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SECTION 13
EXCAVATIONS AND FOUNDATIONS
Cont ent s
1301 EXCAVATIONS
1301. 1 Gener al
1301. 2 Permanent and Construction Excavati ons
1301. 3 Enforcement
1302 BEARING CAPACITY OF SOIL
1302. 1 Soil Investigations
Table 13 1 !aximum Safe "earing Ca#acit $ for %ori &ont al
'oundati ons
1302. 2 (ind and Eart)*ua+e
1303 SOIL BEARING FOUNDATIONS
1303. 1 Gener al
1303. 2 Continuous 'ootings
1303. 3 Isolat ed 'ootings
Table 13 2 !inimum ,imensions for Continuous 'oot ings
1304 CONCRETE SLABS ON FILL
130 PILED FOUNDATIONS
130-. 1 Gener al
130-. 2 .llo/abl e 0oads
130-. 3 Timber Piles
Table 13 3 !inimum 'actor of Safet $ for Piles
130-. 1 Precast Concret e Piles
130-. - Prestress ed Concret e Piles
130-. 2 Cast in #lace Concret e Piles
130-. 3 Steel Piles
130-. 4 S#eci al Piles or S#eci al Conditions
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130! FOUNDATION BEA"S
130# SEA $ALLS AND BUL%&EADS
1303. 1 Gener al
1303. 2 ,esign Criteria
130' CAISSONS
1304. 1 Gener al
1304. 2 ,esign Criteria
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SECTION 13
EXCAVATIONS AND FOUNDATIONS
1301 EXCAVATIONS
1301( 1 Gene)*+
5ntil #rovisions for #ermane nt su##ort )ave been made
all excava tions s)all be #ro#erl$ guarded and #rot ect ed
so as to #revent t)e same from being danger ous to life
and #ro#ert $. Suc) #rot ecti on is to be #rovided b$ t)e
#erson causing t)e excavati on to be made. Excavati ons6
for an$ #ur#os e6 s)all not ext end /it)in one foot of t)e
#lane of t)e nat ur al slo#e of t)e soil under an$ existing
footing or foundati on6 unless suc) footing or foundati on
is first #ro#erl$ under#i nned or #rot ect ed agai nst
settlement .
1301( 2 Pe),*ne nt *n- Te,.o)*)/ Const)01t2 on
E31*4*t 2 ons
7o #ermane nt excavati ons s)all be made nor s)all an$
constructi on excava tions be left on an$ lot or lots /)ic)
/ill endanger ad8oining #ro#ert $ or buildings or be a
menace to #ublic )ealt ) or safet $. .n$ suc) excavati ons
made or maint ai ned s)all be #ro#erl$ drained and suc)
drainage #rovi sions s)all function #ro#erl$ as long as t)e
exca vation exist s.
Permanent excavati ons s)all )ave ret ai ning /alls of
steel6 masonr $6 concret e or similar a##roved mat eri al of
sufficient strengt ) to ret ain t)e lateral t)rust of t)e
surroundi ng mat eri al toget )er /it) an$ surc)ar ged loads.
1301( 3 En5o)1e ,e nt
()ere6 in t)e o#inion of t)e .ut)orit$6 an unsafe
condition ma$ result or damage ma$ occur as t)e result
of an excavati on6 )e ma$ order t)e /or+ sto##ed or ma$
a##rove t)e /or+ of excavati on sub8 ect to suc)
limitations as )e ma$ deem necess a r$.
1302 BEARING CAPACITY OF SOIL
1302( 1 So2+ In4es t 2 6*t 2 ons
Plans for ne/ buildings or additions s)all bear a
stat eme nt as to t)e nat ur e and c)aract er of t)e soil
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under t)e struct ur e. ()ere t)e beari ng ca#ac it$ of t)e
soil is not +no/n or is in *uesti on6 t)e desi gn engi neer
s)all arrange for an exami nati on of sub soil conditions
suc) as b$ borings and ot)er test s. Plate load test s s)all
be used onl$ to su##l e ment ot)er sub soil investi gations.
T)e desi gn ca#acit $ of t)e soil s)oul d be subst ant i at ed
b$ recogni sed test s6 anal$ses and #rocedur es.
'or t)e #ur#os es of conce#t ual design onl$6 Table 13 1
ma$ be used as a guide in esti mati ng t)e allo/abl e
beari ng ca#aciti es of su##orting soils.
T*7+ e 13- 1
"*32 ,0, S*5 e Be*)2 n6 C*.*12 t2 e s 5o) &o)28ont *+ Fo0n-* t2ons *t De.t 9
2 5t( 0n-e) Ve)t2 1*+ St*t2 1 Lo*-2 n6( :"*t e)2 *+ s not +2st e- 2n t92 s T*7+ e
s9*++ 7e tes t e - 5o) 7e*)2 n6 1*.*12 t /; (
T/.es o5 Ro1<s *n- So2+ s "*32 ,0, S*5 e
7e*)2 n6 C*.*12 t / -
tons .e) s=( 5 t(
Re,*)<s
1. !assivel$ bedded lime
stones and )ard sandst ones.
2. Cla$ s)ales
3. T)inl$ bedded limest ones
and sandst ones
10
10
To be det er mi ned
D)/ S07,e)6e -
1. Com#act /ellgraded sands
and gravel sand mixtures
-. 0oose /ell graded sands
mixtures
2. Com#act uniform sands
3. 0oose uniform sands
4. Stiff cla$s and sand$ cla$s
9. 'irm cla$s and sand$ cla$s
10. Soft cla$s and silts
11. :er$ soft cla$s and silts
12. !ade ground
1
2
2
1
2
1
1;2

2
1
1
1;2
To be det er mi ned
1
1;2

To be det er mi ned
after investiga tion
1302( 2 $2n- *n- E*)t9=0*<e
a< .ll allo/abl e soil beari ng values s#ecified in Table
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13 -
13 1 ma$ be increas ed b$ one t)ird in calcu
lations for /ind or eart ) *ua+e loading /)en com
bined /it) vertical loads. 7o increas e s)all be
allo/ed for vertical loads acting alone. (ind and
eart )*ua+e loads need not be assume d to act
simult aneousl $.
b< It s)ould be not ed t)at in cert ai n t$#es of soils6 for
exam#l e6 silt$ /at er logged soils6 li*ue faction
mig)t occur under cert ai n eart ) *ua+e cond itions.
T)e #ossibilit$ of t)e occur rence of li*ue faction
s)oul d be investi g at ed.
1303 SOIL BEARING FOUNDATIONS
1303( 1 Gene)*+
'ootings s)all be so desi gned t)at t)e soil #res sure
s)oul d be reasonab l$ uniform to minimise differenti al
settlement . T)e #referred mat eri al for t)e const ruction of
footings is concret e.
1303( 2 Cont2 n0o0s Foot2 n6s
=a< 'ootings under /alls s)all be continuous or
continuit $
ot)er/ise #rovided and s)all not be less t)an
re*uired to +ee# t)e soil #ressur e /it)in t)at set
fort) in Table 13 1 nor less t)an t)e mini mum
si&es set fort) in Table 13 2.
=b< .ll concret e footings s)all be ade*uat el $
reinforced6 t)e mini mum allo/abl e amount of
steel reinforceme nt being 0.1- #ercent of t)e
gross cross sectional area of t)e concret e in bot )
)ori&ont al directions. >einforcing bars s)all be
#rovided /it) a mini mum of 2? of concret e cover.
=See Table 12 3<
=c< Excavati ons for continuous footings s)all be cut
true to line and level and t)e sides of footings
s)all be s)utt er ed6 exce#t /)ere soil conditions
are suc) t)at t)e sides of t)e excava tion stand
firm and s*uar e. Excavations s)all be made to
firm bearing.
=d< Continuous footings s)all be #laced level and an$
c)anges in t)e level of suc) footings s)all be
made /it) a vertical tie of t)e same cross section
and desi gn as t)e footings.
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=e< Continuous footings on /)ic) t)e centre of gravit$
of t)e loads falls outside of t)e middl e one t)ird
s)all be con sidered eccent ric6 and #rovision s)all
be made to limit t)e soil #ressur e at t)e edges to
allo/abl e values b$ means of count er bal anci ng
or b$ ot)er a##roved met )ods.
1303( 3 Iso+ *t e- Foot2 n6s
=a< Isolat ed footings in soils )aving lo/ lateral
restrai nt s)all be #rovided /it) ade*uat e bracing
to resist movement .
=b< .n isolat ed footing on /)ic) t)e centre of gravit$
of t)e load falls outside t)e middl e one t)ird of
an$ line #assi ng t)roug) t)e centr e of gravit$ of
t)e footing s)all be consider ed eccent ric6 and
#rovision s)all be made to limit t)e soil #ressur e
at t)e edges b$ means of stra#s or ot)er
a##roved met )ods.
=c< ()ere isolat ed footings su##ort reinforced
concret e col umns6 start er bars6 e*uival ent in
number and area to t)e column reinf orcement 6
and )aving lengt )s not less t)an 30 diamet er s
above and belo/ t)e 8oints6 s)all be #rovided in
t)e footing. ()ere t)e footing de#t ) does not
allo/ straig)t bars6 standar d bends /ill be
allo/ed. Suc) start er bars6 or anc)or bolts as are
re*uired for steel columns6 s)all be )eld to #ro#er
level and location during t)e concreti ng of t)e
footing b$ tem#l at es or b$ ot)er a##roved
met )ods.
T*7+ e 13- 2
"2n2 ,0, D2,ens 2 ons 5o) Cont2 n0o0s Foot2 n6s
A++o>*7+ e 7e*)2 n6 1*.*12 t / :Tons
.e) s=( 5 t ( ;
N0,7e) o5
st o)e/s
De.t 9 *n-
>2-t9 :2ns;
5# to @ 1
2
12 x 30
12 x 32
Aver 1;2 but less t)an 1 1
2
9 x 21
12 x 21
1 or more 1
2
9 x 12
9 x 21
Not e? T)e si&es given in t)e Table are to be used /it) caution as t)e c)aract eristics of soils var$
consider abl $ and all soils s)ould be anal$&ed before designing t)e foundation.
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"ased on soil investigations as set fort) in 1302. 1 t)e footing si&es ma$ be c)anged /)en
t)e allo/able bearing values and loads are ta+en into account6 but t)e minimum /idt) of a
footing under t)e main /all of a building s)all not be less t)an 21? nor less t)an 4? more
t)an t)e /idt) of t)e foundation /all /)ic)ever is great er.
1304 CONCRETE SLABS ON FILL
=a< ()ere it is #ro#os ed to #lace concret e slabs
directl$ on t)e su##orti ng soil6 a sub grade s)all
)ave first been #re#ar ed b$ removing all to# soil6
organi c mat t er and debris6 and t)e sub grade and
fill s)all be t)oroug)l $ com #act ed b$ a##roved
mec)ani cal met )ods. .ll fill #laced under slabs
s)all be clean6 free of debris and ot)er del et erious
mat eri al s. T)e maxi mum si&e of roc+ in com
#act ed fill s)all be 1? in diamet er. 'or cases of
)eav$ loading s#eci al com#acti on test s ma$ be
re*uired.
=b< Concret e floor slabs #laced directl$ on t)e
su##orting soil s)all be of an a##ro#ri at e
t)ic+ness for t)e loads intended but in an$ case
not less t)an 1?6 and s)all be reinforced /it) steel
reinforcement not less t)an 0.1- #ercent of t)e
gross cross sectional area of t)e concret e in t)e
slab. T)e rein forcement s)all be #laced in t)e
u##er )alf of t)e slab.
130 PILED FOUNDATIONS
130( 1 Gene)*+
=a< Piled foundati ons s)all be desi gned and su#er
vised b$ a #ro fessionall$ *ualified engineer
a##roved b$ t)e .ut)orit$ and suit abl $ *ual ified
and ex#eri enced in suc) desi gn.
=b< Piles used for t)e su##ort of an$ building or
struct ur e s)all be driven to a resist ance and
#enet r ati on in accordance /it) t)e #lans and; or
s#ecifications and as set fort) )erei n.
=c< Piles ma$ be 8ett ed onl$ if #ermitt ed b$ t)e
engi neer. Immedi at el $ after com#l etion of 8etting6
t)e #ile s)all be driven belo/ t)e de#t ) 8ett ed to
t)e re*uired resist ance but not less t)an 1B 0?. 7o
8etting /ill be #ermitt ed t)at ma$ be detri ment al
to existing ad8acent struct ur es or to #iles t)at
)ave been driven.
=d< Co+0,n *1t2 on . .ll #iles standi ng unbraced in
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air6 /at er6 or in mat eri al not ca#abl e of #rovid ing
lateral su##ort6 s)all be designed as columns.
Suc) #iles driven into firm ground ma$ be
consider ed fixed and laterall$ su# #ort ed at -B 0?
belo/ t)e ground surface unless ot)er/ise
#rescribed b$ t)e desi gn engi neer after a
foundati on investi gati on b$ a com#et ent agenc$
a##roved b$ t)e .ut)orit$.
=e< ()en isolat ed columns and ot)er loads are
su##ort ed on #iles a minimum of t)ree #iles s)all
be used for suc) su##ort unless lateral bracing is
#rovided at t)e #ile ca# to ensur e stabilit$.
S)ould a #ile be loaded eccent ri call$ so as to
#roduce an overload on an$ #ile more t)an 10 #er
cent of t)e allo/abl e load6 footing stra#s or ot)er
a##roved met )ods s)all be re*uired to count er act
t)e effect of eccen tric loading.
=f< T)e minimum centr e to centr e s#acing of fric tion
#iles s)all be not less t)an 3B 2? or t)e #erimet er
of t)e #iles /)ic)ever is great er. 'or #iles
deriving t)eir resist ance from end beari ng6 t)e
minimum centre s#aci ng of t)e #iles s)all be not
less t)an 2B 2? or t/ice t)e least /idt)6 /)ic)ever
is great er. T)e s#acing of #iles s)all be suc) t)at
in no case t)e aver age load on t)e su##orting
stra tum ma$ exceed t)e safe beari ng value of
t)at strat um.
=g< It is advisabl e t)at #iles s)all not be driven closer
t)an 1B 0? to an existing building or struct ur e6
unless s#eci al consider ation is given to t)e
#ro#erti es of t)e soil and to t)e struc ture of t)e
existing building.
=)< G)o0. *1t2 on . Consider ati on s)all be given to
t)e reduction of allo/abl e #ile load /)en #iles are
#laced in grou#s. ()ere soil con siderati ons ma+e
suc) load reductions advis able or necess ar $6 t)e
allo/abl e axial load det er mi ned for a singl e #ile
s)all be reduced b$ an$ rational met )od or
formul a.
=i< P2+ es 2n s07s2 -2 n6 *)e*s . ()ere #iles are
driven t)roug) subsi ding fills or ot)er sub siding
strat a and derive su##ort from underl$ ing firmer
mat eri al s6 consider ati on s)all be given to t)e
do/n/ard frictional forces /)ic) ma$ be im#osed
on t)e #iles b$ t)e subsi ding u##er strat a.
=8< T)e engi neer or ot)er com#et ent #erson
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a##roved b$ t)e .ut)orit$ su#ervising t)e #ile
driving o#erations s)all be re*uired to +ee# an
accur at e record of t)e mat eri al and t)e #rinci#al
dimensi ons of eac) #ileC t)e /eig)t and fall of t)e
)ammer6 if a single acting or dro# )ammerC t)e
si&e and ma+e6 o#erati ng #ressur e6 lengt ) of
)ose6 number of blo/s #er minut e and ener g$ #er
blo/ if a doubl e acting )ammerC toget )er /it)
t)e average #enet r ati on of eac) #ile for at least
t)e last five blo/s6 and t)e levels at ti# and cut
off. . co#$ of t)ese records s)all be filed and
+e#t /it) t)e #lans.
=+< .ll #iles s)all be designed so t)at lifting and
)andling stress es s)all not exceed allo/ able
/or+ing stress es6 as s#ecified. Stress es during
driving ma$ exceed t)es e stress es b$ not more
t)an 100 #ercent .
130( 2 A++o>*7+ e Lo*-s
=a< T)e allo/abl e axial and lateral loads on #iles s)all
be det er mined b$ an a##roved formul a6 b$ load
test s6 or b$ a founda tion investi gation b$ a
com#et ent agenc$.
=b< ()ere a d$nami c #ile formul a is used t)e
ultimat e resist ance s)all be calcul at ed in
accordance /it) t)e met )od given in "S 4001 or
suc) ot)er formul a as t)e engi neer s)all consider
suit abl e.
=c< ()en t)e allo/abl e axial load of a singl e #ile is
det er mi ned b$ a load test one of t)e fol lo/ing
met )ods s)all be used to det er mi ne t)e ultimat e
resist ance.
=d< T)e ultimat e resist ance s)all be defined asD
=1< T)e load at /)ic) an increas e in load
#roduces a dramati c increas e in settlem
entC or
=2< T)e maxi mum load /)ic) during a 14 )our
#eriod of continuous load a##lication
causes settl ement s at a rat e not exceed ing
0.01 in;)r.
In an$ event 6 t)e maxi mum settl ement s)oul d not
exceed 0.01 in;ton gross settlement or 0.02- in
net settl ement =/)ere net settl ement is t)e
difference bet/een gross and recover$<.
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=e< ()ere t)e ultimat e resist ance of a friction #ile is
det er mi ned b$ soil test s6 t)e soil investigation and
laborat or$ test s s)all be carried out b$ a
com#et ent agenc$.
=f< Table 13 3 s)all be used to det er mi ne t)e
minimum factor of safet $ to be used in calcu lating
t)e allo/abl e axial load on a #ile.
T*7+ e 13- 3
"2n2 ,0, F*1t o) o5 S*5 et / 5o) P2+ es
T/.e o5 G)o0n- Test Lo*- D/n*,2 1 Fo) -
,0+ * Res2 s -
t*n1e not
Re-01e- on
D)24 2n6
D/n*,2 1 Fo) -
,0+ * Res2 s -
t*n1e Re-01e-
on Re- -)24 2n6
So2+
In4est 2 6*t 2 on
*n- So2+ test s
>oc+ 2.0 1.- 2.0
7on co)esive soil 2.0 2.0 2.- 2.0
%ard co)esive soil 2.0 2.0 2.0 or more 2.0
Soft co)esive soil 2.0 7;. 7;. 2.0
E Test load s)ould be used in t)e circumst ances
130( 3 T2,7e) P2+es
=a< Timber #iles s)all be of one #iece of a##roved
timber cont ai n ing no evidence of deca$6 free from
s)ort +in+s or reverse bends and )aving uniform
ta#er from butt to ti#. . straig)t line dra/n from
t)e centre of t)e butt to t)e centre of t)e ti# s)all
lie /)oll$ /it)in t)e bod$ of t)e #ile. T)e
diamet er of round #iles s)all be not less t)an 2
inc)es at t)e ti# and not less t)an 10 inc)es t)ree
feet from t)e butt6 for #iles /)ic) are 2-B 0? or less
in lengt ). 'or #iles /)ic) exceed 2- feet in lengt )6
t)e diamet er at t)e ti# s)all be not less t)an 4
inc)esC and at 3 feet from t)e butt6 t)e diamet er
s)all not be less t)an 12 inc)es.
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=b< 7o #iles /)ic) )ave a s#iral grain exceedi ng one
com#l et e turn in 10B 0? s)all be used. S*uar ed
timber #iles less t)an 4? s*uar e s)all not be used.
=c< 5ntreat ed /ood #iles s)all not be used6 exce#t
#iles made of timber /)ic) )as been s)o/n to be
resist ant to termit es and /ood borers. T)e
a##roval of t)e .ut)orit$ s)all be soug)t for t)e
use of all timbers for #iling.
=d< .ll ot)er #iles s)all be #ressur e treat ed in
accordance /it) t)e re*uirement s of Section 11 of
t)is Code.
=e< T)e allo/abl e stress in com#r es si on #arallel to
t)e grain under maxi mum /or+ing load s)all not
exceed 20 #ercent of t)e basic stress as
det er mi ned b$ t)e 5S 7ational 'orest Product s
.ssoci ation or an$ ot)er .genc$ a##roved b$ t)e
.ut)orit$6 and in no case s)all stress exceed 300
lb. #er s*.in.
130( 4 P)e1*s t Con1)et e P2+ es
=a< T)e manuf act ur e of #recast concret e #iles s)all
conform in all res#ect s to Section 12 of t)is CodeC
concret e s)all conform to not less t)an t)e
re*uireme nt s of standar d mix ST1E for normal or
eas$ driving and of mix ST- for )ard driving6 and
for all #iles used in marine /or+.

ANot e? Con1)et e 6)*-e s *)e -e52 ne- 2n
Se1t2 on 1!(
=b< .ll #iles s)all be reinforced /it) not less t)an 1
longitudi nal steel bars )aving an area of not less
t)an 1.2- #ercent and not more t)an 1.0 #ercent
of t)e gross cross sectional area of t)e #ile. .ll
t)e main longit udi nal bars s)all be of uniform si&e
and lengt ). Foints in longit udi nal bars6 if
unavoi dabl e6 s)all be made b$ fullstrengt ) butt
/elding.
=c< 0ateral reinforceme nt in t)e form of )oo#s or lin+s
s)all be not less t)an 3;12? diamet er. In t)e bod$
of t)e #ile t)e lateral reinforce ment s)all be not
less t)an 2 #ercent of t)e gross volume s#aced at
not more t)an )alf t)e least /idt) of t)e #ile. 'or
lengt ) of 3 times t)e least /idt) of t)e #ile at
eac) end of t)e #ile t)e volume of lateral
reinforce ment s)all be not less t)an 2 #ercent of
t)e gross volume. T)e transition bet/een t)e
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close s#acing at t)e ends and t)e maxi mum
s#aci ng s)all be made graduall$ over a lengt ) of
3 times t)e least /idt).
=d< .ll reinforceme nt 6 including binding /ire6 s)all be
#rot ect ed b$ at least 1 1;2? of concret e cover
exce#t t)at for #iles sub8 ect ed to t)e action of
o#en /at er6 /aves or ot)er sever e ex#osur e 2
1;2? cover s)all be #rov ided.
=e< T)e com#r es si ve stress im#osed on driven #iles
s)all not exceed 3-0 lb. #er s*.in. on t)e nomi nal
minimum cross sectional area of t)e #ile.
=f< Precast concret e #iles s)all be not less t)an 10? x
10? in section.
=g< .ll #recast concret e #iles s)all )ave t)eir dat e of
manuf ac ture and t)e lifting #oints clearl$ mar+ed
on t)e #ile. Concret e #iles s)all not be driven
until t)e$ )ave att ai ned t)eir s#ecified 24 da$
strengt ) as verified b$ test s6 nor s)all t)e #iles be
removed from t)e forms until -0 #ercent of t)e
s#ecified 24 da$ strengt ) )as been att ai ned. Piles
s)all not be trans#ort ed nor driven until t)e$ )ave
been cured not less t)an seven da$s.
130( P)es t )e s s e - Con1)et e P2+es
=a< Prestress ed concret e #iles s)all conform to 1204
of t)is Code exce#t as s#ecificall$ det ailed in
130-. -.
=b< 0ongitudi nal #re stressi ng tendons s)all )ave not
less t)an 2? of cover exce#t t)at for #iles sub8ect
to o#en /at er or /ave action6 or ot)er sever e
ex#osur e t)e cover s)all be 3?.
=c< 0ateral reinforceme nt s)all be as s#ecified in
130-. 1=c< for t)e #recast concret e #iles.
=d< Piles s)all )ave a minimum #re stress of 200 lb.
#er s*.in. at time of driving.
=e< 7o tension s)all be allo/ed in t)e concret e under
/or+ing load conditions.
=f< T)e com#r es si ve stress in t)e #ile under /or+ing
load combi ned /it) t)e #rest r ess in t)e #ile at t)e
time of loading s)all not exceed one t)ird of t)e
com#r es si ve strengt ) of t)e #ile.
june 1997
13 -13
130( ! C*st- 2n- .+*1e Con1)et e P2+es
=a< Concret e #iles cast in #lace agai nst eart ) in
drilled or bored )oles s)all be made in suc) a
manner as to ensur e t)e exclu sion of an$ foreign
mat t er and to secur e a fullsi&ed s)aft.
=b< A++o>*7+ e st)es s e s . T)e allo/abl e com#r es si ve
stress in t)e concret e s)all not exceed 0.22-
times t)e s#ecified 24 da$ cube strengt ). T)e
reinforcing steel s)all conform to .ST! .302 42a
?Standar d S#ecification for 0o/ .llo$ Steel
,eformed "ars for Concret e >einforcement ? or to
t)e e*uival ent "ritis) standar d.
=c< Cased cast in #lace concret e #iles ma$ consist of
a steel or concret e s)ell driven in inti mat e cont act
/it) t)e surround ing soil and left in #lace and
filled /it) concret e. Steel s)ells ma$ be uniforml$
ta#er ed6 ste# ta#er ed6 c$lindrical or a combi na
tion of suc) s)a#es and ma$ be laterall$ corru
gat ed6 s#irall$ corrugat ed6 longitudi nall$ fluted or
#lain.
=d< Pile s)ells and end closures s)all be of sufficient
strengt ) and rigidit$ to #ermit t)eir driving in
+ee#i ng /it) t)e driving met )od used6 and to
#revent )armful distortion caus ed b$ soil #ressur e
or t)e driving of ad8acent #iles until filled /it)
concret e. . reduction of cross sectional area in
excess of 1- #ercent s)all be caus e for re8ection.
T)e s)ells s)all also be sufficientl$ /at er tig)t to
exclude /at er during t)e #lacing of conc ret e. T)e
minimum diamet er s)all be 4?.
=e< Concret e for cast in#lace #iles s)all conform to
not less t)an t)e re*uirement s of Grade ST16
Table 12 2.
=f< >einforceme nt including binding /ire s)all )ave
not less t)an 2? of concret e cover in uncas ed #iles
and 1? /)ere #iles are com#l et e l$ encas ed.
=g< ()ere t)e s)ell )as a t)ic+nes s of 0.12? or more
t)e s)ell ma$ be consider ed as carr$ing #art of
t)e load.
=)< .de*uat e allo/ance for corrosion s)all be
consider ed in t)e desi gn but not less t)an t)e
out er 1;12? of a steel s)ell s)all be deduct ed
before com#uti ng t)e area of t)e s)ell con sidered
as carr$ing load. T)e load carried b$ t)e s)ell
june 1997
13 -14
s)all not exceed 96000 lb. #er s*.in. based on t)e
net steel area deducti ng t)e allo/ance for
corrosion.
130( # Ste e+ P2+ es
=a< T)e *ualit$ of t)e steel in 8oints6 tubes6 box #iles
and ot)er #lain or built u# sections s)all com#l$
/it) t)e s#ecification for struc tural steel in
conformanc e /it) t)e relevant .ST! or "ritis)
standar d.
=b< 7o section s)all )ave a nomi nal t)ic+ness of
met al of less t)an 3;4?.
=c< T)e allo/abl e stress under /or+ing load s)all not
exceed 2- #ercent of t)e minimum guar ant e e d
$ield stress of t)e steel.
=d< ()ere ade*uat e corrosion #reventi on is not
#rovided 1;12? s)all be deduct ed from eac)
surface in det er mi ni ng t)e area of t)e #iles
section.
130( ' S.e12 *+ P2+es o) S.e12 *+ Con-2 t2 ons
T)e use of t$#es of #iles or conditions not s#e cificall$
covered )erei n ma$ be consider ed u#on exami nati on of
acce#t abl e test dat a6 calcul a tions or ot)er information
relating to t)e #ro#erti es and load carr$ing ca#acit $ of
suc) #iles.
130! FOUNDATION BEA"S
=a< 'oundati on beams6 su##orti ng loads bet/een
#iles6 s)all be reinforced concret e6 or struc tural
steel #rot ect ed b$ at least 2? of con cret e cover.
=b< T)e /idt) of foundati on beams s)all be at least
e*ual to t)e t)ic+ness of t)e /all t)e$ su##ort but
never less t)an 4?.
=c< 'oundati on beams s)all be suitabl$ designed and
reinforced around access o#eni ngs and vent s.
130# SEA $ALLS AND BUL%&EADS
130#( 1 Gene)*+
june 1997
13 -1
Sea /alls6 bul+)eads6 gro$nes and ot)er ret aining /alls
along an ocean front6 ba$6 cree+6 canal6 or /at er /a$
s)all be desi gned b$ a #ro fessionall$ *ualified and
a##roved engineer.
130#( 2 Des2 6n C)2te)2 *
a< T)e struct ur e s)all ret ain t)e ad8oining eart ) from
t)e surface of t)e ground to a #oint sufficientl$
dee# to ret ain t)e base agai nst surc)ar ge
#ressur es6 /it) due desi gn consider ations for
/ave action and current s.
b< Timber s)all not be used6 ot)er t)an /)ere
locat ed belo/ mean lo/ /at er6 exce#t t)at bore
resist ant or a##ro#ri at el $ treat ed /oods ma$ be
a##roved b$ t)e .ut)orit$.
c< Struct ur es s)all be classed as gravit$ t$#es /)en
t)e result ant of t)e acting forces falls /it)in t)e
middl e t)ird of t)e base. "oulder t$#e /alls s)all
be consider ed as gravit$ t$#e /)ere t)e base
/idt) e*ual s or exceeds t)e )eig)t of t)e /all.
Struct ur es /)ic) are not of gravit$ or cantilever
t$#e s)all be secur ed to #ro#erl$ designed
anc)ors.
d< ()ere struct ur es are construct ed of a combi na
tion of lime roc+ boulders and concret e6 t)e
minimum #ercent age of cross section area of t)e
concret e to t)e tot al cross section area of t)e
struct ur e s)all be 10 #ercent 6 not including
concret e used for co#ings or decor ative #ur#os es.
130' CAISSONS
130'( 1 Gene)*+
T)e footings of an$ struct ur e ma$ be carried do/n to a
firm foundati on b$ isolat ed #iers of rein forced concret e
or b$ o#en or #neumat i c caissons eit)er /it) or /it)out
enlarged base or bell at t)e bottom.
130'( 2 Des2 6n C)2te)2 *
a< T)e safe carr$ing ca#acit $ of suc) s)aft s or
caissons s)all not exceed t)e allo/abl e unit bear
ing ca#acit $ of t)e soil multi #lied b$ t)e area of
t)e base or bell at t)e bott om6 #rovided suc) bell
s)all )ave at least a 12? t)ic+nes s of concret e at
its edge and t)e sides s)all slo#e at an angl e of
june 1997
13 -1!
not less t)an 20 degr ees /it) t)e )ori&ont al.
b< In no case s)all suc) #iers or caissons be of less
t)an 2B 0? minimum )ori&ont al dimensi on.
june 1997