Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

electrical-engineering-portal.

com
http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/assemblies-of-switchgear-and-control-panels-part-1
Edvard
Assemblies of switchgear and control panels (1)
Assemblies of switchgear and control panels (on photo SKEMA LV Switchgears)
Where are these assemblies used?
Switchgear and control panels are found in power generating stations, transformer stations, distribution
substations, commercial and institutional buildings, industrial plants and factories, refineries, paper mills, metal
smelters and any other place where electric energy is utilized or electric power is distributed to any number of
zones.
There are a few common types of assemblies that cover almost any application. A broad classification according
to the location of the switchgear assemblies is whether the gear is installed indoor or outdoor.
A further classification for the indoor gear is standard ventilated indoor, indoor with drip hood, indoor for location
in sprinklers area, indoor in hazardous location, arcproof (type a, b or c) and indoor in corrosive environment.
Outdoor switchgear can also be further classified as whether it has an isle or not (walk in vs. nonwalk in types)
with or without a working area.
Another method of classifying the switchgear is whether it is a bottom or top entry , the power and control
cables are entering from the bottom or the top of the gear.
Devices in Switchgear
The switchgear can contain as switching/interrupting device(s): a circuit breaker (c.b.), a switch/fuse
combination, a contactor/fuse combination (for motor switching), for low v oltage (l.v.) assemblies: a switch or
breaker in series with a contactor (for motor switching).
Certain configurations come only as nondraw out construction, others as drawout. If special requirements for
the gear are needed, the special property can be used as a criteria for defining the gear , for example, if dust tight
enclosure is required due to the presence of dust (fine or course) in the atmosphere this gear is designated as
dust tight.
For switchgear assemblies, as heat is generated from the high current flowing, a dust tight enclosure is almost
impossible thus a dust proof one is used, instead. The major standards that govern the design, manufacture and
testing of these assemblies are: CSA, ANSI, IEC, EEMAC, NEMA.
Switchgear assemblies and motor control centers (starters) lineups can be classified according to their voltage
classes. The l.v. equipment is rated in the range of 120/208V single or three phase to 750V AC. The medium
voltage ones are 2400/4160V to 44KV . The enclosures for all low voltage construction are metal enclosed. Some
constructions include partitions and barriers to give a safer operation over and above the standard construction.
For medium voltage switchgear both construction types, metal clad and metal enclosed, are common. In this
section the major components of the switchgear assemblies, motor starters and associated ancillaries will be
given.
Major components
Low voltage switchgear assemblies
The main components are:
Molded case (MCB) or power (air magnetic) circuit breakers (drawout or fixed) complete with or without
integral overcurrent protection device (thermal magnetic,
Solid state or microprocessor based) with or without zone interlocking provision
Cradle (for drawout versions only)
Fixed potential and control power transformers
Current transformers
Interframe and back barriers
Main bus bars, run backs, bus risers and cable lugs (compression or mechanical)
Protective fuses for breaker control circuits, instrument compartments
Circuit breaker accessories, breaker lifting devices (integral with gear)
Fused or unfused interrupter switches
Protective and monitoring auxiliary relays
Metering devices (ammeters, voltmeters, watthourmeters, wattmeters and digital metering packages
D.M.P.)
Control switches and indicating lights
Low voltage components
Medium Voltage switchgear
The main components are:
Drawout circuit breakers (oil, air, SF6, vacuum)
Switching device (load break or disconnect) with or w/o fuses (power current limiting or power expulsion
type) with or w/o blown fuse indicator/actuator
Instrument transformers
Capacitor tripping device
Relays
Meters & instruments
Main bus
Control & indicating devices, jumpers, cable lugs, cable supports and potheads
Barriers and shutters
Instrument compartments
Test switches and breaker accessories
Medium voltage switchgear components
Low voltage motor control centers
For LV motor control centers the components are:
Combination motor starters
Instrument transformers
Motor protection devices
Main bus, cable entry compartments, vertical bus, control cables
Push buttons, pilot lights
Breaker or switch handle
Mounting pans
Programmable logic controllers PLC (processor module, I/O, network interface and other associated
modules)
Low voltage motor control center components
Medium voltage starters
For MV starters the main components are:
Contactors (vacuum and air)
Fused control transformer
Overload protection
Current transformers
Instrument compartments
Meters
Auxilliary relays
Timers
Control devices
Multifunction motor protection relays
Indicating lights
Power fuses
Surge arresters
Switchgear Cubicle Types
There are a few distinct types of switchgear cubicles and are listed hereafter:
Incoming (main) cubicles
Transformer feeders
Bus tie (sectionalization)
Generator exciter control
Generator neutral cubicles
Induction motor control cubicle
Synchronous motor switching board
Potential transformer cubicles (used in conjunction with isolated phase bus in generating stations).
Other components that could be seen attached or connected to switchgear lineups either or not to form a unit
substation are: power transformers, low voltage bus duct/medium voltage bus or cable duct runs.
If the transformers are close coupled and installed indoor , then dry type transformers are used. If they are
located outdoor and connected to the switchgear by nonsegregated bus duct or cable duct or by a throat (with o/d
switchgear) than they are of the oil filled type.
Another type of transformers that can be found indoors is the cast resin coil type.
To be continued
Resource: Unknown
Edvard - Electrical engineer, programmer and founder of EEP. Highly specialized for design of
LV high power busbar trunking (<6300A) in power substations, buildings and industry fascilities.
Designing of LV/MV switchgears. Professional in AutoCAD programming and web-design.
Present on Google+.