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montaj MAGMAP Filtering

2D Frequency Domain Processing of Potential Field Data


Extension for Oasis montaj 6.4
TUTORIAL

www. geos of t . com

The software described in this manual is furnished under license and may
only be used or copied in accordance with the terms of the license.
Manual release date: 07/09/2007.
Written by, Nancy Whitehead and Chris Musselman. Please send comments
or questions to info@geosoft.com
Copyright Geosoft Inc. 2007. All rights reserved. No part of this
publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in
any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo-copying, reading, or
otherwise, without prior consent from Geosoft Inc.
Program Copyright Geosoft Inc. 2007. All rights reserved.
Geosoft and Oasis montaj are registered trademarks of Geosoft Inc.
GEOSOFT, Oasis are trademarks of Geosoft Inc.
Windows, and Windows NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks
of Microsoft Corporation.

Geosoft Incorporated
8
th
Floor
85 Richmond St. W.
Toronto, Ontario
M5H 2C9
Canada
Tel: (416) 369-0111
Fax: (416) 369-9599
Web Site: www.geosoft.com
E-mail: info@geosoft.com

Contents
Geosoft License Agreement 1
Finding Help Information 3
Contacting Technical Support 3
Chapter 1: System Capabilities and Concepts 5
Who Should Use This Document 5
How this Document is Organized 6
MAGMAP Menu and Processing System 6
Navigating the MAGMAP Menu 6
Understanding Processing Sequence 7
Preparing Grids 8
Specifying Filter 8
Filtering and Post-processing 9
Chapter 2: Before You Begin 10
Creating a Project 10
Loading the MAGMAP Menu 11
Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials 13
Tutorial 1: Preparing Data for Processing 14
Tutorial 2: Displaying Grids Prior to Processing and Analysis 14
Tutorial 3: Preparing Grids for Transformation 15
Tutorial 4: Applying the Forward FFT 17
Tutorial 5: Setting Filters 17
Tutorial 6: Applying Filters and the Inverse Transform 20
Tutorial 7: Displaying Filtered Grids for Analysis 21
Tutorial 8: Calculating Radially Averaged Power Spectra 22
Tutorial 9: Displaying Radially Averaged Spectra 23
Tutorial 10: Calculating and Displaying 2D Power Spectra 24
Tutorial 11: Interactive Spectrum Filtering 26
Tutorial 12: Calculating Analytic Signal 34
Tutorial 13: Calculating Tilt Derivative 37
Tutorial 14: Sharing Results 40
Chapter 4: 2D Fast Fourier Transform and MAGMAP Theory 42
The FFT Algorithm 45
The Energy Spectrum 47
Chapter 5: Preparing Grids for the FFT Processing 49
Trend Removal Algorithm 49
Grid Expansion Algorithm 50
Grid Filling Algorithm 50
Minimizing "Ringing" from Grid Filling 50
Applying Maximum Entropy Prediction 51
Controlling Edge Effects 51
Limiting Strong Anomalies Near Grid Edges 51
Limiting Strong Anomalies by Magnitude 52
Setting Trend Removal, Grid Expansion, and Filling Parameters 52
Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters 54
Creating Your Own Filter Control File 54
MAGMAP Filters 55
BPAS Bandpass Filter 56
BTWR Butterworth Filter 57
CNDN Downward Continuation 58
CNUP Upward Continuation 58
COSN Cosine Roll-off Filter 59
DCOS Directional Cosine Filter 60
DENS Apparent Density Calculation 61
DPAS Directional Pass/Reject Filter 62
DRVX Derivative in the X Direction 63
DRVY Derivative in the Y Direction 63
DRVZ Derivative in the Z Direction 63
GFILT Gravity Earth Filter 64
GAUS Gaussian Regional/Residual Filter 64
GNRL General Radially Symmetric Filter 65
GPSD Pseudo-Gravity Filter 66
HPAS High-pass Filter 67
INTG Vertical Integration 67
LPAS Low-pass Filter 68
OPTM Weiner Optimum Filter 68
REDE Reduce to the Magnetic Equator 70
REDP Reduce to the Magnetic Pole 70
SUSC Apparent Susceptibility Calculation 71
TXYZ Conversion between Field Components 72
Filter Examples 73
Susceptibility Map 73
Second Vertical Derivative 74
De-corrugation 74
Chapter 7: Applying the Inverse FFT 75
Processing Option 75
Selection 75
Result 75
References 76
1
Geosoft License Agreement
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2
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3
Finding Help Information
There are several functions included in the basic Oasis montaj help system that may
be useful to your work. The entire documentation for the system is available through
the online help system. This electronic library of information enables us to constantly
update the information and provide you with the most up-to-date information
available.
The best way to find information in this system is to use the Search tab to perform a
full-text search across all help topics. If you still cannot find the information you are
looking for, the Online Books help system contains complete Geosoft manuals and
tutorials in Adobe PDF format.
Contacting Technical Support
The following list provides contact information for Geosoft Technical Support around
the world.

North America
Geosoft Inc.,
85 Richmond St. W., 8th Floor
Toronto, Ont.,
Canada
M5H 2C9
Tel +1 (416) 369-0111
Fax +1 (416) 369-9599
Email: tech@geosoft.com
Europe and North Africa
Geosoft Europe Ltd.
20/21 Market Place, First Floor
Wallingford, Oxfordshire
United Kingdom
OX10 OAD
Tel: +44 1491 835 231
Fax: +44 1491 835 281
Email: tech.eu@geosoft.com
South America
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Australia
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Fax: +27 12 347 6936
Email: tech.za@geosoft.com

Chapter 1: System Capabilities and Concepts
Chapter 1: System Capabilities and Concepts
5
This document describes the montaj MAGMAP Filtering system, an integrated
software package that supports application of common Fourier domain filters to
gridded data with particular emphasis on potential field data. For example, if you
want to produce an apparent magnetic susceptibility grid from a total magnetic field
grid, you can choose and apply the appropriate filter in MAGMAP.
The montaj MAGMAP Filtering system provides three filtering methods designed
to help you meet your data filtering requirements:
MAGMAP 1-step filtering
Step-By-Step filtering
Interactive filtering
The Interactive filtering method enables you to select one of the spectral filters
(Bandpass, Butterworth, Cosine Roll-off, and Gaussian Regional/Residual) and
interactively select the parameters (using sliders), while seeing the effect on the
current power spectrum.
The systems 2D Fast Fourier Transform capabilities enable you to:
Rapidly process gridded datasets by applying a wide range of robust geophysical
and mathematical filters.
Apply multiple filters in one filtering run (in any order). For example, you can run
any combination of geophysical filters (such as the Upward Continuation filter)
and/or mathematical filters (such as the Butterworth filter) using a single dialog in
the system GUI.
Control the filtering process by applying either fast (one-step), expanded (step-
by-step), or visual (intractive) filtering.
Define and apply your own filters.
Interpret grids using spectral analysis products (2D and Radially Averaged Power
Spectra).
Who Should Use This Document
This document is intended for Earth Scientists who are familiar with methodologies
used for acquiring, processing, and presenting Earth Science data, and who want to
use the montaj MAGMAP Filtering extension of Oasis montaj to process, analyze,
visualize, and interpret potential field data.
To use this document effectively, you should:
Be familiar with Earth Science data
Understand basic methodologies used for processing data, including preparing
data for processing, evaluating quality before and after processing, displaying
6 Chapter 1: System Capabilities and Concepts
data in profile formats, running computer-based algorithms, and preparing data
for final presentation.
Understand basic database concepts, such as importing and exporting data, storing
data, and applying processes to data.
How this Document is Organized
This document includes the following chapters:
Chapter 1: System Capabilities and Concepts Explains how to use this
document, and the MAGMAP menu and processing system.
Chapter 2: Before You Begin Describes the procedures used for creating a
project and loading the MAGMAP menu in Oasis montaj.
Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials Provides a set of tutorials
that guide you through the system procedures used for filtering, analysing, and
visualizing potential field data.
Chapter 4: Fast Fourier Transform and MAGMAP Theory Introduces the
theory on which MAGMAP is based and the methodology employed in the
system.
Chapter 5: Preparing Grids for the FFT Processing Provides a detailed
description of the preparation algorithms (trend removal, grid expansion, and
filling) that are implemented in the system. Explains how to set the parameters
that control these processes. Tells how to control side effects, such as ringing,
that can affect the quality of your results.
Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters Outlines the three methods of creating a
filter control file, and defines the role of the filter control file in the system.
Provides a comprehensive description of each filter provided in the system, along
with a discussion of the filters uses and required parameters.
Chapter 7: Applying the Inverse FFT Explains the options available while
applying the Inverse FFT.
The References section directs you to further sources of information related to the
FFT theory and interpretation.
MAGMAP Menu and Processing System
The montaj MAGMAP Filtering system is designed to provide you with an intuitive
interface that guides you through the preparation, processing, analysis, and
visualization of potential field data. This section describes the application menu and
outlines the major steps in the processing sequence.
Navigating the MAGMAP Menu
The montaj MAGMAP Filtering menu provides access to the MAGMAP functions.
When you select a menu option, the system runs a corresponding Geosoft eXecutable
Chapter 1: System Capabilities and Concepts 7
(GX) a programmed process that records your input values and implements a
specific processing, analysis, or visualization task. The following shows the
MAGMAP menu options and the corresponding GXs:

MAGMAP1 GX


FFT2PREP GX
FFT2IN GX
FFT2CON GX
FFT2FLT GX


FFT2PREP GX
FFT2IN GX
FFT2RSPC GX
FFT2SPCFLT GX
FFT2FLT GX


FFT2RSPC GX
FFT2SMAP GX
FFT2PSPC GX

GRIDASIG GX

TILTDRV GX
Understanding Processing Sequence
For the sake of mathematical convenience and speed, montaj MAGMAP Filtering
applies filters in the wavenumber or Fourier domain. This requires a number of steps,
each of which is the responsibility of a separate program in the montaj MAGMAP
system.
Pre-processing steps involve preparation of the original space domain grid for
filtering, after which filters are applied. Post-processing involves returning the
filtered data to the same size and shape as the original grid, and replacement of a
regional trend. Following are descriptions of each of the processing steps.
Note: You can carry out each of these steps individually, using the MAGMAP
menus. The MAGMAP One-step filtering menu option can take you through
the entire sequence in one step. This approach will produce adequate results in
most situations. However, if you experience ringing problems, edge effects, or
any other undesirable side effects that appear to be caused by the pre-
8 Chapter 1: System Capabilities and Concepts
processing steps, you must run the pre-processing steps separately and set
parameters to address this issue.
Preparing Grids
1. A first-order trend is removed from the data. This is not always necessary, but is
recommended.
2. The grid is expanded to be square, with dimensions that are acceptable to the Fast
Fourier Transform (FFT) used in the MAGMAP system. The system pads the
edges of the grid with dummy values.
3. The dummy areas are replaced by reasonably interpolated values so that the grid
becomes smoothly periodic. If you think of the grid as a single square tile where
copies of the tiles are laid out edge to edge, the grid pattern should smoothly flow
from tile to tile (see sample below).

If the matches are not smooth, an effective 'step' function is introduced at the edge
of each grid. This can cause serious side effects in the data when filters are
applied in the wavenumber domain.
4. The square and periodic space domain grid is transformed to the wavenumber
domain by the application of FFT. A radially averaged spectrum of the data is
also produced for reference and analysis.
Specifying Filter
1. The required filters are specified for the wavenumber grid.
Chapter 1: System Capabilities and Concepts 9
2. Using the Interactive filtering menu option, filter parameters can be visualized
and selected interactively.
Filtering and Post-processing
1. The selected filters are applied to the wavenumber grid.
2. The filtered wavenumber grid is transformed from the wavenumber domain back
to the space domain.
3. The dummy areas of the original grid are restored to the final filtered grid, and the
grid size is reduced to its original size.
4. If a trend surface has been removed, and if no high-pass filters have been applied
to the data, the filtered trend can be replaced in the grid.
10 Chapter 2: Before You Begin
Chapter 2: Before You Begin

This chapter describes how to begin working with the montaj MAGMAP Filtering
system in Oasis montaj. The topics discussed in this chapter include:
Creating a project
Loading the MAGMAP menu
This tutorial uses sample data provided on the Oasis montaj CD and installed in your
C:\Program Files\Geosoft\Oasis montaj\data\magmap directory. Before you begin
the tutorial, you need to create a working directory to store all your data.
The system enables you to access files anywhere. However, it is a good strategy to
carefully organize your data (project information and files) before carrying out any
processing.
To start this tutorial, create a working directory called C:\Tutorial. A general rule to
follow when working with Geosoft applications is to avoid working in the Geosoft
directory. In these tutorials, you follow this rule by keeping all the working data,
found in C:\Program Files\Geosoft\Oasis montaj\data\magmap, in your working
directory C:\Tutorial.
Creating a Project
Work in Oasis montaj requires an open project. An Oasis montaj "project"
encompasses every item in your working directory: the data files in your project
(databases, maps, and grids), tools used (including auxiliary tools such as histograms,
scatter plots, etc.), and the project setup including the menus you have loaded, map or
profile as a processed entity, and the state in which you left this entity the last time
you used it.
The project also controls your working directory. Projects are saved as (*.gpf) files. If
you open an existing project from a directory, the system assumes that all your
project files are located in the same directory. To streamline your work, as well as to
keep it organized, make sure that your project file is in the same directory as the other
files you want to use. We recommend that each project you work on have its own
project (*.gpf) file. If you use a number of applications or add-on tools in Oasis
montaj that have different menus, you can use the project to display only the menus
you require.
The Project Explorer tool enables you to browse and open project items. The Project
Explorer pane has two tabbed sections. The Data section displays all data files
included in the project, and the Tools section organizes and maintains the project
tools. To access the Tools section, you click the Tools bar at the bottom of the Project
Explorer pane. To return to the Data pane, you click the Data bar at the top of the
Project Explorer pane.
Chapter 2: Before You Begin 11
TO CREATE A PROJECT:
1. Start Oasis montaj.
2. From the File menu, select Project > New.
The New Project dialog is displayed.

Note: Oasis montaj assumes that your data are in the directory containing this
project (C:\Tutorial).
3. Specify a name and directory for the project. For example, name the project
Magmap and place it in the working directory C:\Tutorial.
4. Click [Save].
The system saves the project and indicates that it is open by adding menus to the
menu bar, adding buttons to the toolbar, and by displaying the Project Explorer
pane. These are visual clues indicating that you are ready to start working with
the system.
Loading the MAGMAP Menu
Before you can start working with the montaj MAGMAP Filtering system, you
have to load the MAGMAP menu in your project. For more information on setting
menus, refer to the Oasis montaj Online Help system (Help > Help Topics).
12 Chapter 2: Before You Begin
TO LOAD THE MAGMAP MENU:
1. From the GX menu, select Load Menu or click the Load Menu icon ( ) on the
toolbar.
The Load Menu dialog is displayed.
2. From the list of files, select magmap.omn and click the [Open] button.
The system displays the MAGMAP menu on the main Oasis montaj menu bar.


Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials
Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials
13
The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) filtering methods have a wide variety of
applications in the Earth Sciences investigations. Typically applied to potential field
data derived from geophysical surveys, the FFT filters can be used to remove
geologic and cultural noise (i.e., to "clean" data), perform regional/residual
separations for interpretation purposes, and to estimate certain physical parameters,
such as magnetic susceptibility. In addition, FFT filtering enables geoscientists to
evaluate and interpret frequency-dependent relationships in the transformed data via
power spectra and other forms of advanced analysis.
In this tutorial, you will use Geosoft 2D-FFT system to apply the FFT algorithm and
accomplish a subset of these tasks first filtering gridded data to remove geologic
noise, and then extracting vertical and horizontal derivatives for comparison with the
original grid. You will also learn how to create maps, visualize grids on the screen,
and print maps for interpretation.
montaj MAGMAP Filtering enables you to apply a "long" (extended) FFT process,
a one-step FFT process, or an interactive FFT process. The long process enables you
to control each part of the sequence (prepare grids, apply forward FFT, set filters, and
apply inverse FFT), whereas the one-step process performs the grid preparation,
forward and inverse FFT steps for you. The interactive process enables you to
visualize the filtering parameters and interactively select those parameters that best
apply to your data. For completeness, the tutorial provides an example of the
expanded (step-by-step) process, including a description of how to calculate power
spectra, and an example of the interactive method. To help you learn how to use the
MAGMAP system, we provide the following tutorials:
Tutorial 1: Preparing Data for Processing.page 14
Tutorial 2: Displaying Grids Prior to Processing and Analysis.page 14
Tutorial 3: Preparing Grids for Transformation.page 15
Tutorial 4: Applying the Forward Fast Fourier Transform.page 17
Tutorial 5: Setting Filters.page 17
Tutorial 6: Applying Filters and the Inverse Transform.page 20
Tutorial 7: Displaying Filtered Grids.page 21
Tutorial 8: Calculating Radially Averaged Power Spectra.page 22
Tutorial 9: Displaying Radially Averaged Power Spectra .page 23
Tutorial 10: Calculating and Displaying 2D Power Spectra.page 24
Tutorial 11: Performing Interactive Spectrum Filtering.page 26
Tutorial 12: Calculating Analytic Signal.page 34
Tutorial 13: Calculating Tilt Derivative.page 37
Tutorial 14: Sharing Results .page 40
14 Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials
Tutorial 1: Preparing Data for Processing
The montaj MAGMAP Filtering system is designed to work on processed, gridded
data. This tutorial does not explicitly describe the procedure used for preparing your
data. In real life, you may be required to prepare the data yourself prior to using the
montaj MAGMAP Filtering system. For more information about additional tools
you may require for filtering, gridding, and performing other basic processing tasks,
contact your Geosoft representative.
Tutorial 2: Displaying Grids Prior to Processing and
Analysis
Before starting, you may want to display the sample grid we have provided for
processing (mag_in.grd).
TO DISPLAY A GRID:
1. From the Grid menu, select Display Grid > Colour-Shaded Grid.
The Color-shaded grid image dialog is displayed.

2. Using the [] button, select the Grid name as mag_in.grd.
3. Accept the default values for the rest of the parameters, and click the [New Map]
button.
Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials 15
The system creates a colour-shaded image from the mag_in.grd file, and places
that image in a new map window called mag_in.map.

The above grid, especially in its central and upper parts, displays noisy magnetic
field, which is typically produced by shallow sources. The goal of the filtering
process for this grid is minimizing the effects of these shallow magnetic sources to
enhance the signature of deeper objects.
Tutorial 3: Preparing Grids for Transformation
Before transforming a grid to the wavenumber domain (applying the forward FFT),
the grid file so that the grid:
Has dimensions that are acceptable to the FFT.
Includes no dummy values.
Is periodic on its edges. In other words, a point on the left edge of the grid must
match the corresponding point on the right edge, and a point on the top edge must
match the corresponding point on the bottom edge, in both value and slope
(derivative)
When you are using the extended FFT process in the montaj MAGMAP Filtering
system, the first processing step is to prepare your grid using the Prepare Grids menu
option. When you are using the one-step FFT process, grid preparation is handled
automatically.
16 Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials
Basic grid preparation steps include trend removal, grid expansion (to make grid
smoothly periodic), and grid filling (to replace all the dummy values with
interpolated values).
In this tutorial, we only provide a functional (how-to) description of the grid
preparation process. If you would like to learn more about trend removal, grid
expansions, and filling algorithms, refer to Chapter 6: Preparing Grids for the FFT
Processing. This chapter provides a complete description of the grid preparation
process, and tells you how to set trend removal, grid filling, and expansion
parameters.
TO PREPARE A GRID FOR THE FFT TRANSFORMATION:
1. From the MAGMAP menu, select Step-By-Step Filtering > Prepare Grid.
The FFT2 grid pre-processing dialog is displayed.

2. Using the [] button, enter the Name of Input (Original) Grid File as
mag_in.grd.
3. Using the [] button, enter a name for the pre-processed grid in the Name of
Output (Pre-processed) Grid File field as prep_in.
4. Leaving the intelligent default values for the rest of the parameters, as shown
above, click the [Start] button.
Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials 17
The system prepares the grid and displays it in your current project as a temporary
map file.

The above grid has new dimensions that are acceptable to FFT, includes NO
dummy values, and is periodic on its edges.
Tutorial 4: Applying the Forward FFT
After the grid preparation you apply the forward FFT.
TO APPLY THE FORWARD FFT:
1. From the MAGMAP menu, select Step-By-Step Filtering > Forward FFT.
The FFT2IN dialog is displayed.

2. Using the [] button, enter the Name of Input Pre-processed Grid File as
prep_in.grd. Note that this should be the default value.
3. Click the [OK] button.
The system computes the transformation.
Tutorial 5: Setting Filters
After computing the transform file, you are ready to apply FFT filters. You can apply
up to six filters in any order. Following is the list of available filters:
18 Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials
BPAS
Bandpass Filter
GAUS
Gaussian regional/residual filter
BTWR
Butterworth Filter
GNRL
General radially symmetric filter
CNDN
Downward continuation
GPSD
Pseudo-Gravity filter
CNUP
Upward continuation
HPAS
High-pass filter
COSN
Cosine roll-off filter
INTG
Vertical integration
DCOS
Directional cosine filter
LPAS
Low-pass filter
DENS
Apparent density calculation
OPTM
Weiner optimum filter
DPAS
Directional pass/reject filter
REDE
Reduce to the magnetic equator
DRVX
Derivative in the X direction
REDP
Reduce to the magnetic pole
DRVY
Derivative in the Y direction
SUSC
Apparent susceptibility calculation
DRVZ
Derivative in the Z direction
TXYZ
Conversion between Field Components
GFILT
Gravity Earth Filter


For the purpose of this tutorial, we will apply the Butterworth and Upward
Continuation filters. For a complete description of each of these filters, refer to
Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters.
TO SET FFT FILTERS:
1. From the MAGMAP menu, select Step-By-Step Filtering > Define Filters.
The MAGMAP FILTER DESIGN dialog is displayed.

2. You can specify a new control file name. For this tutorial, accept the default
control file name magmap.con. Click the [OK] button.
Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials 19
The MAGMAP FILTER DESIGN dialog is displayed.

3. From the First filter to apply drop-down list, select Butterworth Filter.
4. From the 2nd filter (optional) drop-down list, Upward Continuation.
5. Click the [OK] button.
The Butterworth Filter (Filter1) dialog is displayed.

Tip: The Butterworth filter is excellent for applying straightforward high-pass
or low-pass filters to data because you can easily control the degree of
filter roll-off while leaving the central wavenumber fixed. If ringing is
observed, the degree can be reduced until the results are acceptable.
6. Enter the Cutoff Wavenumber (in ground unit) as 4.
7. Enter the Filter Order as 8.
8. From the High or Low Pass drop-down list, select Low-Pass.
9. Click the [OK] button.
The Upward Continuation dialog is displayed.
Note: The dialogs that appear here correspond to the type of filters you selected to
apply. If you only selected one filter, the system displays a single dialog for
20 Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials
that filter. If you selected more than one filter, multiple dialogs are displayed.
You must set the parameters for all the selected filters.

Tip: Upward continuation is considered a clean filter because it produces
almost no side effects that may require application of other filters or
processes to correct. Because of this, this filter is often used to remove or
minimize the effects of shallow sources and noise in grids. Also, upward
continued data may be interpreted numerically, with modeling programs.
This is not the case for many other filter processes.
10. Type 200 in the Distance to upward continue (in ground units) field.
11. Click the [OK] button.
The system sets the filter parameters. You are now ready to apply the filter and
inverse transform to obtain an output grid.
Tutorial 6: Applying Filters and the Inverse Transform
At this point, you are ready to apply the filters and the inverse FFT process. There are
several processing options that you can choose. For description of these options, see
the Applying the Inverse FFT chapter, page 75.
In this tutorial, you select a filtered grid with post-processing. This option applies the
grid logic to restore the original grid dimensions, and also replaces the trend that was
removed in the initial grid preparation stage.
TO APPLY FILTERS AND INVERSE FFT:
1. From the MAGMAP menu, select Step-By-Step Filtering > Apply Filter.
The FFT2FLT dialog is displayed.

Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials 21
2. Using the [] button, enter prep_in_trn.grd as a value for the Name of Input
Transform (*_trn.grd) File field.
3. Using the [] button, enter mag_out as a value for the Name of Output Grid
File field.
4. Using the [] button, enter magmap.con as a value for the Name of Filter
Control File field.
5. Using the [] button, enter mag_in.grd as a value for the Name of Reference
(Original) Grid File field.
6. Click the [OK] button to select the post-processing option.
The system computes a post-processed, filtered, space-domain grid, and displays
it in a temporary map.

Tutorial 7: Displaying Filtered Grids for Analysis
After generating the filtered grid, you may want to display it on your screen for
comparison with the original total field grid. You have a choice of displaying grids
either as standard or shaded grid images.
TO DISPLAY GRIDS:
1. Display the original mag_in and the newly created mag_out as colour-shaded
grids on temporary maps.
22 Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials
2. Use the right-click pop-up menu to zoom and pan the maps until you are satisfied
with the size and location of each map.
At this point, your maps should look similar to the following:

Tutorial 8: Calculating Radially Averaged Power
Spectra
If required, you can calculate a radially averaged version of your spectrum.
TO CALCUALATE THE RADIALLY AVERAGED SPECTRUM:
1. From the MAGMAP menu, select Spectrum Calculation and Display >Radial
average spectrum.
The FFTRSPC dialog is displayed.

2. Using the [Browse] button, enter the Name of Input Transform (grid) File as
prep_in_trn.grd.
3. Using the [Browse] button, enter the Name of Output Spectrum File as radial.
4. Click the [OK] button.
Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials 23
The system computes the spectrum.
Tutorial 9: Displaying Radially Averaged Spectra
You can view the spectra calculated in the previous step in your project. The spectra
are automatically formatted to fit on a page when printed. To examine a sample plot,
see energy spectrum section in Chapter 4: 2D Fast Fourier Transform and
MAGMAP Theory page 42.
TO DISPLAY RADIALLY AVERAGED SPECTRUM:
1. From the MAGMAP menu, select Spectrum Calculation and Display >Display
Spectrum.
The Create a spectrum map dialog is displayed.

2. Using the [] button, enter the Input spectrum file name as radial.SPC.
3. Click the [OK] button.
24 Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials
The radial.map file is displayed.

Tutorial 10: Calculating and Displaying 2D Power
Spectra
If you are performing a more complex interpretation, you may be interested in
computing and displaying the 2D power spectrum for your grid.
TO CALCULATE AND DISPLAY 2D POWER SPECTRA;
1. From the MAGMAP menu, select Spectrum Calculation and Display > 2-D
Power Spectrum.
Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials 25
The FFTPSPC dialog is displayed.

2. Using the [] button, enter the Name of Input Transform (grid) File as
prep_in_trn.grd.
3. Using the [] button, enter the Name of Output 2D Spectrum (grid) File as
FFT_power.
4. Click the [OK] button.
The system computes the spectrum grid and displays it in a temporary map file.

26 Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials
Tutorial 11: Interactive Spectrum Filtering
The interactive spectrum filtering process enables you to display a radially averaged
power spectrum of an FFT2 Transform image, a selected filter profile, and the
resultant (filtered) power spectrum profile, in an interactive window. The filters can
be selected from a drop-down list or from a predefined control file. Filter parameters
can be interactively modified to obtain the best results.
The Interactive Spectral Filter dialog includes a profile window, a filter selection
drop-down list, and filter-specific parameter fields. The profile pane displays:
The radially averaged power spectrum profile from the original input spectrum
file, in black
The filter profile in blue
The resultant (filtered) profile in red
The values of the filter parameter fields can be entered interactively, by moving the
associated slider, or by typing in the field boxes.
Interactive spectrum filtering can be used when working with the following filters:
Bandpass, Butterworth, Cosine Roll-off, Gaussian Regional/Residual, Upward
Continuation, Downward Continuation, Derivative in the Z Direction, and Vertical
Integration. For more information on these filters, see Chapter 6: Specifying FFT
Filters page 54.
The Interactive Filtering process includes the following procedures:
Preparing grids for transformation
Applying the forward Fast Fourier Transform
Calculating the radial average spectrum
Defining interactive spectrum filters
Appying filters and the inverse transform
TO PREPARE A GRID FOR FFT TRANSFORMATION:
1. From the MAGMAP menu, select Interactive Filtering > Prepare Grid.
Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials 27
The FFT2 grid pre-processing dialog is displayed.

2. Using the [] button, enter the Name of Input (Original) Grid File as
mag_in.grd.
3. Using the [] button, enter the Name of Output (Pre-processed) Grid File as
Interactive_prep_grid.
4. Leaving the the intelligent default values for the rest of the parameters, as shown
above, click the [Start] button.
28 Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials
The system prepares the grid and displays it in your current project in a temporary
map file.

TO APPLY THE FORWARD FAST FOURIER TRANSFORMATION:
1. From the MAGMAP menu, select Interactive Filtering > Forward FFT.
The FFT2IN dialog is displayed.

2. Using the [] button, enter the Name of Input Pre-processed Grid File as
Interactive_prep_grid.grd. This should be the default value.
3. Click the [OK] button.
The system computes the transform.
TO CALCULATE THE RADIALLY AVERAGED SPECTRUM:
1. From the MAGMAP menu, select Interactive Filtering > Radial Average
Spectrum.
Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials 29
The FFTRSPC dialog is displayed.

2. Using the [] button, enter the Name of Input Transform (grid) File as
Interactive_prep_grid_trn.grd.
3. Using the [] button, enter the Name of Output Spectrum File as
Interactive_Radial.
4. Click the [OK] button.
The system computes the spectrum.
TO SPECIFY INTERACTIVE SPECTRUM FILTERS:
1. From the MAGMAP menu, select Interactive Filtering > Interactive Spectrum
Filters.
The Interactive FFT2 radially averaged power spectrum filter dialog is displayed.

2. Using the [] button, enter the Spectrum File Name as Interactive_Radial.SPC.
3. Using the [] button, enter the Control File Name as
Interactive_magmap.con.
4. Click the [OK] button.
30 Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials
The Interactive Spectral Filter window is displayed.

5. Select the spectral filter from the Filter Name drop-down list.
Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials 31
The selected filter parameters are displayed in the Filters section. For example,
for the Butterworth filter, the Filters section looks as follows:

6. Modify the filter parameters by moving the parameter sliders or by typing values
in fields and then pressing [Enter] on the keyboard.
The filter profile and filtered spectrum profile are updated and re-displayed
accordingly.
7. Optionally, to preview the impact of filtering on your grid, click the [Preview]
button.
32 Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials
The Preview section is appended at the right-hand side of the window.

The Original Grid image shows the unfiltered grid. The Filtered Grid image
shows the grid filtered with the currently selected filter parameters. The Filtered
Grid image changes in real time when you change the filter parameters in the
Filters section.
8. When satisfied with the filtered spectrum, click the [OK] button to save the
selected filter along with its parameter values to the output control file
(Interactive_magmap.con).
TO APPLY FILTERS AND INVERSE FFT:
1. From the MAGMAP menu, select Interactive Filtering > Apply Filter.
Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials 33
The FFT2FLT dialog is displayed.

2. Using the [] button, enter the Name of Input Transform (*_trn.grd) File as
Interactive_prep_grid_trn.grd.
3. Using the [] button, enter the Name of Output Grid File as
Interactive_mag_out.
4. Using the [] button, enter the Name of Filter Control file as
Interactive_magmap.con.
5. Using the [] button, enter the Name of Reference (Original) Grid File as
mag_in.grd.
Note: Depending on the post-processing option you would like to apply to your
data, you can click the [Flt-Inv Only], [Filter Only], or the [OK] button. For
more information on these options, see the Applying the Inverse FFT chapter.
6. Click the [OK] button to choose the post-processing option.
34 Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials
The system computes a post-processed, filtered, space-domain grid, and displays
that grid in your project.

Tutorial 12: Calculating Analytic Signal
Analytic signal is the square root of the sum of squares of the derivatives in the x, y,
and z directions:
asig = sqrt(dx*dx + dy*dy + dz*dz)
The analytic signal is useful in locating the edges of magnetic source bodies,
particularly where remanence and/or low magnetic latitude complicate interpretation.
The default Z-derivative method is FFT. However, for very large grids (over 4000 x
4000 cells), using the Convolution method saves a lot of processing memory and
time.
TO CALCULATE THE ANALYTIC SIGNAL FOR A GRID:
1. From the MAGMAP menu, select Analytic Signal.
Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials 35
The Calculate the analytic signal for a grid dialog is displayed.

2. Use the [] button next to the Input grid field to select an input grid.
3. In the Output analytic signal grid field, enter an output grid name.
4. From the Z-derivative method drop-down list, select FFT or Convolution.
5. From the Retain derivative grids drop-down list, select:
Yes To keep the intermediate derivative grids (dx.grd, dy.grd, and dz.grd)
No To delete the intermediate derivative grids on exit
6. Click [OK].
36 Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials
The analytic signal grid is created at the defined location. The following
screenshots show the input grid and the output grid, respectively.

Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials 37

Tutorial 13: Calculating Tilt Derivative
The Tilt Derivative option calculates the tilt derivative of a grid and, optionally, the
total horizontal derivative of the tilt derivative grid. The tilt derivative and its total
horizontal derivative are used for mapping shallow basement structures and mineral
exploration targets.
The default Z-derivative method is FFT. However, for very large grids (over 4000 x
4000 cells), using the Convolution method saves a lot of processing memory and
time.
The tilt derivative is defined as:
TDR = arctan(VDR/THDR)
where VDR and THDR are the first vertical and total horizontal derivatives,
respectively, of the total magnetic intensity T
VDR = dT/dz
THDR = sqrt((dT/dx)^2 + (dT/dy)^2)
38 Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials
The total horizontal derivative of the tilt derivative is defined as:
HD_TDR = sqrt((dTDR/dx)^2 + (dTDR/dy)^2)
TO CALCULATE TILT DERIVATIVE FOR A GRID:
1. From the MAGMAP menu, select Analytic Signal.
The Calculate a tilt derivative grid dialog is displayed.

2. Use the [] button next to the Input grid field to select an input grid.
3. In the Output tilt derivative grid (TDR) field, enter an output grid name.
4. Optionally, to create the horizontal derivative grid, in the Output horiz. deriv. of
TDR grid (HD_TDR) field, enter a grid name. If you leave this field blank, the
HD TDR grid will not be created.
5. From the Z-derivative method drop-down list, select FFT or Convolution.
6. Click [OK].
Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials 39
The tilt derivative grid (and, optionally, horizontal derivative grid) is (are) created
at the defined location(s), and is (are) displayed in the workspace.

40 Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials

Tutorial 14: Sharing Results
You can share your maps as:
Soft copies By exporting the maps to a variety of formats
Hard copies By plotting the maps
Geosoft supports the following export formats for maps:
Enhanced Metafile (*.emf) Geosoft Plot (*.plt)
ArcView Shapefile (*.shp) DXF AutoCAD (*.dxf)
CGM Plot (*.cgm) DXF AutoCAD v12 (*.dxf)
Bitmap (*.bmp) JPEG (*.jpg)
PCX (*pcx) JPEG High Quality (*.jpg)
J2K JPEG 2000 (*.j2k) JP2 JPEG 2000 (*.jp2)
PNG (*.png) TIFF (*.tif)
TIFF Compressed (*.tif) TIFF JPEG 2000 Compressed (*.tif)
Encapsulated Post Script (*.eps) GeoTIFF (*.tif)
Geosoft COLOR Grid (*.grd) MapInfo TIFF (*.tif)
ER Mapper RGB (*.ers) ArcView TIFF (*.tif)
ER Mapper ECW Compressor (*.ecw) MapInfo TAB (*.tab)
SVG Export (*.svg)
Chapter 3: montaj MAGMAP Filtering Tutorials 41
For information about exporting data, refer to the Exporting and Archiving topic in
the Oasis montaj Online Help system, or to the relevant chapter of the Oasis montaj
Tutorial.
Oasis montaj uses your installed Windows system drivers to create printer or plotter
output. For information about plotting maps, refer to the Oasis montaj Online Help
system, or to the relevant chapter of the Oasis montaj Tutorial.
42 Chapter 4: 2D Fast Fourier Transform and MAGMAP Theory
Chapter 4: 2D Fast Fourier Transform and

MAGMAP Theory
For mathematical convenience, MAGMAP applies filters in the Fourier, or
wavenumber, domain. This document assumes that you are familiar with the
application of filters to two dimensional data using the Fourier Domain techniques.
This chapter provides a short review of some of the basic concepts of the Fourier
domain processing.
Mathematically, the Fourier transform of a space domain function f(x,y) is defined as:
( ) ( )
( )
f f x y e
i x y


, , =
+


dxdy

The reciprocal relation is:
( ) ( )
( )
f f x y e d d
i x y
, , =

+

1
4
2




where and are wavenumbers in the x and y directions, respectively, measured in
radians per metre if x and y are in given metres. These are related to spatial
"frequencies" f
x
and f
y
, in cycles per metre.
A grid (in the space domain) is transformed to and from the wavenumber domain
using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The equivalent data set in the wavenumber
domain is commonly called Transform. A Transform of a grid is composed of
wavenumbers, which have units of cycles/metre, and have a real and imaginary
component. Just as a grid samples a space domain function at even distance
increments, the Transform samples the Fourier domain function at even increments of
1/(grid size) (cycles/metre) between 0 and the Nyquist wavenumber (1/[2*cell size]).
A given potential field function in the space domain has a single and unique
wavenumber domain function, and vice versa. The addition of two functions
(anomalies) in the space domain is equivalent to the addition of their Transforms.
The energy spectrum is a 2D function of the energy relative to wavenumber and
direction. The radially averaged energy spectrum is a function of wavenumber alone,
and is calculated by averaging the energy for all directions for the same wavenumber.
The Fourier transform of the potential field produced by a prismatic body has a broad
spectrum whose peak location is a function of the depth to the prisms top and bottom
surfaces, and whose magnitude is determined by the prisms density or
magnetization. The peak wavenumber (') can be determined by the following
expression:
Chapter 4: 2D Fast Fourier Transform and MAGMAP Theory 43
( )
t b
t b
h h
h h

=
ln

where:
' is the peak wavenumber in (radians / metre)
h
t
is the depth to the top
h
b
is the depth to the bottom
The spectrum of a bottomless prism peaks at the zero wavenumber according to the
following expression (Bhatacharia, 1966):
( ) f

, =
= +

e
r
hr
2 2

where h is the depth to the top of the prism.
The spectrum for a prism with top and bottom surfaces is:
( ) f , =

e e
h r h r
t b

where h
t
and h
b
are the depths to the top and bottom surfaces, respectively. As the
prism bottom is brought up, the peak moves to higher wavenumbers as illustrated in
the following figure.
0
1
0 1
wavenumber
top = 4
12
20
36
8
no bottom
bottom depth

44 Chapter 4: 2D Fast Fourier Transform and MAGMAP Theory
Considering the spectrum of a fixed-size prism, as the prism depth is increased, the
peak of the spectrum is shifted to lower wavenumbers (the anomaly becomes
broader), and the magnitude of the spectrum is reduced.
0
0
1
1
wavenumber
thickness = 4
top = 4
8
16

An important fact to note in the above figure is that the spectrum of a deep prism does
not exceed the magnitude of the same prism at a lesser depth at any wavenumber
only the peak is shifted to lower wavenumbers. Because of this, there is no way to
separate the effect of deep sources from shallow sources of the same type using
wavenumber filters. This is only possible if the deep sources are of stronger
magnitude, or if the shallow sources have a lesser depth extent.
When considering a grid that is large enough to include many sources, the log
spectrum of this data can be interpreted to determine the statistical depth to the tops
of the sources using the following relationship:
( ) log E r hr = 4

The depth of an ensemble of sources is easily determined by measuring the slope of
the energy (power) spectrum and dividing it by 4. A typical energy spectrum for
magnetic data may exhibit three parts a deep source component, a shallow source
component, and a noise component.
Chapter 4: 2D Fast Fourier Transform and MAGMAP Theory 45
The following figure illustrates the division of an energy spectrum into these three
components.
N
d
s
n
w
E
MAGMAP is commonly used to enhance information of interest in a given 2D data
set, either by removing features considered as noise, or by enhancing the features
of interest. For example, if you are interested in shallow features in a magnetic map,
you might apply a first or second vertical derivative filter to the data in order to
enhance shallow features at the expense of anomalies caused by deeper sources.
MAGMAP takes advantage of the fact that potential field data, by its nature, is very
broad-band, so that a single measurement includes the effects due to all the
physical (geological) sources. Resolution of the different sources depends on the
noise level of the measuring system, and the ability to resolve overlapping signals.
The FFT Algorithm
In MAGMAP, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is used to convert the space domain
grid data to the Fourier domain. The system applies Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to
a space domain grid to produce a folded 2D transform as output. As part of the
process, MAGMAP also calculates and saves a radially averaged energy spectrum of
the transform.
The system creates a Fourier domain grid, which is called a Transform. It has the
same name as the input grid, but with the .TRN extension. The transform grid
contains a folded discrete Fourier transform of the input grid.
46 Chapter 4: 2D Fast Fourier Transform and MAGMAP Theory
The size of the transform grid element is 4 bytes; each pair of elements represents the
real and imaginary component of a complex number. The transform is stored in the
same way as the input grid, so that each transform vector (row) represents a vector in
the storage direction of the input grid (X for kx=1, Y for kx=-1). The following table
illustrates the logical storage of the transform:
V (n) -(1/nv) r i r i r i r i
V (n-1) -(2/nv) r i r i r i r i

V (n/2+2) -(1/2v - 1/nv) r i r i r i r i
V (n/2+1) 1/2v (nyq.) r i r i r i r i
V (n/2) 1/2v - 1/nv r i r i r i r i

V (3) 2/nv r i r i r i r i
V (2) 1/nv r i r i r i r i
V (1) 0 r i r i r i r i
Vectors 0 1/ne 2/ne 1/2e (nyq.)
Elements E (1,2) E (3,4) E (5,6) E(n+1,n+2)
where:
r, i are real and imaginary components of each transform element
e, v are element and vector separations (cell size)
n is the original grid dimension in cells
The transform element separation (1/ne) and vector separation (1/nv) is 1 / (grid
dimension) cycles/metre. Since both the grid and the grid cell are square, 1/ne = 1/nv.
The Nyquist wavenumber is the largest wavenumber that has been sampled by the
grid, and is defined as one over twice the grid cell size (1/2e and 1/2v, which are also
equal).
Looking at the above table, you can note that each transform vector (row) represents
a discrete Fourier row in the direction of the input grid vectors. The Fourier elements
within each row start at 0 cycles/metre and extend to the Nyquist wavenumber in 1/ne
increments.
Chapter 4: 2D Fast Fourier Transform and MAGMAP Theory 47
As a result, the transform grid has (n/2 + 1) elements per vector, where n is the
number of elements per vector in the original grid. The transform is folded at the
Nyquist wavenumber in the direction of the grid vectors, so the transform grid has n
vectors.
The Energy Spectrum
In addition to producing the Fourier transform, the Forward FFT option
(FFT2IN.GX) also produces a file containing the radially averaged energy spectrum
(2-D Power Spectrum) in a format similar to the following example:
/ 2-D RADIALLY AVERAGED POWER SPECTRUM
/
/ WAVENUMBER INTERVAL DWE = 1.428571E-01
/ AVERAGE SPECTRAL DENSITY LOG(ETOT) = 1.940511E+01
/
/ CYC/KM #_SAMP LOG_P 3_DEPTH 5_DEPTH
/ -
0.000000E+00 1 6.953915E+00 2.017633E-01 *
1.428571E-01 8 6.591711E+00 3.892244E-01 *
2.857143E-01 12 5.556448E+00 5.608587E-01 4.363967E-01
4.285714E-01 16 4.578010E+00 3.591071E-01 3.645031E-01
5.714285E-01 32 4.267114E+00 1.735434E-01 2.545823E-01
7.142857E-01 28 3.954922E+00 2.310963E-01 2.454431E-01
8.571429E-01 40 3.437389E+00 3.316897E-01 3.152357E-01
1.000000E+00 40 2.764027E+00 3.829211E-01 2.908998E-01
.
.
.
9.000000E+00 364 -6.672572E+00 1.778083E-01 5.273030E-02
9.142857E+00 440 -7.611941E+00 2.138515E-01 1.244036E-01
9.285714E+00 400 -7.440382E+00 -1.844887E-02 1.012864E-01
9.428572E+00 424 -7.545702E+00 1.084567E-01 1.966618E-02
9.571428E+00 420 -7.829783E+00 -3.100928E-02 1.257935E-02
9.714286E+00 416 -7.434367E+00 -3.970939E-02 4.879844E-02
9.857142E+00 448 -7.687212E+00 2.171140E-01 *
1.000000E+01 394 -8.213891E+00 2.933830E-01 *
1.014286E+01 340 -1.024793E+01 * *
1.028571E+01 348 -1.104301E+01 * *
1.042857E+01 272 -1.107746E+01 * *

The radially averaged energy listed in the third column represents the spectral density
(energy) averaged for all grid elements at the wavenumber in the first column. The
second column indicates the number of elements that were used to determine the
average. The energy is normalized by subtracting the log of the average spectral
density.
The 3-DEPTH and 5-DEPTH columns are ensemble magnetic depth estimates based
on 3 and 5 point averages of the slope of the energy spectrum (Spector and Grant,
1970). The depth to a statistical ensemble of sources is determined by the following
expression:
48 Chapter 4: 2D Fast Fourier Transform and MAGMAP Theory
h = -s/ 4
where:
h is depth
s is the slope of the log (energy) spectrum
The above estimates can be used as a rough guide to the depth of magnetic source
populations.
The system enables you to create and view a radially averaged spectrum
automatically. The plot format is shown below.

The above plot illustrates the typical reduction in energy with increasing
wavenumber. The depth estimate is a plot of the 5-point depth data from the spectrum
file.
Chapter 5: Preparing Grids for the FFT Processing
Chapter 5: Preparing Grids for the FFT Processing
49
Grid preparation includes the following basic processes:
1. Removing a first order trend from the grid. The removed trend is stored in the
user area of the grid header, and is filtered together with the zero wavenumber.
2. Expanding the grid dimensions by adding dummy areas to the grid edges to
produce a square grid. By default, the grid size is increased by a minimum of
10%, and then the next largest acceptable dimension is selected. The system uses
the FFT algorithm for dimensions up to 2520 x 2520 cells. Beyond that, the
algorithm switches to the power of 2 FFT methods.
3. Replacing all dummy values in the grid with the interpolated values from the
valid parts of the grid.
The following diagram illustrates the effect of the above processes in one dimension.
Because the pre-processed grid must be periodic, it is important to remove a first
order trend before expanding and filling.
Trend Removal (GRIDTRND)
Expand (GRIDXPND) and Fill to Periodic (GRIDFILL)
Original Data

If a significant trend is left in the data, the expansion and filling processes are forced
to introduce a large step function in order to make the data periodic. In the Fourier
domain, this step function predominates, and might cause ringing problems.
Trend Removal Algorithm
The system first removes a first order trend from the data. Because the data is made
periodic when filled, this procedure removes the amount of step function that may be
required to connect the grid at opposite edges.
The trend surface is (by default) calculated using the edge points of the data, so that
no strong anomalies within the grid affect the trend. The trend coefficients (first order
only) are stored in the grid file header and, during filtering, anything applied to the
zero wavenumber of the data is also applied to the trend coefficients.
50 Chapter 5: Preparing Grids for the FFT Processing
Grid Expansion Algorithm
The grid must be expanded in size to have dimensions that are acceptable to the FFT:
2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 24, 28, 30, 36, 40, 42, 48, 56, 60, 70, 72, 80, 84, 90,
112, 120, 126, 140, 144, 168, 180, 210, 240, 252, 280, 315, 336, 360, 420, 504, 560,
630, 720, 840, 1008, 1260, 1280, or 2520 cells. Also, the expansion provides an area
for extending the grid to be smoothly periodic. Grid expansion simply pads the edges
of the grid with dummy values.
The system allows you to specify a minimum percentage for expansion. The default is
10%, after which the next largest acceptable dimension is selected.
In most cases, the default size is acceptable. However, if the wavelength of the
anomalies of interest is more than approximately two times the default padded size,
you must increase the expanded size by increasing the expansion percentage. If the
expansion is too small, any step in the expanded area can adversely affect the
anomalies within the data.
Grid Filling Algorithm
The system replaces all the dummy values within a grid with the interpolated values.
It starts by interpolating the blank areas of the grid by:
1. Replacing dummies within each grid row so that the grid lines are periodic
2. Replacing dummies within each grid column so that the grid columns are periodic
3. Averaging the results from the row and column filling. The averaging procedure
uses inverse distance weighting to the nearest data within each row and column.
This procedure effectively fills holes in the data and accounts for irregular edges
of the grid.
When filling, you must avoid introducing abrupt step functions in the filled grid. You
can suspect a step problem if you observe ringing in a filtered output grid. Ringing
is a symptom of Gibb's Phenomena, which is observed when you modify the Fourier
Spectrum of a step function. Filters, by definition, must modify Fourier Spectrum;
therefore, filtered maps are susceptible to Gibb's Phenomena if you are not careful
when filling the grid.
Ringing can be identified as a wave pattern that extends away from, or around, a
strong anomaly. The wavelength of the pattern is normally near the size of the strong
feature in the data. Because the system interpolates data beyond the edges of the grid,
it can introduce step functions that cause ringing to spread into a filtered grid.
Minimizing "Ringing" from Grid Filling
MAGMAP provides the following parameters that can be set to minimize ringing
problems when they occur. For a complete summary of the trend removal, grid
Chapter 5: Preparing Grids for the FFT Processing 51
expansion, and filling parameters, see the Setting Trend Removal, Grid Expansion,
and Filling Parameters section at the end of this chapter.
Applying Maximum Entropy Prediction
If required, you can use Maximum Entropy Prediction (MEP) to interpolate the data.
MEP samples the original data near the grid edges to determine its spectral content. It
then predicts a data function that would have the same spectral signature as the
original data. This means that if the original data is smooth, the predicted data is
smooth, and if the original data is noisy, the predicted data is noisy.
As a result, the predicted data will not significantly alter the energy spectrum that
would result from the original data alone. Also, this method allows noisy data on one
edge of a grid to be gradually interpolated into smooth data on the opposite edge of a
grid.
Controlling Edge Effects
Sometimes, the prediction function can produce large ridges that extend away from
the edges of the data. If you suspect ringing caused by an edge effect, look at the pre-
processed grid to see if edge filling has produced strong ridges in the filled areas.
This typically happens in the originally rectangular grids for which a large expansion
is required in one direction in order to make the grid square.
If you suspect such an edge problem, you can set the distance at which to roll the data
to zero. Ensure that the roll to zero distance is at least as large as the longest
anomalies of interest along the edges of the data, otherwise the edge anomalies may
be distorted.
Limiting Strong Anomalies Near Grid Edges
Very strong anomalies that are truncated at the edge of a grid can cause problems in
filling because their magnitude is extended into the filled borders of the grid. Step
functions parallel to the grid edges result, and ringing can manifest itself as a streak in
a filtered grid that extends away from the strong anomaly, or appears on the opposite
side of the grid (remember that the grid is considered periodic, so an anomaly on one
edge can effect the opposite edge of the grid).
If required, you can smoothly limit the magnitude of strong anomalies within a
certain distance of the edge of a grid. You can specify the maximum edge magnitude
and distance. All anomalies of greater magnitude than the edge limit will be smoothly
attenuated starting at half the magnitude limit.
In extreme cases, it may be necessary to totally limit edge anomalies by specifying
the maximum magnitude of 0. This is similar to applying the Hamming window to
the grid, which is the more conventional approach used to handle the edges of data in
52 Chapter 5: Preparing Grids for the FFT Processing
the Fourier processing. However, this method produces a pronounced edge ring
around most data grids, which is usually unacceptable.
Limiting Strong Anomalies by Magnitude
Very strong anomalies within the original data area of a grid can also cause ringing
problems in filtered maps. For example, iron formation anomalies in magnetic data
can be many orders of magnitude greater than the surrounding anomalies. The
magnitude of these anomalies is so great that they dominate the Fourier spectrum, and
even small changes to the spectrum result in ringing. Such ringing appears as waves
that surround the large anomaly.
If required, you can smoothly limit any anomalies that exceed a specified magnitude.
Data less than half the limiting magnitude is not changed. Above half the limiting
magnitude, data is smoothly attenuated so that it does not exceed the limit.
If limited anomalies are wide, this can cause the attenuated anomalies to have flat
tops, a fact that you should be aware of when interpreting the resulting filtered maps.
If flat-topped anomalies are not wanted, another option is to clip high magnitude
anomalies using Geosoft's Grid Windowing GX (for more information, contact your
Geosoft representative). Clipped areas must be set to dummy values, and the resulting
processed grids will have holes where the anomalies have been clipped.
Setting Trend Removal, Grid Expansion, and Filling
Parameters
As discussed previously in this chapter, Geosoft provides a variety of capabilities for
preparing grids prior to applying the forward FFT. These capabilities are controlled
through the Prepare Grid menu option. When you select this option, the system
displays the FFT2 grid pre-processing dialog. The following table summarizes the
parameters that can be set in this dialog and provides guidelines for setting them.
Trend Removal Parameters
Type of trend surface to
remove
Select order of trend to remove (the default is the first order). Options
are: remove mean, first order, second order, third order.
trend based on
Select or type either 'edge points' or 'all points'. The trend surface to
remove can be calculated either by using all the valid points in the grid,
or by using only the points along the valid edge of the grid. Using the
edge points is often better, especially if there are any large-magnitude
anomalies within the grid.
Chapter 5: Preparing Grids for the FFT Processing 53
Grid Expansion Parameters
% expansion
Type the expansion size (grid is expanded in size by at least this
distance as a percentage of the smallest grid dimension). The expansion
must be about half the size of the broadest features of interest in the
grid. If you are tapering the data to 0, the expansion need not be larger
than the taper distance.
Square or rectangular
expansion
Select or type either 'square' or 'rectangular'. If the grid is small, or if
the wavenumbers of interest approaches the size of the grid, we
recommend square expansion because it minimises side effects that
result from having different wavenumber samples in the X and Y
directions. Rectangular grids can save significant processing time and
disk space when working with large grids.

Grid Filling and Ringing Parameters
grid fill method
Select or type a fill method. When filling the dummy areas, the new
values are determined by extrapolation from the nearest valid parts of
the grid. This extrapolation may be based on inverse distance
weighting or maximum entropy prediction. Maximum entropy is
slower but it creates a filled area more similar in character to the actual
data.
roll-off to 0 at a
distance of (cells)
Specify the number of cells beyond the valid area at which to roll off to
zero. By default, no roll-off is applied. For some grids, the prediction
function can become unreasonable at large distances from the valid
parts of the grid. In these cases, the data can be forced to zero at a
specified distance. This option should only be used on trend-removed
grids.
limit all magnitudes to
be less than
High-magnitude anomalies can cause problems in filtering systems
such as MAGMAP. With this option, anomalies that exceed half the
specified limit are smoothly attenuated. The attenuation is started at
half the limit, with no values allowed to exceed the limit. This option
must be used only on trend-removed grids.
edge magnitude limit
High-magnitude anomalies on the edges of the valid area can produce
oscillations in the extrapolated areas. With this option, a limit may be
placed on anomalies along the edges of the grid.
54 Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters
Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters

All MAGMAP processes are carried out by the application of filters in the Fourier
(wavenumber) domain. Filters are simply multiplied by the transform of the grid on
an element-by-element basis.
Once a Fourier transform has been created, the application of filters is quite
straightforward. When using the Step-By-Step method, you select the Define Filters
menu option to either create a new control file or select an existing control file. With
the Interactive filtering method, you select the Interactive Spectrum Filters menu
option to create a control file. When you are ready to proceed, you select the Apply
Filters menu option to apply filters according to instructions defined in your new or
existing MAGMAP control file.
Creating Your Own Filter Control File
The MAGMAP control file used by the Apply Filter option is an ASCII text file that
may be created:
Using a text file editor
By copying, renaming, and editing the mapplot.con file in the C:\Program
Files\Geosoft\Oasis montaj\etc directory. The mapplot.con file is a blank control
file that contains a brief description of the parameters and filters available in
MAGMAP.
Using the MAGMAP|Step-By-Step|Define Filtesr menu option or the
MAGMAP|Interactive Filtering|Interactive Spectrum Filters menu option.
Following is an example of a MAGMAP control file:
70 /geomagnetic inclination
0 /geomagnetic declination
BPAS 0.0001 0.003 1 /
BTWR 0.0002 4 0 /
TXYZ 0 3 /
CNDN 50 /
CNUP 200 /
COSN 0.001 0.003 2 1 /
The control file must contain 6 or more lines with the following information:
line 1:
A title line for reference only.
line 2:
The nominal height of the magnetic sensor above the ground (normally, the flying
height), or above the level of magnetic sources. This information is used as the default
height for some of the filters, and is not always necessary or relevant.
line 3:
The magnetic inclination (negative in the Southern hemisphere). The inclination is only
used by the reduction to the pole (REDP), reduction to the equator (REDE),
susceptibility (SUSC), and Weiner optimum (OPTM) filters.
Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters 55
line 4:
The magnetic declination in degrees of azimuth relative to true North. The inclination is
only used by the reduction to the pole (REDP), reduction to the equator (REDE),
susceptibility (SUSC) and Weiner optimum (OPTM) filters. Note that grid files contain
the direction of the grids Y axis in the grid header as the rotation parameter. Filter takes
this direction into account so that the Line 4 parameter can be the true declination. The
grid header must be correct. Very often, the grid rotation is reported as 0 in the grid
header, in which case the declination specified here must be the declination of magnetic
North relative to the grids Y axis.
line 5:
The nominal total magnetic field strength in nano-Tesla (gammas). This value is only
used by the apparent susceptibility map filter (SUSC) in order to derive susceptibility
from magnetization.
line 6+
One or more lines specifying the filters to be applied and their parameters. The following
section documents the available filters.
The forward slash character (/) must terminate a line (with the exception of the title
line), and user comments may follow the slash. After the fifth line, all lines must start
either with a forward slash or a filter name.
Each filter option occupies one or more lines and consists of a four-letter mnemonic
followed by the optional parameter settings. Parameters (if provided) must be
separated by a space. Any number of filters may be applied in a single filtering run.
However, only one output transform is produced. Note that because multiplication is
commutative, the order in which filters are applied is not relevant.
MAGMAP Filters
This section describes the available filters. In each filter-specific subsection, filter
options are listed in alphabetical order. Each description shows the mathematical
expression of the filter followed by a figure if appropriate, then the control file
parameters, and usage notes. The filter expressions use the following basic
expressions:
X wavenumber (complex, radians/ground_unit)
Y wavenumber (complex, radians/ground_unit)
r = +
2 2
Wavenumber (radians/ground_unit)
( =

tan
1
)
Wavenumber direction
N Nyquist wavenumber [1 / (2 * cell size)]
k Wavenumber in cycles/ground_unit (r=2k)
The horizontal axis of the figures represents wavenumbers between 0 and the Nyquist
frequency. All distance references are multiples of the grid cell size. For example,
referring to the filter response drawing for upward continuation (CNUP) filter, if the
56 Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters

grid cell size is 25 ground_units, the Nyquist wavenumber is 0.02 cycles/ground_unit,


the filter response curves would represent upward continuation distances of 50, 100,
200 and 400 ground_units.
BPAS Bandpass Filter
( )
( )
( )
L k k k
L k k k k
L k k k
= <
=
= >
0
1
0
0
0 1
1
, for
, for
, for

1.0
0.0
0.5

pass reject
reject
L(k)
k
0
k
1
Wavenumber

(cycles/
ground_unit)

Parameters:
k
0
The low wavenumber cut-off in cycles/ground_unit.
k
1
The high wavenumber cut-off in cycles/ground_unit.
0/1 If 1, pass the defined band; if 0, reject the defined band. The default is
to pass the band.
Ground_unit The survey ground units used in your grid (e.g., metre, foot, etc.). If
your ground units are in metre, the low and high wavelength cutoff
is in cycles/metre.
BPAS can be used to pass or reject a range of wavenumbers from the data. Applying
such a simple cut-off filter to an energy spectrum almost invariably introduces a
significant amount of ringing (otherwise known as Gibb's Phenomena). We
recommend that you use a smoother filter, such as the Butterworth filter (BTWR).
Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters 57
BTWR Butterworth Filter
( )

+
=
n
k
k
k L
0
1
1

= 2
8
16
4
1.0
0.0
0.5

n
0 N
L(k)
k
o
Wavenumber (cycles/ ground_unit)

Parameters:
k
0
The central wavenumber of the filter.
n The degree of the Butterworth filter function. By default, 8.
0/1 A flag (0 or 1). Specifies if a residual (0) high pass or a regional (1)
low pass is required. By default, a regional filter is applied.
Ground_unit The survey ground units used in your grid (e.g., metre, foot, etc.). If
your ground units are in metre, the low and high wavelength cutoff
is in cycles/metre.
The Butterworth filter is excellent for applying straight forward high-pass and low-
pass filters to data because you can easily control the degree of filter roll-off while
leaving the central wavenumber fixed. If ringing is observed, the degree can be
reduced until the result acceptable. A common but more complicated alternative is the
Cosine filter (COSN).
58 Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters
CNDN Downward Continuation
( ) L r e
hr
=

20.0
Wavenumber (radians/ground_unit)
L(r)
0 N
h = 2
h = 4
h = 8
h = 16
1.0

Parameters:
h The distance, in ground units, to continue down relative to the plane of
observation.
r Wavenumber (radians/ground_unit). Note: r = 2k, where k is
cycles/ground_unit
Ground_unit The survey ground units used in your grid (e.g., metre, foot, etc.).
Downward continuation is used to enhance the responses from sources at a depth by
effectively bringing the plane of measurement closer to the sources. Note that it is not
theoretically possible to continue through a potential field source. Since short-
wavelength signal can appear to be from shallow sources, it must be removed to
prevent high magnitude and short wavelength noise in the processed data. To do this,
you usually apply some type of low-pass filter, such as the Butterworth or Weiner
Optimum filter. You should use a low-pass filter to remove the short wavelength
noise (as determined by the radially averaged energy spectrum) before applying the
downward continuation filter. The energy spectrum is also a good guide for
determining the depth to which the data can be continued downward.
CNUP Upward Continuation
( ) L r
hr
=

e

1.0
0.0
Wavenumber

(radians/ground_unit)
L(r)
0 N
h = 2
h = 4
h = 8
h = 16

Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters 59
Parameters:
h The distance, in ground units, to continue up relative to the plane of
observation.
r Wavenumber (radians/ground_unit). Note: r = 2k, where k is
cycles/ground_unit.
Ground_unit The survey ground units used in your grid (e.g., metre, foot, etc.).
Upward continuation is considered a clean filter because it produces almost no side
effects that may require application of other filters or processes to correct. Because of
this, this filter is often used to remove or minimize the effects of shallow sources and
noise in grids.
Also, upward continued data may be interpreted numerically and with modeling
programs. This is not the case for many other filter processes.
COSN Cosine Roll-off Filter
( )
( )
( )
L k k k
L k
k k
k k
k k k
L k k k
n
= <
=


= >
1
2
0
0
0
1 0
0 1
1
,
cos ,
,
for
for
for


1.0
0.0
0.5

0 N
n=2 1 0.5
k
1
L(k)
Wavenumber cycles/ ground_unit)
k
0

Parameters:
k
0
Low wavenumber starting point of the filter (cut-off wavenumber for
high pass or start of roll off for low pass.
k
1
High wavenumber end point of the filter (start of roll off for high pass
or cut-off wavenumber for low pass.
60 Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters
n The degree of the cosine function. The default is a degree of 2 for a
cosine squared roll off.
0/1 0 for residual (high-pass) filter; 1 for regional (low-pass) filter. The
default is a low-pass filter.
Ground_unit The survey ground units used in your grid (e.g., metre, foot, etc.).
Because this filter has a smooth shape, and it does not alter the energy spectrum
below the start of roll off (or after the end of roll off in high-pass mode), it is
commonly used for simple high-pass or low-pass operations. To reduce ringing, the
separation between r
1
and r
0
can be increased.
DCOS Directional Cosine Filter
( ) ( )
(
)
( )

)

direction pass to , cos 1


direction reject to , cos
2
2
+ =
+ =
n
n
L
L

1.0
0.0
0.5
(direction)
L( )

/2 +/2
n=2
1
0.5


Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters 61
0
N
0
1
-N
-N
N
0
L
(u,)
u

= 70
n = 2
0
N
0
1
-N
-N
N
0
L
(u,)
u

n = 1
0
N
0
1
-N
-N
N
0
L
(u,)
u

n = 0.5

Parameters:
Direction of the filter in degrees (0-360 relative to North).
n The degree of the cosine function. By default, a degree of 2 is used to give a
cosine squared function.
0/1 If 1, apply the filter to pass the specified direction; if 0, apply the filter to
reject the specified direction. By default, the direction is rejected.
The directional cosine filter is very good for removing directional features from a
grid. The cosine function makes the filter smooth, so directional ringing effects are
usually not a problem. The rejection (or pass) notch can be narrowed or widened by
setting the degree of the cosine function, so that highly directional features can be
isolated. De-corrugation of poorly levelled magnetic data is a common application for
this filter (see examples).
DENS Apparent Density Calculation
( )
( )
L r
r
tr
=
2 G 1- e
-

where:
G Gravitational constant.
62 Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters
r Wavenumber (radians/ground_unit). Note: r = 2k, where k is
cycles/unit.
Parameters:
t Thickness, in ground units, of the earth model.
d Background density in g/cm
3
, to be added to the density contrast map.
The default is 0, so the density map is produced relative to the average
density.
Ground_unit The survey ground units used in your grid (e.g., metre, foot, etc.).
The data must also be downward continued using the CNDN filter to be close to the
top surface of the source model. Apparent density mapping assumes that an observed
gravity field can be explained by a simple model layer of fixed thickness and varying
density. This is a poor model in most cases.
DPAS Directional Pass/Reject Filter
0
N
0
1
-N
-N
N
0
L
(u,)
u

= 50
0

= 70
1

Parameters:

0
The low cut-off angle in degrees of azimuth (0-360 from North).

1
The high cut-off angle in degrees of azimuth (0-360 from North).
0/1 If 1, pass the defined band; if 0, reject the defined band. The default is to pass
the band.
As with the band-pass filter, the directional-pass often suffers from Gibb's
Phenomena (ringing) because the spectrum is cut quite abruptly. We recommend
using the directional cosine filter (DCOS) instead.
Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters 63
DRVX Derivative in the X Direction
( ) ( ) L i
n
=

Parameter:
n Order of differentiation.
u The X component of the wavenumber.
i i = 1
The horizontal derivative can be used for creating shaded images, and is required for
some modeling algorithms, such as Euler de-convolution.
DRVY Derivative in the Y Direction
( ) ( )
n
i L =
Parameter:
n Order of differentiation.
v The Y component of the wavenumber.
i i = 1
The horizontal derivative can be used for creating shaded images, and is required for
some modeling algorithms, such as Euler de-convolution.
DRVZ Derivative in the Z Direction
( ) L r r
n
=

Parameter:
n Order of differentiation.
r Wavenumber (radians/unit). Note: r = 2k, where k is cycles/unit.
The vertical derivative is commonly applied to total magnetic field data to enhance
the shallowest geologic sources in the data. As with other filters that enhance the
high-wavenumber components of the spectrum, you must often also apply low-pass
filters to remove high-wavenumber noise.
64 Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters
GFILT Gravity Earth Filter
( )
r
rz
e
rz
e
G r L
) (
2
2 1

=
When r=0:
( ) ) ( 2
1 2
z z G r L =
Where:
G Gravitational constant
r Wavenumber (radians/ground_unit). Note: r = 2k, where k is cycles/unit.
Parameters:
z
1
Depth to the top of the density layer, in ground units. Must be positive for
layers above calculation level.
z
2
Depth to the bottom of the density layer, in ground units. Must be positive for
layers above calculation level.
Ground_unit The survey ground units used in your grid (e.g., metre, foot, etc.).
GAUS Gaussian Regional/Residual Filter
( )
2
0
2
2
1
k
k
e k L

=

1.0
0.0
0.5
0 N
L(k)
Wavenumber

(cycles/ ground_unit)
K
0
2K
0
3K
0

Parameters:
k
0
Standard deviation of the Gaussian function in cycles/ground_unit
(similar to a cut-off point, except that the function magnitude at this
point is only 0.39).
Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters 65

0/1 If 0, the residual component is produced; if 1, the regional component


is produced. The default is 0.
Ground_unit The survey ground units used in your grid (e.g., metre, foot, etc.).
The Gaussian filter is another smooth filter that is often used for low-pass or high-
pass applications.
GNRL General Radially Symmetric Filter
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
L l
L dk l
L dk l
L n dk l
L k l k n dk
n
n
0
2
0
1
2
=
=
=
=
=
M
, for

Parameters:
dk The wavenumber increment (cycles/ground_unit), starting from zero
wavenumber, at which the following filter coefficients are applied.
l
i
The coefficients of the filter function at each wavenumber increment,
starting at zero wavenumber. The last value given is used for all higher
wavenumbers. More than one line can be used to give the coefficients.
A slash character (/) must follow the last coefficient.
Ground_unit The survey ground units used in your grid (e.g., metre, foot, etc.).
The general filter is used when a special-purpose filter must be applied to the data.
Normally, filter coefficients are between 0 and 1.
For example, the following defines a low-pass filter that starts at a wavenumber of
0.003 and rolls off to remove all wavenumbers above 0.007:
L(0) = 1
L(0.001) = 1
L(0.002) = 1
L(0.003) = 1
L(0.004) = 0.8
L(0.005) = 0.5
L(0.006) = 0.2
L(0.007) = 0
To define this filter in a control file, you would type
gnrl 0.001 1. 1. 1. 1. .8 .5 .2 0
66 Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters
GPSD Pseudo-Gravity Filter
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
I I
|I | I

r D I i I
J d G
L a
a
a
=
<
+

=
), ( | if ,
cos cos sin
/
2

|

Where:
I Geomagnetic inclination
I
a
Inclination for magnitude correction (never less than I). The default is 20
degrees. If |I
a
|

is specified to be less than |I|, it is set to I.
d Density contrast in g/cm^3.
G Gravitational constant, 6.670E-8.
J Magnetization in Gauss.
D Geomagnetic declination.
Parameters:
Direction of wavenumber in degrees of azimuth.
r Wavenumber (radians/ground_unit). Note: r = 2k, where k is
cycles/ground_unit.
Ground_unit The survey ground units used in your grid (e.g., metre, foot, etc.).
Output of Pseudo-Gravity is in mgal if ground_unit is metre, or in 0.3mgal if
groud_unit is foot.
Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters 67
HPAS High-pass Filter
( )
( )
L k k k
L k k k
= <
=
0
1
0
0
, for
, for

1.0
0.0
0.5
pass reject
L(k)
k0
Wavenumber (cycles/ground_unit)

Parameters:
k
0
The cut-off wavenumber in cycles/ground_unit. All wavenumbers
below this value are removed.
Ground_unit The survey ground units used in your grid (e.g., metre, foot, etc.).
As with the band-pass filter, the high-pass filter is seldom used because the results
usually suffer from Gibb's Phenomena (ringing).
INTG Vertical Integration
L(r) = r
-1

Parameters:
r Wavenumber (radians/ground_unit). Note: r = 2k, where k is
cycles/ground_unit.
Ground_unit The survey ground units used in your grid (e.g., metre, foot, etc.).
This filter calculates the vertical integral of the input transform. This is the inverse of
the vertical derivative. The zero wavenumber is set to 0.
68 Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters
LPAS Low-pass Filter
L(k) = 1, for k k
0
L(k) = 0, for k > k
0

1.0
0.0
0.5
pass
reject
k0
Wavenumber (cycles/ground_unit)
L(k)

Parameters:
k
0
The cut-off wavenumber in cycles/ground_unit. All wavenumbers
above this value are removed.
Ground_unit The survey ground units used in your grid (e.g., metre, foot, etc.).
As with the band-pass filter, the low-pass filter is seldom used because the results
usually suffer from Gibb's Phenomena (ringing).
OPTM Weiner Optimum Filter
The Weiner optimum filter is intended to remove the effect of white noise from the
magnetic data. White noise is high-wavenumber background noise present in the data.
Because magnetic signal is stronger in the direction of the inducing field, the signal-
to-noise ratio varies as a function of both inclination and declination. The Weiner
optimum filter takes the variation of signal-to-noise ratio into account when applying
the filter.
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) [ ]
( )
0
4 2 2 4
2
2 2 2
1 0
0 1
0 2
0
0
0
cos 375 . 0 cos sin sin
cos cos sin
,
1 for , 0 ,
for ,
2
cos
,
,
,
for ,
,
,
,


+ +
+ +
=
> =

+
=
<

+
=
k s
s
s
s
s
I I I I
D I I
k
k k k L
k k k
k k
k k
k
k
k L
k k
k
k
k L

Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters 69
Where:
I Geomagnetic inclination
D Geomagnetic declination

r
Average radial spectral density

0
Average radial spectral density of noise
k
0
Wavenumber of start of the noise
k
1
Wavenumber at the end of the applied roll-off filter
Parameters:
h The depth at which to interpret an optimum filter from the observed
energy spectrum. By default, the depth is taken as the flying height in
the control file, or the continuation depth if specified by the
Downward Continuation or Apparent Susceptibility filter options (in
ground_units).
k
0
The wavenumber (cycles/ground_unit) at which to start the high-
wavenumber roll off. This parameter must be given together with
0
.
By default, this point is the point at which the slope of the observed
energy spectrum rises above the slope defined by the depth (1/4h).
k
1
The wavenumber (cycles/ground_unit) at which to end the high
wavenumber roll off. By default, this point is set to be two times k
0
.

0
Spectral density estimate of noise to be removed by the Weiner filter.
This is in terms of the log of spectral density as reported in the second
column of the energy spectrum. By default, this is calculated as the
average of the spectral density between k
0
and k
1
.
Ground_unit The survey ground units used in your grid (e.g., metre, foot, etc.).
The optimum filter is most often used to remove the theoretical effect of all sources
that lie above a specified depth. The filter parameters can be specified or calculated
automatically based on analysis of the energy spectrum.
Although this filter can calculate the parameters of the filter, we recommend that you
confirm that the calculated parameters are reasonable. When the energy spectrum is
not smooth, the filter can choose the wrong point at which to start the noise
calculation. Most often, this point is chosen to be too low, and the resulting maps
appear too smooth.
70 Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters
The optimum filter can be quite complex to use and understand. A good alternative is
using the Butterworth filter as a low-pass filter. Determine the wavenumber at which
sources appear too shallow by interpreting the depth estimate in the energy-spectrum
plot.
REDE Reduce to the Magnetic Equator
( )
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
I Ia I Ia if
D I I D Ia Ia
D D I i I
L = <
+ +

= |), | | (| ,
) ( cos ) ( cos ) ( sin ) ( cos ) ( cos ) ( sin
)) ( cos ( ) cos( ) cos( ) sin(
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2


where:
I Geomagnetic inclination
D Geomagnetic declination
L() Direction of the wavenumber vector in degrees of azimuth
No parameters.
Reduction to the equator is used in low magnetic latitudes to centre the peaks of
magnetic anomalies over their sources. This can make the data easier to interpret
while not losing any geophysical meaning. Reducing the data to the pole (REDP)
does much the same thing, but at low latitudes. A separate magnitude correction is
usually required to prevent North-South signal in the data from dominating the
results. As a result, reduced to the pole data may present a less honest view of the
data
REDP Reduce to the Magnetic Pole
( )
[ ]
[ ] [ ]
I Ia I Ia if
D I I D Ia Ia
D I i I
L = <
+ +

= |), | | (| ,
) ( cos ) ( cos ) ( sin ) ( cos ) ( cos ) ( sin
) cos( ) cos( ) sin(
2 2 2 2 2 2
2

where:
I Geomagnetic inclination
Ia Inclination for magnitude correction (never less than I)
D Geomagnetic declination
Parameters:
I
a
Inclination to be used for the magnitude correction. The default is 20
degrees. If |I
a
| is specified to be less than |I|, it is set to I.
Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters 71
Reduction to the pole has a magnitude component (the sin(I) term) and a phase
component (the i cos(I) cos(D-) term). When reducing to the pole from equatorial
latitudes, North-South features can be exaggerated due to the strong magnitude
correction (the sin(I) component) that is applied when (D-) is /2 (i.e., a magnetic
East-West wavenumber). By specifying higher latitude for the magnitude correction
alone, this problem can be reduced or eliminated at the expense of under-correcting
the magnitudes of North-South features.
A magnitude inclination of 90 causes only the phase component to be applied to the
data (no magnitude correction), and a value of 0 (zero) causes phase and magnitude
components to be applied over the entire range.
SUSC Apparent Susceptibility Calculation
The susceptibility filter is, in fact, a compound filter that performs a reduction to the
pole, downward continuation to the source depth, correction for the geometric effect
of a vertical square-ended prism, and division by the total magnetic field to yield
susceptibility.
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )]
( )
( ) sin( ar sin )
cos
cos sin
,
cos cos [sin
, 2
1
,

=
+ =
=

=

ar sin

ar
ar
r
D I i I
e r
r r F
r L
a
hr
2

where:
(r) Downward continuation to h
() Reduction to the pole
(r,) Geometric factor of a vertical prism (aa in dimension)
I Geomagnetic inclination
I
a
Pole reduction magnitude inclination
D Geomagnetic declination
F Total geomagnetic field strength
r Wavenumber (radians/ground_unit). Note: r = 2k, where k is
cycles/ground_unit.
72 Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters
Wavenumber direction (azimuth)
a Half the cell size
Parameters:
h Depth in ground units, relative to the observation level at which to
calculate the susceptibility. By default, the flying altitude reported in
line 2 of the MAGMAP Control File is used.
I
a
Inclination to which to use the phase component only in the reduction
to the pole. The default is 20. If |I
a
| is specified to be less then |I|, it
is set to I.
Ground_unit The survey ground units used in your grid (e.g., metre, foot, etc.).
The susceptibility filter calculates the apparent magnetic susceptibility of the
magnetic sources using the following assumptions:
The IGRF is removed from the magnetic field .
There is no remnant magnetization
All magnetic responses are caused by a collection of vertical, square-ended
prisms of infinite depth extent
The result is in the e.m.u. units
The validity of the results depends on how well the actual observed field conforms to
these assumptions.
TXYZ Conversion between Field Components
TXYZ converts from the total field (T) or vertical field (Z) component of the
magnetic field to any other (X,Y, Z, or T) component.
The following table gives the filter expressions for all possible component field
conversions,
To X To Y To Z To T
From X 1
v / u r / iu P / iu
From Y u / v
1 r / iv P / iv
From Z iu / r
iv / r 1 P / r
From T iu / P
iv / P r / P 1
Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters 73
Where:
I Geomagnetic inclination in degrees from the horizon.
D Geomagnetic declination in degrees azimuth.
i
1
u The X wavenumber
v The Y wavenumber
r
The radial wavenumber =
2 2
v u +
Directional cosine of the Total magnetic field of X axis.

Directional cosine of the Total magnetic field of Y axis.
Directional cosine of the Total magnetic field of Z axis.
P
r v u i + + ) (
Theoretically, any one directional component can be used to calculate any other
component. In reality, only the T and Z fields work well as inputs for this conversion
because the formulas for conversion from X or Y contain singularities, i.e., u can go
to zero while v is large, or vice versa, causing the filter coefficient to become infinite.
Filter Examples
This section provides examples of filter application.
Susceptibility Map
The following control file (susc.con) applies an optimum depth filter and creates a
magnetic susceptibility map calculated at a depth of 200 metres below the survey
elevation.
susceptibility map
120 /sensor elevation
72 /magnetic inclination
-12 /magnetic declination
55000 /total field strength
SUSC 200 /susceptibility map
OPTM /optimum depth filter
The susceptibility map filter includes a downward continuation to the source depth.
Because a downward continuation filter magnitude increases with wavenumber, it
tends to also amplify high-wavenumber noise in the data. To prevent this noise from
entering the final map, you often need to remove high wavenumbers that are
considered noise in the data. This is the function of the Weiner Optimum filter
applied by the OPTM option.
74 Chapter 6: Specifying FFT Filters
Second Vertical Derivative
The following control file creates a second vertical derivative. An upward
continuation of 20 metres (equivalent to the cell size) is also applied to reduce the
effect of high wavenumber noise. The Hanning filter applied after processing can also
serve to reduce noise.
second vertical derivative
120 /sensor elevation
72 /magnetic inclination
-12 /magnetic declination
55000 /total field strength
DRV2 /second vertical derivative
CNUP 20 /continue up 20 metres.
De-corrugation
Given a grid surveyed with a nominal line spacing of 150 metres, which has a line-to-
line levelling problem, the following control file produces a grid that contains the
levelling error only. Following a rule of thumb, the Butterworth high-pass filter is set
to four times the line separation in order to only pass frequencies on the order of the
line separation. The directional cosine filter is set to pass wavelengths only in the
direction of the lines (note that North-South line levelling error produces
wavenumbers in the East-West direction, hence DCOS 90). Because levelling error is
very directional, you can tighten the directional cosine function to an energy value of
0.5.
de-corr., 150m line separation, N-S lines
120 /sensor elevation
72 /magnetic inclination
-12 /magnetic declination
55000 /total field strength
BTWR .00167 8 0 /high-pass butterworth
DCOS 90 0.5 1 /directional cosine.
The resulting grid can be subtracted from the original grid to remove the levelling
error.
Some tuning of both the center wavenumber of the Butterworth filter and the energy
of the directional cosine may be required. To remove the more directional signal,
increase the energy of the cosine filter. To remove wider features, decrease the
Butterworth cut-off point. If you see ringing in the data, decrease the order of the
Butterworth filter.
Chapter 7: Applying the Inverse FFT
Chapter 7: Applying the Inverse FFT
75
As described earlier, in the Step-By-Step method, you use the Define Filters menu
option to select the filters and define their parameters and the Apply Filters menu
option to apply the filters to the transform file. Depending on the processing option
you select ([OK], [Flt-Inv Only], or [Filter Only]) on the FFT2FLT dialog, you can
(i) apply the selected filter, (ii) apply the Inverse FFT (converts the transform file
from the wavenumber domain back to the original space domain) and (iii) apply post-
processing (returns the grid to the original dimensions with the trend information
restored).
The three options for controlling the final results you obtain following the Apply
Filters option are detailed below:
Processing Option Selection Result
1
Filtered grid with
post-processing
[OK] Filtered, space-domain GRD file with original
grid dimensions and trend information restored
(i.e., post-processing is added to output file).
2
Filtered grid with no
post-processing
[Flt-Inv Only]. Filtered, space-domain GRD file as output file
with grid-filled dimensions and trend information
NOT restored (i.e., no post-processing is added to
output file).
3
Filter only no
inverse transform
[Filter Only] Filtered transform (*.TRN) file as output file.

When you select the first processing option ([OK]) the transform grid is filtered, the
Inverse FFT is applied (returning the transform file from the wavenumber domain
back to the space domain) and then post-processing restores the square and periodic
grid to its original dimensions and restores the trend information.
When you select the second processing option ([Flt-Inv Only]) the transform grid is
filtered and the Inverse FFT is applied (returning the transform file from the
wavenumber domain back to the space domain). No post-processing is applied.
When you select the third processing option ([Filter Only]) the transform grid is
filtered. The Inverse FFT and post-processing is not applied.
76 References
References
Bhattacharya, B. K., 1966, Continuous spectrum of the total magnetic field anomaly due to a
rectangular prismatic body. Geophysics, Vol. 31, p.97-121.
Spector, A. and Grant, F. S., 1970, Statistical models for interpreting aeromagnetic data.
Geophysics, Vol. 35, No.2, p.293-302.
Wiener, N., 1949, Extrapolation, Interpolation, and Smoothing of Stationary Time Series.
Cambridge, M.I.T. Press.
Burg, J. P., 1975, Maximum Entropy Special Analysis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.
Standford University. 168p.
Gupta, V. K., and Grant, F. S., 1985, Mineral exploration aspects of gravity and aeromagnetic
survey in Sudbury-Cobalt area, Ontario. SEG; The Utility of Regional
Gravity and Magnetic Anomaly Maps, W. J. Hinze (Editor) p.392-411.
Winograd, S. On Computing the Discrete Fourier Transform, Mathematics of Computation,
Vol.32, N0.141, pp.175-199, Jan. 1978.
McClellan, J. H. and Nawab H., Complex General-N Winograd Fourier Transform Algorithm
(WFTA), Programs for Digital Signal Processing, IEEE Press, pp.
1.7-1 - 1.7-10, 1979.
Walter R. Roest, Jacob Verhoef, and Mark Pilkington, 1992, Magnetic interpretation using
the 3D analytic signal. Geophysics, Vol. 57, No.1, p.116-125.
Ian N. MacLeod, Keith Jones, and Ting-Fan Dai, 1993, 3D Analytic Signal in the
Interpretation of Total Magnetic Field Data at Low magnetic Latitudes.
Exploration Geophysics, Vol.24, p. 679-688.
Bruno Verduzco, J. Derek Fairhead, Chris M. Green, and Chris MacKenzie, Feb. 2004, New
insights into magnetic derivatives for structural mapping. The Leading
Edge, p. 116-119.