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ZOOLOGY 100 NOTES (2)

THE CELLULAR BASIS OF LIFE: STRUCTURAL & FUNCTIONAL UNIT OF LIFE


OBJECTIVES
1. State the two tenets of the Cell Theory
2. Describe the structure of a prokaryotic cell, and give a function for each part
3. Describe the structure of a eukaryotic cell, and give a function for each part
4. Name the structures that form the endomembrane system, and explain how they are related
to one another
5. Explain the relationship between chloroplasts and mitochondria, and describe the structure
and function of each
6. Name the components of the cytoskeleton, and describe the structure and functions of each
component
7. Contrast the structures of prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic animal cells, and eukaryotic plant
cells

THE CELLULAR BASIS OF LIFE


TOPICS
I. CELL THEORY
II. CELL TYPES
A. Prokaryotic cells
B. Eukaryotic cells
III. METHODS OF CELL STUDY (discussed already in MICROSCOPY)
IV. CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
A. Biological cell membrane and walls
B. Organelles
C. Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton
V. TRANSPORT MECHANISM OF SUBSTANCES THROUGH THE CELL MEMBRANE AND WALLS
A. Diffusion B. Osmosis C. Dialysis
D. Endocytosis E. Exocytosis
VI. PLANT MITOSIS

CELL THEORY
What level of complexity is necessary for life?
• Aristotle (384 – 322BC)

• Xavier Bichat (1771-1802): An organ is composed of different


tissues and several organs can be grouped together as an organ
system (e.g. the digestive system)
• An idea of hierarchy of structure developed:

THE CELL THEORY


• Matthias Schleiden (1838) & Theodor Schwann (1839)
“The cell is the basic unit of living tissue”
• The cell is an autonomous unit (“a citizen”) grouped together to form an organism (“the
society”)
• Rudolf Virchow (1858) noted that:
“all cells come from pre-existing cells”
• All living thing organisms are made up of cells, these cells are the structural and functional
unit of life.
• Cells are produced spontaneously by their own (De nove). Later they are produced by Cell
Division.
• Each cell contains certain “Hereditary material” which is responsible for the passage of
characters from one generation to the next.
THE ORGANISMAL THEORY
The counter argument:
• Reichert a morphologist: Argued that an organism has a structured plan
• Strasberger a cytologist: Cells are connected in an organism sometimes by cytoplasmic
bridges (plant cell plasmodesmata)
• Sherrington and Pavlov neurophysiologists: Cells communicate with one another and they
are co-ordinated in their actions

SUMMARY

Cell theory or organismal theory?


• That the cell is the basic unit of living organisms is accepted
• That unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life is accepted
• BUT multicellular organisms are not simply a mass of similar building blocks

More is different!
• As a multicellular organism grows and develops it follows a structured plan
• The cells specialise (differentiate)
• The whole organism shows homeostatic control
• A developing multicellular organism shows emergent properties
• It is not just a the sum of the parts

CELL TYPES:
A. PROKARYOTIC CELLS
B. EUKARYOTIC CELLS
Prokaryotic Cells
“The cells in which true or complete nucleus is not present, instead, genetic material is
found scattered in the cytoplasm”
– pro = before, karyon = kernal (what nuclei looked like to those who first saw them
through a microscope)
– cells without organized nuclei bounded by a nuclear membrane
– Eubacteria (true bacteria), and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)
– cell wall
– no membrane bound organelles
– nucleoid (main genetic content of the cell)
– Plasmids (small circular pieces of DNA that are separate from the DNA of nucleoid

Examples of rod-shaped bacteria. Top: Rod-Shaped Bacterium, hemorrhagic E. coli, strain 0157:H7
(division)
Spherical (cocoid) and spiral bacteria. Top: Coccoid-shaped Bacterium (causes skin infections),
Enterococcus faecium (SEM x33,370). Bottom: Left, a cross-section of a cell illustrating the location
of a flagella inside the cell; Center, Borrelia burgdorferi, the organism that causes Lyme disease;
and Right, Treponema pallidum, the spirochete that causes the venereal disease syphilis.
Eukaryotic Cells
“The cells having complete nucleus bounded with a nuclear membrane”
– eu = true, karyon = kernel (nucleus)
– cells with organized nuclei bounded by a nuclear membrane
– Examples: Plant cells, Animal cells, fungi, and protists (single celled organisms)
– cell wall in some
– plasma membrane in all
– Membrane bound nucleus
– membrane bound organelles
• "Endoplasmic Reticulum" (ER)
• "Ribosomes"
• "Golgi Apparatus and Dictyosomes" or Golgi look alike
• "Lysosomes"
• "Mitochondria"
• Chloroplasts ("Plastids“)
– Examples: red and white blood cells
Comparison of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
Organisms Monera: Eubacteria and Protists, Fungi, Plants and Animals
Archebacteria
Level of single celled single celled (protists mostly) or
organization multicellular usually with tissues and organs
Typical cell size small (1 -10 microns) large (10 - 100 microns)
Cell wall almost all have cell walls fungi and plants (cellulose and chitin); none
(murein) in animals
Organelles usually none many different ones with specialized
functions
Metabolism anaerobic and aerobic; mostly aerobic
diverse
Genetic material single circular double complex chromosomes usually in pairs;
stranded DNA each with a single double stranded DNA
molecule and associated proteins contained
in a nucleus
Mode of division binary fission mostly; budding mitosis and meiosis using a spindle;
followed by cytokinesis
CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

A. Biological cell membrane and walls


B. Organelles
C. Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton

Cell membrane and Cell wall descriptions


• Cholesterol to hold the membrane together like glue. Adds strength to the membrane.
• Proteins (2 types):
1. Intrinsic Proteins
• Extend into or through lipid bilayer
• Often are channel proteins allowing large molecules in/out
2. Extrinsic Proteins
• Exist only on surfaces of the bilayer
• Often serve as receptor molecules
• Glycoproteins serve as cellular markers (nametags)

Similar functions of cell membrane and cell wall
CYTOPLASM and CYTOSKELETON
TYPES OF CYTOSKELETONS
1. INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS
* strong,stable,rope-like
* form desmosomes (junctional complex of the cell membrane) and provide internal guy
wires to resist pulling forces on the cell
2. MICROFILAMENTS
* involved in motility and producing changes in the cell shape.
3. MICROTUBULES
* tube-like structures which determine the overall shape of the cell and the distribution
of the organelles
* important in cell division

Cilia and flagella


 Hairlike projections
 for locomotion in some cells; also, movement of invading organisms out of the body
Flagella are relatively large in size and occur in small numbers
Cilia are short and occur in large numbers

Summary of the major cell organelles:


ORGANELLE MAIN FUNCTIONS DIMENSIONS
Nucleus Cell division, protein synthesis 10 µm diameter
Mitochondrion Respiration pathways 1.0 to 12.5 µm
Chloroplast Photosynthetic pathways 5 to 10 µm diameter
Lysosome Digestion, recycling & isolation 0.5 to 3.0 µm diameter
Golgi apparatus Secretion, reprocessing, lysosome Cisternae: 0.5µm thick,
synthesis l-3µm diameter
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Support, Golgi apparatus synthesis. 26 to 56 nm thick
Ribosome Protein synthesis 20 nm diameter

ORGANELLE LOCATION DESCRIPTION FUNCTION


cell wall plant, not animal *outer layer *support (grow tall)
*rigid, strong, stiff *protection
*made of cellulose *allows H2O, O2, CO2 to
pass into and out of cell
cell membrane both plant/animal *plant - inside cell wall *support
*animal - outer layer; *protection
cholesterol *controls movement of
*selectively permeable materials in/out of cell
*barrier between cell and its
environment
*maintains homeostasis
nucleus both plant/animal *large, oval *controls cell activities
nuclear both plant/animal *surrounds nucleus *Controls movement of
membrane *selectively permeable materials in/out of nucleus
cytoplasm both plant/animal *clear, thick, jellylike *supports /protects cell
material and organelles organelles
found inside cell
membrane
endoplasmic both plant/animal *network of tubes or *carries materials through
reticulum (E.R.) membranes cell
ribosome both plant/animal *small bodies free or *produces proteins
attached to E.R.
mitochondrion both plant/animal *bean-shaped with inner *breaks down sugar
membranes molecules into energy
vacuole plant - few/large *fluid-filled sacs *store food, water, waste
animal - small (plants need to store large
amounts of food)
lysosome plant - uncommon *small, round, with a *breaks down larger food
animal - common membrane molecules into smaller
molecules
*digests old cell parts
chloroplast plant, not animal *green, oval usually *uses energy from sun to
containing chlorophyll make food for the plant
(green pigment) (photosynthesis)

TRANSPORT MECHANISM OF SUBSTANCES THROUGH THE CELL MEMBRANE AND WALLS:


A. Diffusion B. Osmosis
C. Dialysis D. Endocytosis
E. Exocytosis

TRANSPORT MECHANISMS THROUGH THE CELL MEMBRANE AND CELL WALL


1. PASSIVE TRANSPORT (no energy needed):
a. Diffusion: Movement of molecules from high to low concentrations. (eg
oxygen, carbon dioxide).
b. Osmosis: Movement of water from low to high solute (salt) concentrations.
a. Facilitated transport: Movement across the membrane via a protein
channel
2. ACTIVE TRANSPORT (need to expend energy):
Pumping of ions or molecules across the membrane and from low to high concentrations using the
energy from ATP (produced by respiration) and carrier proteins

PASSIVE TRANSPORT ACTIVE TRANSPORT


- Does not require energy - requires for energy
- Does not require oxygen - requires oxygen
- flow of materials is from greater to - flow of materials is from lesser to greater
lesser concentration(follows concentration concentration (does not follow concentration
gradient) gradient)
- flow rate is slower - flow rate is faster
- examples: Diffusion, - examples: Endocytosis (phagocytosis,
Osmosis (isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic pinocytosis), and Exocytosis
solutions), and Facilitated diffusion

SOLUTION, SOLVENT AND SOLUTE


• A solution is a homogenous molecular mixture of two or more substances.
• The solvent is the substance that has the greatest concentration and that dissolves the
other substance/s in the solution.
• solutes are substances that are found in lesser concentration in solutions and are the
substances dissolved by solvents.
Example: When you put a spoonful of sugar in a cup of water, the result is a solution. The water is
the solvent and the sugar is the solute.
Situation: Suppose you have a cup of coffee with sugar in it. __________ is the solvent and _________
and __________ are the solutes.

DIFFUSION
• The principal means of passive transport
• It is the random movement of molecules from a area of higher concentration to an area of
lower concentration.
• the direction is determined by the concentration of specific molecules in the two sides of the
membrane and the energy that causes the diffusion

It is important to bear in mind that:


- the movement is random
- the steeper the concentration gradient (ie. the
bigger the difference between the
higher concentration and lower concentration), the
faster will be the movement.

TYPES OF DIFFUSION
1. SOLID OVER
a. solid - MASTICATION
b. liquid - DIGESTION
c. gas - TRANSPIRATION
2. LIQUID OVER
a. solid - PERSPIRATION
b. liquid -DIGESTION
c. gas - EVAPORATION
3. GAS OVER
a. solid - SUBLIMATION
b. liquid - OXYGENATION
c. gas - RESPIRATION

DIFFUSION OF SOLID OVER LIQUID

DIFFUSION THROUGH THE LIPID BILAYER


- nonpolar, hydrophobic molecules
- gases, fatty acids, steroids

DIFFUSION THROUGH MEMBRANE


CHANNELS
membrane channels – ion channels
-for sodium, potassium, chloride, Ca ions

FACILITATED DIFFUSION
- a solute binds to a specific
transporter
on one side of the membrane and is
released on the other side after the
transporter undergoes a conforma-
tional change.

What factors can influence the rate of diffusion?


• Temperature.
• The state of the solvent; i.e. whether the solvent is a solid, liquid or gas.
• The size of the molecules.
• The steepness of the diffusion gradient.
• Permeability
• Size of molecules
• Size of pores
• Solubility
• Electrical charges
• Membrane structure

Property of Diffusion
• The greater the space between these molecules the greater the ability for the molecular
particles to spread out from one another.
• The more packed the molecules are in the substance the less space to maneuver, and
therefore, the more difficult for diffusion to occur.
• Requires diffusion pressure

OSMOSIS
• is the movement of water molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a
region of their lower concentration, through a partially permeable membrane
• Water will move by osmosis into and out of cells due to differences in water potential
between the cell and its surroundings.

Water potential is the chemical potential of water and is a measure of the energy
available for reaction or movement (Bidwell 1974:59).
.

Some Basic Principles of Osmosis


• Water always moves from high water potential to low water potential.

Water potential is a measure of the tendency of water to move from high free energy to
lower free energy.
• Distilled water in an open beaker has a water potential of 0(zero).
- The addition of solute decreases water potential.
- The addition of pressure increases water potential.
• In cells, water moves by osmosis to areas where water potential is lower.
– A hypertonic solution has lower water potential.
• A hypotonic solution has higher water potential

TONICITY
Hypertonic Solutions: contain a high
concentration of solute relative to another
solution (e.g. the cell's cytoplasm). When a cell is
placed in a hypertonic solution, the water diffuses
out of the cell, causing the cell to shrivel.

Hypotonic Solutions: contain a low


concentration of solute relative to another
solution (e.g. the cell's cytoplasm). When a cell is
placed in a hypotonic solution, the water diffuses
into the cell, causing the cell to swell and possibly
explode
Isotonic Solutions: contain the same
concentration of solute as an another solution
(e.g. the cell's cytoplasm). When a cell is placed in
an isotonic solution, the water diffuses into and out
of the cell at the same rate. The fluid that surrounds
the body cells is isotonic.
Summary of the direction of OSMOSIS
CONDITION CELL SOLU’ N ENV’T SOLU’N WATER CELL
MOV’T RXN.
1. solute Hypotonic Hypertonic Away from the Shrink or
concentration in Example: 10% cell crenation
the surrounding salt water
solution is higher solu’n
than in the cell,
solvent is lower
2. solute Hypertonic Hypotonic Towards the cell Swell and burst or
concentration in Example: lysis
the surrounding distilled water
solution is lower
then in the cell,
solvent is higher
3. Solute Isotonic Isotonic In and out of the No change
concentration is Example: saline cell
equal between solu’n
the surrounding
solution and that
of the cell
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
Endocytosis begins when a particle contacts the plasma membrane
of a cell. An invagination of the membrane occurs until the
particle is completely wrapped in membrane. The wrapped
particle is now inside a vesicle in the interior of the cell. There are
two types of endocytosis: phagocytosis and pinocytosis.

Exocytosis is the reverse of endocytosis. In this case material exits


from the cell. As with endocytosis, the plasma membrane is actively
involved. Material in a sac or vesicle moves to the membrane and
when it makes contact the membrane opens and the material
inside the vesicle pours out. Note that the plasma membrane and
the vesicle membrane fuse to form a new border for the cell.

ACTIVE TRANSPORT
a. Primary Active Transport
- energy derived from hydrolysis of ATP changes the shape of a transporter protein
b. Secondary Active Transport
- energy stored in a Na ion or H ion concentration
gradient is used to drive other substances across the
membrane
against their own conc. gradients.
1. Antiporters – carry 2 substances
in opposite directions.
2. Symporters – carry 2 substances
in the same direction.
VESICULAR TRANSPORT
- formation of a vesicle or sac
1. Endocytosis
- materials move into the cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane
a. Receptor-Mediated
- ligands
b. Phagocytosis
- solid particles
c. Pinocytosis
- tiny droplets of ECF
2. Exocytosis
- movement of materials out of a cell in vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane.

a. Neurotransmitters
- neurons
b. Hormones and Digestive Enzymes
- secretory cells

The difference between phagocytosis and pinocytosis has to do with the size of the material
ingested.
1. Phagocytosis (cell eating) is shown above and occurs when solid material is involved. A white
blood cell phagocytosis bacteria when it ingests them and breaks them down inside the cell.
2. Pinocytosis (cell drinking) occurs when smaller particles, such as large molecules, that are in
solution are ingested by a cell. The process is the same as that shown above, but the type of
material taken into the cell differs

CELLULAR METABOLISM
• a major biochemical pathway along which the cells release the chemical bond energy from
the food and convert it to usable form (ATP)
• the many synthesis or breakdown of material taking place within the cell.

METABOLISM AND ENERGY:


1. ENDERGONIC REACTION – the synthesis of compounds which require energy outside the
reacting substances
Ex. Photosysntesis
2. EXERGONIC REACTION – the life processes accompanied by loss or release of energy
Ex. Maintenace and repair, secretion of substances,
physiological oxidations

CELLULAR RESPIRATION
• the series of complex oxidation reactions whereby living
• cells obtain energy through breakdown of organic substances and other intermediate
materials.
• release of energy by the oxidation of fuel molecules by taking oxygen and release carbon
dioxide

TYPES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION:


1.ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION /GLYCOLYSIS
- the cytoplasmic cellular activity which consists of the enzymatic breakdown of glucose
molecules without the use of molecular oxygen
• glucose is stable molecule and will not decompose spontaneously to release energy:
1 glucose molecule - 2 ATP molecules
• involves phosphorylation reaction – phosphates are released from the 2 ATP and become
ADP and the other phosphate become attached to glucose and form PHOSPHORYLATED
SUGAR (P-C6-p) under the control of the enzyme phosphorylase.
• Products: 2 ATP, 2 pyruvic acids (3-carbon sugar),lactic acids

2. AEROBIC RESPIRATION / KREB’S CYCLE/CITRIC ACID CYCLE


• a series of oxidation-reduction mitochondrial reactions that complete the breakdown of
pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis
• pypyruvic acid must enter the mitochondrion so that it can be used as a source of energy
• 3-carbon pyruvic acid molecules is reacted upon by acetyl-co-enzyme a, and carbon dioxide
is the waste product and is eventually released into the atmosphere
• 5 pairs of hydrogen bonds are removed and become attached to the H carriers
• involves 3 uses of water and ETS
• products: 34 ATP(17 per pyruvic acid), Carbon Dioxide, water

COMPARISON OF ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC RESPIRATION


BASIS GLYCOLYSIS KREB’S CYCLE
1. Site Cytoplasm Mitochondrion
2. Oxygen requirement Do not require oxygen Require oxygen
3. Raw materials/Energy 1 Glucose molecule 2 Pyruvic acid from
Source (CHO,CHON, Fats) glycolysis
4. Processes involved Breakdown of glucose to Breakdown of pyruvic acids
pyruvic acid,
phosphorylation, lactic acid
formation
5. Enzymes Phosphorylase, Coenzyme A (CoA), FAD
6. Products NAD(Nicotinamide Adenine (Flavin Adenine
Dinucleotide, Dinucleotide)
2 ATP, 2 pyruvic acids (3- 34 ATP(17 per pyruvic acid),
carbon sugar),lactic acids Carbon Dioxide, water
CHO (FATS,CHON) PYRUVIC ACID

GLYCOGEN OXALOACETIC ACID(CoA)


GLUCOSE
PYRUVIC ACID , ATP, ATP, CO2 , H
LACTIC ACIDS