefits, and
decision-making of a society.

Figure 1: Sustainable Development

As this Figure 1 illustrates, the economy exists entirely within society, because all
parts of the human economy require interaction among people. However, society is much
more than just the economy. Friends and families, music and art, religion and ethics are
important elements of society, but are not primarily based on exchanging goods and services.
Society, in turn, exists entirely within the environment. Our basic requirements such as air,
food and water are come from the environment, as do the energy and raw materials for
housing, transportation and the products we depend on.

The environment surrounds society. At an earlier point in human history, the
environment largely determined the shape of society. Today the fact is change. Human
activity is reshaping the environment at an ever increasing rate. The parts of the environment
unaffected by human activity are getting smaller all the time. However, because people need
food, water and air to survive, society can never be larger than the environment

Sustainability requires managing all households, individual, community, national, and
global in the ways that ensure that our economy and society can continue to exist without
destroying the natural environment on which we all depend. Sustainable communities
acknowledge that there are limits to the natural, social and built systems upon which we

Sustainable production is the creation of goods and services using processes and
systems that are non-polluting, conserving of energy and natural resources, economically
efficient, safe and healthful for workers, communities, and consumers and socially and
creatively rewarding for all working people. Principles of sustainable production products
and services including safe and ecologically sound throughout their life cycle; as appropriate,
designed to be durable, repairable, readily recycled, compostable, or easily biodegradable;
and also produced and packaged using the minimal amount of material and energy possible.
Processes are designed and operated such that:
i) wastes and ecologically incompatible by products are reduced, eliminated or
recycled on-site;

ii) chemical substances or physical agents and conditions that present hazards to
human health or the environment are eliminated;

iii) energy and materials are conserved, and the forms of energy and materials used
are most appropriate for the desired ends;

iv) work spaces are designed to minimize or eliminate chemical, ergonomic and
physical hazard

In a sustainable community, resource consumption is balanced by resources
assimilated by the ecosystem. The sustainability of a community is largely determined by the
web of resources providing its food, fiber, water, and energy needs and by the ability
of natural systems to process its wastes. A community is unsustainable if it consumes
resources faster than they can be renewed, produces more wastes than natural systems can
process or relies upon distant sources for its basic needs.

Sustainable society is defined as a society whose long term prospect for continuing to
exist is good. Such a society would be characterized by an emphasis on preserving the
environment, developing strong peaceful relationships between people and nations, and an
emphasis on equitable distribution of wealth.

Education is an essential tool for achieving sustainability. People around the world
recognize that current economic development trends are not sustainable and that public
awareness, education, and training are key to moving society toward sustainability. Beyond
that, there is little agreement.

Figure 2: Quality of Development achieved in the SIM CITY Simulation


Roads are an integral part of the transport system, essential for the efficient functioning of
the greater Kajang area economy. They provide vital arteries for the movement and
operation of the commercial life. It also meets important social objectives, by providing
access to activities and links between communities.

Planning and transport integration is a fundamental part of the strategy, which should
reduce car use need. In order to build Kajang City free from any private car, suitable
interchange station has to be provided outside the City. Hentian Kajang can be upgraded to
be one of the interchange stations. However, more parking spaces are required to satisfy
the present demand

Figure 3: Bus traffic volume data at new Kajang

Figure 4: Car traffic volume data at new Kajang


Measures to reduce the environmental impact of road traffic in terms of air pollution, noise
and carbon dioxide emissions need to form part of the strategy. Many of the measures set
out elsewhere in the strategy provide fundamental contributions to this objective. The
authority will continue to monitor these parameters, in conjunction with the relevant
agencies, and will seek the implementation of appropriate measures, where necessary, to
comply with applicable standards.

Travel demand management measures need to support the environmental and
economic objectives of the strategy, and targets related to distance travelled by car and
share of travel by car. Management of demand for road use can be broadly consist of:
i) Better development planning to manage travel demand and reduce the need to

ii) On street parking controls

iii) Control of access onto certain strategic roads at congested times

iv) Dedication of road space to certain transport modes, whose users are higher-up in
the road user hierarchy.

Better development planning to manage travel demand recommended planning
measures that can reduce the amount of travel by car include.

i) the consolidation of housing, employment and retail developments into the Kajang

ii) the location of office and retail developments in central areas where access by
public transport, cycling and walking is good

iii) restrictions on parking provisions at key destinations to encourage public transport

iv) the location of residential developments on public transport corridors that provide
good access to central areas

Traffic and on-street parking control measures can address issues arising from excess
demand for road space on individual road corridors. Examples of control Measures

i) Ramp Metering, which is the control of access onto a dual carriageway or
motorway corridor, through the provision of traffic lights on the entry slip road
which respond to the traffic conditions on the corridor.

ii) Variable speed limits that allow speed limits to be dynamically set to suit traffic
conditions, so that flow is maintained, avoiding stop-start conditions that arise
from driver behavior when congestion limits speeds below the roads usual limit

iii) Hard Shoulder Running - opening up the hard shoulder to moving traffic on
motorways, or dual carriageways with motorway characteristics to maintain
journey time reliability and smooth traffic flows, at busy times.

iv) Dedication of lanes to particular transport modes such as public transport lanes,
high occupancy vehicle lanes or freight lanes; and.

v) On-street car parking restrictions.

Parking charges and levies parking charges is desirable to charge for parking in these
areas to increase turnover of spaces, making it easier for those who need to drive to find a
parking space. Demand management through a workplace parking levy could play a
significant role in reducing car commuting. There is potential for levies to be extended to
other types of destinations such as out-of-town shopping centers. For the measure to be
most effective, a mechanism is required that charges the individual user of the space each
time the space is used. Road access control, parking restrictions and parking charges
address issues due to excess demand on individual roads or individual corridors.


In our concept of redevelopment of Kajang City, we had planned that rather than to increase
or redevelop the parking system, we improve our public transport system and make
comfortable walkways to the pedestrians, cyclists and so on. The advantage of doing this is
we can conserve our environment which can reduce the air pollution. Since we know that the
smoke produced from the cars are very unhealthy to the environment and surrounding.

Figure above shows the graph of the simulation of our new Kajang City.

What we want is the city is very easy to access to a place to another place. Since the
graph above shows that the most people in the town is going to another place by walking
and followed by using public transports and by cars. In this graph also shows that, people
in this town is practicing healthy lifestyles by walking to workplace and so on.

Apart from that, what we can do is to build green parking lot. To achieve a green
parking lot, much of the rainwater needs to be captured directly by the permeable
pavement in the parking lot. Any rain water running off the parking lot and building roofs
needs to be redirected into rain gardens where it can drain into the underlying soil instead
of flowing into storm drains. These processes reduce the volume of storm water runoff and
slow down the flow.

Figure below shows the rain garden construction:

Figure below is the final construction of green parking lot.

Figure above shows car parking space transform to cyclist lane

Figure above shows turf slab parking space

Solar power parking lot


The definition of urban design is a mash-up among architecture, landscape architecture, and
urban planning, with some generalist urban studies thrown in for flavoring. Urban design
principle applied to a town or city can enhance appearance, transportation, the public space
along street between the private property line, and location decisions about specific civic and
private land uses. Property values should increase as well.

Eco-friendly street
The component of urban design principles consist of corridors and gateways, streets, parks
and open spaces and landmarks.

i. Corridors and gateways

In Kajang City, the street to the outer district from Kajang is quite confusing. The
signage and road network were not properly designed. This condition needed to be
overcome in order to promote Kajang internationally.

Example of gateways in Morocco

ii. Streets

In Kajang, especially during nights, the condition of streets are quite dark. Lack of
efficient street lighting make it Kajang not safe enough during particular time of day.

The night view in SimCity simulation of Kajang City development

iii. Parks and open spaces

In Kajang, there are no parks here. The town does not have green area to be made as
recreational parks. Lack of green areas can increase the hot temperature of the surrounding
and day time.

iv. Landmarks

Kajang is famous for its Sate Hj Samuri, but the restaurant is located in the middle
of busy roads. This is can contribute to traffic congestion in Kajang.


In planning a new town, there are some things that need to consider for example
considers the wider context of the local setting, the characteristics of the site for development,
and strategies for the overall design character of a proposal, to be attractive and function well.

i. Respecting the local site
Respect the qualities of the best of the surrounding landscape and townscapes.
Provide spatial characteristics and building forms that are sympathetic to the
Respond to existing land uses and provide an appropriate mix of dwellings and uses.
Integrate with existing patterns of movement.

ii. Responding to the site
Respect the history of the site, an appropriately protect and integrate features of the
archaeological and built heritage.
Respond the form of the land, its contours and views to and from the site, make the
best use of existing vegetation, and protect or create, appropriate conditions for flora
and fauna to thrive.
Promote designs that respond to microclimate of the site, and that might contribute to
the energy efficiency of the buildings designed.

iii. Creating attractive surrounding and space to live
A distinctive overall sense of place that takes into account the characteristics of the
site and its setting.
Quality and sustainability in the overall layout, in the form and detailed design of the
buildings, and the spaces around.
A visually attractive human scale in each of the places created within development.


Safety is the state of being "safe" (from French sauf), the condition of being protected
against physical, social, spiritual, financial, political, emotional, occupational,
psychological, educational or other types or consequences of failure, damage, error,
accidents, harm or any other event which could be considered non-desirable. Safety can
also be defined to be the control of recognized hazards to achieve an acceptable level of
risk. This can take the form of being protected from the event or from exposure to
something that causes health or economic losses. It can include protection of people or of

Security also called social safety or public safety, security addresses the risk of harm
due to intentional criminal acts such as assault, burglary or vandalism. Because of the
moral issues involved, security is of higher importance to many people than substantive
safety. For example, a death due to murder is considered worse than a death in a car crash,
even though in many countries, traffic deaths are more common than homicides.

Safety and security are the most valuable factor that rise the city to the most
sustainable ever. To be sure that this principle run correctly and efficiently, we must
establish a fully major CCTV System that cover the hall city with unreachable camera with
360 degree view. This system works hand by hand with the police force to increase the
dispatch of police patrol to the scene.

Apart from that, we can make a crime prevention system which includes :

Create, implement and monitor a national action plan for violence prevention.
Enhance capacity for collecting data on violence.
Define priorities for and support research on, the causes, consequences, costs
and prevention of violence.
Promote primary prevention responses.
Strengthen responses for victims of violence.
Integrate violence prevention into social and educational policies, and thereby
promote gender and social equality.
Increase collaboration and exchange of information on violence prevention.
Promote and monitor adherence to international treaties, laws and other
mechanisms to protect human rights.

7.1 Introduction
Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land including physical element such
as landforms, living elements of flora and fauna, abstract elements like human activity and
build environment. The initiative has contributed to the conservation and sustainable use of
biodiversity as well as to the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from genetic resources.
Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity where each species have an important role to play
and that it is this combination that enables the ecosystems to possess the ability to prevent
and recover from a variety disasters.

Landscape view from SimCity 4

7.2 Existing Situation and Issues

7.2.1 Landscape

Existing Situation
In Kajang Town, there have place that do not have any landscape and also have some
landscape. Even there have some landscape at certain place, it still not enough to sustain the
Earth. The landscape at town also not protected.

Not enough landscape at town
The landscapes are not protected

7.2.2 Genetic Diversity

Existing Situation Genetic diversity is divided by two parts which are flora and fauna. Some
of plants become disappeared when the city become bigger and progressive. Besides that, the
climate change like global warming can affect the plants to grow up. Same with plants,
animal also gradually disappeared when the city become larger. The forest was intruded.

Decreasing the growth of flora at the city centre
Plants become die
Fauna will be extinct and have no place to live

7.2.3 Ecological Diversity

Existing Situation Kajang has a small of species of plants means less variety of crops and
small species of animals not ensure that the ecosystem is naturally sustained. These flora and
fauna have no place to go and most of the place was replaced with building and roads or other

The population of plants and animals and will be decrease varies with time
No place for these plants to live and these animals have no place to go

7.3 Development Strategies

To enhance the biodiversity aspect, Kajang Structure Plan aims to:
Do not disturb the reserved forest
Planted forest at undeveloped land areas
Do the landscape at town and home
Build more recreation garden
Build a garden for those have big yard at home
These strategies are important because biological diversity give benefits to human such as:

1.Biological resources
Food (plants and animals), forest, product, fuel, timber, pharmaceutical, fish

2.Unknown resources
Pharmaceutical, biocides

3. Genetic resources
Enabling us to cross wild species with food or flower species to obtain improved
varieties and hybrids.

4. Ecosystem services
Providing fresh air, cleansing the water, recycling our waste

5. Tourism and recreation
People like to visit natural places as these become rarer.


8.1 Introduction

Renewable energy is generated from natural resources such as wind, sunlight, rain, and
geothermal heat. In 2006, about 18% of global find energy consumption comes from
renewable. Figure below indicates the renewable energy by end of 2006.

Figure above shows renewable energy in the end of 2006

Over half of renewable energy goes to producing electricity. The production of heat and
steam is the next largest use for industrial purpose. Besides that, renewable fuel such as
ethanol, are also used for transportation and to provide heat for homes and business. The
renewable energy plays an important role to supply the energy. Now, the whole of world
talking about global warming that happen in our world. Global warming is the increase in the
average temperature of the earths near surface air and the oceans since the mid twentieth
century ends its projected continuation. Figure below indicates increasing of temperature
every 20 years and the mean temperature on 1999-2008.

Figure above shows global temperature and mean temperature

This renewable energy is very important because it can control the global warming and
reduce the green affect.

10.2 Existing Situation and Issues

Existing Situation

Up to this day, no renewable energy at Kajang. This is because the residents do not exposed
about the importance of renewable energy and how extreme our earth if global warming keep
on increasing.


Do not have any renewable energy sources
The residents do not know about renewable energy
Do not have place or space to recycle the energy

10.3.Development Strategies

In order to enhance the renewable energy in Kajang, some strategies are introduced:
Build the planted forest at vacant land
Protect the forest at Hulu Langat District and Hulu Semenyih District area
Every resident are encourage to do landscape at yard of their house
Turn off the light if no one in room and when not needed
Use compact fluorescent light bulbs to replace the lamp because these bulbs can
produce same amount of light but using quarter of electricity only
Buy products that have the Energy Star label on them. Energy Star labels are found on
over 40 product categories and in the year 2005alone is responsible for saving
consumers over 12 billion dollars
Use solar power to heat water and pools, cook, and light homes and buildings
Use lawn as an air conditioner

Figure above shows Planted Forest

Figure above shows compact fluorescent light bulbs


9.1 Introduction

The City environment includes, on the other hand, the quantifiable aspects of the ambient
environment such as air, water quality and noise level and less measurable visual and
sensual aspects of city space and amenities. It is also an important component of the
quality of life that the city can afford its population and contributes to the overall image
and identify of the city.

9.2 Existing Situation and Issues

9.2.1 Poor Water Quality

Sungai Langat have massive suspended solid loading as is evident from their
muddy colour. A major contribution to the situation is the discharge of silt from
construction site.
Water Quality Index for Sungai Langat is in poor condition that requires special

Figure above shows view of Sungai Langat

9.2.2 Flood Prone Area
Flooding has been a regular occurrence in Kajang Town whenever there is a heavy
downpour especially in City Centre. These frequent flash floods disrupt the City
functioning, damage property, and threaten human lives.
The development of structures within the river reserves has further reduced the flow
capacity of the city rivers thus, increasing the likelihood of flooding.

9.2.3 Poor Drainage System
The attitude of some people who liked to throw rubbish that caused the drain clogged

9.3 Development Strategies

In order to enhance the problems, our aim is to:
Do maintenance to the sewerage system to prevent from flood problem.
Maintaining the flow capacity of the rivers and ensuring there is no clogging.
The feasibility of constructing gross suspended solid traps upstream and at other
strategic locations to collect waste and reduced clogging should be investigated to
provide more effective long-term measures to prevent flooding.

Figure above shows quality drainage system to prevent from flood problems

Figure above shows proposed of base and drainage system in Kajang


10.1 Introduction

Reducing air pollution will improve the quality of life for everyone. Reducing air pollution
often means using less fuel and energy which indirectly save money. The main source of
pollution in the Kajang city center is from road traffic. By using public transportations,
sustainable house system and providing more green areas, it could help in improving the state
of air quality in Kajang city center.

Based on the Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2006, the Air Pollutant Index
(API) showed that the air quality for Kajang is moderate (API 51-100)most of the time. As
state in Draft Structure Plan Kuala Lumpur 2020, Clean air is a prerequisite for good
quality of human life as well as for the health of animals and the evidence of damage to
plants, soils and buildings. City Planner must ensure that the infrastructure must also ensure
that the infrastructure, environment, city, management and cultural, social community
facilities meet the highest expectations of the majority of its residents, visitors and investors.

10.2 Existing Situation and Issues
Unhealthy air quality conditions were occasionally recorded in Kajang and were
mainly due to presence of high levels of ozone, formed by the reaction of nitrogen
oxides (NOx) and volatile compounds (VOCs) emitted from motor vehicles and
industrial resource, react in the presence of sunlight and heat.
The main sources of air pollution in the City are open burning, emission from motor
vehicles and construction work, together with the minor contribution from industries
in the fringe areas of the City. The deterioration of air quality can be a serious hazard
to human health leading to respiratory diseases as well as a reduction in visibility.
The five major pollutants in the ambient air, namely, suspended particulate matters
(PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide(NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and
ozone (O3).

10.3 Development Strategies

In order to enhance the quality of life in the City to a level commensurate with its vision to be
a sustainable city, our aim is to:
Create a tropical Garden City sensitive to it natural site and appropriate to its tropical
regional location.
Continue to maintain a judicious balance between development, ecology and national
Enhance a city living environment.
Attain an environment which is free from the major forms of pollution.

There are several measures that can be taken to improve the indoor air quality:

Choose ventilation system that removes dirt, dust, moisture, humidity, and pollutants.
Select materials, such as those without formaldehyde, limit off-gassing, have minimal
or no toxic properties and do not shed dust or fibre.


As a conclusion, the public participation should assist in achieving sustainable development
in optimal utilization of available resources. The concept of eco-partnership which places
emphasis on the concerted efforts of various stakeholders such as private enter prices, various
government agencies and community based and non-governmental organizations (CBOs and
NGOs) to carry out study activities aimed at increasing public awareness on sustainable
environment should be promoted and enhanced. The public should also be encouraged to
adopt the 3R concept of Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

Although there are many cities that could be taken as an example to redevelop Kajang
into a new sustainable town, several factors have to be taken into consideration because not
all concepts could be implemented in Kajang. This is to ensure that the development is in line
with the existing environment. Major factors are as follows:

Funding from the government and private sector with mutual benefits.
Kajang is a readily exist city with its own identity. New development that requires
major changes need to take this identity into consideration. Take the proposed
riverfront development for example, the river need to be cleaned first which requires
major funding and cooperation from local community to preserve the natural
environment of the river.
New development need to integrate with current development. For example, the
architectural feature of the new buildings and landscape cannot feel out of place.
Educate the local communities about the importance of ecological development and
sustainable living.
Proper and careful planning is needed in order to ensure the local community are
included in the new development and suitable for long term goals.

Our hope is for Kajang to also develop into one of the tourist destination due to the river
beautification and riverfront development. Besides that, we believe that the city could serve
as an eye opener for other new developments in Malaysia while educating the people in the
importance of sustainable living.