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CHAPTER 4 : LEACHING

INTRODUCTION

When two phases (solid and

liquid phase) are in intimate

contact and the solute or

solutes can diffuse from the solid to the liquid phase, it

will separate the components originally in the

solid.

This separation

process is called:

liquid-solid leaching or Leaching or extraction

Define washing

LEACHING PROCESS

DESCRIPTION

PROCESS TO CONTACT A SOLID WITH A LIQUID PHASE.

SIMILAR TO EXTRACTION BECAUSE OF TWO IMMISCIBLE PHASES

SIMILAR TO ABSORPTION BECAUSE TWO PHASES

ARE NORMALLY PRESENT

DISSIMILAR TO OTHER SEPARATION PROCESS BECAUSE ONLY EQUILIBRIUM IN LIQUID PHASES IS CONSIDERED

Leaching
process
Biological and
food
processing
Inorganic and
organic
materials
Examples:
Leaching of sugar from sugar
beets
Production of vegetable oils
from peanuts, soybeans,
sunflower seeds.
Pharmaceuticals product by
leaching from roots, leaves
and stems.
Production of soluble instant
coffee, soluble tea
Examples:
Metal processing
industries
Gold is leached from its
ore using an aqueous
sodium cyanide solution

Fixed-bed leaching

T =344 K to 350 K

Moving-bed leaching

Exercise: Explain the process of leaching in Agitated solid leaching

LEACHING PRINCIPLES

EQUILIBRIUM AND SINGLE STAGE

LEACHING

 1 State the components involved in leaching. 2 When is equilibrium reached in leaching? 3 State all the assumptions made for leaching process? 4 Explain underflow and overflow. 5 Describe equilibrium line in leaching. 6 List factors affecting stage calculations

LEACHING EQUILIBRIUM

SOLVENT FORMS A LIQUID SOLUTION - CARRIER MAY BE TOTALLY IMMISCIBLE

SOME SOLUTION IS NORMALLY RETAINED

BY THE SOLID - HAS THE SAME

COMPOSITION AS THE LIQUID SOLUTION.

WHEN THE AMOUNT OF RETAINED

SOLUTION IS CONSTANT THE SYSTEM HAS

CONSTANT SOLUTION UNDERFLOW.

VARIABLE UNDERFLOW EXISTS WHEN THE AMOUNT RETAINED IS A FUNCTION OF CONCENTRATION

TYPICAL EQUILIBRIUM

DIAGRAM

NOTE THE SOLID PHASE IS REPRESENTED BY THE UPPER LINE

SOLUTION EQUILIBRIUM ON McCABE

IS x = y LINE FOR THIS SITUATION

SOLID PHASE
Y = B / ( A + C )
LIQUID PHASE
0
1
xA, yA

SINGLE STAGE LEACHING

MODELED LIKE A SINGLE STAGE LLX

Y = B / ( A + C )

yb,Vb

xb,Lb
0 ya,Va
1
xA, yA

xa,La

MULTIPLE CROSS CURRENT

LEACHING

MODEL IS BASED ON AMOUNT IN

EACH PHASE

Y = B / ( A + C )

yb,Vb

(xb,Lb) 1 = (xa, La) 2
(xb,Lb) 2
M
2
M
1
0
(ya,Va) 1
1
xA, yA
(ya,Va) 2

xa,La

MULTIPLE CROSS CURRENT

LEACHING EXAMPLE

https://portal.navf ac.navy.mil/portal/

pls/portal/docs/1/3

196547.JPG

MULTISTAGE

COUNTERCURRENT LEACHING

RESULTS FOR DESIGN ARE SIMILAR TO SHOWN IN FIG. 12.10-2

FOR SYSTEM WITH CONSTANT L/V RATIO,

THE APPROACH IS TO

MODEL USING ABSORPTION FACTORS

FOR ALL STAGES

AFTER THE FIRST MIX

MULTISTAGE

COUNTERCURRENT

LEACHING CONFIGURATION

http://beta.cheresources.com/articles/basics-of-leaching.html

MULTISTAGE COUNTERCURRENT LEACHING

MODEL

http://beta.cheresources.

com/articles/basics-of-

leaching.html

Single stage leaching

SOLID FEED, L 0 B = SOLID

N 0 , y A0

LEACHED SOLID, L 1 B = SOLID

N 1 , y A1

SOLVENT FEED

V 2 , x A2

EXTRACT

V 1 , x A1

L
V
L
V
M
(12.9
4)
0
2
1
1
y
L
x
V
y
L
x
V
x
M
(12.9
5)
A
0
0
A
2
2
A
1
1
A
1
1
AM
B 
N L
N L
N
M
(12.9
6)
0
0
1
1
M

V 1 , x 1

V 2 , x 2

slurry L o , N o , y o , B

slurry L 1 , N 1 , y 1 , B

Figure 1 Process flow diagram for single stage extraction

Graphical solution

Equilibrium line indicates the solute concentration in the solvent is the same in

both the solid underflow

and liquid overflow.

B B
N
M
L
V
M
0
2
L y
 V x
0
A
0
2
A
2
x
AM
L
 V
0
2

For feed with no solvent

CONCENTRATION IN SOLID IS y A0 = 1

Example 1

V 1 , x 1

slurry L o , N o , y o , B

V 2 , x 2

slurry L 1 , N 1 , y 1 , B

In a single-stage leaching of soybean oil from flaked soybeans with hexane, 100 kg of soybeans containing 20 wt% oil is leached with 100 kg of fresh hexane solvent. The value of N for the slurry

underflow is essentially constant at 1.5 kg

insoluble solid/kg solution retained. Calculate the amounts and compositions of the overflow V1 and

the underflow slurry L1 leaving the stage.

Solution

Given:

V 2 = 100 kg x A2 = 0 x C2 = 1 B = 100 (1.0 0.2) = 80 kg insoluble solid L 0 = 100 (1.0 0.8) = 20 kg A N 0 = 80/20 = 4 kg solid/kg solution y A0 = 1

 Find point M from MB L 0 + V 2 = 20 + 100 = 120 kg = M eq(1) L 0 y A0 + V 2 x A2 = 20 (1.0) + 100 (0) = 120 x AM eq(2)

Solving simultaneously eq 1 and 2, x AM = 0.167

B = N 0 L 0 = 4.0(20) = 80 = N M (120)

So, N M = 0.667

The coordinates for the points:

L o = (y 0 ,N 0 ) L 1 = (y 1 ,N 1 ) V 1 = (x 1 ,0) V 2 = (x 2 ,0) M = (x M ,N M )

L 0 = (1,4) L 1 = (read from graph,1.5) V 1 = (read from graph,0) V 2 = (0,0) M = (0.167, 0.667)

1. L 1 MV 1 and L 0 MV 2 must lie on a straight line

2. L 1 and V 1 must lie on a vertical line.

Countercurrent multistage leaching

Overall balance: V n+1 + L 0 = V 1 + L n Component balance on solute A: V n+1 x n+1 + L 0 y 0 = V 1 x 1 + L n y n

i) Variable Underflow in Countercurrent Multistage Leaching

Overall balance:

V N+1 + L 0 = V 1 + L N = M

Component balance on A:

V N+1 x AN+1 + L 0 y A0 = V 1 x A1 + L N y AN = Mx AM

Total solids balance on B:

B = N 0 L 0 = N N L N = N M M

Remember:

L 0 MV N+1 must lie on a straight line

V 1 ML N must also lie on a straight line

A balance on solute A gives:

A balance on solids gives:

Coordinate operating point Δ = (x AΔ , N Δ )

Point Δ is located graphically as the intersection of lines L 0 V 1 and L N V N+1

To determine number of stages

Locate L 0

Draw line L 0 Δ to locate V 1

A tie line through V 1 locates L 1

Line L 1 Δ is drawn given V 2

A tie line gives L 2

This is continued until the desired L N is reached

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