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# Some of the definitions of thermodynamics: Some of the definitions of thermodynamics:

The science that deals with the interaction between energy and
material systems
The science concerned with the relations between heat and
mechanical energy or work, and the conversion of one into the other.
Is the study of energy conversion between heat and mechanical
work, and properties of a system.
System and surroundings
System
Surrounding Surrounding
Thermodynamic Systems
System is a definite quantity of matter bounded by some closed surface
(boundary) which is impervious to the flow of matter. Thermodynamic system
is defined as any prescribed and identifiable collection of matter upon which
attention is focused for investigation. Everything else other than system i.e.,
the space and matter external to a system is known as surroundings.
System + Surroundings = Universe
The control volume V(t) is an enclosed, simply connected region in
space which may be finite or infinitesimal in size.
Thermodynamic Systems There are three classes of Thermodynamic Systems:
System
Surrounding
a) Open System
Matter (mass)
interchange
- (Yes)
Energy Interchange
(Yes)
b) Close System
Matter (mass)
interchange interchange
(No)
Energy Interchange
(Yes)
c) Isolated System
Matter (mass)
interchange
- (No)
Energy Interchange
(No)
Laws of Thermodynamics
1) Zeroth law
2) 1
st
law: Energy can never be
created or destroyed or in other
words:
Energy added to system = Increase
in energy of the system + Energy
removed from the system.
If two systems are each equal in
temperature to a third, then they are
equal in temperature to each other.
(This equality of temperature is also
called Thermal equilibrium)
A
B C
If [T (A) = T (B) and
T (A) = T (C)]
Then T (B) = T (C)
System
Energy
Energy
Removed
removed from the system.
3) 2
nd
law. 4) 3
rd
law.
In the following Slides
We will discuss later
1
st
Law: Some more definitions
Heat and work are mutually convertible but since energy
can neither be created nor destroyed, the total energy
associated with an energy conversion remains constant.
Joules Experiment [Q = W = mC(T
2
-T
1
)]
C= 4.186 J/(g
0
C)
Examples of Systems where heat is
converted to work
Steam Engine
Power plant
Automobile Engines
Examples of devices where work is
converted to heat
Ist law also implies that there can no machine which
would continuously supply mechanical work without
some form of energy disappearing simultaneously.
Such a fictitious machine is called a perpetual motion
machine of first kind (PPM 1). A PPM 1 is impossible.
1
st
Law: Some more definitions
PPM 1
The converse of above is also
true, i.e., there can be no
machine which would
continuously consume work
without some other
Energy change
in this system =
0
PPM 1
Converse of PPM 1
Energy change
in this system =
0
2
nd
Law of thermodynamics
This law has two parts (1. Clausius statement and 2.
Kelvin-Plank statement). The first considers transfer of
heat between two thermal reservoirs while the second
considers the transformation of heat into work.
Clausius Statement It is impossible for a self acting
machine working in a cyclic process unaided by any
external energy, to convey heat from a body at lower
temperature to a body at a higher temperature. In other
external energy, to convey heat from a body at lower
temperature to a body at a higher temperature. In other
words, heat of, itself, cannot flow from a colder to a
hotter body.
Kelvin-Plank Statement It is impossible to construct an
engine, which while operating in a cycle produces no
other effect except to extract heat from a single reservoir
and do equivalent amount of work.
Statement, and visa versa
Some examples of open, closed and isolated system
Some examples of open, closed and isolated system
Open system examples: moving car ( due to mass transfer
because of exhaust gas), moving bike (because of
exhaust gas), human body (due to mass transfer
because breathing and heat loss because of
temperature difference with environment), cup of
coffee (heat lost because of high temperature of coffee,
mass loss because of vapor) mass loss because of vapor)
Closed system examples: light bulb [energy transfer
because of work (electric work) input and heat output],
tube light, hot iron rode, AA battery (electric energy
output but no mass transfer).
Isolated system examples: ideal thermos, piece of paper,
block of wood.
Examples illustrating 1
st
and second law (1)
Examples illustrating 1
st
and second law (2)
Examples illustrating
1
st
and second law (3)
Properties
Property = A property of a system is any observable
characteristics of the system. The properties we shall deal
with are measurable in terms of numbers and units of
measurements (eg. Pressure, density, temperature etc)
Intensive
Extensive
Intensive properties are
independent of the mass in
the system, e.g., pressure,
temperature, etc.
Extensive properties are
related to mass e.g.,
volume, energy, etc.
When all the properties of a system have definite values, the
system is said to exist at a definite state.
Important Properties we are
Pressure - Force per unit time.
Temperature
Volume
Specific volume (volume per unit mass). Specific volume (volume per unit mass).
Density (mass per unit volume).
Entropy - > S
Enthalpy - > (H = U + PV)
Internal Energy - U
Intensive and Extensive Properties
Extensive Properties Intensive Properties
---- P = Pressure (pa, atm, bar etc)
----- T = Temperature (K or
o
C or F)
V = Volume (m
3
) v = Specific volume (m
3
)/kg
M = mass (kg) d = density (kg/m
3
) M = mass (kg) d = density (kg/m
3
)
S = entropy (J/K) s = specific entropy (J per
Kelvin per kg)
H = enthalpy (joules) h = specific enthalpy (j/kg)
U = Internal Energy (joules) u = specific internal energy
(j/kg)
State
State is the condition of the system at an instance of time as
described or measured by the properties.
Or in other words each unique condition of a system is called
a state. At a particular state, all properties have fixed values.
When all the properties of a system have definite values, the
system is said to exist at a definite state.
(a) Initial state before heating (b) Final state after heating
1 2
2
1
t t dt =

## It means that t to be property, dt is an exact differential.

Change in
property =
State 1 State 2
A system is said to be in thermodynamic equilibrium if properties of the
systemare same at all points and do not change with time.
P
1
,T
1
,
1
,s
1
.Properties
Location
(a)
State 1
(time = t
1
)
Location
(b)
Location
(c)
P
1
at Location (a) = P
1
at Location (b) = P
1
at Location (c)
T
1
at Location (a) = T
1
at Location (b) = T
1
at Location (c)

1
at Location (a) =
1
at Location (b) =
1
at Location (c)
s
1
at Location (a) = s
1
at Location (b) = s
1
at Location (c)
Etc
P at Location (a) = P at Location (b) = P at Location (c)
Properties are same at all the points/locations
Thermodynamic Equilibrium
Properties do not change with time Properties do not change with time
P
2
,T
2
,
2
,s
2
.Properties
Location
(a)
Location
(b)
Location
(c)
P
2
at Location (a) = P
2
at Location (b) = P
2
at Location (c)
T
2
at Location (a) = T
2
at Location (b) = T
2
at Location (c)

2
at Location (a) =
2
at Location (b) =
2
at Location (c)
s
2
at Location (a) = s
2
at Location (b) = s
2
at Location (c)
Etc
State 2
(time = t
2
)
Properties are same at all the points/locations
P
1
at Location (a) = P
2
at Location (a)
P
1
at Location (b) = P
2
at Location (b)
P
1
at Location (c) = P
2
at Location (c)
T
1
at Location (a) = T
2
at Location (a)
T
1
at Location (b) = T
2
at Location (b)
T
1
at Location (c) = T
2
at Location (c) etc .
Temperature of the system is same at all the
points/locations
T
1
at Location (a) = T
1
at Location (b)
T
2
at Location (a) = T
2
at Location (b)
Temperature does not change with time
T
1
at Location (a) = T
2
at Location (a)
T at Location (b) = T at Location (b)
Thermodynamic Equilibrium: A system is said to be in thermodynamic
equilibriumif properties of the systemare same at all points and do not change with
time. Existence of thermodynamics equilibrium implies existence of following three
equilibriums.
P
1
,T
1
,
1
,s
1
.Properties
Location
(a)
State 1
(time = t
1
)
Location
(b)
Location
Thermal Equilibrium:
[Temperature does not change with time and locations]
Pressure of the system is same at all the
points/locations
P
1
at Location (a) = P
1
at Location (b)
P
2
at Location (a) = P
2
at Location (b))
Pressure does not change with time
P
1
at Location (a) = P
2
at Location (a)
P
1
at Location (b) = P
2
at Location (b)
1 2
T
1
at Location (b) = T
2
at Location (b)
Location
(c)
P
2
,T
2
,
2
,s
2
.Properties
Location
(a)
Location
(b)
Location
(c)
State 2
(time = t
2
)
Chemical Equilibrium: Chemical Equilibrium: If chemical concentration of the system
is same at all the points of the systemand does not change with time.
Mechanical Equilibrium:
[Pressure does not change with time and locations]
Quasi-EquilibriumProcess
A process during which the system only deviates
fromequilibrium by an infinitessimal amount.
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
P
a
)
(a)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(b)
Path, State and Cycle
State : When all the properties
of a system have definite values,
the system is said to exist at a
definite state. (a, b, c, d, e and f
are examples of states)
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
P
a
)
Volume
(f)
are examples of states)
Path: The succession of states
passed through during a change
of state is called the path
Cycle: A thermodynamic cycle
is defined as a series of state
changes such that the final state
is identical with the initial state.
(a)
(b)
Constant Temperature
(isothermal) (c to e)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Constant Pressure
(isobaric) (c to e)
C
o
n
s
t
a
n
t

V
o
l
u
m
e
Process When the path is completely specified, the change of state is called a
process i.e. the system is then said to have gone through a process. Process is a
path of the successive equilibrium states through which the system passes when it
changes its position from one state to another. Its is many used to define the general
characteristics of a path
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
P
a
)
Volume
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(a)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(b)
T

(
d
e
g
r
e
e

C
)
Volume
C
o
n
s
t
a
n
t

V
o
l
u
m
e
(
i
s
o
c
h
o
r
i
c
)
Isentropic (constant
entropy) process
Isenthalpic (constant
enthalpy) process
Process When the path is completely specified, the change of state is called a
process i.e. the system is then said to have gone through a process. Process is a
path of the successive equilibrium states through which the system passes when it
changes its position from one state to another. Its is many used to define the general
characteristics of a path
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
s
T

(
d
e
g
r
e
e

C
)
h
Some more examples of processes
Adiabatic process is when heat transfer to and from the
system is zero.
Reversible and Irreversible processes.
Is one in which both the
Is one in which both the
system and the surroundings
Is one in which both the
system and the
their original state
system and the surroundings
state
Assume all surfaces to be
frictionless and assume that air is
not causing any resistance.
Assume that friction is
present
Eg.
Cyclic process is one in which the end states are identical i.e., the system
after undergoing a series of processes returns to its original condition.
Types of Energies
Energy: Simple definition is capacity for
producing an effect
Work
Heat
Internal energy
For the purpose of
Thermodynamics we will
only consider these energies
Internal energy
Potential Energy
Magnetic Energy
etc
Energies we are considering
Work (W)- is energy in
transition whose sole
effect external to the
system can be reduced
to rise of weight.
Heat (Q) Energy transfer
because of temperature
difference difference
Internal Energy (U) Energy
associated with random
motion of molecules and
howthey interact.
Enthalpy (H)
H = U + pV [a combination
that occurs frequently]
Translational
Motion
Rotational
Motion
Vibrational
Motion
Intramolecular potential Intermolecular potential
W & Q are energy in transition, their transfer takes through boundaries and path functions
U, H, P.E, K.E are energies of the system and they are contained in the system.
(a) Battery (b) Battery with motor
Flow of current from a battery as work. We will consider electrical
energy as work
Sign conventions for change of U, W, H, Q
W: done by the system is considered positive
work and work done on the system is considered
negative.
Q : Heat added to the system is considered
positive. Heat removed from system is considered
negative. negative.
If change in U or H of a system is positive then U
or H are said to have increased. If this change is
negative then U or H are said to have decreased.
W& Q are energy in transition, their transfer takes through boundaries and path
functions. Since they are path functions and do not have exact differential, they
are not properties.
U, H, P.E, K.E are energies of the system and they are contained in the
system.
Work Done in a Quasistatic Process
(a) Gas executing a quasistatic process (b) P-V diagram
Work done in a quasistatic process
W = p Adl = p dv

=
2
1
pdv W = Area Under the curve
If we change path, area will change so the work, therefore work is a path function
Work Done in Contact Pressure
(Isobaric) Quasistatic Process
Work Done in Contact Volume
(Isochoric) Quasistatic Process
W
12
=

2
1
p dv = p (v
2
v
1
)
W
12
=

2
1
p dv = 0
2
2
1
1 1
2
1
12
1 1
constant a is C where v p = C = pv
process, isothermal an For
v dv
dv
v
v p
pdv W
= =
= =

Work Done in Contact Temperature (Isothermal) Quasistatic Process
1
2
1 1 12
1
2
1 1
1
1 1
ln
ln
v
v
v p W
v
v
v p
v
dv
v p
=
= =

Work Done in
Polytropic Quasistatic
Process
[ ]
1
constant a is C where v p = C = pv
process, polytropic an For
1 1
1 1
2
1
1
1 1
2
1
1 1
2
1
1 1
2
1
12
n
1 1
n
=

+
= =
= =
+ +
+

v v
v p
n
v
v p
v
dv
v p
dv
v
v p
pdv W
n n
n
v
v
n
n
n
n
n
n
[ ]
1
1
1
1
2 2 1 1
12
1 1 2 2
1
1 1 1
1
2 2 2
1
1
1
2
1 1

=

=

=
+ +
+ +
n
v p v p
W
n
v p v p
n
v v p v v p
v v
n
v p
n n n n
n n
type of polytropic
process where n =
Work Done in Non-equilibrium
Process:

2
1
12
pdv W
Work Done by Rotating
Non-
quasistatic
process
,
0
2
1
=

but
dv p
motor by the supplied power
0
,
12
12
=

W
W
but
Work Done against vacuum
0
,
0
12
2
1
=

W
but
dv p
Work done is zero because :
no force.
no work is done on the
surroundings outside the
system.
First law of Thermodynamics for a Closed System Executing
a Cycle

= W Q
(a) Paddle rotating in water (b) P-V diagram for a cycle
First law of Thermodynamics for a Closed System Executing a process
W W Q Q
b
b
a
a
b
b
a
a

+ = +
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
W W Q Q
c
c
a
a
c
c
a
a

+ = +
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1

=
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
b
b
c
c
b
b
c
c
W W Q Q
P-V diagram for two cycles
W Q W Q
c
c
b
b
=

1
2
1
2
) (
W Q

2
1
is independent of path
followed. It only depends
on initial and final state,
hence is a property.
Q - Wis denoted by dE
E is called stored energy
12 2 1 12
Q - W = dE
or Q = dE + W
Q
12
= E
2
-E
1
+ W
12
First Law for non-cyclic process
Internal Energy and Stored Energy
E is called stored energy, total energy or called as
only energy.
Energy is a property derived from first law of
thermodynamics when applied to a closed system
executing a process.
E represents total energy i.e. sum of microscopic
energy and macroscopic energy, which a system possess
at a given state. at a given state.
Macroscopic types include Kinetic and potential energy.
Microscopic energy includes Kinetic energy, Chemical
energy, nuclear energy , vibrational energy and electronic
energy of molecules. This microscopic energy is called
internal energy.
E = U + ( mv
2
)+ (mgz) = Q - W
H = U + p V
h = u + pv
dH = dU + pdV + Vdp
Q = dU + pdV
dH = Q + V dp
At 0
0
C, enthalpy is taken
to be zero.
In an open system
H = U + pV
pV is called the flow
work. Flow work is due to
pressure and moves the
fluid in or out of a control
volume.
Constant Pressure Process
dH = Q + V dp
If p is constant
dH = Q
In throttling process,
enthalpy remains constant.
In a constant pressure
process from state 1 to
state 2, change in enthalpy
is equal to heat supplied.
First Law of Thermodynamics Applied to an open
system or to a Flow Process
First Law
for an
. .
.
. .
.
for an
Open
System
E
1
+ m
1
p
1
v
1
+ Q = E
2
+ m
2
p
2
v
2
+ W + E
C.V
/t
E
1
= Stored energy entering the control volume = m
1
(u
1
+ v
e
2
/2 + gz
1
)
E
2
= Stored energy leaving the control volume = m
2
(u
2
+ v
e
2
/2 + gz
2
)
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
E
1
+ m
1
p
1
v
1
+ Q = E
2
+ m
2
p
2
v
2
+ W + E
C.V
/t
. .
.
. .
.
E
1
= Stored energy entering the control volume = m
1
(u
1
+ v
e1
2
/2 + gz
1
)
E
2
= Stored energy leaving the control volume = m
2
(u
2
+ v
e2
2
/2 + gz
2
)
.
.
.
.
m
1
(u
1
+ v
e1
2
/2 + gz
1
) + m
1
p
1
v
1
+ Q
= m
2
(u
2
+ v
e2
2
/2 + gz
2
) + m
2
p
2
v
2
+ W + E
C.V
/t
.
.
.
.
.
.
m (u + p v + v
2
/2 + gz ) + Q
.
.
.
.
m
1
(u
1
+ p
1
v
1
+ v
e1
2
/2 + gz
1
) + Q
= m
2
(u
2
+ p
2
v
2
+ v
e2
2
/2 + gz
2
) + W + E
C.V
/t
.
.
.
.
m
1
= m
2
= m
. . .
m(h
1
+ v
e1
2
/2 + gz
1
) + Q = m(h
2
+ v
e2
2
/2 + gz
2
) + W + E
C.V
/t
.
.
.
.
E
C.V
/t = 0
Q = m {(h
2
+ v
e2
2
/2 + gz
2
) - (h
1
+ v
e1
2
/2 + gz
1
) } + W
.
.
.
Application of First Law of Thermodynamics applied to a control
volume or Applications of Steady Flow Equation.
Steam Turbine
Q = m {(h
2
+ v
e2
2
/2 + gz
2
) - (h
1
+ v
e1
2
/2 + gz
1
) } + W
.
.
.
Q = m {(h
2
+ v
e2
2
/2 + gz
2
) - (h
1
+ v
e1
2
/2 + gz
1
) } + W
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
Neglecting kinetic and potential energy changes
0 = m (h
2
- h
1
) + W
.
.
W = W
out
= m (h
1
h
2
)
.
.
Air Compressor
W
in
= m (h
2
h
1
)
.
.
Pump
W
in
= m (h
2
h
1
)
.
.
Steam Boiler
.
Q
in
= m (h
2
h
1
)
.
.
Q = Q
out
= m (h
1
h
2
)
.
.
I.C. engines
Nozzles
Other Examples
domestic refrigerator
heat exchanger.
Limitations of First Law
Natural direction of heat flow
Conversion of heat into work
2
nd
Law of thermodynamics
Clausius Statement heat cannot flow from a
colder to a hotter body on it own
Kelvin-Plank Statement All heat cannot be Kelvin-Plank Statement All heat cannot be
converted to work
Statement, and visa versa
2
nd
Law of thermodynamics
This law has two parts (1. Clausius statement and 2. Kelvin-
Plank statement). The first considers transfer of heat between
two thermal reservoirs while the second considers the
transformation of heat into work.
Clausius Statement It is impossible for a self acting
machine working in a cyclic process unaided by any external
energy, to convey heat from a body at lower temperature to a
body at a higher temperature. In other words, heat of, itself,
cannot flow from a colder to a hotter body.
body at a higher temperature. In other words, heat of, itself,
cannot flow from a colder to a hotter body.
Kelvin-Plank Statement It is impossible to construct an
engine, which while operating in a cycle produces no other
effect except to extract heat from a single reservoir and do
equivalent amount of work. All heat cannot be converted to
work
Statement, and visa versa
Heat Engine
Heat Pump Heat Pump
Refrigerator
Heat Engine
Heat Pump Heat Pump
Refrigerator
Heat Engine
1
Q
W
=
so Q Q W ,
2 1
=
2 1
Q Q
=
1
2 1
Q
Q Q
=
1
2
1
Q
Q
=
Heat Pump
Refrigerator
W
Q
P O C
1
. . =
W = Q
1
Q
2
2 1
1
. .
Q Q
Q
P O C

=
Refrigerator
W
Q
P O C
2
. . =
2 1
2
. .
Q Q
Q
P O C

=
1 . . . . + =
R HP
P O C P O C
Perpetual Motion Machine of Second
Kind, PMMSK
A system which operates in a cycle and converts
all heat into work and exchanges heat with a
single reservoir is called perpetual motion
machine of second kind, PMMSK. machine of second kind, PMMSK.
Q = W
Can not exist as
it is violation of
Kelvin-Plancks
statement.
Reversible Process and Carnot Engine Efficiency
Irreversible processes
Friction
Heat Transfer through finite temperature
difference
Free expansion Free expansion
Mixing
A reversible process is also quasistatic process,
but a quasistatic process may not be reversible.
Q
H
=|Q
12
|
Q
L
=|Q
34
|
T
H
Carnot Engine:
Carnot engine will give maximum
efficiency
Q
L
Q
H
T
L
T
H
=
Condition for maximumefficiency:
T
L
Carnot Engine
Q
L
T
L
H
net
Q
W
=
W
net
= Q
H
Q
L
H
L H
Q
Q Q
= =>
H
L H
T
T T
= =>
H
L
HeatEngine Carnot
T
T
= =
=>
1
max
,

Heat Pump
Refrigerator
2 1
1
. .
Q Q
Q
P O C

=
Q
2
Q
1
T
2
T
1
=
Condition for maximum/carnot COP
2 1
1
max
. .
T T
T
P O C

=
Refrigerator
2 1
2
. .
Q Q
Q
P O C

=
1 . . . . + =
R HP
P O C P O C
Q
2
Q
1
T
2
T
1
=
Condition for maximum/carnot COP
2 1
2
max
. .
T T
T
P O C

=
Entropy
1. Is often taken to be a measure of "disorder.
2. For isolated system and for universe the entropy never decreases.
3. The increase in entropy is small when heat is added at a high
temperature and is greater when heat addition is made at a lower
temperature.
4. Entropy is a function of a quantity of heat which shows the possibility of
conversion of that heat into work. Thus for maximum entropy, there is
minimum availability for conversion into work and for minimum entropy minimum availability for conversion into work and for minimum entropy
there is maximum availability for conversion into work.
5. Quantitatively, entropy is defined by the differential quantity ds = Q/T
where Q is the amount of heat absorbed in an isothermal and
reversible process in which the system goes from one state to another,
and T is the absolute temperature at which the process is occurring.
Entropy change can be calculated by integrating ds.
Third law of Thermodynamics
The third law of thermodynamics as stated as follows:
The entropy of all perfect crystalline solids is zero at absolute
zero temperature.
The third law of thermodynamics provides the basis for the
calculations of absolute entropies of substances. According to calculations of absolute entropies of substances. According to
this law, if the entropy is zero at T = 0, the absolute entropy s
ab
of a substance at any temperature T and pressure p can be
expressed.
As a system approaches absolute zero temperature, all
processes cease and the entropy of the system approaches a
minimumvalue.
Homogenous and heterogeneous systems
A system which consists of
a singe phase. E.g. Mixture
of air and water, water
plus nitric acid and octane
plus heptane.
A system which consists of
two or more phases. E.g.
Mixture of air and water,
water plus nitric acid and
octane plus heptane.
plus heptane.
octane plus heptane.
Adiabatic system: System which is thermally insulated from its
surrounding. It can however exchange work with the surroundings
Point function and path function
Physical Quantities which
do not depend on path.
They are only dependent
on particular state or on
initial and final state. All
properties like u, h, P, T etc
are point functions. Change
Physical Quantities which
depend on path. Work,
heat transfer etc are all
path functions. Or in other
words, there are certain
quantities which cannot
be located on a graph by a are point functions. Change
in u, change in P, change in
h, change in T etc are all
point functions. Or in other
words, when two
properties locate a point
on graph (co-ordinate axes)
then those properties are
called as point function.
be located on a graph by a
point but are given by the
area or so, on the graph. In
that case, the area on the
graph, pertaining to
particular process, is a
function of the path of the
process. Such quantities
are called path functions
In Many practical problems, the rate at which the fluid flows
through a machine or piece of apparatus is constant. This
type of flow is called steady flow
Following Assumptions made in system analysis
Mass flow through system remains constant
Fluid flow is uniform in composition Fluid flow is uniform in composition
Only interaction between system
surroundings are work and heat.
The state if fluid at any point remains
constant with time.
In the analysis only potential, kinetic and
flow energies are considered.
Heat Pump, heat engine and refrigerator (1)
Heat Pump, heat engine and refrigerator (2)
Heat Pump, heat engine and refrigerator (3)
Heat Pump, heat engine and refrigerator (4)
Heat Pump, heat engine and refrigerator (5)
Pressure (the symbol: p) is the ratio of force to the area over which that force
is distributed. In other words, pressure is force per unit area applied in a
direction perpendicular to the surface of an object.
Absolute Pressure
The absolute pressure - p
abs
- is measured relative to the absolute zero pressure (the
pressure that would occur at absolute vacuum). All calculation involving the gas laws
requires pressure (and temperature) to be in absolute units.
When we simply use the term pressure then we are referring to absolute pressure.
Gauge Pressure
gauge A gauge is often used to measure the pressure difference between a system and the
surrounding atmosphere. This pressure is often called the gauge pressure and can be
expressed as
p
g
= p - p
atm
where
p
g
= gauge pressure
p = system pressure or the absolute pressure of system
p
atm
= atmospheric pressure or the absolute pressure of atmosphere.
Vacuum Pressure
p
vacuum
= p
atm
- p