Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7
UNIVERSITY PUTRA MALAYSIA Faculty of Civil Engineering Master of Structure and Construction Engineering Design of

UNIVERSITY PUTRA MALAYSIA Faculty of Civil Engineering Master of Structure and Construction Engineering

Design of Tall Building (ECV 4203) Assignment 1 Structural form system

Prepared for:

DR. RAIZAL SAIFULNAZ BIN MUHAMMAD RASHID

Done by:

Maged Mohammed Ahmed Qasem

GS38690

Date of submission: 21 st of March 21, 2014

1.

Shear Wall Structure

1.1 Introduction

In the shear wall structure system, the shear walls provide the entire lateral stiffness and strength. That is due to their very high in-plane stiffness and strength. Shear wall structure are stiffer rigid frame structures.

Shear walls are not only designed to resist gravity / vertical loads (due to its self-weight and other living / moving loads), but they are also designed for lateral loads of earthquakes / wind. The walls are structurally integrated with roofs / floors (diaphragms) and other lateral walls running across at right angles, thereby giving the three dimensional stability for the building structures.

Shear wall structural systems are more stable because of their supporting area (total cross- sectional area of all shear walls) with reference to total plans area of building, is comparatively more, unlike in the case of RCC framed structures. They can resist the uplift forces caused by the pull of the wind .In addition; they resist shear forces that try to push the walls over. They can also resist the lateral force of the wind that tries to push the walls in and pull them away from the building.

1.2

Classification of Shear Walls

1. Simple rectangular types and flanged walls (bar bell type).

2. Coupled shear walls

3. Rigid frame shear walls

4. Framed walls with in filled frames

5. Column supported shear walls.

6. Core type shears walls.

1.3

Types Of Shear Walls

1. RC Shear Wall.

2. Plywood Shear Wall.

3. Midply Shear Wall.

4. RC Hollow Concrete Block Masonry Wall.

1.4 Example of The Shear Wall Structure In High Rise Building

Name of building :

Shangri-La New York (610 Lexington Avenue), New

York

General information:

- Construction started

2008

- Completion

2010

- Number of story

67-story

- Height

709 ft

Structural Form System:

The building rises 709 ft giving the structure a very

slender aspect ratio of 16.5:1. To overcome this

challenge, the design implements the first use of

vertically posttensioned shear walls in New York City.

The lateral frame, as mentioned previously, utilizes

vertically posttensioned concrete shear walls

supplemented by concrete belt and hat walls, as shown

in Figure 1.1 and 1.2.

concrete shear walls supplemented by concrete belt and hat walls, as shown in Figure 1.1 and

Figure 1.1

concrete shear walls supplemented by concrete belt and hat walls, as shown in Figure 1.1 and

Figure 1.2

2.

Outrigger Braced Frame

2.1 Introduction

Outrigger are structural remembers with a large bending stiffness connecting primary lateral

loading resisting system with generally perimeter columns. The connection between the lateral

systems usually either shear wall or core assembly and the outrigger has to be moment resistant.

In this way the principle of lateral systems rotation is used to activate perimeter columns.

2.2 Load Distributing System

Outriggers serve to reduce overturning moments in the core, total lateral displacement and story

drifts of supper-tall buildings and also transfer the reduced overturning moments to the perimeter

columns in the form of tension-compression forces. These forces are often distributed by belt

trusses located at the level of outriggers to the perimeter columns. The system can benefit from

using off-set outriggers to reduce core wall thickness in addition to making a wind resistance

structure. Outriggers can also be supported by some mega columns at the perimeter of building

which make this system appropriate for super-tall buildings.

2.3 Example of outrigger braced frame In High Rise Building

Name of building :

Millennium

Tower,

301

Mission

Street,

San

Francisco, California

 

General information:

- Construction started

 

2005

- Completion

 

2008

- Floor account

58

- Height

180.4m

Structural Form System

Laterally the building is a dual system with a cast-in place shear wall core connected with outriggers to the perimeter columns comprising the primary system, and a total of 10 single-bay moment frames at the perimeter comprising the backup system.

There are three outrigger trusses that connect the interior core with perimeter super-columns at three intermediate levels as shown in photo.

trusses that connect the interior core with perimeter super-columns at three intermediate levels as shown in

3.

Core and Suspended Structure

3.1 Introduction

Suspended structure consists of central core or dual cores with cantilevered outrigger trusses at

the roof level. One of the advantages of this type of structure is that the casting of the slab floor

can be done in the ground floor and then raised to the required position.

3.2 Load distributing system

Dual cores work to carry the load gravity transferred from self-weight of the core structure itself

and from outrigger trusses at the roof level. They are also to resist the lateral loading resulted in

very stable structure

3.3 Example of Suspended Structure In High Rise Building

Name of building :

Torre Caja Madrid Tower

General information:

Madrid, Spain

- Construction started

2004

- Completion

2008

- Floor account

45

- Height

250 m

- Building type

Office

Figure 3.1 shows building

from in front side

Structural Form System

The structure of this building consists of two concrete

cores that are linked together at three locations over

the height of the building. The links between the

cores are a pair of two-story trusses, which not only

link the cores but also support the 11 to 12 floors

above each truss (See Figures 3.2) Essentially the

building floors are divided into three segments, where

each segment is an 11 to 12 story structure that is

supported on trusses that span between the two cores.

is supported on trusses that span between the two cores. F i g u r e

Figure 3.1: Front View Of Building

3 . 1 : F r o n t V i e w O f B

Figure 3.2: Trusses Connected To Dual Cores

4.

Core Or Tube-In-Tube Structures

4.1 Introduction

In this system, the exterior tube and the interior tube (consisting of the internal cores) are designed to act together. The exterior tube has relatively large width and hence it designed to resist the entire bending moment caused by lateral forces. On the other hand, the interior tube is generally very slender and these hence are designed to resist the shear produced by lateral forces.

4.2 Load distributing system

Such a system is used where there are large openings in the exterior frames due to its ability to resist shear is diminished. The stiff floor systems transfers the lateral shearing forces to the interior tube and with that it can resist the shear forces and significantly contribute to carry the gravity loads of the structure.

4.3 Example of Tube-In-Tube Structures In High Rise Building

Name of building :

Torre Sacyr Vallehermoso, Madrid, Spain. General information

Construction started

2004

Completed

2008

Floor numbers.

52- floor

Height

236 meter

Type

Office, Hotel

Figure 4.1 shows the picture of the building

Structural Form System

The structure of building is principally composed of a complex central reinforced concrete core and two rings of the reinforced concrete or composite columns. The complex reinforced concrete structures consist of three interconnected square-shaped cores housing the elevators and installation shafts. Figure 4.2 shows the Typical Floor Plane Of The Building

Figure 4.2 shows the Typical Floor Plane Of The Building F i g u r e

Figure 4.1: Picture Of Building

e 4 . 1 : P i c t u r e O f B u

Figure 4.2 : Typical Floor Plane Of The Building