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James Frawley

Mr. McGoldrick
US History
27 May 2014
Identifications: Chapter 27
Wilsonian Democracy It refers to the basic principles and ideals of President
Woodrow Wilson, while he was thinking of a formula to end World War I and achieve a
world without war. Specifically it means his opposition to militarism and aristocracy,
and his design for a League of Nations to keep the peace by reflecting the will of the
people, which he assumed was basically hostile to war. It includes the notion of national
self-determination and opposition to colonial empires, a theme picked up in Ireland,
India, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East, which remains influential in the 21st century.
Wilsonian indicates "idealism" in foreign policy, as opposed to a "realist" foreign policy
that seeks to gain specific economic or military benefits for the nation. Its viewpoint was
that he, as president, could end World War I. It is significant today because they were
good principles used to end the war.
New Freedoms It comprises the campaign speeches and promises of Woodrow Wilson
in the 1912 presidential campaign. They constituted the reforms promoted by Wilson.
They called for less government, but in practice as president he added new controls such
as the Federal Reserve System and the Clayton Antitrust Act. More generally the "New
Freedom" is associated with Wilson's first term as president, from 1913 to 1917. As
President, Wilson focused on three types of reform: tariff reform, business reform, and
banking reform. Wilson's position in 1912 stood in opposition to Progressive party
candidate Theodore Roosevelt's ideas of New Nationalism, particularly on the issue of
antitrust modification. Its viewpoint was one of reform and surrounded the ideals of
President Wilson. It is significant today because they promoted the reforms that took
place around the time.
Triple Wall of Privilege This consisted of the tariff, business, and banking. His
solution for this wall was the Tariff Reform, which came through the passage of the
Underwood Tariff Act of 1913, which lowered tariffs for the first time since the
American Civil War and went against the protectionist lobby. The Business Reform
established in 1914 through the passage of the Federal Trade Act, which established the
Federal Trade Commission to investigate and halt unfair and illegal business practices by
issuing "cease and desist" orders, and the Clayton Anti-Trust Act. The Banking Reform
then came in 1913, through the creation of the Federal Reserve System, and in 1916,
through the passage of the Federal Farm Loan Act, which set up Farm Loan Banks to
support farmers. Its viewpoint was to reform the United States so that they were more
helpful to the underprivileged. It is significant today because it contributed to the
widespread reform of the time in the US.
Federal Reserve Act It is an Act of Congress that created and set up the Federal
Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States of America, and granted
it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes, now commonly known as the U.S.
Dollar, and Federal Reserve Bank Notes as legal tender. President Woodrow Wilson
signed the Act into law. Its viewpoint was that it could reform the United States business
industry and economy. It is significant today because it began the use of Federal Reserve
Notes, which are the dollars that we use today.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act It was a part of United States antitrust law with the goal of
adding further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime; the Clayton Act sought to
prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency. That regime started with the
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, the first Federal law outlawing practices considered
harmful to consumers such as monopolies, cartels, and trusts. The Clayton Act specified
particular prohibited conduct, the three-level enforcement scheme, the exemptions, and
the remedial measures. Like the Sherman Act, much of the substance of the Clayton Act
has been developed and animated by the U.S. courts, particularly the Supreme Court. Its
viewpoint was that it would add substance to the antitrust movement and limit the power
a company can have. It is significant today because it was an instrumental part of the
trust busting efforts in our countrys history.
Wilson and Mexico The United States' relationship with Mexico has often been
turbulent. For both economic and political reasons, the American government generally
supported those who occupied the seats of power, whether they held that power
legitimately or not. Prior to Woodrow Wilson's inauguration, the US military focused
mainly on just warning the Mexican military that decisive action from the US military
would take place if lives and property of North Americans living in the country were
endangered. President William Howard Taft sent more troops to the US-Mexico border
but did not allow them to intervene in the conflict, a move, which Congress opposed.
Twice during the Revolution, the U.S. sent troops into Mexico. His viewpoint was that
United States intervention in the Revolution was the only thing that could stabilize
Mexico. This is significant today because it forced the United States to go into battle.
League of Nations It was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the
Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first international
organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. Its primary goals, as
stated in its Covenant, included preventing wars through collective security and
disarmament, and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration.
Other issues in this and related treaties included labor conditions, just treatment of native
inhabitants, human and drug trafficking, arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and
protection of minorities in Europe. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23
February 1935, it had 58 members. Its viewpoint was that they could help create and
maintain world peace. It is significant today because it was supposed to be a mode of
nonviolent conflict resolution.
Treaty of Versailles It was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It
ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28
June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The
other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate
treaties. Although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting,
it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace
treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21
October 1919, and was printed in The League of Nations Treaty Series. Its viewpoint
was that they could reach peace with a series of negotiations and a treaty. It is significant
today because it ended the First World War and was the reason for the Second World
War.
Sussex Pledge It was a promise made in 1916 during World War I by Germany to the
United States prior to the latter's entry into the war. Early in 1916, Germany had
instituted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, allowing armed merchant ships
but not passenger ships to be torpedoed without warning. Despite this avowed
restriction, a French cross-channel passenger ferry, the Sussex, was torpedoed without
warning on March 24, 1916; the ship was severely damaged and about 50 lives were lost.
Although no U.S. citizens were killed in this attack, it prompted President Woodrow
Wilson to declare that if Germany were to continue this practice, the United States would
break diplomatic relations with Germany. Fearing the entry of the United States into
World War I, Germany attempted to appease the United States by issuing, on May 4,
1916, the Sussex pledge, which promised a change in Germanys naval warfare policy.
The primary elements of this undertaking were: passenger ships would not be targeted,
merchant ships would not be sunk until the presence of weapons had been established, if
necessary by a search of the ship, and merchant ships would not be sunk without
provision for the safety of passengers and crew. Its viewpoint was that this pledge would
protect lives and reduce the amount of people killed by torpedo. It is significant today
because it was a successful effort to approach reform and change of Germanys navy.
War Industries Board It was a United States government agency established on July
28, 1917. This was founded during World War I, and was used to manage the purchase
of war supplies. The organization encouraged companies to use mass-production
techniques to increase efficiency and urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing
products. The board set production quotas and allocated raw materials. It also conducted
psychological testing to help people find the right jobs. Frank A. Scott, who had
previously been head of the General Munitions Board, led the board initially. He was
replaced in November by Baltimore and Ohio Railroad president Daniel Willard. Finally
in January 1918, the board was reorganized under the leadership of financier Bernard M.
Baruch. Its viewpoint was that they could make the armament of the United States of
America a simple organized process with their oversight. It is significant today because
it created jobs and was an effective way for the United States to organize their purchasing
of war supplies.