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Incarceration and Reentry in Texas

a working paper by the Texas Interfaith Center for Public Policy

1 1exas lnLerfalLh CenLer for ubllc ollcy !une 2014

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Adu|t correct|ona| superv|s|on |s a ma[or program |n 1exas.
1he unlLed SLaLes had nearly 7 mllllon people under Lhe supervlslon of adulL sLaLe and local
correcLlonal sysLems, elLher lncarceraLed or under communlLy supervlslon, ln 2012-one ln every 33
adulLs. AbouL one ln every 30 adulL resldenLs ln communlLles was on probaLlon or parole.
1exas had
more Lhan 730,000 people under sLaLe and local supervlslon aL any Llme ln 2012-abouL one ln every 26
adulLs. AbouL one ln every 37 adulL resldenLs ln communlLles was on probaLlon or parole.

1he 1exas correct|ona| system |nc|udes severa| agenc|es and programs. 1he 1exas ueparLmenL
of Crlmlnal !usLlce (1uC!) ls Lhe sLaLe agency responslble for lncarceraLlng adulLs convlcLed of felonles ln
prlsons and sLaLe [alls and supervlslng condlLlonal releases of lndlvlduals from prlson lnLo communlLles
Lhrough Lhe parole sysLem. lL also has responslblllLy for Lhelr successful reenLry and relnLegraLlon lnLo
communlLles. ln addlLlon, 1uC! provldes for prlson dlverslon by fundlng communlLy supervlslon and
correcLlon deparLmenLs across Lhe sLaLe for probaLlon and communlLy-based programs.
1he 1exas 8oard of ardons & aroles (18) ls responslble for parollng lndlvlduals from prlson
lnLo communlLles, and new leglslaLlon requlres Lhe board Lo Lake lnLo conslderaLlon noL only Lhe needs
and rlsk assessmenL for Lhe sub[ecLs of poLenLlal parole, buL Lhelr lndlvldual LreaLmenL plans as well.
1he 1exas Commlsslon on !all SLandards develops and monlLors sLandards for consLrucLlon and
malnLenance of local [alls ln counLles and clLles, as well as Lhe care and LreaLmenL of lncarceraLed

8ureau of !usLlce SLaLlsLlcs, CorrecLlonal opulaLlons ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes, 2012," uecember 2013, p. 1. Avallable
aL: hLLp://www.b[s.gov/conLenL/pub/pdf/cpus12.pdf
8ased on calculaLlons from daLa lssued by Lhe u.S. Census, SLaLe & CounLy Culck lacLs: 1exas." Avallable aL:
hLLp://qulckfacLs.census.gov/qfd/sLaLes/48000.hLml, 1exas ueparLmenL of Crlmlnal !usLlce, CperaLlng 8udgeL for
llscal ?ear 2014, uecember 1, 2013, p. lll.A.7, 21. Avallable aL:
hLLp://www.Ldc[.sLaLe.Lx.us/documenLs/flnance/Agency_CperaLlng_8udgeL_l?2014_Covernor.pdf, 1exas
Commlsslon on !all SLandards, 2013 Annual 8eporL," !anuary 31, 2014, pp. 10-12. Avallable aL:
hLLp://www.Lc[s.sLaLe.Lx.us/docs/2013Annual!all8eporL.pdf, and 8ureau of !usLlce SLaLlsLlcs, robaLlon and arole
ln Lhe uS, 2012," uecember 19, 2013, nC! 243936, pp. 19-20. Avallable aL:
Incarceration and Reentry in Texas

a working paper by the Texas Interfaith Center for Public Policy

2 1exas lnLerfalLh CenLer for ubllc ollcy !une 2014

lndlvlduals, lncludlng rehablllLaLlon and educaLlon, and furLher asslsLs communlLles ln developlng
reenLry programs.
ln addlLlon, counLles operaLe 241 counLy [alls and 3 for-proflL deLenLlon faclllLles and are
responslble for Lhe acLual supervlslon of lndlvlduals released ln Lhe communlLy ln lleu of servlng [all
Llme. 1hey are Lhe only faclllLles Lo deLaln people ln Lhe pre-Lrlal phase afLer Lhelr arresL. CounLy sherlffs
are responslble for Lhe operaLlon of counLy [alls, whlch counLles fund prlmarlly Lhrough local properLy

1exas pr|sons and [a||s house |nd|v|dua|s under a number of categor|es of |ncarcerat|on.
1he 1uC! correcLlonal lnmaLe populaLlon as of Lhe end of Aprll 2014 was 130,349, noL lncludlng
lnmaLes ln lnLermedlaLe sancLlon faclllLles due Lo parole vlolaLlons.
As of May 2014, was 173,471
lnmaLes held ln 112 faclllLles ln 62 counLles across Lhe sLaLe. 1he Lable below lllusLraLes Lhe Lype of sLaLe
faclllLles and programs and number of lnmaLes ln each Lype of faclllLy or program.

LeglslaLlve 8udgeL 8oard, MonLhly 1racklng of AdulL CorrecLlonal opulaLlon lndlcaLors," May 2014. Avallable aL:
"#' "'<-% "&$91.', rlson unlLs," May 2014. (8ased on daLa from Lhe 1exas ueparLmenL of Crlmlnal !usLlce.)
rlson 32 103,366
rlvaLe rlson 7 3,172
SLaLe !all 13 28,082
rlvaLe SLaLe !all 4 7,193
1ransfer laclllLy 14 18,874
rlvaLe re-parole 1ransfer laclllLy 1 342
Medlcal 3 892
sychlaLrlc 3 2,043
re-release laclllLy 4 3,732
Work rogram 3 688
rlvaLe Work rogram 1 608
8aby and MoLher 8ondlng lnlLlaLlve 1 31
uevelopmenLal ulsablllLles rogram 1 986
CerlaLrlc laclllLy 1 383
8ooL Camp 1 3
rlvaLe MulLl-use laclllLy 1 833
!"#$% &&' &()*+(,
Source: !"# !#%&' !()*+,# , "rlson unlLs," May 2014. (8ased on daLa from Lhe 1exas
ueparLmenL of Crlmlnal !usLlce.) Avallable aL:
!./$0 1#$#. 2340"5 654#0723"83$90 $5: ;59$#. 2"<=%$#4"5
>$? ',&+
noLe:uoes noL lnclude 3 SubsLance Abuse lelony unlshmenL laclllLles. uoes noL
lnclude parolees ln lnLermedlaLe SancLlon laclllLles. May lnclude dupllcaLe counLs.
Incarceration and Reentry in Texas

a working paper by the Texas Interfaith Center for Public Policy

3 1exas lnLerfalLh CenLer for ubllc ollcy !une 2014

Cf approxlmaLely 73,000 new admlsslons Lo 1uC! faclllLles ln 2012, abouL 30,000 of Lhose
admlLLed were new courL commlLmenLs and anoLher 24,000 were for parole vlolaLlons, lncludlng Lhose
wlLh vlolaLlons of condlLlons of release or commlsslon of new crlmes.
vlolaLlons of common parole
condlLlons of release lnclude fallure Lo pass a drug LesL, reporL Lo a parole offlcer, conLlnue employmenL
or educaLlon, refraln from conLacLlng cerLaln lndlvlduals, or refraln from possesslng a flrearm or oLher
prohlblLed weapon.
1he local [all populaLlon ln 1exas was 61,183 on !anuary 1, 2013, and 66,807 on uecember 1,
2013, wlLh [alls collecLlvely operaLlng aL 70 of capaclLy. Cf Lhe LoLal [all populaLlon, 37,940 were local,
6,731 were federal, 233 were from new Mexlco and Arkansas, 41 were sLaLe lnmaLes, and Lhe
remalnder undeLermlned. More Lhan half of lndlvlduals ln 1exas counLy [alls are ln a pre-Lrlal sLaLus. re-
Lrlal deLenLlon of Lhose accused of mlsdemeanors accounLed for abouL 9 percenL, and pre-Lrlal
deLenLlon of Lhose accused of felonles accounLed for abouL 47 percenL of Lhe LoLal counLy [all
1he 1exas Crlmlnal !usLlce CoallLlon webslLe provldes daLa sheeLs by counLy LhaL llsLs
counLs of Lhe local lncarceraLed populaLlon as well as deLalled daLa concernlng local [all faclllLles, charge
Lype, communlLy supervlslon, and recldlvlsm.

Some |ncarcerated |nd|v|dua|s |n 1exas rece|ve pre-re|ease serv|ces, wh|ch are |ntended to prepare
them for ||fe after |ncarcerat|on.
ln addlLlon Lo ongolng menLal healLh and subsLance abuse LreaLmenL wlLhln lLs prlsons, 1uC!
operaLes several speclflc pre-release programs Lo prepare lndlvlduals for reenLry. 1uC! reporLed LhaL
3,931 lndlvlduals compleLed LreaLmenL ln SAll faclllLles ln l? 2013. AnoLher 6,137 compleLed
LreaLmenL ln 1ranslLlonal 1reaLmenL CenLers across Lhe sLaLe.
1he Serlous and vlolenL Cffender 8eenLry
lnlLlaLlve (SvC8l) rogram, whlch served 123 people ln l? 2012, lnLends Lo reduce recldlvlsm by
preparlng Lhose who have been ln admlnlsLraLlve segregaLlon Lo reenLer Lhe communlLy. 1uC! also
served 11 lnmaLes ln Lhe 8aby and MoLher 8ondlng lnlLlaLlve program, whlch lnLends Lo lmprove
parenLlng ouLcomes by placlng pregnanL and new moLhers aL resldenLlal faclllLles.

1uC! employed an average of 4,881 lnmaLes aL 33 facLorles operaLed by Lhe CorrecLlonal
lndusLrles rogram. ln addlLlon, 3,043 lncarceraLed sLudenLs enrolled ln academlc and vocaLlonal
Lralnlng. 1uC! lnmaLes recelved 1,622 degrees and vocaLlonal cerLlflcaLes ln l? 2013 wlLh 60.4 percenL
belng communlLy/Lechnlcal college degrees.
1uC! served a dally average of 19,883 sLudenLs ln Lhe

8ureau of !usLlce SLaLlsLlcs, rlsoners ln 2012: 1rends ln Admlsslons and 8eleases, 1991-2012," uecember 2013,
pp. 34-33. Avallable aL: hLLp://www.b[s.gov/conLenL/pub/pdf/p12Lar9112.pdf
1exas Commlsslon on SLaLe !all SLandards, DEFG H..1-2 ;'()&*, !anuary 31, 2014, pp. 10-12. Avallable aL:
1exas Crlmlnal !usLlce CoallLlon, CounLy uaLa SheeLs." Avallable aL:
1exas ueparLmenL of Crlmlnal !usLlce, I('&-*$.7 J1,7'* 0)& ?$%3-2 K'-& DEFL, uecember 1, 2013, pp. lll.A.23, 23,
28, and lll.u.1. Avallable aL:
LeglslaLlve 8udgeL 8oard, Crlmlnal !usLlce unlform CosL 8eporL, llscal ?ears 2010-2012," SubmlLLed Lo Lhe 83

1exas LeglslaLure, !anuary 2013, p. 33. Avallable aL:
1exas ueparLmenL of Crlmlnal !usLlce, I('&-*$.7 J1,7'* 0)& ?$%3-2 K'-& DEFL, uecember 1, 2013, pp. lll.A.23, 23,
28, and lll.u.1. Avallable aL:
Incarceration and Reentry in Texas

a working paper by the Texas Interfaith Center for Public Policy

4 1exas lnLerfalLh CenLer for ubllc ollcy !une 2014

Wlndham School ulsLrlcL, whlch ls Lhe correcLlonal sysLem's school dlsLrlcL. SLudenLs ln llLeracy programs
spend abouL 13 hours per week ln school and lnmaLes ln vocaLlonal programs spend abouL 30 hours per

Many more |nd|v|dua|s are under the superv|s|on of the cr|m|na| [ust|ce system |n the|r |oca|
commun|t|es than are |ncarcerated.
Accordlng Lo federal daLa, whlch lncludes lndlvlduals convlcLed of federal crlmes, 1exas ln LoLal
had 313,000 persons under some form of communlLy supervlslon as of uecember 31, 2012. nearly
200,000 enLered and exlLed communlLy supervlslon LhaL year. Cf Lhe LoLal under supervlslon, 1exas had
abouL 403,000 lndlvlduals on probaLlon aL Lhe end of 2012 wlLh abouL 160,000 enLerlng and exlLlng Lhe
sysLem LhaL year. And, Lhere were 112,000 lndlvlduals on parole aL Lhe end of 2012 wlLh abouL 40,000
enLerlng Lhe sysLem and 33,000 exlLlng LhaL year.

lnmaLes spenL an average Llme of 33 monLhs ln 1exas prlsons and served an average of 60
percenL of Lhelr senLence. 1he 1exas 8oard of ardons and aroles reached a favorable parole declslon
ln abouL 37 percenL of cases ln l? 2012 and released 39,492 people, excludlng parole-ln-absenLla cases
LhaL lnvolve lnmaLes housed ln oLher sLaLes (438) and MandaLory Supervlslon LhaL lnvolve releases LhaL
are leglslaLlvely mandaLed when acLual calendar Llme and good conducL Llme equal Lhe senLence (601).

1uC! monlLored an average of 83,749 lndlvlduals under acLlve parole supervlslon ln l? 2012. 1he
agency placed 8,296 lndlvlduals on parole on elecLronlc monlLorlng and malnLalned an average of 3,089
on Lhe Lracklng program durlng l? 2012. 1he agency also supervlsed 1,699 lndlvlduals on parole ln
halfway houses across Lhe sLaLe durlng Lhe year. 1uC! provlded granLs for 2,879 resldenLlal beds, of
whlch 2,378 were ln operaLlon, and anoLher 241 were funded by communlLy correcLlons wlLh 213 ln
operaLlon ln l? 2012. ln addlLlon, 11,760 people compleLed LreaLmenL alLernaLlves Lo lncarceraLlon ln
communlLles across Lhe sLaLe. 1uC! dlrecLed 23,006 lndlvlduals wlLh speclal needs lnLo LreaLmenL
alLernaLlves Lo lncarceraLlon.

AlLogeLher, 1exas has 122 adulL probaLlon deparLmenLs, now known as communlLy supervlslon
and correcLlons deparLmenLs (CSCus), across Lhe sLaLe.
1hese deparLmenLs supervlsed an average of
168,487 people convlcLed of felonles and anoLher 94,373 people convlcLed of mlsdemeanors under
dlrecL communlLy supervlslon durlng l? 2012. ulrecL communlLy supervlslon requlres a face-Lo-face
lnLervlew wlLh a probaLlon offlcer. CSCus placed 34,363 people convlcLed of felonles and 103,314
people convlcLed of mlsdemeanors under communlLy supervlslon across Lhe sLaLe durlng Lhe year.

LeglslaLlve 8udgeL 8oard, Crlmlnal !usLlce unlform CosL 8eporL, llscal ?ears 2010-2012," SubmlLLed Lo Lhe 83

1exas LeglslaLure, !anuary 2013, p. 33. Avallable aL:
8ureau of !usLlce SLaLlsLlcs, robaLlon and arole ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes, 2012," uecember 2013, pp. 13-17.
Avallable aL: hLLp://www.b[s.gov/conLenL/pub/pdf/ppus12.pdf
1exas ueparLmenL of Crlmlnal !usLlce, I('&-*$.7 J1,7'* 0)& ?$%3-2 K'-& DEFL, uecember 1, 2013, pp. lll.A.34.
Avallable aL: hLLp://www.Ldc[.sLaLe.Lx.us/documenLs/flnance/Agency_CperaLlng_8udgeL_l?2014_Covernor.pdf
1exas ueparLmenL of Crlmlnal !usLlce, I('&-*$.7 J1,7'* 0)& ?$%3-2 K'-& DEFL, uecember 1, 2013, pp. lll.A.1-3, 38,
40. Avallable aL:
1exas ueparLmenL of Crlmlnal !usLlce, CommunlLy Supervlslon & CorrecLlons ueparLmenL ulrecLory lor Lhe
SLaLe of 1exas." Avallable aL: www.Ldc[.sLaLe.Lx.us/documenLs/CSCu_dlrecLory.pdf
1exas ueparLmenL of Crlmlnal !usLlce, I('&-*$.7 J1,7'* 0)& ?$%3-2 K'-& DEFL, uecember 1, 2013, p. lll.A.1.
Avallable aL: hLLp://www.Ldc[.sLaLe.Lx.us/documenLs/flnance/Agency_CperaLlng_8udgeL_l?2014_Covernor.pdf
Incarceration and Reentry in Texas

a working paper by the Texas Interfaith Center for Public Policy

3 1exas lnLerfalLh CenLer for ubllc ollcy !une 2014

CSCus also monlLored anoLher 64,931 people convlcLed of felonles and 60,918 people convlcLed of
mlsdemeanors Lhrough lndlrecL communlLy supervlslon, whlch does noL requlre face-Lo-face conLacL.

1he 1exas Crlmlnal !usLlce CoallLlon provldes daLa sheeLs by counLy LhaL llsLs Lhe local populaLlon under
communlLy supervlslon.

Cf LoLal felony supervlslon LermlnaLlons conducLed from March 2013 Lo lebruary 2014, 30,488
were successful and 23,026 were unsuccessful-a success raLe of abouL 33 percenL. Cf mlsdemeanor
supervlslon LermlnaLlons conducLed durlng Lhe same Llme perlod, 74,279 were successful and 23,291
were unsuccessful-a success raLe of abouL 76 percenL. unsuccessful LermlnaLlons lnclude probaLlon
revocaLlon and reLurn Lo lncarceraLlon ln counLy [all, sLaLe [all, prlson, booL camp, or oLher revocaLlon.

kec|d|v|sm rates vary across states, and are d|fferent for d|fferent 1DCI popu|at|ons.
8ecldlvlsm raLes vary subsLanLlally across Lhe sLaLes and are noL comparable slnce pollcles vary.
lor lnsLance, some sLaLes apply lncarceraLlon Lo more serlous crlmes whlle oLhers, llke 1exas,
lncarceraLe for lesser crlmes. Accordlng Lo naLlonal daLa, Lhe 1exas sLaLe prlson Lhree-year recldlvlsm
raLe averaged 31.9 percenL from 2004-2007. 1he naLlonal raLe averaged 43.3 percenL and ranged from
22.8 percenL ln Cregon Lo 61.2 percenL ln MlnnesoLa durlng Lhe same perlod.

Accordlng Lo 1uC!, Lhe felony communlLy supervlslon annual revocaLlon raLe was 10.6 percenL
and Lhe mlsdemeanor raLe was 13.09 percenL. uurlng Lhe year, Lhe agency lssued 34,486 pre-revocaLlon
warranLs and placed 11,933 lndlvlduals, and an average of 2,391 lndlvlduals, ln lnLermedlaLe SancLlon
1he Lhree-year recldlvlsm raLe for lndlvlduals convlcLed of felonles from Lhe 2009 cohorL was
22.6 percenL (9,039/40,093). lndlvlduals wlLh speclal needs who were dlrecLed Lo LreaLmenL alLernaLlves
had a Lhree-year re-lncarceraLlon raLe of 19.3 percenL.
1he Lhree-year re-arresL raLe for lndlvlduals
who were released from prlson was 47.2 percenL, whlle Lhe raLe for Lhose released from sLaLe [all was
62.7 percenL for Lhe 2008 cohorL, Lhe laLesL daLa avallable. More Lhan half of Lhe re-arresLs occurred
wlLhln Lhe flrsL year.

Incarcerat|on |s expens|ve.

LeglslaLlve 8udgeL 8oard, Crlmlnal !usLlce unlform CosL 8eporL, llscal ?ears 2010-2012," SubmlLLed Lo Lhe 83

1exas LeglslaLure, !anuary 2013, p. 40. Avallable aL:
1exas Crlmlnal !usLlce CoallLlon, CounLy uaLa SheeLs." Avallable aL:
LeglslaLlve 8udgeL 8oard, MonLhly 1racklng of AdulL CorrecLlonal opulaLlon lndlcaLors (May 2014)," pp. 2-3, 3.
1he ew CenLer on Lhe SLaLes, M*-*' )0 ;'3$,$+$%64 "#' ;'+)2+$.7 N))& )0 H6'&$3-O% P&$%).%, pp. 10-11. Avallable
1exas ueparLmenL of Crlmlnal !usLlce, I('&-*$.7 J1,7'* 0)& ?$%3-2 K'-& DEFL, uecember 1, 2013, pp. lll.A.38 and
41, and ll.u.1. Avallable aL:
LeglslaLlve 8udgeL 8oard, SLaLewlde Crlmlnal !usLlce 8ecldlvlsm and 8evocaLlon 8aLes," SubmlLLed Lo Lhe 83rd
1exas LeglslaLure, !anuary 2013, p. 3. Avallable aL:
Incarceration and Reentry in Texas

a working paper by the Texas Interfaith Center for Public Policy

6 1exas lnLerfalLh CenLer for ubllc ollcy !une 2014

Cenerally, lncarceraLlon ls Lhe mosL expenslve crlmlnal [usLlce opLlon, and communlLy
supervlslon ls Lhe leasL expenslve opLlon. 1he 1exas LeglslaLlve 8udgeL 8oard (L88) regularly calculaLes
and compares crlmlnal [usLlce cosLs, whlch are slmllar Lo esLlmaLes made by ouLslde groups.
1he L88 esLlmaLed Lhe sysLem-wlde overall cosL ('& 9', per day ln l? 2012 aL $30.04 for Lhe
sLaLe's correcLlonal lnsLlLuLlons.
1he vera lnsLlLuLe of !usLlce esLlmaLed Lhe overall cosL ('&
$.3-&3'&-*', %*-*' (&$%). $.6-*' aL $38.60 ln l? 2010 afLer Laklng lnLo accounL cosLs, such as employee
beneflLs, found ln oLher parLs of Lhe sLaLe budgeL. (Accordlng Lo Lhe lnsLlLuLe, Lhe naLlonal average was
$83.72 and ranged from $40 ln kenLucky Lo $164.39 ln new ?ork.
Local [all cosLs per lnmaLe also vary LhroughouL 1exas, buL Lhe average per bed per day for local
[alls ls abouL $39.
ln aL leasL ln one case, LlberLy CounLy, whlch uses a prlvaLe conLracLor, has cosLs LhaL
are more expenslve Lhan 1uC! cosLs. LlberLy CounLy's cosLs range from $64.23 Lo $70.90 per day per
lnmaLe, dependlng on Lhe number of lnmaLes. 1he cosL per lnmaLe lncreases as Lhe number of lnmaLes
CounLles spend from 11 percenL Lo 14 percenL of Lhelr budgeLs on [alls.

Commun|ty superv|s|on costs much |ess than |ncarcerat|on. 1he cosL of communlLy supervlslon
has been found Lo be far less Lhan Lhe cosL of lncarceraLlon. AcLlve supervlslon of lndlvlduals released on
parole cosL $3.63 per day ln l? 2012, and super-lnLenslve supervlslon cosL $23.07. non-resldenLlal
subsLance abuse LreaLmenL was $26.16 per day.
8esldenLlal LreaLmenL programs are more expenslve Lhan dlrecL communlLy supervlslon buL
usually less Lhan or comparable Lo lncarceraLlon ln a sLaLe prlson faclllLy. Palfway houses cosL $40.83 per
day, lnLermedlaLe sancLlon faclllLles cosL $43.81 per day, and resldenLlal subsLance abuse LreaLmenL cosL
$43.34 per day. 1he counLy [all work release program, whlch provldes houslng for lndlvlduals on parole
who cannoL obLaln houslng ln Lhe communlLy, cosL $33.89 per day.
CommunlLy supervlslon for lndlvlduals on probaLlon cosLs $2.99 per day wlLh Lhe sLaLe cosL
belng $1.38 and Lhe parLlclpanL cosL aL $1.61. lnLenslve supervlslon probaLlon cosLs Lhe sLaLe $3.21 and
Lhe parLlclpanL $1.61.

L|ectron|c mon|tor|ng |s one way to augment commun|ty superv|s|on and reduce perce|ved
need for |ncarcerat|on. 1he 1exas LeglslaLlve 8udgeL 8oard esLlmaLes l? 2012 elecLronlc monlLorlng
cosLs for communlLy supervlslon aL $14.34 per day, lncludlng Lhe devlce and admlnlsLraLlve and
supervlslon cosLs, for Lhose on parole and $6.72 per day for Lhose under communlLy supervlslon (on
SLaLes have generally used elecLronlc monlLorlng for hlgh rlsk parolees, such as Lhose

LeglslaLlve 8udgeL 8oard, Crlmlnal !usLlce unlform CosL 8eporL, llscal ?ears 2010-2012," SubmlLLed Lo Lhe 83

1exas LeglslaLure, !anuary 2013, p. 4. Avallable aL:
CalculaLlons based on daLa from vera lnsLlLuLe of !usLlce, "#' P&$3' )0 P&$%).%Q B#-* @.3-&3'&-*$). A)%*%
"-<(-5'&%, !anuary 2012, p. 8. Avallable aL: hLLp://www.vera.org/slLes/defaulL/flles/resources/downloads/prlce-of-
8randon Wood, Lhen AsslsLanL ulrecLor of Lhe 1exas Commlsslon on !all SLandards, presenLaLlon aL Lhe Amerlcan
8ar AssoclaLlon, Crlmlnal !usLlce SecLlon, 8oundLable on reLrlal ueLenLlon ln 1exas, held ln AusLln, 1exas, March
30, 2012. llgure reflecLs cosL per [all bed per day.
1exas !all ro[ecL, SLudy on CosLs of LlberLy CounLy !all lnmaLes." Avallable aL:
LeglslaLlve 8udgeL 8oard, Crlmlnal !usLlce unlform CosL 8eporL, llscal ?ears 2010-2012," SubmlLLed Lo Lhe 83

1exas LeglslaLure, !anuary 2013, p. 11. Avallable aL:
Incarceration and Reentry in Texas

a working paper by the Texas Interfaith Center for Public Policy

7 1exas lnLerfalLh CenLer for ubllc ollcy !une 2014

convlcLed of sex offenses, buL varlous sLaLes and locaLlons have recenLly begun Lo use lL for alLernaLlve
senLenclng, pre-Lrlal deLenLlon, and for senLenced lndlvlduals who are medlcally dlsabled or are self-
employed, employed, have a promlse of work, or are searchlng for work. 1he sLaLe saves sLaLe and local
governmenL Lhe cosL of lncarceraLlon, and Lhe ablllLy of Lhe convlcLed person Lo work means LhaL Lhey
can sLay wlLh Lhelr famlly and provlde chlld and famlly supporL.
A Lyplcal program requlres lndlvlduals Lo pay a fee for Lhe servlce, alLhough sLaLes or locallLles
could compare cosLs of elecLronlc monlLorlng Lo lncarceraLlon and sLrucLure a fee schedule accordlngly.
Cne of Lhe maln reasons why so many people remaln ln [all pre-Lrlal ls because Lhey cannoL ralse Lhe
funds for bondlng ouL. Whlle Lhey remaln ln [all, Lhey ofLen lose Lhelr [obs, are unable Lo pay chlld
supporL, aLLend church, and care for Lhelr famllles. ln mosL cases, elecLronlc monlLorlng cosLs wlll be less
expenslve Lhan lncarceraLlon so lL makes economlc sense for boLh Lhe governmenL and Lhe arresLed
lndlvldual, and Lhe famllles lnvolved.
1he uenver ueparLmenL of ubllc SafeLy reduced nearly 100,000 [all bed days
represenLlng more Lhan $1 mllllon ln savlngs, collecLed nearly $2 mllllon ln cllenL fees,
and provlded communlLy supervlslon as an alLernaLlve Lo [all wlLh a 96 percenL success
raLe for more Lhan 3,200 lndlvlduals. 1he success raLe for drug courL referrals has been
88 percenL, 96.4 percenL for Lhe alcohol monlLorlng program, and 89 percenL for posL-
convlcLlon monlLorlng as an alLernaLlve Lo [all or condlLlon of probaLlon.

1he Ada, ldaho Sherlff's Cfflce uses elecLronlc monlLorlng for pre-Lrlal deLenLlon,
alLernaLlve senLenclng, and work release or for Lhose wlLh cerLaln dlsablllLles afLer

AddlLlonally, a recenL evaluaLlon of Lhe llorlda sysLem lndlcaLed LhaL elecLronlc
monlLorlng reduces Lhe lndlvldual's rlsk of fallure by 31 percenL. 1he sLudy showed LhaL
Lhe success of elecLronlc monlLorlng ln reduclng Lhe rlsk of fallure applled Lo all Lypes of
crlme, age groups, and Lype of monlLorlng.

AnoLher sLudy conducLed for WashlngLon, u.C., found subsLanLlal savlngs and lmproved

1DCI has been d|rected to |ncrease |ts focus on reentry |n recent years.
1o lmprove reenLry experlences for Lhose reenLerlng Lhe communlLy from lncarceraLlon, Lhelr
famllles and Lhelr communlLles, and Lo reduce recldlvlsm, Lhe 81
LeglslaLure enacLed P.8. 1711 ln 2009,
whlch esLabllshed a 8eenLry 1ask lorce ln 1uC! Lo coordlnaLe efforLs of elghL sLaLe and local agencles.
1uC! esLabllshed a 8eenLry and 8elnLegraLlon ulvlslon (8lu) aL LhaL Llme. 1he 83
LeglslaLure enacLed

uenver ueparLmenL of ubllc SafeLy, LlecLronlc MonlLorlng." Avallable aL:
Ada CounLy Sherlff's Cfflce, LlecLronlc MonlLorlng rogram." Avallable aL:
1he llorlda SLaLe unlverslLy, A CuanLlLaLlve and CuallLaLlve AssessmenL of LlecLronlc MonlLorlng," (AbsLracL),
!anuary 2010.
Avallable aL: hLLp://crlmlnology.fsu.edu/cenLer/p/pdf/LM20LvaluaLlon20llnal208eporL20for20nl!.pdf
!ohn k. 8oman, h.u., 1he CosLs and 8eneflLs of LlecLronlc MonlLorlng for WashlngLon, u.C.," (urban lnsLlLuLe),
SepLember 2012. Avallable aL: hLLp://www.urban.org/uploadedul/412678-1he-CosLs-and-8eneflLs-of-LlecLronlc-
Incarceration and Reentry in Texas

a working paper by the Texas Interfaith Center for Public Policy

8 1exas lnLerfalLh CenLer for ubllc ollcy !une 2014

S.8. 213 ln 2013, whlch requlres an lndlvldual LreaLmenL plan for each lnmaLe and expands Lhe 1uC!
8eenLry 1ask lorce from 8 Lo 23 agencles. lL also requlres agencles Lo ldenLlfy Lhelr reenLry and
relnLegraLlon goals, Lhe sLraLegles for achlevlng Lhose goals, and speclflc Llmellnes Lo lmplemenL Lhelr
parLlcular plans.

Also ln response Lo leglslaLlon, 1uC! has developed a sysLem Lo ensure LhaL lndlvlduals released
from 1uC! faclllLles have proper ldenLlflcaLlon when Lhey leave 1uC! faclllLles, such as a blrLh cerLlflcaLe,
drlvers llcense/lu card, and Soclal SecurlLy card.
1he dlvlslon also offers a sLaLewlde hoLllne LhaL can
help lndlvlduals llnk Lo local organlzaLlons.
keentry 1ask Iorce. 8esldes sLaLe and local agencles, currenL members of Lhe Lask force lnclude
a represenLaLlve from Lhe falLh communlLy, lnmaLe communlLy, and Lhe Sherlff's AssoclaLlon of 1exas:
1exas ueparLmenL of Crlmlnal !usLlce
1exas Crlmlnal !usLlce CoallLlon
Cfflce of Crlmlnal !usLlce CoordlnaLlon
Cfflce of CourL AdmlnlsLraLlon
CovenanL Church
PealLh & Puman Servlces Commlsslon
Sherlff's AssoclaLlon of 1exas
1ravls CounLy Sherlff
1exas veLerans Commlsslon
1exas lnmaLes lamllles AssoclaLlon
nacogdoches CounLy
1CCCMMl Advlsory CommlLLee
1ravls CounLy Crlmlnal !usLlce lannlng
ueparLmenL of lamlly roLecLlve Servlces
1exas Commlsslon on !all SLandards
1exas !uvenlle !usLlce ueparLmenL
ueparLmenL of SLaLe PealLh Servlces
1exas ueparLmenL of Pouslng & CommunlLy Affalrs
1exas Workforce Commlsslon
1exas 8oard of ardons & aroles
1arranL CounLy
1exas CourL of Crlmlnal Appeals
1exas ueparLmenL of ubllc SafeLy
8exar CounLy
Wlndham School ulsLrlcL

1he Lask force ls charged wlLh:
developlng a unlform, sysLem-wlde needs and rlsk assessmenL Lool,

LeglslaLure, S.8. 213 (2013). Avallable aL:
1exas ueparLmenL of Crlmlnal !usLlce, 8eenLry and lnLegraLlon ulvlslon, ldenLlflcaLlon uocumenL rocesslng."
Avallable aL: hLLp://www.Ldc[.sLaLe.Lx.us/dlvlslons/rld/rld_Lexas_reenLry_ld_doc_processlng.hLml
1exas ueparLmenL of Crlmlnal !usLlce, 8eenLry 1ask lorce Members." Avallable aL:
Incarceration and Reentry in Texas

a working paper by the Texas Interfaith Center for Public Policy

9 1exas lnLerfalLh CenLer for ubllc ollcy !une 2014

ensurlng LhaL each lndlvldual released has a reenLry and relnLegraLlon plan,
reduclng dupllcaLlon of efforL wlLhln and ouLslde Lhe agency,
lmprovlng Lhe use of Lechnology Lo faclllLaLe lnLernal and exLernal lnformaLlon sharlng,
esLabllshlng slngle polnLs of conLacL wlLhln communlLles Lo coordlnaLe pre and posL release
reenLry referrals and afLercare,
addresslng houslng and employmenL barrlers, famlly unlLy and parLlclpaLlon, LransporLaLlon,
and lssues affecLlng people wlLh speclal needs,
coordlnaLlng wlLh local [alls, courLs and CommunlLy Supervlslon and CorrecLlons
ueparLmenLs Lo lmprove Lhe ldenLlflcaLlon verlflcaLlon process durlng Lhe offender's lnlLlal
lnvolvemenL ln Lhe crlmlnal [usLlce sysLem

1he Lask force has developed several workgroups ln Lhe areas of communlLy reenLry,
employmenL, famlly and falLh-based coordlnaLlon, houslng, lnformaLlon sharlng, speclal needs and
women convlcLed of crlmes, Lo ldenLlfy exlsLlng sLaLe and local lnlLlaLlves, barrlers Lo and gaps ln
servlces, and Lo develop a plan Lo coordlnaLe Lask force efforLs wlLh exlsLlng sLaLe and local efforLs, and
develop recommendaLlons for lmprovemenL.

keentry centers are estab||shed |n some areas of the state.
1he 1uC! 8eenLry and 8elnLegraLlon ulvlslon has also seL up ulsLrlcL 8eenLry CenLers ln flve reglons
Lo coordlnaLe reenLry efforLs and ouLreach Lo communlLy reenLry programs ln 41 counLles:
keg|on I - 8eaumont (Iefferson County) and lncludes Pardln, !efferson, 1yler counLles
keg|on II - Da||as I (Da||as County) and lncludes uallas CounLy and Iort Worth I (1arrant
County) and lncludes !ohnson and 1arranL counLles
keg|on III - nouston I (narr|s County) and nouston VII (Parrls CounLy) and lncludes CalvesLon,
8razorla, lorL 8end, Walker, MonLgomery, LlberLy, and Chambers counLles
keg|on IV - Aust|n II (1rav|s County) and lncludes Wllllamson, 8asLrop, Caldwell, Pays, and
8urneL counLles, San Anton|o DkC (8exar County) and lncludes Comal, Cuadalupe, Wllson,
ALascosa, and Medlna counLles, Corpus Chr|st| (Nueces County) and lncludes San aLrlclo, !lm
Wells, and kleberg counLles, and McA||en (n|da|go County) and lncludes Cameron and SLarr
keg|on V - Lubbock (Lubbock County) and lncludes Pale, Crosby, Lynn, and Pockley counLles
and L| aso (L| aso County)

Loca| commun|t|es and nonprof|ts are mak|ng reentry a pr|or|ty.
1he recenL sLaLe leglslaLlon and Lhe coordlnaLlon of sLaLe agencles Lhrough Lhe new sLaLe
8eenLry 1ask lorce has begun Lo seL up mechanlsms Lo asslsL Lhese communlLles ln provldlng a more
coordlnaLed, coheslve, and hollsLlc approach Lo provldlng servlces. AL Lhe local level, 1exas communlLles
have begun Lo seL up coordlnaLlon efforLs Lo asslsL ln reenLry. ln addlLlon, prlvaLe, nonproflL
organlzaLlons also provlde lnformaLlon and asslsLance.

1exas ueparLmenL of Crlmlnal !usLlce, 1he 1exas 8eenLry 1wo-SLep," pp. 11-17. Avallable aL:
1exas ueparLmenL of Crlmlnal !usLlce, 8eenLry and lnLegraLlon ulvlslon, ulrecLory-ulsLrlcL 8eenLry CenLers."
Avallable aL: hLLp://www.Ldc[.sLaLe.Lx.us/dlvlslons/parole/parole_drc.hLml
Incarceration and Reentry in Texas

a working paper by the Texas Interfaith Center for Public Policy

10 1exas lnLerfalLh CenLer for ubllc ollcy !une 2014

Nonprof|ts and agenc|es offer |nformat|on and referra|.
1he 1exas Crlmlnal !usLlce CoallLlon (1C!C) has developed a one-sLop webslLe called 1exas
CounLy 8esources" LhaL enables users Lo search for local reenLry servlces across Lhe sLaLe on a counLy
basls. 1he slLe also provldes lnformaLlon on sLaLewlde organlzaLlons LhaL can asslsL wlLh servlces locally,
such as Lhe 1exas veLerans Commlsslon. AnoLher organlzaLlon, 8esLoraLlve !usLlce CommunlLy, also
provldes lnformaLlon Lo llnk users wlLh organlzaLlons LhaL can asslsL Lhem wlLh reenLry. users can sorL lLs
llsL alphabeLlcally by servlce, sLaLe, clLy, or zlp code.
1he 1exas 2-1-1 hoLllne neLwork provldes referrals Lo local servlces. ln addlLlon, sLaLe agencles
lnvolved ln Lhe 8eenLry 1ask lorce are developlng reenLry coordlnaLlon plans for programs wlLhln Lhelr

Loca| reentry roundtab|es |ncrease coord|nat|on and co||aborat|on.
lour densely populaLed counLles wlLh slgnlflcanL parole and communlLy supervlslons populaLlons
have developed roundLables" over Lhe lasL several years Lo coordlnaLe local reenLry servlces: 8exar,
uallas, 1arranL, and 1ravls.
1he 8exar CounLy 8eenLry Councll, formed ln 2008, has 262 members represenLlng 89 organlzaLlons
and malnLalns a resource webslLe LhaL llsLs all organlzaLlons and programs avallable Lo asslsL wlLh
reenLry by Lype of servlce. 1he goal of Lhe Councll ls Lo reduce recldlvlsm, save Laxpayer dollars, and
relnvesL back reenLry servlces. 1he Councll has several commlLLees:
LmploymenL and LducaLlon,
Pouslng and Soclal Servlces,
SubsLance Abuse and MenLal PealLh,
8esLoraLlve !usLlce,
lalLh-based CrganlzaLlons,
LeglslaLlve lssues, and
8esearch and LvaluaLlon.
1he Councll ldenLlfles savlngs of $12 mllllon ln [all cosLs among lLs accompllshmenLs and Lhe
developmenL of Lhree courLs: veLerans 1reaLmenL CourL, 8eenLry CourL, and Co-Cccurrlng ulsorders
CourL. ln addlLlon Lo Lhe webslLe, Lhe Councll provldes each lndlvldual released from [all wlLh a card LhaL
has lmporLanL phone numbers. 1he Councll has dedlcaLed sLaff Lo asslsL wlLh reenLry and has been
acLlve ln organlzlng leglslaLlve agendas.

volunLeers of Amerlca: 1exas operaLes Lhe uallas program. 1hls program beglns provldlng
servlces pre-release, focuslng on bulldlng llfe skllls and worklng on addlcLlon lssues. 1hen, Lhey asslsL
wlLh flndlng employmenL and bulldlng a supporL group. 1he program has speclal lnlLlaLlves lnvolvlng
women and famllles and operaLes ln uallas, lorL WorLh, PousLon and PuLchlns.

1arranL CounLy 8eenLry CoallLlon LogeLher wlLh 1arranL Cares, whlch provldes a wlde range of
servlces, lncludlng reenLry, operaLes a webslLe wlLh a searchable onllne dlrecLory of reenLry resources
organlzed lnLo 13 caLegorles. users may search by keyword or Lype of servlce. 1he coallLlon's goal ls Lo
break Lhe cycle of recldlvlsm and ls developlng and execuLlng a long-range sLraLeglc plan. 1he coallLlon
launched ln 2012 under conLracL wlLh Lhe counLy and lLs conLracL renewed ln 2013.

8exar CounLy Councll, 8exar CounLy 8eenLry rogram." Avallable aL: hLLp://gov.bexar.org/reenLry/
volunLeers of Amerlca: 1exas, CommunlLy 8e-enLry." Avallable aL:
1arranL CounLy 8eenLry CoallLlon, Pome." Avallable aL: hLLp://www.LcreenLry.org/
Incarceration and Reentry in Texas

a working paper by the Texas Interfaith Center for Public Policy

11 1exas lnLerfalLh CenLer for ubllc ollcy !une 2014

1he AusLln/1ravls CounLy 8eenLry 8oundLable began operaLlon ln 2011 and lssues an annual
acLlon plan. lLs mlsslon ls Lo be a robusL, communlLy-wlde collaboraLlve and caLalysL for sysLem change
LhaL educaLes, faclllLaLes, and advocaLes Lo promoLe publlc safeLy Lhrough effecLlve reenLry and
relnLegraLlon of lncarceraLed and formerly lncarceraLed persons." 1he 8oundLable has Lhree sLandlng
commlLLees: SupporL SysLems, ollcy 8eform, and Lvldence-8ased racLlces. 1he ollcy 8eform
commlLLee ls acLlve ln developlng Lhe 8oundLable's leglslaLlve agenda. 1he 8oundLable also has Lhree
lssue area commlLLees: Pouslng, LmploymenL, and 8ehavloral PealLh/SubsLance Abuse. 1he 8oundLable
malnLalns a "&-+$% A)1.*5 ;''.*&5 M133'%% R1$,' and llnks Lo a Lwo-page 1ravls CounLy Pandy Culde for
8eenLry" LhaL provldes key conLacL lnformaLlon for resources avallable ln 1ravls CounLy.

Count|es w|thout reentry roundtab|es have |ess forma| coord|nat|on and therefore may not have
opt|ma| serv|ces.
CLher Lhan Lhe roundLables, mosL counLles do noL provlde much ln Lhe way of coordlnaLlng local
resources buL rely on sherlff's offlces and varlous sLaLe or communlLy organlzaLlons Lo coordlnaLe
reenLry servlces. ln Parrls CounLy, Lhe Chaplaln's Cfflce provldes conslderable asslsLance and
coordlnaLlon, operaLlng a volunLeer 8eenLry 1eam LhaL asslsLs abouL 130 lndlvlduals per week ln flndlng
local servlces.
8uL, such coordlnaLlon efforLs are noL always avallable, parLlcularly ln less populaLed
counLles. lewer reenLry servlces are avallable ln less populaLed counLles, accordlng Lo dlrecLorles of
servlces on such webslLes as Lhe one LhaL Lhe 1C!C operaLes.
All areas of Lhe sLaLe recelve employmenL servlces Lhrough Lhe sLaLe's 28 local workforce
developmenL boards LhaL operaLe one-sLop workforce cenLers ln Lhelr areas. unLll recenLly, ro[ecL 8lC
(8elnLegraLlon of Cffenders) provlded speclallzed employmenL servlces aL Lhe cenLers, buL workforce
cenLers now provlde Lhe reenLry populaLlon Lhe same servlces as Lhe general populaLlon. lor Lhose
unable Lo flnd employmenL, communlLy and Lechnlcal colleges and oLher adulL learnlng and llLeracy
programs can provlde educaLlon and flnanclal ald asslsLance ln mosL of Lhe sLaLe. AlLhough falLh-based
and nonproflL organlzaLlons someLlmes provlde healLh, menLal healLh, subsLance LreaLmenL, or houslng
asslsLance, Lhese programs are sparse LhroughouL mosL of Lhe sLaLe excepL ln more densely urban
A 2010 survey of professlonals LhaL regularly provlde servlces Lo lndlvlduals aLLempLlng reenLry
found slgnlflcanL barrlers lnvolvlng case managemenL, coordlnaLlon wlLh servlce provlders, and
avallablllLy of servlces for reenLry.


AusLln/1ravls CounLy 8oundLable, AbouL," and CeL Pelp." Avallable aL:
hLLp://www.reenLryroundLable.neL/abouL-us/ and hLLp://www.reenLryroundLable.neL/geL-help/
Parrls CounLy Sherlff's Cfflce, !all Chaplalncy and 8eenLry Servlces." Avallable aL:
Concluslon based on revlew of servlces by counLy ldenLlfled ln Lhe 1exas Crlmlnal !usLlce CoallLlon 1exas CounLy
8esources" onllne dlrecLory and Lhe 8esLoraLlve !usLlce CommunlLy 1exas 8esource ulrecLory" onllne dlrecLory.
Avallable aL: hLLp://counLyresources.Lexasc[c.org/ and
1exas Crlmlnal !usLlce CoallLlon, 8e-enLry Survey ldenLlfylng CurrenL 8arrlers and needs ln 8ural and urban
Areas," (regardlng lnLerlm Charge 3, Pouse CommlLLee on CorrecLlons), !une 30, 2010. Avallable aL:
Incarceration and Reentry in Texas

a working paper by the Texas Interfaith Center for Public Policy

12 1exas lnLerfalLh CenLer for ubllc ollcy !une 2014

1he hlgh raLe of re-arresL and re-lncarceraLlon of Lhose released from lncarceraLlon lnLo
communlLles, along wlLh Lhe hlgh cosL of and rlsks assoclaLed wlLh crlme, arresL, legal defense, and
lncarceraLlon, lndlcaLes LhaL lndlvlduals convlcLed of crlmes, clLlzens, and Laxpayers would beneflL from
lmproved coordlnaLlon of reenLry servlces, as well as Lhe developmenL of addlLlonal reenLry servlces aL
Lhe local level. 8ecenL efforLs Lo lmprove coordlnaLlon beLween sLaLe and local resources Lhrough Lhe
8eenLry 1ask lorce are laudable, buL much more needs done aL Lhe local level Lo lmprove counLy
coordlnaLlon of local publlc and prlvaLe reenLry servlces. 1he conLlnued developmenL of case
managemenL servlces and lndlvldual reenLry and LreaLmenL plans, lncludlng ensurlng proper
ldenLlflcaLlon wlll also help, buL lnsufflclenL reenLry servlces aL Lhe local level wlll conLlnue Lo be a
slgnlflcanL barrler Lo successful relnLegraLlon and wlll conLlnue Lo fuel re-arresL and re-lncarceraLlon