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Aalborg University

{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University


Basic Network Architecture
Basic Network Architecture
and Building Blocks for
and Building Blocks for
WCDMA (3G) Systems
WCDMA (3G) Systems
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Schedule Schedule
12.30-13.15 First lecture session
13.15-13.30 Break
13.30-14.15 Second lecture session
Outline Outline
Basic Network Architectures
Building Blocks for 3G
UTRA concept
Lecture
Lecture
-
-
3
3
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Evolution of Mobile Communications
Evolution of Mobile Communications
11 Mbits/ s
2 Mbits/ s
170 kbits/ s
76.8 kbits/ s
14.4 kbits/ s
43.2 kbits/ s
5.4 Mbits/ s
10 Mbits/ s
EDGE
TDMA (IS-
41)
CDPD
473 kbits/ s
115.2
kbits/ s
GPRS
GSM (MAP)
HSCSD
PDC/ PDC-P
cdmaOne
(IS-41)
WCDMA
FDD
WCDMA
HSPA
cdma2000-
1X
307.2 kbits/ s
WLAN
802.11b
54 Mbits/ s
HiperLAN 2
IEEE802.11a
1XEV - DO, phase 1
1XEV - DV, phase 2
EDGE Ph. 2
GERAN
473 kbits/ s
Real Time IP
WCDMA TDD
200kHz
5MHz
1.25MHz
30kHz
2.4 Mbits/ s
2 Mbits/ s
Harmonised
HL2-
IEEE802.11a
standard
Enhanced
WLAN
High Speed
Downlik
Packet Access
Enhanced
EDGE
L
o
c
a
l
W
i
d
e

a
r
e
a

c
o
v
e
r
a
g
e
2Mbit/ s
TD-SCDMA
Higher
data rate
WLAN
100 Mbps
54 Mbits/ s
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Evolution of
Evolution of
Network
Network
Architecture
Architecture
GSM
digital
2G
9.6kbit/s
symmetric
circuit switched
P
S
T
N
/
I
S
D
N
BSC BTS MSC
HLR
BTS
Um
Abis
A
MS
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
GMSC
NSS
Network Management (NMS)
VLR
AuC
EIR
V
A
S
I
N
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Subsystems and Interface
Subsystems and Interface
Four subsystems
Mobile station (MS):
Base station subsystem: control radio link with MS
Network subsystem: call control
Network Management subsystem: operation and maintenance
Interfaces:
Um Interface : known as air interface or radio link.
Abis Interface: between BTS and BSC
A Interface: between BSC and MSC
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
GSM Elements
GSM Elements
MS: Mobile Station
BTS: Base Transceiver Station
BSC: Base Station Controller
MSC: Mobile Switching Center
HLR: Home Location Register
VLR: Visiting Location Register
AuC: Authentication Center
EIR: Equipment Identifer
SIM Card: Subscriber Identity Module Card
VAS: Value Added Service (SMSC, VMC, USSCD, etc)
IN: Intellegent Network (prepaid)
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Mobile Handset (MH)
Mobile Handset (MH)
Used by the subscriber to access the GSM network via the air
interface
Contains the hardware and software specific to the radio interface
Need a Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) which contains the
subscriber-specific data to access GSM network, except
emergency call
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
SIM Card
SIM Card
SIM cards are embedded with a microprocessor
Stores customer identity information Memory capacity
1K, 3K, 8K, 16K
With/Without OTAC (Over The Air Customization)
Two types of SIM card form factors
ID-1 SIM
Plug-In SIM
Contains
phone number (MSISDN)
international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI)
status of SIM
service code
authentication key
PIN (personal identification code)
PUK (personal unlock code)
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
Base Transceiver Station (BTS)
Responsible for communication to and from MHs via air interface
MH communicates with the mobile system using a radio channel to a
BTS
BTS comprises radio transmission and reception devices
Including the antennae and signaling processing specific to the radio
interface
BTS separates the speech and control signaling associated with a
MH and sends them to the BSC on separate channels
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Base Station Controller (BSC)
Base Station Controller (BSC)
Monitor and Control several base stations
Frequency administration, control of BTSs, exchange functions
Responsible for all the radio interface management
Channel allocation and release, handover management
BSC is the interface between MSC and BTS
BSC is connected on one side to several BTSs and on the other side
to the MSC
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Mobile services Switching
Mobile services Switching
Center (MSC)
Center (MSC)
Responsible for all switching functions related to call processing
Call control
Charging
Statistics
MSC is the interface between GSM network & PSTN (Public
Switched Telephone Network)
Serving MSC: BSS connections, mobility mangement
Gateway MSC: Connection to other networks
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Home Location Register (HLR)
Home Location Register (HLR)
A database in charge of the management of mobile subscribers
Contains information of network subscribers
Information on teleservices and bearer services subscription, service
restrictions, and supplementary services
The data stored in HLR is of a semipermanent nature and does not
usually change from call to call
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Visitor Location Register (VLR
Visitor Location Register (VLR
)
)
Contains the relevant data of all MHs currently located in a serving
MSC
The permanent data is the same as data in the HLR
The temporary data includes
Temporary Subscriber Identity (TMSI)
Location Area Identity (LAI) of an MH
VLR allocates mobile subscriber roaming numbers (MSRNs) for the
incoming call setup
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
GSM Features
GSM Features
Multiple access: use TDMA/FDMA to share the limited radio
spectrum
The FDMA part involves the division by frequency of the (maximum)
25 MHz bandwidth into 124 carrier frequencies spaced 200 kHz
apart.
Each of these carrier frequencies is then divided in time, using a
TDMA scheme.
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
GSM Frame
GSM Frame
Structure
Structure
3
57
26
57
8.25
1
1 3
0
7
...
...
Superframe
6.12 sec
120 msec
4.615 msec
0.57692 msec
156.25 bits
8 Multiframe
Coded data
Midamble
Tail bit Stealing Flag Guard period
51 Multiframe
26 Frames
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Evolution of
Evolution of
Network
Network
Architecture
Architecture
HSCSD
digital
2.5G
14kbit/s
channel bundling
~50kbit/s
symmetric
circuit switched
High Speed Circuit
Switched Data
P
S
T
N
/
I
S
D
N
BSC BTS MSC
HLR
BTS
Um
Abis
A
MS
Base Station Subsystem (BSS)
GMSC
NSS
Network Management (NMS)
VLR
AuC
EIR
V
A
S
I
N
SW&HW changes
SW&HW changes
SW&HW changes
SW&HW changes
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Exchanged
Exchanged
Data
Data
Rates
Rates
for
for
Global/GSM Evolution (EDGE)
Global/GSM Evolution (EDGE)
Introduce new methods at the physical layer
new form of modulation: 8PSK(phrase Shift Keying)
introduced as a complement to GMSK (Gaussian Filter Minimum Shift Keying)
8PSK: use 8 phrases to carry signals
Different ways of encoding
nine MCS(Module Coding Schemes) have been defined, from 8.8kbps per
timeslot(MCS-1 with GMSK modulation) up to 59.2kbps per timeslot(MCS-9 with
8PSK modulation)
High radio interface data rates (up to 384kbps)
Provides an evolutionary migration path from GPRS to UMTS
Only one EDGE transceiver unit need to be added to each cell.
Software upgrades to BSC and Base Stations can be carried out remotely.
Higher layer protocols (GGSN, SGSN) stay the same
Can be introduced smoothly in GPRS(doesnt require any new elements
Also introduced into existing IS-136 networks
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
3GPP Releases
3GPP Releases
R99
UTRAN on top of
GSM/GPRS
Core Network is based
on ATM
Intersystem handover
between GSM and
UMTS
Virtual Home
R4
Layered
Architecture
IP Transport
QoS on Transport
Layer
R5
IP Transport on
UTRAN
ALL IP Architecture
E2E QoS
Introduction of IP
Multimedia Domain
(IMS)
R6
Enhancements of
IMS
standardization
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UMTS
UMTS
Reference
Reference
Model
Model
Gf
Gi
Iu
Gi
Mr
Gi
Ms
Gi
R Uu
MGW
Gn
Gc
Signalling and Data Transfer
Interface
Signalling
Interface
TE MT
UTRAN
Gr
SGSN GGSN
EIR
MGCF
R-SGW *)
MRF
Multimedia
IP Networks
PSTN/
Legacy/External
Applications &
Services *)
Mm
Mw
Legacy mobile
signallingNetwork
Mc
Cx
Alternative
Access
Network
Mh
CSCF
CSCF
Mg
T-SGW *)
T-SGW *)
HSS *)
HSS *)
Applications
& Services *)
MSC server GMSC server
Mc
Mc
D
C
SCP
CAP
MGW
Nb
Nc
Iu
Iu
R-SGW *)
Mh
CAP
CAP
R Um
TE MT
BSS/
GERAN
Gb
A
*)
those elements are duplicated for figure
layout purpose only, they belong to the same
logical element in the reference model
Iu
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
CN CS Domain
Evolution of
Evolution of
Network
Network
Architecture
Architecture
3GPP R99 -
UMTS
newair interface
packet data
interoperability
with GSM
New mobile service
(CAMEL)
Universal Mobile
Terristial System
SGSN GGSN
BTS
BSC
MSC
GMSC
CN PS Domain
P
S
T
N
/
I
S
D
N
HLR
VLR
AuC
EIR
V
A
S
I
N
I
n
t
e
r
n
e
t
Um
Gb
A
NB RNC
Uu
UTRAN
E-RAN
Iu
Iu W
A
P
M
E
X
E
U
S
A
T
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
CN CS Domain
Evolution of
Evolution of
Network
Network
Architecture
Architecture
3GPP R4 -
UMTS
media gateway
controlled by MSC
Universal Mobile
Terrestrial System
SGSN GGSN
BTS
BSC
MGW
MGW
CN PS Domain
P
S
T
N
/
I
S
D
N
I
n
t
e
r
n
e
t
Um
Gb
A
NB RNC
Uu
UTRAN
E-RAN
Iu
Iu
H
S
S
V
A
S
I
N
W
A
P
M
E
X
E
U
S
A
T
IMS
MSC
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Evolution of
Evolution of
Network
Network
Architecture
Architecture
3GPP R5 -
UMTS
All IP structure
Universal Mobile
Terrestrial System
SGSN GGSN
BTS
BSC
CN PS Domain
P
S
T
N
/
I
S
D
N
I
n
t
e
r
n
e
t
Um
NB RNC
Uu
UTRAN
E-RAN
Iu
H
S
S
V
A
S
I
N
W
A
P
M
E
X
E
U
S
A
T
IMS
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
QoS
QoS
Classes
Classes
Yes/ No
Yes/ No/ -
< 2048 kbps
<2048 kbps
<=1500 octets
<100 ms
5*10
-2
10
-6
10
-2
10
-5
1, 2, 3
Yes/ No
Yes/ No/ -
< 2048 kbps
<2048 kbps
<=1500 octets
<250 ms
5*10
-2
10
-6
10
-1
10
-5
1, 2, 3
Yes/ No
Yes/ No/ -
< 2048 kbps
-overhead
<=1500 octets
4*10
-3
6*10
-8
10
-3
10
-6
1, 2, 3
1, 2, 3
Yes/ No
Yes/ No/ -
< 2048 kbps
-overhead
<=1500 octets
4*10
-3
6*10
-8
10
-3
10
-6
1, 2, 3
Conversational
class
Streaming
class
Interactive
class
Background
class
Precedence class
Delay class
Reliability class
Peak throughput class
Mean throughput class
GPRS
rel'97, '98
Delivery order
SDU format
information
Delivery of
erroneous SDUs
Maximum bitrate
Guaranteed bitrate
Maximum SDU size
Transfer delay
Residual BER
SDU error ratio
Allocation/ retention
priority
Traffic handling
priority
GPRS/ UMTS rel'99, 4, 5
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
3G Systems
3G Systems
Signal Processing Blocks
Signal Processing Blocks
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Signal
Signal
processing
processing
blocks
blocks
Typical
Typical
chain
chain
of
of
signal
signal
processing
processing
blocks
blocks
A/D
conversion
analogue
source
channel
coding and
interleaving
source
coding
modulation
multiplexing
D/A
conversion
RF
digital
source
RF
de-
modulation
A/D
conversion
de-
multiplexing
channel
de-coding
and
de-
interleaving
D/A
conversion
source
de-coding
analogue
sink
digital
sink
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Source and sink
voice
video
different data services
requirements on delay, BER, FER and error pattern depending on
service
Source and sink A/D and D/A conversion
dynamic range and sampling rate dependent on source
characteristics
RF A/D and D/A conversion
dynamic range dependent on radio channel and different transmitted
and received carriers per RF unit
sampling rate dependent of RF or IF bandwidth to be processed
Signal
Signal
processing
processing
blocks
blocks
Source
Source
, sink, A/D and D/A
, sink, A/D and D/A
conversion
conversion
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Source coding and decoding
reduction of redundancy
data compression
coding for error detection and correction
different level of coding for MSB and LSB
Channel coding and interleaving
coding to reduce impact of radio channel on transmitted data
block codes
convolutional codes
Reed Solomon codes
Turbo codes
combinations of codes (concatenated codes)
Multiplexing
combination of different user signals on one RF carrier according to
multiple access scheme
Signal
Signal
processing
processing
blocks
blocks
Source
Source
and
and
channel
channel
coding
coding
,
,
interleaving
interleaving
and
and
multiplexing
multiplexing
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Modulation and demodulation
for RF transmission and reception
resistant schemes against noise and interference
FM for analogue systems
different types of BPSK, QPSK and GMSK for digital systems
RF
modulator, RF power amplifier, RF receiver and antenna system
lownoise receiver
high dynamic range
resistant against intermodulation
Signal
Signal
processing
processing
blocks
blocks
Modulation and RF
Modulation and RF
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
3G Systems
3G Systems
UTRA
UTRA
Concept
Concept
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UTRA 3GPP
UTRA 3GPP
specifications
specifications
-
-
Release 1999 I
Release 1999 I
3G TS 25.101 UE Radio Transmission and Reception (FDD)
3G TS 25.102 UTRA (UE) TDD: Radio Transmission and Reception
3G TS 25.104 UTRA (BS) FDD: Radio Transmission and Reception
3G TS 25.105 UTRA (BS) TDD: Radio Transmission and Reception
3G TS 25.201 Physical Layer - General description
3G TS 25.211 Physical channels and mapping of transport
channels onto physical channels (FDD)
3G TS 25.212 Multiplexing and channel coding (FDD)
3G TS 25.213 Spreading and modulation (FDD)
Source: 3GPP
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UTRA 3GPP
UTRA 3GPP
specifications
specifications
-
-
Release 1999 II
Release 1999 II
3G TS 25.214 Physical layer procedures (FDD)
3G TS 25.215 Physical layer - Measurements (FDD)
3G TS 25.221 Physical channels and mapping of transport
channels onto physical channels (TDD)
3G TS 25.222 Multiplexing and channel coding (TDD)
3G TS 25.223 Spreading and modulation (TDD)
3G TS 25.224 Physical layer procedures (TDD)
3G TS 25.225 Physical layer - Measurements (TDD)
3G TS 25.301 Radio Interface Protocol Architecture
Source: 3GPP
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UTRA concept - main features
1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 Short codes (4 256)
Spreading factor
QPSK
Modulation
625 s
Time slot duration
16
Number of power control
groups/time slots
10 ms
Frame length
5 MHz
Carrier spacing
Root raised cosine, r=0.22
Pulse shape
4.096 Mchips/s
Carrier chip rate
TD/CDMA
WCDMA based on DS-
CDMA
Multiple Access Method
UTRA TDD UTRA FDD
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UTRA
UTRA
frequency
frequency
allocation
allocation
UTRA/FDD is designed to operate in either of the following paired
bands
a) 1920 1980 MHz: Uplink (Mobile transmit, base receive)
2110 2170 MHz: Downlink (Base transmit, mobile receive)
b)* 1850 1910 MHz: Uplink (Mobile transmit, base receive)
1930 1990 MHz: Downlink (Base transmit, mobile receive)
Deployment in other frequency bands is not precluded
Duplex distance 190 MHz
UTRA/TDD is designed to operate in the following bands
a) 1900 1920 MHz: Uplink and downlink transmission
2010 2025 MHz: Uplink and downlink transmission
b)* 1850 1910 MHz: Uplink and downlink transmission
1930 1990 MHz: Uplink and downlink transmission
c)* 1910 1930 MHz: Uplink and downlink transmission
* Used in Region 2
Channel spacing: 5 MHz
Channel raster: 200 kHz
Source: 3GPP
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UTRA
UTRA
concept
concept
:
:
Radio interface protocol
Radio interface protocol
architecture around the physical layer
architecture around the physical layer
Source: 3GPP
Radio Resource Control (RRC)
Medium Access Control (MAC)
Transport channels
Physical layer
C
o
n
t
r
o
l

/

M
e
a
s
u
r
e
m
e
n
t
s
Layer 3
Logical channels
Layer 2
Layer 1
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UTRA
UTRA
concept
concept
Radio interface protocol architecture
Radio interface protocol architecture
Source: 3GPP
L3
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
c
o
n
t
r
o
l
Logical
Channels
Transport
Channels
C-plane signalling
U-plane information
PHY
L2/MAC
L1
RLC
DC
Nt
GC
L2/RLC
MAC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
Duplicationavoidance
UuSboundary
BMC
L2/BMC
RRC
control
PDCP
PDCP L2/PDCP
DC
Nt
GC
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UTRA
UTRA
concept
concept
Transport
Transport
channel
channel
to
to
physical
physical
channel mapping
channel mapping
Source: 3GPP
Transport Channels
DCH
RACH
CPCH
BCH
FACH
PCH
DSCH
Physical Channels
Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH)
Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH)
Physical RandomAccess Channel (PRACH)
Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH)
Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)
Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH)
Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH)
Synchronisation Channel (SCH)
Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
Acquisition IndicatorChannel (AICH)
Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel (AP-AICH)
Paging IndicatorChannel (PICH)
CPCH Status Indicator Channel (CSICH)
Collision-Detection /Channel-Assignment Indicator
Channel (CD /CA -ICH
)
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UTRA
UTRA
concept
concept
Logical channel structure
Logical channel structure
Source: 3GPP
Synchronisation Control Channel (SCCH)
Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
Common Control Channel (CCCH)
Control Channel (CCH)
Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH) Traffic Channel (TCH)
ODMA Dedicated Control Channel (ODCCH)
ODMA Common Control Channel (OCCCH)
ODMA Dedicated Traffic Channel (ODTCH)
Common Traffic Channel (CTCH)
Shared Channel Control Channel (SHCCH)
Paging Control Channel PCCH
Decicated Control Channel (DCCH)
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UTRA
UTRA
concept
concept
Logical channels mapped onto transport channels
Logical channels mapped onto transport channels
(UTRAN side)
(UTRAN side)
Source: 3GPP
BCH
PCH
DSCH
FACH RACH
DCH
BCCH-
SAP
DCCH-
SAP
CCCH-
SAP
PCCH-
SAP
SCCH-
SAP
DTCH-
SAP
Transport
Channels
MAC SAPs
FAUSCH
SCH
(TDD only)
USCH
(TDD only)
CPCH
(FDD only)
CTCH-
SAP
SHCCH-
SAP
(TDD only)
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UTRA
UTRA
concept
concept
Logical channels mapped onto transport channels (UE side) Logical channels mapped onto transport channels (UE side)
Source: 3GPP
BCH PCH
DSCH
FACH RACH
DCH
BCCH-
SAP
SCH
(TDD only)
DCCH-
SAP
CCCH-
SAP
PCCH-
SAP
SCCH-
SAP
DTCH-
SAP
Transport
Channels
MAC SAPs
FAUSCH USCH
(TDD only)
CPCH
(FDD only)
CTCH-
SAP
SHCCH-
SAP
(TDD only)
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UTRA
UTRA
Concept
Concept
FDD
FDD
Component
Component
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Multiple
Multiple
access
access
schemes
schemes
Direct
Direct
sequence
sequence
spread
spread
spectrum
spectrum
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Multiple
Multiple
access
access
schemes
schemes
DS
DS
-
-
CDMA
CDMA
principle
principle
,
,
modulation
modulation
signal
signal
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Multiple
Multiple
access
access
schemes
schemes
DS
DS
-
-
CDMA
CDMA
principle
principle
,
,
reception
reception
and
and
demodulation
demodulation
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Multiple
Multiple
access
access
schemes
schemes
: DS
: DS
-
-
CDMA
CDMA
principle
principle
,
,
multipath
multipath
and
and
interference
interference
reception
reception
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
Code
Code
tree
tree
for
for
channelization
channelization
codes
codes
c
11
1
,
( ) =
c
21
11
,
( , ) =
c
2 2
1 1
,
( , ) =
c
41
1111
,
( , , , ) =
c
4 2
11 1 1
,
( , , , ) =
c
4 3
1 11 1
,
( , , , ) =
c
4 4
1 1 11
,
( , , , ) =
SF =1 SF =2 SF =4
(spreading factor, code length)
c
c
c
c
c c
c c
c c
c c
n
n
n
n n
n n
n n
n n n n
n n n n
2
2 1
2 2
2 2
1 1
1 1
=

,
,
,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
M
M
Source: 3GPP
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UTRA
UTRA
Concept
Concept
TDD
TDD
Component
Component
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
3G UTRA TDD
3G UTRA TDD
-
-
TD/CDMA
TD/CDMA
Channel
Channel
Structure
Structure
Wider
channel
enables high
user data
rates
CDMA provides
interference
control and
high system
capacity
Identical frame
structure as FDD
provides
harmonization
8 TCH
per
time
slot
One Time Slot
5

M
H
z
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Codes
1 - 16
Energy
Time
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
frame with
15 time slots
GSM backward
compatibility is provided by
n x 120 ms multiframe
structure for handover
purposes
TD/CDMA
Up to 8 users
can share up to
16 spreading
codes
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UTRA TDD
UTRA TDD
-
-
Frame and
Frame and
Burst
Burst
Structure
Structure
Code 1
Code n
Frame
10 ms frame duration
667 s slot duration
N data symbols N data symbols midamble guard
N data symbols N data symbols midamble guard
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 13 14 10 11
Midamble length sufficient to estimate at least 8 different users
Use of up to 16 codes per time slot is possible
Spreading factor up to 16
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UTRA TDD
UTRA TDD
-
-
Frame and
Frame and
burst
burst
structure
structure
Burst
Burst
structures
structures
One Burst consists of 2560 chips
Different Burst Types for traffic channels
M and N depending on spreading factor
Two alternatives for TFCI transmission
t
Code
2560*Tc
Data
Midamble
TFCI
2560*T
a)
b)
M data symbols M data symbols
Midamble
256 chips
guard
Burst Type 1
N data symbols N data symbols
Midamble
512 chips
guard
Burst Type 2
TPC
Source: 3GPP
Aalborg University
{petarp,imr}@kom.aau.dk; Department of Electronics Systems, Aalborg University
UTRA TDD
UTRA TDD
-
-
Frame and
Frame and
burst
burst
structure
structure
Examples
Examples
for
for
UL / DL
UL / DL
allocation
allocation
Source: 3GPP
14:1 DL/UL asymmetry
2:13 DL/UL asymmetry
4:1 DL/UL asymmetry
Symmetric
10 ms
10 ms
10 ms
10 ms
1 2 3 4 5 6 11 10 9 8 7 12 13 14 15
14/1
13/2
11/4
10/5
9/6
12/3
8/7
DL / UL ratio
Number of DL time slots
7/8
6/9
5/10
4/11
3/12
2/13
10
1
0.1