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NRL Plasma Formulary - 1998 Edition

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REVISED

J.D. Huba

Washington, DC 20375

Supported by

The Office of Naval Research

1

CONTENTS

Vector Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Differential Operators in Curvilinear Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Dimensions and Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

International System (SI) Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Metric Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

Physical Constants (SI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Physical Constants (cgs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Formula Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Maxwell’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Electricity and Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Electromagnetic Frequency/Wavelength Bands . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

AC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Dimensionless Numbers of Fluid Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Shocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Fundamental Plasma Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Plasma Dispersion Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Collisions and Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Approximate Magnitudes in Some Typical Plasmas . . . . . . . . . . 40

Ionospheric Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

Solar Physics Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Thermonuclear Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Relativistic Electron Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Beam Instabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Lasers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Atomic Physics and Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Atomic Spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

2

NUMERICAL AND ALGEBRAIC

1/2 2 3 10 3

(2π) ≈ 2.5; π ≈ 10; e ≈ 20; 2 ≈ 10 .

Γ(1/5) = 4.5908 Γ(2/3) = 1.3541

Γ(1/4) = 3.6256 Γ(3/4) = 1.2254

Γ(1/3) = 2.6789 Γ(4/5) = 1.1642

Γ(2/5) = 2.2182 √ Γ(5/6) = 1.1288

Γ(1/2) = 1.7725 = π Γ(1) = 1.0

X

∞

α k α(α − 1) 2 α(α − 1)(α − 2) 3

α

(1 + x) = x ≡ 1 + αx + x + x + ....

k 2! 3!

k=0

X

n

x x + kz y y + (n − k)z

x + kz k y + (n − k)z n−k

k=0

x+y x + y + nz

= .

x + y + nz n

X

∞

(−1)n Jα−γn (z)Jβ+γn (z) π

= Jα+γµ (z)Jβ−γµ (z).

n+µ sin µπ

n=−∞

3

VECTOR IDENTITIES4

dyad.

(1) A · B × C = A × B · C = B · C × A = B × C · A = C · A × B = C × A · B

(2) A × (B × C) = (C × B) × A = (A · C)B − (A · B)C

(3) A × (B × C) + B × (C × A) + C × (A × B) = 0

(4) (A × B) · (C × D) = (A · C)(B · D) − (A · D)(B · C)

(5) (A × B) × (C × D) = (A × B · D)C − (A × B · C)D

(6) ∇(f g) = ∇(gf ) = f ∇g + g∇f

(7) ∇ · (f A) = f ∇ · A + A · ∇f

(8) ∇ × (f A) = f ∇ × A + ∇f × A

(9) ∇ · (A × B) = B · ∇ × A − A · ∇ × B

(10) ∇ × (A × B) = A(∇ · B) − B(∇ · A) + (B · ∇)A − (A · ∇)B

(11) A × (∇ × B) = (∇B) · A − (A · ∇)B

(12) ∇(A · B) = A × (∇ × B) + B × (∇ × A) + (A · ∇)B + (B · ∇)A

(13) ∇2 f = ∇ · ∇f

(14) ∇2 A = ∇(∇ · A) − ∇ × ∇ × A

(15) ∇ × ∇f = 0

(16) ∇ · ∇ × A = 0

written in the dyadic form

P

(17) T = Tij ei ej

i,j

P

(18) (∇·T )i = (∂Tji /∂xj )

j

(19) ∇ · (AB) = (∇ · A)B + (A · ∇)B

(20) ∇ · (f T ) = ∇f ·T +f ∇·T

4

Let r = ix + jy + kz be the radius vector of magnitude r, from the origin to

the point x, y, z. Then

(21) ∇ · r = 3

(22) ∇ × r = 0

(23) ∇r = r/r

(26) ∇r = I

If V is a volume enclosed by a surface S and dS = ndS, where n is the unit

normal outward from V,

Z Z

(27) dV ∇f = dSf

V S

Z Z

(28) dV ∇ · A = dS · A

V S

Z Z

(29) dV ∇·T = dS ·T

V S

Z Z

(30) dV ∇ × A = dS × A

V S

Z Z

(31) dV (f ∇2 g − g∇2 f ) = dS · (f ∇g − g∇f )

V S

Z

(32) dV (A · ∇ × ∇ × B − B · ∇ × ∇ × A)

V Z

= dS · (B × ∇ × A − A × ∇ × B)

S

dl,

Z I

(33) dS × ∇f = dlf

S C

5

Z I

(34) dS · ∇ × A = dl · A

S C

Z I

(35) (dS × ∇) × A = dl × A

S C

Z I I

(36) dS · (∇f × ∇g) = f dg = − gdf

S C C

DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS IN

CURVILINEAR COORDINATES5

Cylindrical Coordinates

Divergence

1 ∂ 1 ∂Aφ ∂Az

∇·A= (rAr ) + +

r ∂r r ∂φ ∂z

Gradient

∂f 1 ∂f ∂f

(∇f )r = ; (∇f )φ = ; (∇f )z =

∂r r ∂φ ∂z

Curl

1 ∂Az ∂Aφ

(∇ × A)r = −

r ∂φ ∂z

∂Ar ∂Az

(∇ × A)φ = −

∂z ∂r

1 ∂ 1 ∂Ar

(∇ × A)z = (rAφ ) −

r ∂r r ∂φ

Laplacian

2 1 ∂ ∂f 1 ∂2f ∂2f

∇ f = r + 2 +

r ∂r ∂r r ∂φ2 ∂z 2

6

Laplacian of a vector

2 2 2 ∂Aφ Ar

(∇ A)r = ∇ Ar − 2

− 2

r ∂φ r

2 ∂Ar Aφ

(∇2 A)φ = ∇2 Aφ + −

r2 ∂φ r2

2 2

(∇ A)z = ∇ Az

Components of (A · ∇)B

∂Br Aφ ∂Br ∂Br Aφ Bφ

(A · ∇B)r = Ar + + Az −

∂r r ∂φ ∂z r

(A · ∇B)φ = Ar + + Az +

∂r r ∂φ ∂z r

(A · ∇B)z = Ar + + Az

∂r r ∂φ ∂z

Divergence of a tensor

1 ∂ 1 ∂Tφr ∂Tzr Tφφ

(∇ · T )r = (rTrr ) + + −

r ∂r r ∂φ ∂z r

(∇ · T )φ = (rTrφ ) + + +

r ∂r r ∂φ ∂z r

1 ∂ 1 ∂Tφz ∂Tzz

(∇ · T )z = (rTrz ) + +

r ∂r r ∂φ ∂z

7

Spherical Coordinates

Divergence

1 ∂ 2 1 ∂ 1 ∂Aφ

∇·A= (r Ar ) + (sin θAθ ) +

r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ

Gradient

∂f 1 ∂f 1 ∂f

(∇f )r = ; (∇f )θ = ; (∇f )φ =

∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ

Curl

1 ∂ 1 ∂Aθ

(∇ × A)r = (sin θAφ ) −

r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ

1 ∂Ar 1 ∂

(∇ × A)θ = − (rAφ )

r sin θ ∂φ r ∂r

1 ∂ 1 ∂Ar

(∇ × A)φ = (rAθ ) −

r ∂r r ∂θ

Laplacian

2 1 ∂ 2 ∂f 1 ∂ ∂f 1 ∂2f

∇ f = 2 r + 2 sin θ +

r ∂r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ ∂θ r2 sin2 θ ∂φ2

Laplacian of a vector

2Ar 2 ∂Aθ 2 cot θAθ 2 ∂Aφ

(∇2 A)r = ∇2 Ar − 2

− 2 − 2

− 2

r r ∂θ r r sin θ ∂φ

(∇ A)θ = ∇ Aθ + − −

r2 ∂θ r2 sin2 θ r2 sin2 θ ∂φ

(∇2 A)φ = ∇2 Aφ − + +

r2 sin2 θ r2 sin θ ∂φ r2 sin2 θ ∂φ

8

Components of (A · ∇)B

∂Br Aθ ∂Br Aφ ∂Br Aθ Bθ + Aφ Bφ

(A · ∇B)r = Ar + + −

∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ r

(A · ∇B)θ = Ar + + + −

∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ r r

(A · ∇B)φ = Ar + + + +

∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ r r

Divergence of a tensor

1 ∂ 1 ∂

(∇ · T )r = 2

(r2 Trr ) + (sin θTθr )

r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ

+ −

r sin θ ∂φ r

1 ∂ 1 ∂

(∇ · T )θ = 2

(r2 Trθ ) + (sin θTθθ )

r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ

+ + −

r sin θ ∂φ r r

1 ∂ 1 ∂

(∇ · T )φ = 2

(r2 Trφ ) + (sin θTθφ )

r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ

+ + +

r sin θ ∂φ r r

9

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

To get the value of a quantity in Gaussian units, multiply the value ex-

pressed in SI units by the conversion factor. Multiples of 3 in the conversion

factors result from approximating the speed of light c = 2.9979 × 1010 cm/sec

≈ 3 × 1010 cm/sec.

Dimensions

Physical Sym- SI Conversion Gaussian

Quantity bol SI Gaussian Units Factor Units

t2 q 2

Capacitance C l farad 9 × 1011 cm

ml2

m1/2 l3/2

Charge q q coulomb 3 × 109 statcoulomb

t

q m1/2

Charge ρ coulomb 3 × 103 statcoulomb

density l3 l3/2 t /m3 /cm3

tq 2 l

Conductance siemens 9 × 1011 cm/sec

ml2 t

tq 2 1

Conductivity σ siemens 9 × 109 sec−1

ml3 t /m

q m1/2 l3/2

Current I, i ampere 3 × 109 statampere

t t2

q m1/2

Current J, j ampere 3 × 105 statampere

density l2 t l1/2 t2 /m2 /cm2

m m

Density ρ kg/m3 10−3 g/cm3

l3 l3

q m1/2

Displacement D coulomb 12π × 105 statcoulomb

l2 l1/2 t /m2 /cm2

ml m1/2 1 −4

Electric field E volt/m × 10 statvolt/cm

t2 q l1/2 t 3

ml2 m1/2 l1/2 1 −2

Electro- E, volt × 10 statvolt

motance Emf t2 q t 3

ml2 ml2

Energy U, W joule 107 erg

t2 t2

m m

Energy w, joule/m3 10 erg/cm3

density lt2 lt2

10

Dimensions

Physical Sym- SI Conversion Gaussian

Quantity bol SI Gaussian Units Factor Units

ml ml

Force F newton 105 dyne

t2 t2

1 1

Frequency f, ν hertz 1 hertz

t t

ml2 t 1

Impedance Z ohm × 10−11 sec/cm

tq 2 l 9

ml2 t2 1

Inductance L henry × 10−11 sec2 /cm

q2 l 9

Length l l l meter (m) 102 centimeter

(cm)

q m1/2

Magnetic H ampere– 4π × 10−3 oersted

intensity lt l1/2 t turn/m

ml2 m1/2 l3/2

Magnetic flux Φ weber 108 maxwell

tq t

m m1/2

Magnetic B tesla 104 gauss

tq l1/2 t

induction

l2 q m1/2 l5/2

Magnetic m, µ ampere–m2 103 oersted–

t t

moment cm3

q m1/2

Magnetization M ampere– 10−3 oersted

lt l1/2 t turn/m

q m1/2 l1/2 4π

Magneto- M, ampere– gilbert

motance Mmf t t2 turn 10

(kg)

ml ml

Momentum p, P kg–m/s 105 g–cm/sec

t t

m m

Momentum kg/m2 –s 10−1 g/cm2 –sec

l2 t l2 t

density

ml 1 7

Permeability µ 1 henry/m × 10 —

q2 4π

11

Dimensions

Physical Sym- SI Conversion Gaussian

Quantity bol SI Gaussian Units Factor Units

t2 q 2

Permittivity 1 farad/m 36π × 109 —

ml3

q m1/2

Polarization P coulomb/m2 3 × 105 statcoulomb

l2 l1/2 t

/cm2

ml2 m1/2 l1/2 1

Potential V, φ volt × 10−2 statvolt

t2 q t 3

ml2 ml2

Power P watt 107 erg/sec

t3 t3

m m

Power watt/m3 10 erg/cm3 –sec

lt3 lt3

density

m m

Pressure p, P pascal 10 dyne/cm2

lt2 lt2

q2 1

Reluctance R ampere–turn 4π × 10−9 cm−1

ml2 l /weber

ml2 t 1 −11

Resistance R ohm × 10 sec/cm

tq 2 l 9

ml3 1 −9

Resistivity η, ρ t ohm–m × 10 sec

tq 2 9

ml ml

Thermal con- κ, k watt/m– 105 erg/cm–sec–

ductivity t3 t3 deg (K) deg (K)

Time t t t second (s) 1 second (sec)

ml m1/2 l1/2

Vector A weber/m 106 gauss–cm

potential tq t

l l

Velocity v m/s 102 cm/sec

t t

m m

Viscosity η, µ kg/m–s 10 poise

lt lt

1 1

Vorticity ζ s−1 1 sec−1

t t

ml2 ml2

Work W joule 107 erg

t2 t2

12

INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM (SI) NOMENCLATURE6

Quantity of Unit for Unit Quantity of Unit for Unit

*length meter m electric volt V

potential

*mass kilogram kg

electric ohm Ω

*time second s resistance

*current ampere A electric siemens S

conductance

*temperature kelvin K

electric farad F

*amount of mole mol capacitance

substance

magnetic flux weber Wb

*luminous candela cd

intensity magnetic henry H

inductance

†plane angle radian rad

magnetic tesla T

†solid angle steradian sr intensity

frequency hertz Hz luminous flux lumen lm

energy joule J illuminance lux lx

force newton N activity (of a becquerel Bq

radioactive

pressure pascal Pa source)

power watt W absorbed dose gray Gy

(of ionizing

electric charge coulomb C radiation)

*SI base unit †Supplementary unit

METRIC PREFIXES

10−2 centi c 102 hecto h

10−3 milli m 103 kilo k

10−6 micro µ 106 mega M

10−9 nano n 109 giga G

10−12 pico p 1012 tera T

10−15 femto f 1015 peta P

10−18 atto a 1018 exa E

13

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS (SI)7

Elementary charge e 1.6022 × 10−19 C

Electron mass me 9.1094 × 10−31 kg

Proton mass mp 1.6726 × 10−27 kg

Gravitational constant G 6.6726 × 10−11 m3 s−2 kg−1

Planck constant h 6.6261 × 10−34 J s

h̄ = h/2π 1.0546 × 10−34 J s

Speed of light in vacuum c 2.9979 × 108 m s−1

Permittivity of 0 8.8542 × 10−12 F m−1

free space

Permeability of µ0 4π × 10−7 H m−1

free space

Proton/electron mass mp /me 1.8362 × 103

ratio

Electron charge/mass e/me 1.7588 × 1011 C kg−1

ratio

me4

Rydberg constant R∞ = 1.0974 × 107 m−1

80 2 ch3

Bohr radius a0 = 0 h2 /πme2 5.2918 × 10−11 m

Atomic cross section πa0 2 8.7974 × 10−21 m2

Classical electron radius re = e2 /4π0 mc2 2.8179 × 10−15 m

Thomson cross section (8π/3)re 2 6.6525 × 10−29 m2

Compton wavelength of h/me c 2.4263 × 10−12 m

electron h̄/me c 3.8616 × 10−13 m

Fine-structure constant α = e2 /20 hc 7.2974 × 10−3

α−1 137.04

First radiation constant c1 = 2πhc2 3.7418 × 10−2 W m2

Second radiation c2 = hc/k 1.4388 × 10−2 mK

constant

Stefan-Boltzmann σ 5.6705 × 10−8 W m−2 K−4

constant

14

Physical Quantity Symbol Value Units

with 1 eV

Frequency associated ν0 = e/h 2.4180 × 1014 Hz

with 1 eV

Wave number associated k0 = e/hc 8.0655 × 105 m−1

with 1 eV

Energy associated with hν0 1.6022 × 10−19 J

1 eV

Energy associated with hc 1.9864 × 10−25 J

1 m−1

Energy associated with me3 /80 2 h2 13.606 eV

1 Rydberg

Energy associated with k/e 8.6174 × 10−5 eV

1 Kelvin

Temperature associated e/k 1.1604 × 104 K

with 1 eV

Avogadro number NA 6.0221 × 1023 mol−1

Faraday constant F = NA e 9.6485 × 104 C mol−1

Gas constant R = NA k 8.3145 J K−1 mol−1

Loschmidt’s number n0 2.6868 × 1025 m−3

(no. density at STP)

Atomic mass unit mu 1.6605 × 10−27 kg

Standard temperature T0 273.15 K

Atmospheric pressure p0 = n0 kT0 1.0133 × 105 Pa

2

Pressure of 1 mm Hg 1.3332 × 10 Pa

(1 torr)

Molar volume at STP V0 = RT0 /p0 2.2414 × 10−2 m3

Molar weight of air Mair 2.8971 × 10−2 kg

calorie (cal) 4.1868 J

Gravitational g 9.8067 m s−2

acceleration

15

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS (cgs)7

Elementary charge e 4.8032 × 10−10 statcoulomb

(statcoul)

Electron mass me 9.1094 × 10−28 g

Proton mass mp 1.6726 × 10−24 g

Gravitational constant G 6.6726 × 10−8 dyne-cm2 /g2

Planck constant h 6.6261 × 10−27 erg-sec

h̄ = h/2π 1.0546 × 10−27 erg-sec

Speed of light in vacuum c 2.9979 × 1010 cm/sec

3

Proton/electron mass mp /me 1.8362 × 10

ratio

Electron charge/mass e/me 5.2728 × 1017 statcoul/g

ratio

2π 2 me4

Rydberg constant R∞ = 1.0974 × 105 cm−1

ch3

Bohr radius a0 = h̄ /me2

2

5.2918 × 10−9 cm

2 −17

Atomic cross section πa0 8.7974 × 10 cm2

Classical electron radius re = e2 /mc2 2.8179 × 10−13 cm

Thomson cross section (8π/3)re 2 6.6525 × 10−25 cm2

Compton wavelength of h/me c 2.4263 × 10−10 cm

electron h̄/me c 3.8616 × 10−11 cm

Fine-structure constant α = e2 /h̄c 7.2974 × 10−3

α−1 137.04

First radiation constant c1 = 2πhc2 3.7418 × 10−5 erg-cm2 /sec

Second radiation c2 = hc/k 1.4388 cm-deg (K)

constant

Stefan-Boltzmann σ 5.6705 × 10−5 erg/cm2 -

constant sec-deg4

Wavelength associated λ0 1.2398 × 10−4 cm

with 1 eV

16

Physical Quantity Symbol Value Units

with 1 eV

Wave number associated k0 8.0655 × 103 cm−1

with 1 eV

Energy associated with 1.6022 × 10−12 erg

1 eV

Energy associated with 1.9864 × 10−16 erg

1 cm−1

Energy associated with 13.606 eV

1 Rydberg

Energy associated with 8.6174 × 10−5 eV

1 deg Kelvin

Temperature associated 1.1604 × 104 deg (K)

with 1 eV

Avogadro number NA 6.0221 × 1023 mol−1

Faraday constant F = NA e 2.8925 × 1014 statcoul/mol

7

Gas constant R = NA k 8.3145 × 10 erg/deg-mol

19

Loschmidt’s number n0 2.6868 × 10 cm−3

(no. density at STP)

Atomic mass unit mu 1.6605 × 10−24 g

Standard temperature T0 273.15 deg (K)

6

Atmospheric pressure p0 = n0 kT0 1.0133 × 10 dyne/cm2

Pressure of 1 mm Hg 1.3332 × 103 dyne/cm2

(1 torr)

Molar volume at STP V0 = RT0 /p0 2.2414 × 104 cm3

Molar weight of air Mair 28.971 g

calorie (cal) 4.1868 × 107 erg

Gravitational g 980.67 cm/sec2

acceleration

17

FORMULA CONVERSION8

Here α = 102 cm m−1 , β = 107 erg J−1 , 0 = 8.8542 × 10−12 F m−1 ,

µ0 = 4π×10−7 H m−1 , c = (0 µ0 )−1/2 = 2.9979×108 m s−1 , and h̄ = 1.0546×

10−34 J s. To derive a dimensionally correct SI formula from one expressed in

Gaussian units, substitute for each quantity according to Q̄ = k̄Q, where k̄ is

the coefficient in the second column of the table corresponding to Q (overbars

denote variables expressed in Gaussian units). Thus, the formula ā0 = h̄¯ 2 /m̄ ē2

for the Bohr radius becomes αa0 = (h̄β)2 /[(mβ/α2 )(e2 αβ/4π0 )], or a0 =

0 h2 /πme2 . To go from SI to natural units in which h̄ = c = 1 (distinguished

by a circumflex), use Q = k̂−1 Q̂, where k̂ is the coefficient corresponding to

Q in the third column. Thus â0 = 4π0 h̄2 /[(m̂h̄/c)(ê2 0 h̄c)] = 4π/m̂ ê2 . (In

transforming from SI units, do not substitute for 0 , µ0 , or c.)

Capacitance α/4π0 0 −1

Charge (αβ/4π0 )1/2 (0 h̄c)−1/2

Charge density (β/4πα5 0 )1/2 (0 h̄c)−1/2

Current (αβ/4π0 )1/2 (µ0 /h̄c)1/2

Current density (β/4πα3 0 )1/2 (µ0 /h̄c)1/2

Electric field (4πβ0 /α3 )1/2 (0 /h̄c)1/2

Electric potential (4πβ0 /α)1/2 (0 /h̄c)1/2

Electric conductivity (4π0 )−1 0 −1

Energy β (h̄c)−1

Energy density β/α3 (h̄c)−1

Force β/α (h̄c)−1

Frequency 1 c−1

Inductance 4π0 /α µ0 −1

Length α 1

Magnetic induction (4πβ/α3 µ0 )1/2 (µ0 h̄c)−1/2

Magnetic intensity (4πµ0 β/α3 )1/2 (µ0 /h̄c)1/2

Mass β/α2 c/h̄

Momentum β/α h̄−1

Power β (h̄c2 )−1

Pressure β/α3 (h̄c)−1

Resistance 4π0 /α (0 /µ0 )1/2

Time 1 c

Velocity α c−1

18

MAXWELL’S EQUATIONS

∂B 1 ∂B

Faraday’s law ∇×E=− ∇×E=−

∂t c ∂t

∂D 1 ∂D 4π

Ampere’s law ∇×H= +J ∇×H= + J

∂t c ∂t c

Poisson equation ∇·D=ρ ∇ · D = 4πρ

[Absence of magnetic ∇·B=0 ∇·B=0

monopoles]

1

Lorentz force on q (E + v × B) q E+ v×B

charge q c

Constitutive D = E D = E

relations B = µH B = µH

permittivity satisfies ≈ 0 = 8.8542 × 10−12 F m−1 (Gaussian: ≈ 1)

provided that all charge is regarded as free. Using the drift approximation

v⊥ = E × B/B 2 to calculate polarization charge density gives rise to a dielec-

tric constant K ≡ /0 = 1 + 36π × 109 ρ/B 2 (SI) = 1 + 4πρc2 /B 2 (Gaussian),

where ρ is the mass density.

The electromagnetic energy in volume V is given by

Z

1

W = dV (H · B + E · D) (SI)

2

ZV

1

= dV (H · B + E · D) (Gaussian).

8π

V

Poynting’s theorem is

Z Z

∂W

+ N · dS = − dV J · E,

∂t

S V

where S is the closed surface bounding V and the Poynting vector (energy flux

across S) is given by N = E × H (SI) or N = cE × H/4π (Gaussian).

19

ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM

In the following, = dielectric permittivity, µ = permeability of conduc-

tor, µ0 = permeability of surrounding medium, σ = conductivity, f = ω/2π =

radiation frequency, κm = µ/µ0 and κe = /0 . Where subscripts are used,

‘1’ denotes a conducting medium and ‘2’ a propagating (lossless dielectric)

medium. All units are SI unless otherwise specified.

Permeability of free space µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H m−1

= 1.2566 × 10−6 H m−1

Resistance of free space R0 = (µ0 /0 )1/2 = 376.73 Ω

Capacity of parallel plates of area C = A/d

A, separated by distance d

Capacity of concentric cylinders C = 2πl/ ln(b/a)

of length l, radii a, b

Capacity of concentric spheres of C = 4πab/(b − a)

radii a, b

Self-inductance of wire of length L = µl

l, carrying uniform current

Mutual inductance of parallel wires L = (µ0 l/4π) [1 + 4 ln(d/a)]

of length l, radius a, separated

by distance d

Inductance of circular loop of radius L =b µ0 [ln(8b/a) − 2] + µ/4

b, made of wire of radius a,

carrying uniform current

Relaxation time in a lossy medium τ = /σ

Skin depth in a lossy medium δ = (2/ωµσ)1/2 = (πf µσ)−1/2

Wave impedance in a lossy medium Z = [µ/( + iσ/ω)]1/2

Transmission coefficient at T = 4.22 × 10−4 (f κm1 κe2 /σ)1/2

conducting surface9

(good only for T 1)

Field at distance r from straight wire Bθ = µI/2πr tesla

carrying current I (amperes) = 0.2I/r gauss (r in cm)

Field at distance z along axis from Bz = µa2 I/[2(a2 + z 2 )3/2 ]

circular loop of radius a

carrying current I

20

ELECTROMAGNETIC FREQUENCY/

WAVELENGTH BANDS10

Designation

Lower Upper Lower Upper

ULF* 30 Hz 10 Mm

VF* 30 Hz 300 Hz 1 Mm 10 Mm

ELF 300 Hz 3 kHz 100 km 1 Mm

VLF 3 kHz 30 kHz 10 km 100 km

LF 30 kHz 300 kHz 1 km 10 km

MF 300 kHz 3 MHz 100 m 1 km

HF 3 MHz 30 MHz 10 m 100 m

VHF 30 MHz 300 MHz 1m 10 m

UHF 300 MHz 3 GHz 10 cm 1m

SHF† 3 GHz 30 GHz 1 cm 10 cm

S 2.6 3.95 7.6 11.5

G 3.95 5.85 5.1 7.6

J 5.3 8.2 3.7 5.7

H 7.05 10.0 3.0 4.25

X 8.2 12.4 2.4 3.7

M 10.0 15.0 2.0 3.0

P 12.4 18.0 1.67 2.4

K 18.0 26.5 1.1 1.67

R 26.5 40.0 0.75 1.1

EHF 30 GHz 300 GHz 1 mm 1 cm

Submillimeter 300 GHz 3 THz 100 µm 1 mm

Infrared 3 THz 430 THz 700 nm 100 µm

Visible 430 THz 750 THz 400 nm 700 nm

Ultraviolet 750 THz 30 PHz 10 nm 400 nm

X Ray 30 PHz 3 EHz 100 pm 10 nm

Gamma Ray 3 EHz 100 pm

In spectroscopy the angstrom is sometimes used (1 Å = 10−8 cm = 0.1 nm).

*The boundary between ULF and VF (voice frequencies) is variously defined.

†The SHF (microwave) band is further subdivided approximately as shown.11

21

AC CIRCUITS

For a resistance R, inductance L, and capacitance

√ C in series with

a voltage source V = V0 exp(iωt) (here i = −1), the current is given

by I = dq/dt, where q satisfies

d2q dq q

L + R + = V.

dt2 dt C

Is = iωqs = V /Z in terms of the impedance Z = R + i(ωL − 1/ωC) and

It = dqt /dt. For initial conditions q(0) ≡ q0 = q̄0 + qs , I(0) ≡ I0 , the

transients can be of three types, depending on ∆ = R2 − 4L/C:

(a) Overdamped, ∆ > 0

I0 + γ+ q̄0 I0 + γ− q̄0

qt = exp(−γ− t) − exp(−γ+ t),

γ+ − γ− γ+ − γ−

γ+ (I0 + γ− q̄0 ) γ− (I0 + γ+ q̄0 )

It = exp(−γ+ t) − exp(−γ− t),

γ+ − γ− γ+ − γ−

(b) Critically damped, ∆ = 0

It = [I0 − (I0 + γR q̄0 )γR t] exp(−γR t),

where γR = R/2L;

(c) Underdamped, ∆ < 0

h i

γR q̄0 + I0

qt = sin ω1 t + q̄0 cos ω1 t exp(−γR t),

ω1

h i

(ω1 2 + γR 2 )q̄0 + γR I0

It = I0 cos ω1 t − sin(ω1 t) exp(−γR t),

ω1

frequency. At ω = ω0 , Z = R. The quality of the circuit is Q = ω0 L/R.

Instability results when L, R, C are not all of the same sign.

22

DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS OF FLUID MECHANICS12

Kármán inertial force)1/2

Bond Bd (ρ0 − ρ)L2 g/Σ Gravitational force/

surface tension

Boussinesq B V /(2gR)1/2 (Inertial force/

gravitational force)1/2

Brinkman Br µV 2 /k∆T Viscous heat/conducted heat

Capillary Cp µV /Σ Viscous force/surface tension

Carnot Ca (T2 − T1 )/T2 Theoretical Carnot cycle

efficiency

Cauchy, Cy, Hk ρV 2 /Γ = M2 Inertial force/

Hooke compressibility force

Chandra- Ch B 2 L2 /ρνη Magnetic force/dissipative

sekhar forces

Clausius Cl LV 3 ρ/k∆T Kinetic energy flow rate/heat

conduction rate

Cowling C (VA /V )2 = Al2 Magnetic force/inertial force

Crispation Cr µκ/ΣL Effect of diffusion/effect of

surface tension

Dean D D 3/2 V /ν(2r)1/2 Transverse flow due to

curvature/longitudinal flow

[Drag CD (ρ0 − ρ)Lg/ Drag force/inertial force

coefficient] ρ0 V 2

Eckert E V 2 /cp ∆T Kinetic energy/change in

thermal energy

Ekman Ek (ν/2ΩL2 )1/2 = (Viscous force/Coriolis force)1/2

(Ro/Re)1/2

Euler Eu ∆p/ρV 2 Pressure drop due to friction/

dynamic pressure

Froude Fr V /(gL)1/2 †(Inertial force/gravitational or

V /N L buoyancy force)1/2

Gay–Lussac Ga 1/β∆T Inverse of relative change in

volume during heating

Grashof Gr gL3 β∆T /ν 2 Buoyancy force/viscous force

[Hall CH λ/rL Gyrofrequency/

coefficient] collision frequency

*(†) Also defined as the inverse (square) of the quantity shown.

23

Name(s) Symbol Definition Significance

(Rm Re C)1/2 dissipative force)1/2

Knudsen Kn λ/L Hydrodynamic time/

collision time

Lewis Le κ/D *Thermal conduction/molecular

diffusion

Lorentz Lo V /c Magnitude of relativistic effects

Lundquist Lu µ0 LVA /η = J × B force/resistive magnetic

Al Rm diffusion force

Mach M V /CS Magnitude of compressibility

effects

Magnetic Mm V /VA = Al−1 (Inertial force/magnetic force)1/2

Mach

Magnetic Rm µ0 LV /η Flow velocity/magnetic diffusion

Reynolds velocity

Newton Nt F/ρL2 V 2 Imposed force/inertial force

Nusselt N αL/k Total heat transfer/thermal

conduction

Péclet Pe LV /κ Heat convection/heat conduction

Poisseuille Po D 2 ∆p/µLV Pressure force/viscous force

Prandtl Pr ν/κ Momentum diffusion/

heat diffusion

Rayleigh Ra gH 3 β∆T /νκ Buoyancy force/diffusion force

Reynolds Re LV /ν Inertial force/viscous force

Richardson Ri (N H/∆V )2 Buoyancy effects/

vertical shear effects

Rossby Ro V /2ΩL sin Λ Inertial force/Coriolis force

Schmidt Sc ν/D Momentum diffusion/

molecular diffusion

Stanton St α/ρcp V Thermal conduction loss/

heat capacity

Stefan Sf σLT 3 /k Radiated heat/conducted heat

Stokes S ν/L2 f Viscous damping rate/

vibration frequency

Strouhal Sr f L/V Vibration speed/flow velocity

Taylor Ta (2ΩL2 /ν)2 Centrifugal force/viscous force

R1/2 (∆R)3/2 (Centrifugal force/

·(Ω/ν) viscous force)1/2

Thring, Th, Bo ρcp V /σT 3 Convective heat transport/

Boltzmann radiative heat transport

Weber W ρLV 2 /Σ Inertial force/surface tension

24

Nomenclature:

B Magnetic induction

Cs , c Speeds of sound, light

cp Specific heat at constant pressure (units m2 s−2 K−1 )

D = 2R Pipe diameter

F Imposed force

f Vibration frequency

g Gravitational acceleration

H, L Vertical, horizontal length scales

k = ρcp κ Thermal conductivity (units kg m−1 s−2 )

N = (g/H)1/2 Brunt–Väisälä frequency

R Radius of pipe or channel

r Radius of curvature of pipe or channel

rL Larmor radius

T Temperature

V Characteristic flow velocity

VA = B/(µ0 ρ)1/2 Alfvén speed

∂T

α Newton’s-law heat coefficient, k = α∆T

∂x

β Volumetric expansion coefficient, dV /V = βdT

Γ Bulk modulus (units kg m−1 s−2 )

∆R, ∆V, ∆p, ∆T Imposed differences in two radii, velocities,

pressures, or temperatures

Surface emissivity

η Electrical resistivity

κ, D Thermal, molecular diffusivities (units m2 s−1 )

Λ Latitude of point on earth’s surface

λ Collisional mean free path

µ = ρν Viscosity

µ0 Permeability of free space

ν Kinematic viscosity (units m2 s−1 )

ρ Mass density of fluid medium

ρ0 Mass density of bubble, droplet, or moving object

Σ Surface tension (units kg s−2 )

σ Stefan–Boltzmann constant

Ω Solid-body rotational angular velocity

25

SHOCKS

respect to the magnetic induction B, the jump conditions are 13,14

(1) ρU = ρ̄Ū ≡ q;

(2) ρU 2 + p + B⊥2 /2µ = ρ̄Ū 2 + p̄ + B̄⊥2 /2µ;

(3) ρU V − Bk B⊥ /µ = ρ̄Ū V̄ − B̄k B̄⊥ /µ;

(4) Bk = B̄k ;

(5) U B⊥ − V Bk = Ū B̄⊥ − V̄ B̄k ;

2

(6) 1

2 (U + V 2 ) + w + (U B⊥2 − V Bk B⊥ )/µρU

2

= 1

2 (Ū + V̄ 2 ) + w̄ + (Ū B̄⊥2 − V̄ B̄k B̄⊥ )/µρ̄Ū .

Here U and V are components of the fluid velocity normal and tangential to

the front in the shock frame; ρ = 1/υ is the mass density; p is the pressure;

B⊥ = B sin θ, Bk = B cos θ; µ is the magnetic permeability (µ = 4π in cgs

units); and the specific enthalpy is w = e + pυ, where the specific internal

energy e satisfies de = T ds − pdυ in terms of the temperature T and the

specific entropy s. Quantities in the region behind (downstream from) the

front are distinguished by a bar. If B = 0, then15

(7) U − Ū = [(p̄ − p)(υ − ῡ)]1/2 ;

(8) (p̄ − p)(υ − ῡ)−1 = q 2 ;

1

(9) w̄ − w = 2 (p̄ − p)(υ + ῡ);

1

(10) ē − e = 2 (p̄ + p)(υ − ῡ).

In what follows we assume that the fluid is a perfect gas with adiabatic index

γ = 1 + 2/n, where n is the number of degrees of freedom. Then p = ρRT /m,

where R is the universal gas constant and m is the molar weight; the sound

speed is given by Cs 2 = (∂p/∂ρ)s = γpυ; and w = γe = γpυ/(γ − 1). For a

general oblique shock in a perfect gas the quantity X = r−1 (U/VA )2 satisfies14

(11) (X−β/α)(X−cos2 θ)2 = X sin2 θ [1 + (r − 1)/2α] X − cos2 θ , where

r = ρ̄/ρ, α = 1

2 [γ + 1 − (γ − 1)r], and β = Cs 2 /VA 2 = 4πγp/B 2 .

The density ratio is bounded by

(12) 1 < r < (γ + 1)/(γ − 1).

If the shock is normal to B (i.e., if θ = π/2), then

(13) U 2 = (r/α) Cs 2 + VA 2 [1 + (1 − γ/2)(r − 1)] ;

26

(15) V̄ = V ;

(16) p̄ = p + (1 − r−1 )ρU 2 + (1 − r2 )B 2 /2µ.

If θ = 0, there are two possibilities: switch-on shocks, which require β < 1 and

for which

(17) U 2 = rVA 2 ;

(18) Ū = VA 2 /U ;

(19) B̄⊥2 = 2Bk2 (r − 1)(α − β);

(21) p̄ = p + ρU 2 (1 − α + β)(1 − r−1 ),

and acoustic (hydrodynamic) shocks, for which

(22) U 2 = (r/α)Cs 2 ;

(23) Ū = U/r;

(24) V̄ = B̄⊥ = 0;

(25) p̄ = p + ρU 2 (1 − r−1 ).

For acoustic shocks the specific volume and pressure are related by

(26) ῡ/υ = [(γ + 1)p + (γ − 1)p̄] / [(γ − 1)p + (γ + 1)p̄].

In terms of the upstream Mach number M = U/Cs ,

(27) ρ̄/ρ = υ/ῡ = U/Ū = (γ + 1)M 2 /[(γ − 1)M 2 + 2];

(28) p̄/p = (2γM 2 − γ + 1)/(γ + 1);

(29) T̄ /T = [(γ − 1)M 2 + 2](2γM 2 − γ + 1)/(γ + 1)2 M 2 ;

(30) M̄ 2 = [(γ − 1)M 2 + 2]/[2γM 2 − γ + 1].

The entropy change across the shock is

(31) ∆s ≡ s̄ − s = cυ ln[(p̄/p)(ρ/ρ̄)γ ],

where cυ = R/(γ − 1)m is the specific heat at constant volume; here R is the

gas constant. In the weak-shock limit (M → 1),

2γ(γ − 1) 16γR

(32) ∆s → cυ (M 2 − 1)3 ≈ (M − 1)3 .

3(γ + 1) 3(γ + 1)m

The radius at time t of a strong spherical blast wave resulting from the explo-

sive release of energy E in a medium with uniform density ρ is

(33) RS = C0 (Et2 /ρ)1/5 ,

where C0 is a constant depending on γ. For γ = 7/5, C0 = 1.033.

27

FUNDAMENTAL PLASMA PARAMETERS

expressed in eV and ion mass (mi ) expressed in units of the proton mass,

µ = mi /mp ; Z is charge state; k is Boltzmann’s constant; K is wavelength;

γ is the adiabatic index; ln Λ is the Coulomb logarithm.

Frequencies

electron gyrofrequency fce = ωce /2π = 2.80 × 106 B Hz

ωce = eB/me c = 1.76 × 107 B rad/sec

ion gyrofrequency fci = ωci /2π = 1.52 × 103 Zµ−1 B Hz

ωci = ZeB/mi c = 9.58 × 103 Zµ−1 B rad/sec

electron plasma frequency fpe = ωpe /2π = 8.98 × 103 ne 1/2 Hz

ωpe = (4πne e2 /me )1/2

= 5.64 × 104 ne 1/2 rad/sec

ion plasma frequency fpi = ωpi /2π

= 2.10 × 102 Zµ−1/2 ni 1/2 Hz

ωpi = (4πni Z 2 e2 /mi )1/2

= 1.32 × 103 Zµ−1/2 ni 1/2 rad/sec

electron trapping rate νT e = (eKE/me )1/2

= 7.26 × 108 K 1/2 E 1/2 sec−1

ion trapping rate νT i = (ZeKE/mi )1/2

= 1.69 × 107 Z 1/2 K 1/2 E 1/2 µ−1/2 sec−1

electron collision rate νe = 2.91 × 10−6 ne ln ΛTe −3/2 sec−1

ion collision rate νi = 4.80 × 10−8 Z 4 µ−1/2 ni ln ΛTi −3/2 sec−1

Lengths

electron deBroglie length λ̄ = h̄/(me kTe )1/2 = 2.76 × 10−8 Te −1/2 cm

classical distance of e2 /kT = 1.44 × 10−7 T −1 cm

minimum approach

electron gyroradius re = vT e /ωce = 2.38Te 1/2 B −1 cm

ion gyroradius ri = vT i /ωci

= 1.02 × 102 µ1/2 Z −1 Ti 1/2 B −1 cm

plasma skin depth c/ωpe = 5.31 × 105 ne −1/2 cm

Debye length λD = (kT /4πne2 )1/2

= 7.43 × 102 T 1/2 n−1/2 cm

28

Velocities

electron thermal velocity vT e = (kTe /me )1/2

= 4.19 × 107 Te 1/2 cm/sec

ion thermal velocity vT i = (kTi /mi )1/2

= 9.79 × 105 µ−1/2 Ti 1/2 cm/sec

ion sound velocity Cs = (γZkTe /mi )1/2

= 9.79 × 105 (γZTe /µ)1/2 cm/sec

Alfvén velocity vA = B/(4πni mi )1/2

= 2.18 × 1011 µ−1/2 ni −1/2 B cm/sec

Dimensionless

(electron/proton mass ratio)1/2 (me /mp )1/2 = 2.33 × 10−2 = 1/42.9

number of particles in (4π/3)nλD 3 = 1.72 × 109 T 3/2 n−1/2

Debye sphere

Alfvén velocity/speed of light vA /c = 7.28µ−1/2 ni −1/2 B

electron plasma/gyrofrequency ωpe /ωce = 3.21 × 10−3 ne 1/2 B −1

ratio

ion plasma/gyrofrequency ratio ωpi /ωci = 0.137µ1/2 ni 1/2 B −1

thermal/magnetic energy ratio β = 8πnkT /B 2 = 4.03 × 10−11 nT B −2

magnetic/ion rest energy ratio B 2 /8πni mi c2 = 26.5µ−1 ni −1 B 2

Miscellaneous

Bohm diffusion coefficient DB = (ckT /16eB)

= 6.25 × 106 T B −1 cm2 /sec

transverse Spitzer resistivity η⊥ = 1.15 × 10−14 Z ln ΛT −3/2 sec

= 1.03 × 10−2 Z ln ΛT −3/2 Ω cm

The anomalous collision rate due to low-frequency ion-sound turbulence is

e /kT = 5.64 × 10 ne

ν* ≈ ωpe W

4 1/2

e /kT sec

W

−1

,

where W

Magnetic pressure is given by

where B0 = 10 kG = 1 T.

Detonation energy of 1 kiloton of high explosive is

12 19

WkT = 10 cal = 4.2 × 10 erg.

29

PLASMA DISPERSION FUNCTION

Z Z

−1/2

+∞

dt exp −t2

2

iζ

2

Z(ζ) = π = 2i exp −ζ dt exp −t .

t−ζ

−∞ −∞

Differential equation:

dZ d2 Z dZ

= −2 (1 + ζZ) , Z(0) = iπ 1/2 ; + 2ζ + 2Z = 0.

dζ dζ 2 dζ

Real argument (y = 0):

Z

2

x

Z(x) = exp −x iπ 1/2 − 2 dt exp t 2

.

0

Z(iy) = iπ 1/2 exp y 2 [1 − erf(y)] .

Z(ζ) = iπ 1/2 exp −ζ 2 − 2ζ 1 − 2ζ 2 /3 + 4ζ 4 /15 − 8ζ 6 /105 + · · · .

1/2 2

−1 2 4 6

Z(ζ) = iπ σ exp −ζ −ζ 1 + 1/2ζ + 3/4ζ + 15/8ζ + · · · ,

σ= 1 |y| < |x|−1

2 y < −|x|−1

Symmetry properties (the asterisk denotes complex conjugation):

Z(ζ*) = − [Z(−ζ)]*;

Two-pole approximations18 (good for ζ in upper half plane except when y <

π 1/2 x2 exp(−x2 ), x 1):

0.50 + 0.81i 0.50 − 0.81i

Z(ζ) ≈ − , a = 0.51 − 0.81i;

a−ζ a* + ζ

0 0.50 + 0.96i 0.50 − 0.96i

Z (ζ) ≈ 2

+ , b = 0.48 − 0.91i.

(b − ζ) (b* + ζ)2

30

COLLISIONS AND TRANSPORT

is k = 1.60 × 10−12 erg/eV; masses µ, µ0 are in units of the proton mass;

eα = Zα e is the charge of species α. All other units are cgs except where

noted.

Relaxation Rates

Rates are associated with four relaxation processes arising from the in-

teraction of test particles (labeled α) streaming with velocity vα through a

background of field particles (labeled β):

dvα α\β

slowing down = −νs vα

dt

d 2 α\β 2

transverse diffusion (vα − v̄α )⊥ = ν⊥ vα

dt

d

(vα − v̄α )2k = νk vα 2

α\β

parallel diffusion

dt

d

energy loss vα 2 = −να\β vα 2 ,

dt

where the averages are performed over an ensemble of test particles and a

Maxwellian field particle distribution. The exact formulas may be written19

α\β

νsα\β = (1 + mα /mβ )ψ(xα\β )ν0 ;

= 2 (1 − 1/2xα\β )ψ(xα\β ) + ψ 0 (xα\β ) ν0

α\β α\β

ν⊥ ;

α\β

α\β

νk = ψ(xα\β )/xα\β ν0 ;

α\β

α\β 0 α\β

α\β

ν = 2 (mα /mβ )ψ(x ) − ψ (x ) ν0 ,

where

α\β

ν0

Z x

2 1/2 −t 0 dψ

ψ(x) = √ dt t e ; ψ (x) = ,

π dx

0

and λαβ = ln Λαβ is the Coulomb logarithm (see below). Limiting forms of

νs , ν⊥ and νk are given in the following table. All the expressions shown

have units cm3 sec−1 . Test particle energy and field particle temperature T

31

are both in eV; µ = mi /mp where mp is the proton mass; Z is ion charge

state; in electron–electron and ion–ion encounters, field particle quantities are

distinguished by a prime. The two expressions given below for each rate hold

for very slow (xα\β 1) and very fast (xα\β 1) test particles, respectively.

Slow Fast

Electron–electron

0

νse\e /ne0 λee0 ≈ 5.8 × 10−6 T −3/2 −→ 7.7 × 10−6 −3/2

e\e0 −6 −1/2 −1 −6 −3/2

ν⊥ /ne0 λee0 ≈ 5.8 × 10 T −→ 7.7 × 10

e\e0 −6 −1/2 −1 −6 −5/2

νk /ne0 λee0 ≈ 2.9 × 10 T −→ 3.9 × 10 T

Electron–ion

e\i 2 3/2 −3/2 −6 −3/2

νs /ni Z λei ≈ 0.23µ T −→ 3.9 × 10

2 −4 1/2 −1/2 −1

−→ 7.7 × 10−6 −3/2

e\i

ν⊥ /ni Z λei ≈ 2.5 × 10 µ T

νk /ni Z 2 λei ≈ 1.2 × 10−4 µ1/2 T −1/2 −1 −→ 2.1 × 10−9 µ−1 T −5/2

e\i

Ion–electron

νsi\e /ne Z 2 λie ≈ 1.6 × 10−9 µ−1 T −3/2 −→ 1.7 × 10−4 µ1/2 −3/2

i\e 2 −9 −1 −1/2 −1 −7 −1/2 −3/2

ν⊥ /ne Z λie ≈ 3.2 × 10 µ T −→ 1.8 × 10 µ

i\e 2 −9 −1 −1/2 −1 −4 1/2 −5/2

νk /ne Z λie ≈ 1.6 × 10 µ T −→ 1.7 × 10 µ T

Ion–ion

0 01/2 −1/2

νsi\i −8 µ µ0

≈ 6.8 × 10 1+ T −3/2

ni0 Z 2 Z 02 λii0 µ µ

−8 1 1 µ1/2

−→ 9.0 × 10 + 0

µ µ 3/2

i\i0

ν⊥ −7 01/2 −1 −1/2 −1

≈ 1.4 × 10 µ µ T

ni0 Z 2 Z 02 λii0

−7 −1/2 −3/2

−→ 1.8 × 10 µ

i\i0

νk

≈ 6.8 × 10−8 µ01/2 µ−1 T −1/2 −1

ni0 Z 2 Z 02 λii0

−→ 9.0 × 10−8 µ1/2 µ0−1 T −5/2

In the same limits, the energy transfer rate follows from the identity

ν = 2νs − ν⊥ − νk ,

except for the case of fast electrons or fast ions scattered by ions, where the

leading terms cancel. Then the appropriate forms are

−3/2 µ−1 − 8.9 × 104 (µ/T )1/2 −1 exp(−1836µ/T ) sec−1

32

and

i\i0 −7 2 02

ν −→ 1.8 × 10 ni0 Z Z λii0

−3/2 1/2 0 0 1/2 −1 0

−1

µ /µ − 1.1(µ /T ) exp(−µ /T ) sec .

In general, the energy transfer rate να\β is positive for > α * and nega-

tive for < α *, where x* = (mβ \mα )α */Tβ is the solution of ψ 0 (x*) =

(mα \mβ )ψ(x*). The ratio α */Tβ is given for a number of specific α, β in the

following table:

α *

1.5 0.98 4.8 × 10−3 2.6 × 10−3 1.8 × 10−3 1.4 × 10−3

Tβ

∼ Te , there are just

two characteristic collision rates. For Z = 1,

−8 −3/2 −1/2 −1

νi = 4.8 × 10 nλTi µ sec .

Temperature Isotropization

Isotropization is described by

dT⊥ 1 dTk α

=− = −νT (T⊥ − Tk ),

dt 2 dt

√

2 πeα 2 eβ 2 nα λαβ tan−1 (A1/2 )

α

νT = 1/2 (kT

A−2 −3 + (A + 3) .

mα k )3/2 A1/2

T ⊥ ≈ Tk ≡ T ,

e

νT = 8.2 × 10−7 nλT −3/2 sec−1 ;

i −8 2 −1/2 −3/2 −1

νT = 1.9 × 10 nλZ µ T sec .

33

Thermal Equilibration

If the components of a plasma have different temperatures, but no rela-

tive drift, equilibration is described by

dTα

X

α\β

= ν̄ (Tβ − Tα ),

dt

β

where

α\β −19 (mα mβ )1/2 Zα 2 Zβ 2 nβ λαβ −1

ν̄ = 1.8 × 10 sec .

(mα Tβ + mβ Tα )3/2

ν̄ /ni = ν̄ /ne = 3.2 × 10 Z λ/µT cm sec .

Coulomb Logarithm

For test particles of mass mα and charge eα = Zα e scattering off field

particles of mass mβ and charge eβ = Zβ e, the Coulomb logarithm is defined

as λ = ln Λ ≡ ln(rmax /rmin ). Here rmin is the larger of eα eβ /mαβ ū2 and

P

h̄/2mαβ ū, averaged over both particle velocity distributions, where mαβ =

mα mβ /(mα + mβ ) and u = vα − vβ ; rmax = (4π nγ eγ /kTγ )−1/2 , where

2

the summation extends over all species γ for which ū2 < vT γ 2 = kTγ /mγ . If

this inequality cannot be satisfied, or if either ūωcα −1 < rmax or ūωcβ −1 <

rmax , the theory breaks down. Typically λ ≈ 10–20. Corrections to the trans-

port coefficients are O(λ−1 ); hence the theory is good only to ∼ 10% and fails

when λ ∼ 1.

The following cases are of particular interest:

(a) Thermal electron–electron collisions

∼ 10 eV;

1/2 −1

= 24 − ln(ne Te ), Te >

∼ 10 eV.

λei = λie = 23 − ln ne 1/2 ZTe−3/2 , Ti me /mi < Te < 10Z 2 eV;

1/2 −1

2

= 24 − ln ne Te , Ti me /mi < 10Z eV < Te

= 30 − ln ni 1/2 Ti −3/2 Z 2 µ−1 , Te < Ti Zme /mi .

34

(c) Mixed ion–ion collisions

1/2

0 0 2 02

ZZ (µ + µ ) ni Z ni0 Z

λii0 = λi0 i = 23 − ln + .

µTi0 + µ0 Ti Ti Ti0

warm electrons, kTi /mi , kTi0 /mi0 < vD 2 < kTe /me

1/2

ZZ 0 (µ + µ0 ) ne

λii0 = λi0 i = 35 − ln .

µµ0 βD 2 Te

Fokker-Planck Equation

Df α ∂f α α α ∂f α

≡ + v · ∇f + F · ∇v f = ,

Dt ∂t ∂t coll

P force α\β

where F is an external field. The general form of the collision integral is

(∂f /∂t)coll = −

α

∇v · J , with

β

Z

eα 2 eβ 2

Jα\β = 2πλαβ d3v 0 (u2 I − uu)u−3

mα

n o

1 α 1 β 0

· f (v)∇v0 f β (v0 ) − f (v )∇v f α (v)

mβ mα

n α o

α\β eα 2 eβ 2 α 1

J = 4πλαβ f (v)∇v H(v) − ∇v · f (v)∇v ∇v G(v) ,

mα 2 2

Z

β 0 3 0

G(v) = f (v )ud v

Z

mα

H(v) = 1+ f β (v0 )u−1 d3v 0 .

mβ

35

If species α is a weak beam (number and energy density small compared with

background) streaming through a Maxwellian plasma, then

J =− νs vf − νk vv · ∇v f

mα + mβ 2

1 α\β

− ν⊥ v 2 I − vv · ∇v f α .

4

For distribution functions with no large gradients in velocity space, the

Fokker-Planck collision terms can be approximated according to

Dfe

= νee (Fe − fe ) + νei (F̄e − fe );

Dt

Dfi

= νie (F̄i − fi ) + νii (Fi − fi ).

Dt

The respective slowing-down rates νsα\β given in the Relaxation Rate section

above can be used for ναβ , assuming slow ions and fast electrons, with re-

placed by Tα . (For νee and νii , one can equally well use ν⊥ , and the result

is insensitive to whether the slow- or fast-test-particle limit is employed.) The

Maxwellians Fα and F̄α are given by

3/2 n h io

mα mα (v − vα )2

F α = nα exp − ;

2πkTα 2kTα

3/2 n h io

mα mα (v − v̄α )2

F̄α = nα exp − ,

2πkT̄α 2kT̄α

where nα , vα and Tα are the number density, mean drift velocity, and effective

temperature obtained by taking moments of fα . Some latitude in the definition

of T̄α and v̄α is possible;20 one choice is T̄e = Ti , T̄i = Te , v̄e = vi , v̄i = ve .

Transport Coefficients

Transport equations for a multispecies plasma:

d α nα

+ nα ∇ · vα = 0;

dt

h i

dα v α 1

m α nα = −∇pα − ∇ · Pα + Zα enα E + vα × B + Rα ;

dt c

36

3 dα kTα

nα + pα ∇ · vα = −∇ · qα − Pα : ∇vα + Qα .

2 dt

Here dαP

/dt ≡ ∂/∂t + vα · ∇;Ppα = nα kTα , where k is Boltzmann’s constant;

Rα = Rαβ and Qα = Qαβ , where Rαβ and Qαβ are respectively

β β

the momentum and energy gained by the αth species through collisions with

the βth; Pα is the stress tensor; and qα is the heat flow.

The transport coefficients in a simple two-component plasma (electrons

and singly charged ions) are tabulated below. Here k and ⊥ refer to the di-

rection of the magnetic field B = bB; u = ve − vi is the relative streaming

velocity; ne = ni ≡ n; j = −neu is the current; ωce = 1.76 × 107 B sec−1 and

ωci = (me /mi )ωce are the electron and ion gyrofrequencies, respectively; and

the basic collisional times are taken to be

√

3 me (kTe )3/2 5 Te

3/2

τe = √ = 3.44 × 10 sec,

4 2π nλe4 nλ

√

3 mi (kTi )3/2 7 Ti

3/2

1/2

τi = √ 4

= 2.09 × 10 µ sec.

4 πn λe nλ

be summarized as follows:21

momentum transfer Rei = −Rie ≡ R = Ru + RT ;

frictional force Ru = ne(jk /σk + j⊥ /σ⊥ );

electrical σk = 1.96σ⊥ ; σ⊥ = ne2 τe /me ;

conductivities

3n

thermal force RT = −0.71n∇k (kTe ) − b × ∇⊥ (kTe );

2ωce τe

3me nk

ion heating Qi = (Te − Ti );

m i τe

electron heating Qe = −Qi − R · u;

ion heat flux qi = −κik ∇k (kTi ) − κi⊥ ∇⊥ (kTi ) + κi∧ b × ∇⊥ (kTi );

i nkTi τi i 2nkTi i 5nkTi

ion thermal κk = 3.9 ; κ⊥ = ; κ∧ = ;

conductivities mi mi ωci2 τi 2mi ωci

e e

electron heat flux qe = qu + qT ;

e 3nkTe

frictional heat flux qu = 0.71nkTe uk + b × u⊥ ;

2ωce τe

37

thermal gradient qeT = −κek ∇k (kTe ) − κe⊥ ∇⊥ (kTe ) − κe∧ b × ∇⊥ (kTe );

heat flux

e nkTe τe e nkTe e 5nkTe

electron thermal κk = 3.2 ; κ⊥ = 4.7 ; κ∧ = ;

conductivities me me ωce2 τe 2me ωce

η0 η1

stress tensor (either Pxx = − (Wxx + Wyy ) − (Wxx − Wyy ) − η3 Wxy ;

species) 2 2

η0 η1

Pyy = − (Wxx + Wyy ) + (Wxx − Wyy ) + η3 Wxy ;

2 2

η3

Pxy = Pyx = −η1 Wxy + (Wxx − Wyy );

2

Pxz = Pzx = −η2 Wxz − η4 Wyz ;

Pyz = Pzy = −η2 Wyz + η4 Wxz ;

Pzz = −η0 Wzz

(here the z axis is defined parallel to B);

3nkTi 6nkTi

ion viscosity η0i = 0.96nkTi τi ; η1i = ; η2i = ;

10ωci2 τi 5ωci2 τi

i nkTi i nkTi

η3 = ; η4 = ;

2ωci ωci

e e nkTe e nkTe

electron viscosity η0 = 0.73nkTe τe ; η1 = 0.51 ; η2 = 2.0 ;

ωce2 τe ωce2 τe

nkTe nkTe

η3e = − ; η4e = − .

2ωce ωce

For both species the rate-of-strain tensor is defined as

∂vj ∂vk 2

Wjk = + − δjk ∇ · v.

∂xk ∂xj 3

e e e

qu = 0.71nkTe u; qT = −κk ∇(kTe ); Pjk = −η0 Wjk .

For ωce τe 1 ωci τi , the electrons obey the high-field expressions and the

ions obey the zero-field expressions.

Collisional transport theory is applicable when (1) macroscopic time rates

of change satisfy d/dt 1/τ , where τ is the longest collisional time scale, and

(in the absence of a magnetic field) (2) macroscopic length scales L satisfy L

l, where l = v̄τ is the mean free path. In √ a strong field, ωce τ 1, condition

(2) is replaced by Lk l and L⊥ lre (L⊥ re in a uniform field),

38

where Lk is a macroscopic scale parallel to the field B and L⊥ is the smaller

of B/|∇⊥ B| and the transverse plasma dimension. In addition, the standard

transport coefficients are valid only when (3) the Coulomb logarithm satisfies

λ 1; (4) the electron gyroradius satisfies re λD , or 8πne me c2 B 2 ; (5)

relative drifts u = vα − vβ between two species are small compared with the

thermal velocities, i.e., u2 kTα /mα , kTβ /mβ ; and (6) anomalous transport

processes owing to microinstabilities are negligible.

Weakly Ionized Plasmas

Collision frequency for scattering of charged particles of species α by

neutrals is

να = n0 σsα\0 (kTα /mα )1/2 ,

where n0 is the neutral density and σsα\0 is the cross section, typically ∼

5 × 10−15 cm2 and weakly dependent on temperature.

When the system is small compared with a Debye length, L λD , the

charged particle diffusion coefficients are

Dα = kTα /mα να ,

µi De − µe Di (Ti + Te )Di De

DA = = ,

µi − µe Ti De + Te Di

nα eα µα .

In the presence of a magnetic field B the scalars µ and σ become tensors,

α α α α α

J =σ · E = σk Ek + σ⊥ E⊥ + σ∧ E × b,

σkα = nα eα 2 /mα να ;

α α 2 2 2

σ⊥ = σk να /(να + ωcα );

α

σ∧ = σkα να ωcα /(να 2 + ωcα

2

).

39

APPROXIMATE MAGNITUDES

IN SOME TYPICAL PLASMAS

Gaseous nebula 103 1 2 × 106 20 107 6 × 10−2

Solar Corona 109 102 2 × 109 2 × 10−1 8 × 106 60

Diffuse hot plasma 1012 102 6 × 1010 7 × 10−3 4 × 105 40

Solar atmosphere, 1014 1 6 × 1011 7 × 10−5 40 2 × 109

gas discharge

Warm plasma 1014 10 6 × 1011 2 × 10−4 103 107

Hot plasma 1014 102 6 × 1011 7 × 10−4 4 × 104 4 × 106

Thermonuclear 1015 104 2 × 1012 2 × 10−3 107 5 × 104

plasma

Theta pinch 1016 102 6 × 1012 7 × 10−5 4 × 103 3 × 108

Dense hot plasma 1018 102 6 × 1013 7 × 10−6 4 × 102 2 × 1010

Laser Plasma 1020 102 6 × 1014 7 × 10−7 40 2 × 1012

40

41

IONOSPHERIC PARAMETERS23

The following tables give average nighttime values. Where two numbers

are entered, the first refers to the lower and the second to the upper portion

of the layer.

−3 10 10

Number density (m ) 1.5 × 10 –3.0 × 10 5 × 1010 –2 × 1011

Height-integrated number 9 × 1014 4.5 × 1015

density (m−2 )

Ion-neutral collision 2 × 103 –102 0.5–0.05

frequency (sec−1 )

Ion gyro-/collision 0.09–2.0 4.6 × 102 –5.0 × 103

frequency ratio κi

Ion Pederson factor 0.09–0.5 2.2 × 10−3 –2 × 10−4

κi /(1 + κi 2 )

Ion Hall factor 8 × 10−4 –0.8 1.0

κi 2 /(1 + κi 2 )

Electron-neutral collision 1.5 × 104 –9.0 × 102 80–10

frequency

Electron gyro-/collision 4.1 × 102 –6.9 × 103 7.8 × 104 –6.2 × 105

frequency ratio κe

Electron Pedersen factor 2.7 × 10−3 –1.5 × 10−4 10−5 –1.5 × 10−6

κe /(1 + κe 2 )

Electron Hall factor 1.0 1.0

κe 2 /(1 + κe 2 )

Mean molecular weight 28–26 22–16

−1

Ion gyrofrequency (sec ) 180–190 230–300

Neutral diffusion 30–5 × 103 105

coefficient (m2 sec−1 )

tudes is approximately B0 = 0.35×10−4 tesla. The earth’s radius is RE = 6371

km.

42

SOLAR PHYSICS PARAMETERS24

10

Radius R 6.96 × 10 cm

4

Surface gravity g 2.74 × 10 cm s−2

Escape speed v∞ 6.18 × 107 cm s−1

Upward mass flux in spicules — 1.6 × 10−9 g cm−2 s−1

Vertically integrated atmospheric density — 4.28 g cm−2

Sunspot magnetic field strength Bmax 2500–3500 G

Surface effective temperature T0 5770 K

33

Radiant power L 3.83 × 10 erg s−1

Radiant flux density F 6.28 × 1010 erg cm−2 s−1

Optical depth at 500 nm, measured τ5 0.99 —

from photosphere

Astronomical unit (radius of earth’s orbit) AU 1.50 × 1013 cm

Solar constant (intensity at 1 AU) f 1.36 × 10 erg cm−2 s−1

6

Quiet Coronal Active

Parameter (Units) Sun Hole Region

(erg cm−2 s−1 )

Low chromosphere 2 × 106 2 × 106 > 107

∼

Middle chromosphere 2 × 106 2 × 106 107

Upper chromosphere 3 × 105 3 × 105 2 × 106

Total 4 × 106 4 × 106 > 2 × 107

∼

Transition layer pressure (dyne cm−2 ) 0.2 0.07 2

Coronal temperature (K) at 1.1 R 1.1–1.6 × 106 106 2.5 × 106

Coronal energy losses (erg cm−2 s−1 )

Conduction 2 × 105 6 × 104 105 –107

Radiation 105 104 5 × 106

Solar Wind < 5 × 104 7 × 105 < 105

∼

Total 3 × 105 8 × 105 107

Solar wind mass loss (g cm−2 s−1 ) < 2 × 10−11 2 × 10−10 < 4 × 10−11

∼

43

THERMONUCLEAR FUSION26

hydrogen nD /nH = 1.5 × 10−4

helium nHe3 /nHe4 = 1.3 × 10−6

lithium nLi6 /nLi7 = 0.08

Mass ratios: me /mD = 2.72 × 10−4 = 1/3670

1/2

(me /mD ) = 1.65 × 10−2 = 1/60.6

me /mT = 1.82 × 10−4 = 1/5496

1/2

(me /mT ) = 1.35 × 10−2 = 1/74.1

Absorbed radiation dose is measured in rads: 1 rad = 102 erg g−1 . The curie

(abbreviated Ci) is a measure of radioactivity: 1 curie = 3.7×1010 counts sec−1 .

Fusion reactions (branching ratios are correct for energies near the cross section

peaks; a negative yield means the reaction is endothermic):27

(1a) D + D −−−−→T(1.01 MeV) + p(3.02 MeV)

50%

(1b) −−−−→He3 (0.82 MeV) + n(2.45 MeV)

50%

(2) D + T −−−−→He4 (3.5 MeV) + n(14.1 MeV)

(3) D + He3 −−−−→He4 (3.6 MeV) + p(14.7 MeV)

(4) T+T −−−−→He4 + 2n + 11.3 MeV

(5a) He3 + T−−−−→He4 + p + n + 12.1 MeV

51%

(5b) −−−−→He4 (4.8 MeV) + D(9.5 MeV)

43%

(5c) −−−−→He5 (2.4 MeV) + p(11.9 MeV)

6%

(6) p + Li6 −−−−→He4 (1.7 MeV) + He3 (2.3 MeV)

(7a) p + Li7 −−−−→2 He4 + 17.3 MeV

20%

(7b) −−−−→Be7 + n − 1.6 MeV

80%

(8) D + Li6 −−−−→2He4 + 22.4 MeV

(9) p + B11 −−−−→3 He4 + 8.7 MeV

(10) n + Li6 −−−−→He4 (2.1 MeV) + T(2.7 MeV)

The total cross section in barns (1 barn = 10−24 cm2 ) as a function of E, the

energy in keV of the incident particle [the first ion on the left side of Eqs.

(1)–(5)], assuming the target ion at rest, can be fitted by28

−1

A5 + (A4 − A3 E)2 + 1 A2

σT (E) =

E exp(A1 E −1/2 ) − 1

44

where the Duane coefficients Aj for the principle fusion reactions are as follows:

(1a) (1b) (2) (3) (4) (5a–c)

A2 372 482 50200 25900 448 11250

−4 −4 −2 −3 −3

A3 4.36 × 10 3.08 × 10 1.368 × 10 3.98 × 10 1.02 × 10 0

A4 1.220 1.177 1.076 1.297 2.09 0

A5 0 0 409 647 0 0

(keV) (1a + 1b) (2) (3) (4) (5a–c)

2.0 5.4 × 10−21 2.6 × 10−19 1.4 × 10−23 7.1 × 10−21 10−25

5.0 1.8 × 10−19 1.3 × 10−17 6.7 × 10−21 1.4 × 10−19 2.1 × 10−22

10.0 1.2 × 10−18 1.1 × 10−16 2.3 × 10−19 7.2 × 10−19 1.2 × 10−20

20.0 5.2 × 10−18 4.2 × 10−16 3.8 × 10−18 2.5 × 10−18 2.6 × 10−19

50.0 2.1 × 10−17 8.7 × 10−16 5.4 × 10−17 8.7 × 10−18 5.3 × 10−18

100.0 4.5 × 10−17 8.5 × 10−16 1.6 × 10−16 1.9 × 10−17 2.7 × 10−17

200.0 8.8 × 10−17 6.3 × 10−16 2.4 × 10−16 4.2 × 10−17 9.2 × 10−17

500.0 1.8 × 10−16 3.7 × 10−16 2.3 × 10−16 8.4 × 10−17 2.9 × 10−16

1000.0 2.2 × 10−16 2.7 × 10−16 1.8 × 10−16 8.0 × 10−17 5.2 × 10−16

∼ 25 keV) the data may be represented by

−14 −2/3 −1/3 3 −1

(σv)DD = 2.33 × 10 T exp(−18.76T ) cm sec ;

PDD = 3.3 × 10−13 nD 2 (σv)DD watt cm−3 (including the subsequent

D–T reaction);

−13 −3

PDT = 5.6 × 10 nD nT (σv)DT watt cm ;

45

RELATIVISTIC ELECTRON BEAMS

Here γ = (1 − β 2 )−1/2 is the relativistic scaling factor; quantities in

analytic formulas are expressed in SI or cgs units, as indicated; in numerical

formulas, I is in amperes (A), B is in gauss (G), electron linear density N is

in cm−1 , and temperature, voltage and energy are in MeV; βz = vz /c; k is

Boltzmann’s constant.

Relativistic electron gyroradius:

re = (γ − 1) (cgs) = 1.70 × 10 (γ − 1) B cm.

eB

Alfvén-Lawson limit:

3 4

IA = (mc /e)βz γ (cgs) = (4πmc/µ0 e)βz γ (SI) = 1.70 × 10 βz γ A.

I ν

= .

IA γ

is the classical electron radius. Beam electron number density is

8 −1 −3

nb = 2.08 × 10 Jβ cm ,

where J is the current density in A cm−2 . For a uniform beam of radius a (in

cm),

7 −2 −1 −3

nb = 6.63 × 10 Ia β cm ,

and

2re ν

= .

a γ

46

Child’s law: (non-relativistic) space-charge-limited current density between

parallel plates with voltage drop V (in MV) and separation d (in cm) is

potentials in pinched diodes and transmission lines) is29

3

2 1/2

Ip = 8.5 × 10 Gγ ln γ + (γ − 1) A,

w for parallel plane cathode and anode

G=

2πd of width w, separation d;

R2 −1

G = ln for cylinders of radii R1 (inner) and R2 (outer);

R1

Rc for conical cathode of radius Rc , maximum

G=

d0 separation d0 (at r = Rc ) from plane anode.

For β → 0 (γ → 1), both IA and Ip vanish.

in a beam of current density J (in A cm−2 ) is

Bz > 47βz (γJ)1/2 G.

major radius a, inductance L, external resistance R and capacitance C (all in

SI):

self-integrating V = (R/L)(nAµ0 I/2πa) = RI/n.

∼ 5 MeV):

η ≡ x-ray power/beam power = 7 × 10−4 ZV.

coulombs while V ≥ 0.84Vmax in material with charge state Z:

2.8 1/2

D = 150Vmax QZ rads.

47

BEAM INSTABILITIES30

electron V̄ej ∼ Vd

Vd > V̄e V̄e ∼ Vd

plasma (mode coupling)

(hot-electron)

ation, nonlinear scattering,

or resonance broadening.

temperature

(hydro)

Te ≈ Ti )

(hydro)

stream (hydro) Vd > Cs

beams)

beams)

For nomenclature, see p. 50.

48

Parameters of Most Unstable Mode

Name Wave Group

Growth Rate Frequency Number Velocity

1 ωe

Electron- ωe 0 0.9 0

electron 2 Vd

1/3 1/3

m m ωe 2

Buneman 0.7 ωe 0.4 ωe Vd

M M Vd 3

1/3

nb ωe 2

Beam-plasma 0.7 ωe ωe − Vb

np

1/3 Vb 3

nb

0.4 ωe

np

2

nb Vb ωe 3V̄e2

Weak beam- ωe ωe

plasma 2np V̄b Vb Vb

1/2

nb V̄e Vb

Beam-plasma ωe ωe λ−1

D

Vb

np Vb V̄e

(hot-electron)

1/2

m

Ion acoustic ωi ωi λ−1

D

Cs

M

Anisotropic Ωe ωe cos θ ∼ Ωe re−1 V̄e⊥

temperature

(hydro)

1

Ion cyclotron 0.1Ωi 1.2Ωi ri−1 V̄i

3

Beam-cyclotron 0.7Ωe nΩe 0.7λ−1

D

> Vd ;

∼

(hydro) < Cs

∼

1 ΩH 1

Modified two- ΩH 0.9ΩH 1.7 Vd

stream 2 Vd 2

(hydro)

ΩH

Ion-ion (equal 0.4ΩH 0 1.2 0

beams) U

ωi

Ion-ion (equal 0.4ωi 0 1.2 0

beams) U

49

In the preceding tables, subscripts e, i, d, b, p stand for “electron,” “ion,”

“drift,” “beam,” and “plasma,” respectively. Thermal velocities are denoted

by a bar. In addition, the following are used:

m electron mass re , ri gyroradius

M ion mass β plasma/magnetic energy

V velocity density ratio

T temperature VA Alfvén speed

n e , ni number density Ωe , Ωi gyrofrequency

n harmonic number ΩH hybrid gyrofrequency,

Cs = (Te /M )1/2 ion sound speed Ω H 2 = Ωe Ωi

ωe , ωi plasma frequency U relative drift velocity of

λD Debye length two ion species

LASERS

System Parameters

Efficiencies and power levels are approximately state-of-the-art (1990).31

Wavelength Power levels available (W)

Type Efficiency

(µm) Pulsed CW

CO2 10.6 0.01–0.02 > 2 × 1013 > 105

(pulsed)

CO 5 0.4 > 109 > 100

Holmium 2.06 0.03†–0.1‡ > 107 30

Iodine 1.315 0.003 > 1012 –

Nd-glass, 1.06 0.001–0.06† ∼ 1014 (ten- 1–103

YAG > 0.1‡ beam system)

*Color center 1–4 10−3 > 106 1

*Vibronic (Ti 0.7–0.9 > 0.1 × ηp 106 1–5

Sapphire)

Ruby 0.6943 < 10−3 1010 1

He-Ne 0.6328 10−4 – 1–50×10−3

*Argon ion 0.45–0.60 10−3 5 × 104 1–20

*OPO 0.4–9.0 > 0.1 × ηp 106 1–5

N2 0.3371 0.001–0.05 105 –106 –

*Dye 0.3–1.1 10−3 > 106 140

Kr-F 0.26 0.08 > 109 500

Xenon 0.175 0.02 > 108 –

*Tunable sources †lamp-driven ‡diode-driven

YAG stands for Yttrium–Aluminum Garnet and OPO for Optical Parametric

Oscillator; ηp is pump laser efficiency.

50

Formulas

An e-m wave with k k B has an index of refraction given by

2 1/2

n± = [1 − ωpe /ω(ω ∓ ωce )] ,

function of displacement s (Faraday rotation) is given by

4 −2 −1

dθ/ds = (k/2)(n− − n+ ) = 2.36 × 10 N Bf cm ,

where N is the electron number density, B is the field strength, and f is the

wave frequency, all in cgs.

The quiver velocity of an electron in an e-m field of angular frequency ω

is

v0 = eEmax /mω = 25.6I 1/2 λ0 cm sec−1

2

in terms of the laser flux I = cEmax /8π, with I in watt/cm2 , laser wavelength

λ0 in µm. The ratio of quiver energy to thermal energy is

2 keV, then Wqu /Wth ≈ 0.1.

Pondermotive force:

2

F = N ∇hE i/8πNc ,

where

Nc = 1.1 × 1021 λ0 −2 cm−3 .

For uniform illumination of a lens with f -number F , the diameter d at

focus (85% of the energy) and the depth of focus l (distance to first zero in

intensity) are given by

2

d ≈ 2.44F λθ/θDL and l ≈ ±2F λθ/θDL .

Here θ is the beam divergence containing 85% of energy and θDL is the

diffraction-limited divergence:

θDL = 2.44λ/b,

where b is the aperture. These formulas are modified for nonuniform (such as

Gaussian) illumination of the lens or for pathological laser profiles.

51

ATOMIC PHYSICS AND RADIATION

Energies and temperatures are in eV; all other units are cgs except where

noted. Z is the charge state (Z = 0 refers to a neutral atom); the subscript e

labels electrons. N refers to number density, n to principal quantum number.

Asterisk superscripts on level population densities denote local thermodynamic

equilibrium (LTE) values. Thus Nn * is the LTE number density of atoms (or

ions) in level n.

Characteristic atomic collision cross section:

Z Z 2 E∞

H

(2) E∞ (n, l) =− ,

(n − ∆l )2

where E∞ H

= 13.6 eV is the hydrogen ionization energy and ∆l = 0.75l−5 ,

l >

∼ 5, is the quantum defect.

Cross section (Bethe approximation) for electron excitation by dipole

allowed transition m → n (Refs. 32, 33):

fnm g(n, m)

(3) σmn = 2.36 × 10−13 cm2 ,

∆Enm

where fnm is the oscillator strength, g(n, m) is the Gaunt factor, is the

incident electron energy, and ∆Enm = En − Em .

Electron excitation rate averaged over Maxwellian velocity distribution, Xmn

= Ne hσmn vi (Refs. 34, 35):

−5 fnm hg(n, m)iNe ∆Enm −1

(4) Xmn = 1.6 × 10 1/2

exp − sec ,

∆Enm Te Te

where hg(n, m)i denotes the thermal averaged Gaunt factor (generally ∼ 1 for

atoms, ∼ 0.2 for ions).

52

Rate for electron collisional deexcitation:

Here Nm */Nn * = (gm /gn ) exp(∆Enm /Te ) is the Boltzmann relation for level

population densities, where gn is the statistical weight of level n.

Rate for spontaneous decay n → m (Einstein A coefficient)34

7 2 −1

(6) Anm = 4.3 × 10 (gm /gn )fmn (∆Enm ) sec .

thin plasma:

Hence for a transition n → m in ions, where hg(n, 0)i ≈ 0.2,

3

−25 fnm g0 Ne N0 ∆Enm ∆En0 watt

(9) Inm = 5.1 × 10 exp − .

1/2

gm T e ∆En0 Te cm3

In a general time-dependent situation the number density of the charge

state Z satisfies

h

dN (Z)

(10) = Ne − S(Z)N (Z) − α(Z)N (Z)

dt

i

+S(Z − 1)N (Z − 1) + α(Z + 1)N (Z + 1) .

Here S(Z) is the ionization rate. The recombination rate α(Z) has the form

α(Z) = αr (Z) + Ne α3 (Z), where αr and α3 are the radiative and three-body

recombination rates, respectively.

53

Classical ionization cross-section36 for any atomic shell j

Here bj is the number of shell electrons; Uj is the binding energy of the ejected

electron; x = /Uj , where is the incident electron energy; and g is a universal

function with a minimum value gmin ≈ 0.2 at x ≈ 4.

Ionization from ion ground state, averaged over Maxwellian electron distribu-

tion, for 0.02 < Z <

∼ Te /E∞ ∼ 100 (Ref. 35):

Z 1/2

−5 (Te /E∞ ) EZ

(12) S(Z) = 10 Z )3/2 (6.0 + T /E Z )

exp − ∞ cm3 /sec,

(E∞ e ∞ Te

Z

where E∞ is the ionization energy.

Electron-ion radiative recombination rate (e + N (Z) → N (Z − 1) + hν)

for Te /Z 2 <

∼ 400 eV (Ref. 37):

Z 1/2 h

−14 E∞ 1 Z

(13) αr (Z) = 5.2 × 10 Z 0.43 + ln(E∞ /Te )

Te 2

i

Z

+0.469(E∞ /Te )−1/3 cm3 /sec.

−13 2 −1/2 3

(14) αr (Z) = 2.7 × 10 Z Te cm /sec.

−27 −4.5 6

(15) α3 = 8.75 × 10 Te cm /sec.

−16 5 3 7+2l 2

(16) σph (n, l) = 1.64 × 10 Z /n K cm ,

54

Ionization Equilibrium Models

Saha equilibrium:39

Z 3/2 Z

Ne N1 *(Z) 21 g1 Te E∞ (n, l) −3

(17) = 6.0 × 10 exp − cm ,

Nn *(Z − 1) gnZ−1 Te

Z Z

where gn is the statistical weight for level n of charge state Z and E∞ (n, l)

is the ionization energy of the neutral atom initially in level (n, l), given by

Eq. (2).

In a steady state at high electron density,

Ne N *(Z) S(Z − 1)

(18) = ,

N *(Z − 1) α3

a function only of T .

Conditions for LTE:39

(a) Collisional and radiative excitation rates for a level n must satisfy

∼ 10Anm .

18 7 −17/2 Z 1/2

(20) Ne >

∼ 7 × 10 Z n (T /E∞ ) cm−3 .

N (Z − 1) αr

(21) = .

N (Z) S(Z − 1)

55

Radiation

N. B. Energies and temperatures are in eV; all other quantities are in

cgs units except where noted. Z is the charge state (Z = 0 refers to a neutral

atom); the subscript e labels electrons. N is number density.

Average radiative decay rate of a state with principal quantum number n is

X

(23) An = Anm = 1.6 × 1010 Z 4 n−9/2 sec.

m<n

−15

(24) ∆E ∆t = h = 4.14 × 10 eV sec,

Doppler width:

where µ is the mass of the emitting atom or ion scaled by the proton mass.

Optical depth for a Doppler-broadened line:39

(26) τ = 3.52 × 10 fnm λ(M c /kT ) N L = 5.4 × 10 λ(µ/T ) N L,

the physical depth of the plasma; M , N , and T are the mass, number density,

and temperature of the absorber; µ is M divided by the proton mass. Optically

thin means τ < 1.

Resonance absorption cross section at center of line:

56

Bremsstrahlung from hydrogen-like plasma:26

X

−32 1/2 2 3

(30) PBr = 1.69 × 10 Ne T e Z N (Z) watt/cm ,

Bremsstrahlung optical depth:41

−38 2 −7/2

(31) τ = 5.0 × 10 Ne Ni Z gLT ,

where g ≈ 1.2 is an average Gaunt factor and L is the physical path length.

Inverse bremsstrahlung absorption coefficient42 for radiation of angular fre-

quency ω:

ω and ωp multiplied by the larger of Ze2 /kT and h̄/(mkT )1/2 .

Recombination (free-bound) radiation:

Xh Z−1

E∞

i

−32 1/2 2 3

(33) Pr = 1.69 × 10 Ne T e Z N (Z) watt/cm .

Te

−28 2 3

(34) Pc = 6.21 × 10 B Ne Te watt/cm .

−38 2 2 3

(35) Pc = 5.00 × 10 Ne Te watt/cm .

9.0 × 108 B −2

(36) tc ≈ sec,

2.5 + γ

where γ is the kinetic plus rest energy divided by the rest energy mc2 .

Number of cyclotron harmonics41 trapped in a medium of finite depth L:

1/6

(37) mtr = (57βBL) ,

where β = 8πN kT /B 2 .

Line radiation is given by summing Eq. (9) over all species in the plasma.

57

ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY

Observationally, spectral lines are grouped in series with line spacings which

decrease toward the series limit. Every line can be related theoretically to a

transition between two atomic states, each identified by its quantum numbers.

Ionization levels are indicated by roman numerals. Thus C I is unionized

carbon, C II is singly ionized, etc. The state of a one-electron atom (hydrogen)

or ion (He II, Li III, etc.) is specified by identifying the principal quantum

number n = 1, 2, . . . , the orbital angular momentum l = 0, 1, . . . , n − 1, and

the spin angular momentum s = ± 12 . The total angular momentum j is the

magnitude of the vector sum of l and s, j = l ± 12 (j ≥ 12 ). The letters s,

p, d, f, g, h, i, k, l, . . . , respectively, are associated with angular momenta

l = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, . . . . The atomic states of hydrogen and hydrogenic

ions are degenerate: neglecting fine structure, their energies depend only on n

according to

R∞ hcZ 2 n−2 RyZ 2

En = − =− ,

1 + m/M n2

M and Z are the mass and charge state of the nucleus, and

−1

R∞ = 109, 737 cm

units. The energy associated with a transition m → n is given by

For hydrogen and hydrogenic ions the series of lines belonging to the

transitions m → n have conventional names:

Name Lyman Balmer Paschen Brackett Pfund Humphreys

Successive lines in any series are denoted α, β, γ, etc. Thus the transition 1 →

3 gives rise to the Lyman-β line. Relativistic effects, quantum electrodynamic

effects (e.g., the Lamb shift), and interactions between the nuclear magnetic

58

moment and the magnetic field due to the electron produce small shifts and

−2

splittings, <

∼ 10 cm−1 ; these last are called “hyperfine structure.”

In many-electron atoms the electrons are grouped in closed and open

shells, with spectroscopic properties determined mainly by the outer shell.

Shell energies depend primarily on n; the shells corresponding to n = 1, 2,

3, . . . are called K, L, M , etc. A shell is made up of subshells of different

angular momenta, each labeled according to the values of n, l, and the number

of electrons it contains out of the maximum possible number, 2(2l + 1). For

example, 2p5 indicates that there are 5 electrons in the subshell corresponding

to l = 1 (denoted by p) and n = 2.

In the lighter elements the electrons fill up subshells within each shell

in the order s, p, d, etc., and no shell acquires electrons until the lower shells

are full. In the heavier elements this rule does not always hold. But if a

particular subshell is filled in a noble gas, then the same subshell is filled in

the atoms of all elements that come later in the periodic table. The ground

state configurations of the noble gases are as follows:

He 1s2

Ne 1s2 2s2 2p6

Ar 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6

Kr 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6

Xe 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6

Rn 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 4f 14 5s2 5p6 5d10 6s2 6p6

Alkali metals (Li, Na, K, etc.) resemble hydrogen; their transitions are de-

scribed by giving n and l in the initial and final states for the single outer

(valence) electron.

For general transitions in most atoms the atomic states are specified in

terms of the parity (−1)Σli and the magnitudes of the orbital angular momen-

tum L = Σli , the spin S = Σsi , and the total angular momentum J = L + S,

where all sums are carried out over the unfilled subshells (the filled ones sum

to zero). If a magnetic field is present the projections ML , MS , and M of

L, S, and J along the field are also needed. The quantum numbers satisfy

|ML | ≤ L ≤ νl, |MS | ≤ S ≤ ν/2, and |M | ≤ J ≤ L + S, where ν is the

number of electrons in the unfilled subshell. Upper-case letters S, P, D, etc.,

stand for L = 0, 1, 2, etc., in analogy with the notation for a single electron.

For example, the ground state of Cl is described by 3p5 2 Po3/2 . The first part

indicates that there are 5 electrons in the subshell corresponding to n = 3 and

l = 1. (The closed inner subshells 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 , identical with the configura-

tion of Mg, are usually omitted.) The symbol ‘P’ indicates that the angular

momenta of the outer electrons combine to give L = 1. The prefix ‘2’ repre-

sents the value of the multiplicity 2S + 1 (the number of states with nearly the

same energy), which is equivalent to specifying S = 12 . The subscript 3/2 is

59

the value of J. The superscript ‘o’ indicates that the state has odd parity; it

would be omitted if the state were even.

The notation for excited states is similar. For example, helium has a state

1s2s 3 S1 which lies 19.72 eV (159, 856 cm−1 ) above the ground state 1s2 1 S0 .

But the two “terms” do not “combine” (transitions between them do not occur)

because this would violate, e.g., the quantum-mechanical selection rule that

the parity must change from odd to even or from even to odd. For electric

dipole transitions (the only ones possible in the long-wavelength limit), other

selection rules are that the value of l of only one electron can change, and only

by ∆l = ±1; ∆S = 0; ∆L = ±1 or 0; and ∆J = ±1 or 0 (but L = 0 does not

combine with L = 0 and J = 0 does not combine with J = 0). Transitions

are possible between the helium ground state (which has S = 0, L = 0, J = 0,

and even parity) and, e.g., the state 1s2p 1 Po1 (with S = 0, L = 1, J = 1,

odd parity, excitation energy 21.22 eV). These rules hold accurately only for

light atoms in the absence of strong electric or magnetic fields. Transitions

that obey the selection rules are called “allowed”; those that do not are called

“forbidden.”

The amount of information needed to adequately characterize a state in-

creases with the number of electrons; this is reflected in the notation. Thus 43

O II has an allowed transition between the states 2p2 3p0

2 o

F7/2 and 2p2 (1 D)3d0 2 F7/2 (and between the states obtained by changing

J from 7/2 to 5/2 in either or both terms). Here both states have two elec-

trons with n = 2 and l = 1; the closed subshells 1s2 2s2 are not shown. The

outer (n = 3) electron has l = 1 in the first state and l = 2 in the second.

The prime indicates that if the outermost electron were removed by ionization,

the resulting ion would not be in its lowest energy state. The expression (1 D)

give the multiplicity and total angular momentum of the “parent” term, i.e.,

the subshell immediately below the valence subshell; this is understood to be

the same in both states. (Grandparents, etc., sometimes have to be specified

in heavier atoms and ions.) Another example43 is the allowed transition from

2p2 (3 P)3p 2 Po1/2 (or 2 Po3/2 ) to 2p2 (1 D)3d0 2 S1/2 , in which there is a “spin

flip” (from antiparallel to parallel) in the n = 2, l = 1 subshell, as well as

changes from one state to the other in the value of l for the valence electron

and in L.

The description of fine structure, Stark and Zeeman effects, spectra of

highly ionized or heavy atoms, etc., is more complicated. The most important

difference between optical and X-ray spectra is that the latter involve energy

changes of the inner electrons rather than the outer ones; often several electrons

participate.

60

REFERENCES

When any of the formulas and data in this collection are referenced

in research publications, it is suggested that the original source be cited rather

than the Formulary. Most of this material is well known and, for all practical

purposes, is in the “public domain.” Numerous colleagues and readers, too

numerous to list by name, have helped in collecting and shaping the Formulary

into its present form; they are sincerely thanked for their efforts.

Several book-length compilations of data relevant to plasma physics

are available. The following are particularly useful:

don, 1976).

1990).

ican Institute of Physics, New York, 1989).

1980).

The books and articles cited below are intended primarily not for the purpose

of giving credit to the original workers, but (1) to guide the reader to sources

containing related material and (2) to indicate where to find derivations, ex-

planations, examples, etc., which have been omitted from this compilation.

Additional material can also be found in D. L. Book, NRL Memorandum Re-

port No. 3332 (1977).

Functions (Dover, New York, 1968), pp. 1–3, for a tabulation of some

mathematical constants not available on pocket calculators.

baum,” J. Math. Phys. 10, 49 (1969); H. W. Gould and J. Kaucky, “Eval-

uation of a Class of Binomial Coefficient Summations,” J. Comb. Theory

1, 233 (1966).

Application to Plasma Physics,” J. Math. Phys. 23, 1278 (1982); 24,

2250 (1983).

Hill Book Co., New York, 1953), Vol. I, pp. 47–52 and pp. 656–666.

61

5. W. D. Hayes, “A Collection of Vector Formulas,” Princeton University,

Princeton, NJ, 1956 (unpublished), and personal communication (1977).

of the Royal Society, 2nd edition (Royal Society, London, 1975) for a

discussion of nomenclature in SI units.

Physical Constants,” CODATA Bulletin No. 63 (Pergamon Press, New

York, 1986); J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 92, 85 (1987); J. Phys. Chem. Ref.

Data 17, 1795 (1988).

Systems of Units,” Amer. J. Phys. 36, 1130 (1968).

1941), p. 508.

10. Reference Data for Engineers: Radio, Electronics, Computer, and Com-

munication, 7th edition, E. C. Jordan, Ed. (Sams and Co., Indianapolis,

IN, 1985), Chapt. 1. These definitions are International Telecommunica-

tions Union (ITU) Standards.

(Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1972), p. 9. Further subdivisions

are defined in Ref. 10, p. I–3.

12. J. P. Catchpole and G. Fulford, Ind. and Eng. Chem. 58, 47 (1966);

reprinted in recent editions of the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics

(Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, OH) on pp. F306–323.

damentals of Gas Dynamics, Vol. III, High Speed Aerodynamics and Jet

Propulsion, H. W. Emmons, Ed. (Princeton University Press, Princeton,

NJ, 1958).

Publishing Co., Reading, MA, 1962), pp. 86–95.

Wesley Publishing Co., Reading, MA, 1987), pp. 320–336.

Dispersion Function (Academic Press, New York, 1961).

Almost-Perpendicular Magnetosonic Waves,” J. Plasma Phys. 6, 495

(1971).

62

18. B. D. Fried, C. L. Hedrick, J. McCune, “Two-Pole Approximation for the

Plasma Dispersion Function,” Phys. Fluids 11, 249 (1968).

views of Plasma Physics, Vol. 1 (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965),

p. 105.

Collisions,” Phys. Fluids 16, 2022 (1973).

Physics, Vol. 1 (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), p. 205.

Press, New York, 1975), p. 6 (after J. W. Paul).

23. K. H. Lloyd and G. Härendel, “Numerical Modeling of the Drift and De-

formation of Ionospheric Plasma Clouds and of their Interaction with

Other Layers of the Ionosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 7389 (1973).

don, 1976), Chapt. 9.

25. G. L. Withbroe and R. W. Noyes, “Mass and Energy Flow in the Solar

Chromosphere and Corona,” Ann. Rev. Astrophys. 15, 363 (1977).

(Van Nostrand, New York, 1960), Chapt. 2.

sections are listed in F. K. McGowan, et al., Nucl. Data Tables A6,

353 (1969); A8, 199 (1970). The yields listed in the table are calculated

directly from the mass defect.

28. G. H. Miley, H. Towner and N. Ivich, Fusion Cross Section and Reactivi-

ties, Rept. COO-2218-17 (University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 1974); B. H.

Duane, Fusion Cross Section Theory, Rept. BNWL-1685 (Brookhaven

National Laboratory, 1972).

J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2946 (1975).

Vol. I (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1974). The table on pp. 48–49

was compiled by K. Papadopoulos.

nication, 1990).

63

32. M. J. Seaton, “The Theory of Excitation and Ionization by Electron Im-

pact,” in Atomic and Molecular Processes, D. R. Bates, Ed. (New York,

Academic Press, 1962), Chapt. 11.

spheres,” Astrophys. J. 136, 906 (1962).

from θ-Pinches by Impurity Radiation,” Phys. Fluids 7, 519 (1964).

niques, R. H. Huddlestone and S. L. Leonard, Eds. (Academic Press, New

York, 1965).

Collision,” Phys. Rev. 138A, 336 (1965).

Roy. Astron. Soc. 119, 81 (1959).

38. Ya. B. Zel’dovich and Yu. P. Raizer, Physics of Shock Waves and High-

Temperature Hydrodynamic Phenomena (Academic Press, New York,

1966), Vol. I, p. 407.

R. H. Huddlestone and S. L. Leonard, Eds. (Academic Press, New York,

1965).

Power Absorption by Inverse Bremsstrahlung in Plasmas,” Phys. Fluids

16, 722 (1973).

abilities, NSRDS-NBS 4, Vol. 1 (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington,

1966).

64

AFTERWORD

The NRL Plasma Formulary originated over twenty years ago and

has been revised several times during this period. The guiding spirit and person

primarily responsible for its existence and upkeep is Dr. David Book. The

Formulary has been set in TEX by Dave Book, Todd Brun, and Robert Scott.

I am indebted to Dave for providing me with the TEX files for the Formulary

and his assistance in its re-issuance. Finally, I thank readers for communicating

typographical errors to me.

65

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