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Emma Spike-Neaman
Welcome to a new place
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Warm, dry climate with rolling hills and a small
stream can be a somewhat harsh environment.
Small trees litter the landscape and therefore build-
ing houses will be difcult. The sky has some scat-
tered clouds and the temperature is in the upper
70s to low 80s (Fahrenheit). Although warm air,
the approaching storm clouds, hover and sway in
the warm
wind. A tiny
stream ows
through the parched, dry grass. The stream quietly
gurgles and cool water ows to your thirsty
tongue. Rabbits, gazelles and perhaps small deer
pranced around the stream. The ground is tough,
dry, and hard but around the stream it is muddy
and nutrient rich. This makes a great place for
planting. Dust weighs down the air and knee-high
This image displays the geography that the civilization of Espineopolis with
thrive in.
Image 1.1
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grasses are sway in the wind .As elevation rises, the air
becomes cooler and thinner. These plains hold secrets
just waiting to be discovered. Espineaopolis will be
founded is this favorable geographic. This civilization
takes design from the study of past civilizations such as
the Arabs, the Aztecs, the Greeks, the Mayans, the
Mesopotamians and the Romans ,among others. This
book will document the necessary steps to take in order
to create a successful civilization.
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We won't have a society if we destroy the environment.
-Margaret Mead
This image displays a bare savanna.
Image 1.2
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Part 1-Analysis of the problem
To ensure that the Espineapolis civilization thrives for
many generations, some challenges to overcome in-
clude food, water, shelter and clothing. Due to its geo-
graphic location
1. Espineapolis has one small river, which ows
slowly. Therefore it is possible for the water source to
dry out in the hot summer and freeze in the cold win-
ter. This makes it possible for mosquitoes to lay their
eggs in the water, they could carry many deadly dis-
Human Changes to the Land
This image displays one of farms in Espineaopolis.
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eases such as yellow fever and malaria. A way to purify
the water is needed so that we can drink and use it.
2. Some fertile land lies by the river but this will dry
out with the river in the
Summer due to the dry heat that drains each organism
of water .
3. Looking at a treeless landscape, the only way to
make houses is to use the mud to make adobe but
we would have to take it from the bottom of the
river and we dont know what animals are lurking
down there.
4. There could be alligators lurking in the river. The al-
ligators could hunt and eat us, if we overshed. Few
rabbits, gazelles, and small deer occupy Espineao-
pois that we can use for meat and clothing, but
they will soon become extinct due to overhunting.
We will try to use snares to catch rabbits but these
will be primitive. In conclusion, We have many prob-
lems and very little supplies and time to x them.
Part II-Proposed Solutions
In order for Espineapolis to thrive for many genera-
tions, modifying the environment will be crucial. An
environmental modication is any change an organism
makes to its environment. For example, digging canals
to transport water and building dams to force it to col-
lect in pools are some environment changes that we will
have to make. A civilization that cannot modify its envi-
ronment, will surely perish.
Since the civilization of Espineaopolis is located in a
dry atland, it has a small water source, which is likely
to freeze in the winter and dry out in the summer. To x
this problem the Espineaopolis water district has
woven covers with dry grasses and twigs and placed
them over the river and on most of our reservoirs. This
keeps mosquitoes from laying their eggs and breeding
along the river. The Espineaopolis river looks very un-
sanitary and the water could carry diseases. To x this
problem, the Espineaopolis water district has drained
parts of the river to make an empty reservoir. Then we
have make concrete and layed it along the inner walls
of the ditch. When rain came, it lled up these reser-
and now a clean water source is supplied.
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(Frey 36) This practice is still used in modern times as
we learned with the Marin Water District
The civilization of Espineao-
polis has a few trees in its
landscape and therefore the
builders used mud to make
adobe bricks like the Meso-
potamians (Frey 35). In or-
der to get the mud, the carpenters of our civilization
made long polls with a large bowls at the end and
scooped mud from the bottom of the river. Priests of
Espineaopolis have built temples to worship the alliga-
tor god, sobek
like ancient Egyptians (Frey 86), for he
keeps the river in balance. Therefore, if
they hunt and eat us it is good luck.
Few rabbits, gazelles, and small deer
live here but these will soon become ex-
tinct. To x this problem, Espineaopolis
farmers(frey 35) and bred them to be a
tamer species. In order to catch these ani-
mals, Espineaopolis trappers built a complex system of
wires and ropes to secure the snares.
Sobek the nile god
The Tamalpais Reservoir
Image 1.3
Image 1.4
Image 1.5
Mesopotamian temple
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Law and Government
At his best, man is the
noblest of all animals;
separated from law and
justice he is the worst.
Image 2.1
This is an image of a law book.
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Try, Try Again
There were many forms of government in ancient
times. Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome had the
most prominent structures of government. There are
many lessons that we have learned from the Greek and
Roman city-states. In Athens, The slow rise of democ-
racy started the same in the other city-states. It started
out with a Monarchy. Under the power of a monarchy,
the ruling power is in the hands of a King who was ad-
vised by the aristocrats. Eventually, the Aristocrats g-
ured that they could overthrow the King, which is
Maintaining Civil Order
The athenian water cup.
Image 2.2
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what they did. They formed an Oligarchy, which is a
group of men who hold all of the power. Under an Oli-
garchy, the rich got richer and the poor got poorer. Be-
cause of this power inequality, a tyrant came to power.
A tyrant is a leader who takes the power by force. Usu-
ally, in the early stages of his rule, a tyrant will prove to
be the best choice but eventually his rule will become
harsh. Finally, the people of Athens formed a direct de-
The direct democracy that Athens had taught us many
important lessons. In the direct democracy, the council
of 500 made the on laws. These laws had to be ap-
proved by an assembly of 6,000 citizens (Men who were
18 or older. No slaves or women) who met every ten
days. As Frey states, Every citizen had the right to
speak at the assembly 261. The assembly voted and de-
bated on laws. Some skilled speakers would trick other
citizens into voting for a bad law. The assembly could
overturn a law and then it would go right back to the
Council of 500. If there werent enough men at the as-
sembly, slaves would round up more citizens with
ropes dipped in red paint. As Frey states Men would
be embarrassed to show up to the meeting with red
paint on their cloths. Page 261. One of the lessons
learned are that a direct democracy is not always the
best option. With a direct democracy it would take a lot
of time to nally get a law passed. Also, In Athens, not
everyone got to be a part of the government. Slaves and
women were excluded which a .
Sparta, there was an Oligarchy, which was very differ-
ent from Athens. This Oligarchy has also taught many
lessons. In the Oligarchy, the power is in the hand of a
few men. The decisions were made by the council of
elders. The council of elders was a group of 28 men
and 2 kings. In order to be elected, men had be over 60
A Roman representative de-
Image 2.3
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years old and from a no-
ble family, and they
served for life. As Frey
states The council of eld-
ers held the real power in
Sparta, (265). The council
of elders prepared laws
for the assembly to vote
on. The assembly could vote yes or no but, in truth,
they had little to no power. In Sparta, there were the
aristocrats, the Perioeci (Middle class) and the Helots
(slave class). Because the Helots were always rebelling,
Sparta attempted to control them by forming a secret so-
ciety in which they annually murdered any helot sus-
pected of encouraging another rebellion. Some lessons
that we have learned from this are that when there is a
power imbalance, there will be a rebellion. Another les-
son is that by murdering innocent civilians, an uproar is
almost certain to come.
In 451 B.C.E Rome, there was a republic in which there
were also lessons that could be learned. A republic is a
representative democracy. There was a group of Ple-
bian representatives called the Tribunes of the Plebs
who represented the plebs in the senate. This council
made laws for Plebians and later for all Roman citizens.
There were two consuls, one plebian and one patrician,
who shared control over the
army. There was also an assembly
of Roman citizens could approve
or reject laws. Some of the lessons
learned are that when you have a
balance of power, laws will easily
be passed and the government
will ourish.
Code of laws
Order in paradise
There are many factors that threaten Espineaopolis
such as criminals, discrimination, and overuse of re-
sources. Espineaopolis is surrounded by mountains and
swamps, so invaders will not be a big problem. All
throughout history there has been discrimination to peo-
ple of other countries and women. For example, the bar
mitzvah in Judaism (coming of age ceremony) has been
around for nearly 2,000 years yet, a Bat Mitzvah (Bar
Mitzvah for girls) became a norm in the 1970s. This
Victoria Woodhull
Image 2.4
Image 2.5
A sumarian tablet
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type of discrimination will not happen in Espineopolis.
The rules below will prevent this from happening.
1. The discrimination of any people will be severely
punished by nes and time in jail.
2. The cat goddess (Bast. Ancient Egypt) will be wor-
shipped ounce per day. This is punishable by nes.If all
people have one religion, civil war is less likely to break
out because no two religions will be ghting. As we
have seen from historical events, a civil war could mean
the destruction of Espineaopolis.
3. Theives will serve punishments based on what they
have stolen.
4. Cats will be treated with utmost respect.
5. The overuse of precious resources (water, food etc.) is
There are some extremely good reasons for choosing
these laws. The rst law is something that the whole
world has been struggling for since the birth of human-
ity. Equal rights have been a constant battle from Victo-
ria Woodhull in the 1870s advocating for the free love
(Marriage, divorce etc.) of women to Dr. Martin Luther
King Jr. in 1950s ghting for the African American
equality. The second law unites all religions. Many dif-
ferent cultures will live in Espineaopolis but by praying
to one goddess ounce a day, unites people into one cul-
ture. It helps people remember in times of trouble, Espi-
neopolis is one community. The third law discourages
crime. If you steal a diamond ring, you will be forced to
work in the mines for 2 months because that is where
diamonds are found. Another example: If you steal a
cow, you will work at the owners farm for 2 months.
According to Hammurabis code an eye for an eye, a
tooth for a tooth. This relates to this because a dia-
mond for a diamond, a cow for a cow. The fourth law
protects the symbiotic relationship of cats and humans.
At all of the Espineaopolis Farms, cats will be the ro-
dent control. According to Marriam Webster dictionary
The relationship between two different types of organ-
isms that live together and depend on each other. This
is the denition of symbiosis. Cats provide a pesticide
free rodent control and in turn get a good meal and a
warm place to sleep. The nal law protects the whole
civilization. The resources that we have need to be used
Image 2.6
Victoria Woodhull
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sparingly because we have many civilians that need water, food ,clothing to name a few. These laws will help Es-
pineaopolis thrive.
Julius Caesar: A dictator taken too far.
There are many important lessons that were taught by Julius Caesars reign. Some
furthered his popularity, but others lead to his demise. Julius Caesar was extremely popu-
lar among the Plebeians, which helped considering that 95% of the population. As the arti-
cle states, To keep the poor happy, he staged gladiator contests for free. This shows that
he knew that he could win popularity with the plebs by providing free entertainment.
Some lessons that furthered his demise include acting a King. Julius Caesar put his name
and face on a coin and wearing purple robes. When Rome was governed by a monarchy, Kings were wore purple
robes as a sign of royalty. Caesar was pronouncing himself a king, which made him extremely unpopular among
the aristocrats. According to the article, The aristocrats of Rome feared that if Caesar s power continued, the repub-
lican government would never be restored, and Caesar would pass down his leadership to an heir. This lead to
Caesars assassination even though only 5% of Rome did not agree with him. In conclusion, Caesar tried to bring
back the monarchy, but in the end he failed.
The decline of Western Rome
A bust of Julius Caesar
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Caesar Augustus : Another Julius
The political leaders of Espineaopolis will take under consideration the lessons about infrastructure, placating the
populous, and keeping control. Augustus Caesar made everyone swear allegiance to him. According to Dr.Neaman,
This law was a very smart decision in terms of preventing civil war. This shows that he was very strategic leader
when it came to popularity. Augustus Caesar learned from his adoptive father by naming himself the rst citizen of
Rome and calling people by their rst name. Citizens saw him as a leader, not a dictator like they saw Julius Cae-
sar. Augustus improved many temples, built roads, created the rst library in Rome. He built new statues and cre-
ated the pantheon to serve as a temple for all of the gods. Some unpopular decisions made by him were the strict
morals. Unmarried, childless women had to pay a special fee. He censored artists and told them what to write and
paint. When people are told what to do, often an uproar is bound to occur.
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A Great Empire Crumbles
Many factors contributed to decline of western rome including govern-
ment spending, the decline of moral values and and weakening frontiers.
According to Frey Notorious emperors like Nero and Caligula wasted large amounts of money. One lesson that
we have learned is moral values.When moral values decline, streets and public places become dangerous and dirty.
Another lesson is that, gladiator ghts are a bad way of entertaining poor people. This kills people for Honor
and only that. civilians are going to have a problem with this barbaric form of entertainment. The Final lesson is ,
Romans conquered too much territory and the military failed to enforce the ways of the Romans. The people who
were conquered began to resent Rome and eventually, wanted to break away from Rome, which they did. In the
end, the roman government had many unxable issues that made Rome crumble to pieces
This painting displays a soceity falling apart
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Belief systems
We have always held to
the hope, the belief, the
conviction that there is a
better life, a better world,
beyond the horizon.
-Franklin D. Roosevelt
This image displays some of the
worlds religions.
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Yep, We Need A Be-
lief System
Imagine a place without a belief system, no laws or
statements that tell us whats right or wrong. People
could do whatever they wanted to whomever they
wanted. People would have nothing to guide the ac-
tions of the citizens. They would
not know any moral values, wouldnt know how to act
. A belief system is important to a civilization because it
keeps the crime rates low, the moral values high and
unites the community under one common cause. It
teaches civilians good and bad and therefore, the crime
Impact of Belief Systems
The Dome of Rock, A sacred Muslim site, Jerusalem
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rates will be lower. Also, it induces fear when people do
the wrong action. According to Ms. Lomax, There has
been no thriving civilization that did not have a belief
system. Belief systems are vital for the survival of Es-
In order to better understand the
importance of a belief systems
with in a civilization and how
they can inuence the actions
and decisions of a people,
please consider the following
moral dilemma:
The Overcrowded Lifeboat
In 1842, a ship struck an ice-
berg and more than 30 survi-
vors were crowded into a life-
boat intended to hold 7. As a storm threatened, it be-
came obvious that the lifeboat would have to be light-
ened if anyone were to survive. The captain reasoned
that the morally right thing to do in this situation was
to force some individuals to go over the side and
drown. Since the only possibility for rescue required
great efforts of rowing, the captain decided that the
weakest would have to be sacriced. They, after all,
would be the one most likely to die anyways.
A Confucian scholar would not throw people off
of the lifeboat because according to Frey, Confucians be-
lieved that people should Do not do to others what
you would not want done to you. Because of this be-
lief, they would have
to the responsibility to
not kill the people by
throwing them off. If
the golden rule is
true, then you
wouldnt want others
to push you off the
lifeboat, so you would
not push others off. They wanted a peaceful and just so-
ciety. By killing innocent people they would not be
peaceful. By killing the weak, they would not be respect-
ing the elderly. A Hindu would do the same but, be-
cause of the concept of dharma.
A Hindu would not throw the people off the boat
because according to Frey, Hindus have a reverence
for all life. Because of this belief, they would have the
responsibility to keep the people on the boat. They be-
lieve that everything has a soul and that all life should
be respected and revered. Also, to throw people off
would be bad karma, and no one really wants to come
back as a potato. According to Hindus, your dharma is
Confucious, a Chinese scholar
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your duty and you have to fulll it in order to have
good karma. When you have good karma, you are rein-
carnated into a higher cast. A Hindu would keep the
people on the boat because of the reverence for life and
the belief in karma.
A Buddhist would not throw the people off the life-
boat because according to Frey (The Eightfold Pa-
th)Do not kill lie or steal,(page 158) Because of this be-
lief, Buddhists would not kill people by throwing them
off. In Buddhism, if a person does not follow the Eight-
fold Path you will not reach enlightenment, which is
the ultimate goal. Another phrase in the Eightfold Path
states Promote good actions and prevent evil actions.
Because of this belief, they would not want to promote
the evil action of killing people. As Frey states live a
life of selessness, love and nonviolence. Because of
this belief, the buddhists would live with nonviolence,
which is not killing people.
In conclusion, all of these various belief systems
tell us to save the people. It is seen in dharma, karma,
the Eightfold Path and in the teachings of Confucius
that you shall not kill. Belief systems are important be-
cause they provide of code of laws to tell civilians right
from wrong.I want Espineopolis to be known for being
a peaceful society that sees beauty in all things. Non-
voilence and respect for elders will highly valued as it
was in Buddhism and Confucianism. Espineaopolis will
be known for peace, education and creativity.

The Laws of Paradise
In an effort to create a successful civilization, the people
of Espineaopolis have established their own belief sys-
tem. This belief system shares similar moral values and
teachings with other world religions and helps the peo-
ple of Espineaopolis live in peace and harmony and to
be educated at all times. Here are some examples.
The rst moral value that is important to Epi-
neopolis is called Amatism. Amatism stands for the be-
lief in peace. Peace in society is very important to pre-
vent civil wars. The people of Espineaopolis will prac-
tice this belief by daily mediation. During the medita-
tion, one will think positive, peaceful thoughts for 10
minutes in the morning and at sunset. This practice re-
lates the Buddhism because, according to Frey the Eight-
fold Path states , Focus your mind with practices such
as mediation (159). This shows that mediation leads to
a sound mind, which is vital to Espineopolis. In conclu-
Picture 1: An a hindu god
A picture of the bhudda
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sion, it is important to cultivate peace to prevent wars
and keep society at a calm, peaceful state.
The second moral value that is important to Es-
pineopolis is Edthi. Edthi stands for education and
thinking. Education in Espineaopolis is important be-
cause it holds society together. Espineopolis civilians
will practice this belief by going to daily lessons start-
ing at the age of four and ending at the age of 24. After
the age 22, adults can opt out of classes to nd a job. Af-
ter the age of 24, adults will still go to specialized week-
end classes up to the age of 65. During these lessons,
students will learn a wide range of subjects. At the age
of 17, students will begin specialized classes. This re-
spect for education comes from Confucianism. Accord-
ing to Frey, Confucius deeply respected chinese tradi-
tions such as reverence for elders and honor given to
scholars, ( 208). This shows education is useful in a
owering culture, which is what espineaopolis needs. It
is important to promote education because promotes
people to do the right thing.
The third moral value of Espineopolis is Crea-criti.
This stands for creativity and critical thinking . Creativ-
ity is important to Espineaopolis because it promotes
critical thinking and makes the civilization better. The
people of Espineaopolis will practice this belief by cre-
ating one physical item and one mental item per day.
This comes from the Jewish Belief of the Bat Mitzvah. In
the process of this coming of age ceremony, the student
must write a speech about what the journey that they
have taken to reach that point. According to
Chabad.org, Many girls choose to research an impor-
tant woman from Jewish history and share some of the
lessons from her life. The speech encourages the Bat
Mitzvah girl in the Jewish tradition of sharing the Torah
one has learned with others. This shows that creativity
and critical thinking is needed to think of important jew-
ish leaders and connect them to ones life. Espineaopo-
lis will highly benet from having people practice crea-
tivity and critical thinking because
1 Wall, One Million Prayers
In Espineaopolis, we built a replica of the Western
Wall in Jerusalem. It is the last surviving wall of the
great temple in Jerusalem. The people of Espineaopolis
will go our version of the western wall and pray. The
citizens will also put their notes to god in the cracks of
the bricks. This is important to our civilization because
it represents strength, faith and longevity. According to
an article by National Geographic called Visiting the
Western Wall, The Western Wall is known as the most
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holy site in the Jewish faith, its signicance lies in the
fact that it is the last remnant of the original retaining
wall which surrounded the Second Temple, which was
built over 2,000 years ago. This shows that it has stood
tall for an extremely long period of time, which is a Jew-
ish symbol of strength. Espineaopolis will be known as
a peaceful but strong civilization. In conclusion, The Es-
pineaopolis replica of The Western Wall shows our
strength and represents longevity and faith. These
moral values are important because they bind the civili-
zation together. Faith is important because it gives eve-
ryone a common goal.

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Spike-Neaman, Emma Thursday, June 5, 2014 8:40:14 AM Pacic Daylight Time 70:56:81:af:e2:d1
My coat of arms
The Symbol of Me
This is my coat of arms. The peace symbol represents the fact that I want eve-
ryone to be kind to each other. The Music symbol represents the music in my life
such as clarinet, guitar, and voice. The tower represents my inner strength. The
Star of David represents my faith, Judaism. The black-and-white coloring in the
music note represents my belief that the world is good and bad. The blue-and-
white Star of David represents the Jewish ag. The gray in the tower stands for.
Simplicity. The yellow and red in the peace sign represents my believe in accentu-
Spike-Neaman, Emma Thursday, June 5, 2014 8:40:14 AM Pacic Daylight Time 70:56:81:af:e2:d1
Spike-Neaman, Emma Thursday, June 5, 2014 8:40:14 AM Pacic Daylight Time 70:56:81:af:e2:d1
The Centei of Life
The Catholic Chuich was the centei of !"#$"%&' '$)"
in Euiope. The chuich owneu 1S of the lanu in
Euiope anu collecteu a tithe oi 1u% of people's in-
come. Nost people weie $''$*"+&*" theiefoie, the
chuich cieateu $'',-$.&*"# -&.,/0+$1*s to illus-
tiate the stoiies of the Bible. If people followeu the
chuich's biuuing, they woulu achieve /&'%&*$2.3 To
gain salvation means to gain entiy to heaven aftei
ueath. The chuich influenceu peoples' thoughts anu
actions because they helu all of the answeis in a time
of chaos. The chuich helu most of the political powei,
as seen with Pope uiegoiy vII anu King Beniy Iv.
When Pope uiegoiy was electeu, he unueitook sev-
eial iefoims such as foibiuuing pieists to maiiy, anu
banning the piactice wheieby kings coulu appoint
chuich officials. The king was angeieu by this because
he consiueieu it his uuty to appoint chuich officials.
The king ueclaieu that the uiegoiy was no longei
pope. Accoiuing to Fiey, "uiegoiy iesponueu by ex-
communicating Beniy. The pope's influence was so
gieat that Beniy beggeu foi foigiveness anu was ieau-
mitteu into the chuich." (SS) This shows that the
chuich helu powei ovei the king in many ways. The
chuich helu political powei, it hau all the answeis foi
the people anu offeieu salvation. Theiefoie it was the
centei of life
This is a photo of a medieval
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Ideas shape the course of
-John Maynard Keynes
Power of ideas
This shows an idea lightbulb
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The New Train of Thought
A humanist mindset in European society ad-
vanced it in many ways. Humanism began in the renais-
sance or the rebirth of ancient art and culture. Human-
ism rst started in the early 1300s with an Italian poet
named Francesco Petrarch. Petrarch loved the ancient
artifacts such as books, coins and artworks, which
helped him and other early humanists learn the ancient
ways (Frey 321). Humanists questioned everything and
started to break away from the church, seeking answers
of their own. Humanists also began to believe in the
importance and dignity of each individual, (Frey 320).
This belief changed art, literature, science and mathe-
matics. In art, painters and sculptors started to idealize
the human body. Sculptors like Donatello and Michelan-
gelo Seemed to symbolize humanist ideas of independ-
ence and individuality, (Frey 326). In literature, writers
were interested in individual experiences and the world
around them. Non-religious texts became more com-
mon. In science, scientists began to perform experi-
ments and analyze the results using mathematics. These
new ideas challenged the church because Humanists be-
gan to question salvation, and other teachings. This
kind of thinking lead to the reformation. Humanism
changed the way European society thought about the
man- ists
This is a piece by Michelangelo, a reniasance
artist who was inuenced by humanism.
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welcome in Espineaopolis
Humanists welcome in Epineaopolis
A humanist might question laws and values that have
developed in the civilization of Espineaopolis. This is
because it is part of the Humanist belief to question eve-
rything. According to Frey, They [Humanists] began to
ask probing questions (320). This quote shows that the
Humanist mindset is to question everything. Also, hu-
manists believed that people should be judged by their
personal achievement. Frey states, Renaissance think-
ers prized individual achievement more than ones so-
cial status. (321) This quote demonstrates that human-
ists believed in ones personal achievement over ones
social status. If a humanist arrived in Espineaopolis,
some of the laws would be questioned. According to
the laws of Espineaopolis, Theives will serve punish-
ments based on the physical value of what they have
stolen (Spike-Neaman 11). Humanists would question
this by asking about the physical value. What if the sto-
len item has deep sentimental value for the owner, but
the actual item costs little money? What if the item costs
a lot of money but, the criminal has no history and is
completely willing to give it back? These would be ex-
amples of questions humanists would ask. Humanists
would also question religion. According to Epineaopo-
lis laws, The cat goddess (Bast. Ancient Egypt) will be
worshipped ounce per day. (Spike-Neaman 11) Hu-
manists would disagree with this belief because of they
would not want just one religion. Humanists would
ask questions like: Why cant we worship our own relig-
ion? Why do we need to follow yours? Why cant each
person decide for herself? This relates to modern laws
because there are laws that prevent marriage equality
and pay equality. Humanists would question this by
asking: Why do some people have more social status
than others? If leaders in Epineaopolis were to discuss
this, the civilization would be open to changing and re-
vising these laws, because they stabilize and better Espi-
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A Protestant Domino Effect
After the ideas of humanism fueled the renaissance, people started
questioning everything and, the church was fair game. The Catho-
lic Church had begun to weaken because of two main problems:
corruption and political conicts. The church had started the prac-
tice of selling indulgences. An indulgence was a release from pun-
ishment for sins. (Frey 348) During the middle ages, the church
granted indulgences for good deeds or gifts to the church; now peo-
ple could just pay a sum of money, and they would achieve salva-
tion. This was a problem because people began to question the
church also sold ofces or leadership positions. This practice is
called simony. As Frey states, Instead of being chosen for their
merit, buyers simply paid for their appointments. (Frey 348) This
demonstrates simony because leaders did not have to be spiritual
experience. Poor people were tired of paying a tithe, 10% of their
income, when the church leaders walked around in jeweled robes.
These problems led to reformers such as John Wycliffe and Martin
The ideas and questions of reformers such as Martin Luther and
Jan Hus differed from the church because these reformers tried to
get rid of corruption and the unfair practices of the church; the prot-
estant reformers tried to make a more direct experience between
the people and god. The reformers challenged the intercessors in
the church. (Lomax) They believed that there was the bible and
god, but a priest was not necessary. This challenged the churchs
power because it put many priests out of a job. The church stated
that people were not supposed to translate the bible. As Frey
states, Against church tradition, he [John Wycliffe] had the bible
translated from Latin to English, so that common people could
read it. This demonstrates how many reformers like John Wycliffe
challenged the church. John Wycliffe challenged indulgences, or
selling good deeds for forgiveness of sins. This threatened the
church by challenging one of its main sources of income. Another
practice that reformers challenged was simony. As Frey states
Buying an ofce was worth while because it could be a source of
even more income. (348) This shows that the church was begin-
ning to weaken and had to resort to corrupt practices. By challeng-
ing simony, reformers cut off another source of revenue. Many of
these reformers were accused of heresy and burned at the stake,
but one of them, Martin Luther, escaped and created his own
branch of Christianity.
Martin Luther was one of the major Protestants in the Reformation.
Martin Luther was born in Germany in 1483. He was raised as a de-
vote Catholic and planned a career in law. As a young man, he was
badly frightened when he was caught in a violent thunderstorm.
He vowed that if he survived, he would become a monk. He kept
this promise and studied the bible thoroughly. Like many Chris-
tians, he asked the question: why must I be saved? As Frey states,
Luthers studies of the bible led him to a different answer. No
one, he believed could earn salvation. It was a gift from god,(352)
This shows that he had different views than those of the church. Lu-
ther, then, posted a list of 95 arguments or theses on the church
door. The church was outraged and at the Diet of Worms, a trial be-
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fore an assembly of leaders, he was declared a heretic. As Frey
states, He [Luther] refused to take back his teachings, (353)This
shows that he wanted to stick to his beliefs. For a time, Luther
went into hiding, but many Germans saw him as a hero. According
to Frey, Soon he was openly organizing a new Christian denomi-
nation known as Lutherism, (353)This shows that his beliefs
spread, and soon Lutheranism became a sect in Protestantism. This
shows that the ideas of humanism lead to even bigger movement,
which revolutionized the church.
The Nut Jobs vs. the Visionaries
In history, there have been revolutionaries and nut cases. Espinea-
polis strategy to deal people who may threaten the civilization is
to judge the idea based on the evidence that the person gives.
There have been many famous people who have advanced socie-
tykhv but in their time have been called crazy. Accoding to Frey,
Galileos discoveries led him to bitter conict with the catholic
church (329) This quote demonstrates that, in his time, Galileo
was considered crazy but, he revolutionized astronomy. This is an
example of an individual who bettered society. But, there are also
people who will bring great destruction to society, if they are not
contained. According to BBC, " Adolf Hitler, a military and politi-
cal leader of Germany 1933-1945, launched World War II and bears
responsibility for the deaths of millions, including 6 million Jewish
people in the Nazi genocide (1) This shows that, if some people
are not contained, these people will cause mass murder and horri-
ble destruction to society. In conclusion, revolutionaries will be
judged by a jury to decide whether the ideas offered by these inven-
tors will make the society better or destroy it.
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Frey, Wendy. History Alive!: The Ancient World. Palo Alto, CA:
Teachers Curriculum Institute, 2011. Print
Frey, Wendy. History Alive!: The Medieval World and Beyond.
Palo Alto, CA: Teachers Curriculum Institute, 2011. Print
Images cited
Sobeck picture:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sobek.svg
Picture: http://www.marinwater.org/controller?action=menuc
Maintaining order
Laws picture
Victoria Woodhull
Sumerian Tablet
Caesar coin
Augustus Ceasar
Picture on page
Picture On page 15
Picture page 16
source: http://tinyurl.com/mjnr8wf
Picture on page 17
Picture 1 on page 18: http://tinyurl.com/qe3px95
Picture 2 on page 18: http://tinyurl.com/mex9xt8
Picture on page 24:http://tinyurl.com/n679mmp
Picture page 25:http://tinyurl.com/lwdwwe2
Picture on page 26: http://tinyurl.com/md2ym6g
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