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Art Movements- Research

Renaissance 1150

When?

The movement started from roughly 1150- 1600.This means that the movement started during

the period of the middle ages and into the period of time, which was also called Renaissance.

Renaissance means re-birth, this was because the middle ages was thought as of a period of

darkness. Because it involved a period of 100-year war, the plague and the chaos, which was happening in the Catholic Church which was said to, unsettle people’s faith in the government and religion.

This period of unsettling circumstances lead to the movement occurring in Europe as people were searching for a di erent culture than the one they had hence the renaissance name Renaissance because they wanted a new society.

The meaning of Renaissance’ represents how at the time things resumed after the decline in trade

and the feudal system, which was the system, used for structuring society and how relationships were based around the holding of land and exchanged for services and labour work. 'The arts had quite a di cult time remaining important during the Middle Ages, given all of the territorial struggles that were occurring throughout Europe. People living then had enough to do merely figuring out how to stay in the good graces of whoever was ruling them, while the rulers were preoccupied with maintaining or expanding control.’ Jennifer Rosenberg People wanted to bring back the classical arts which had declined they had declined because of the period of war and unsettlement that had taken place this meant that because 'that People living then had enough to do merely figuring out how to stay in the good graces of whomever was ruling them' it meant they just had to what they could to survive and not get into some kind of trouble with what is now known as a dictator 'the good graces of whom ever was ruling them’. This shows how they had to keep the ruler happy and not step out of line therefore this implies that the ruler was demanding and didn't give the people of that time much freedom, this means that they weren't given free will and were treated like sheep almost bosses

around and not give free will. The definition of a dictator is 'a ruler with total power over a country, typically one who has obtained control by force.' They were therefore too busy keeping their ruler happy this shows how they must have been running errands for them out of fear for their lives, this is because of the reason that if they were not afraid of them why would they give up there free will for them 'With the large exception of the Roman Catholic Church, no one had much time or thought left over to devote toward the luxury of art' (Shelley Esaak). This means the ruler must have given them a reason to fear them like made an example of someone else, to have so much authority, what we know as a dictator now, which is someone who contradicts to you what to do, what to think such as what to believe in.

This created a sudden want from society to learn classically again this was from the: paintings, sculpture, architecture, music and literature work that was created in previous centuries (14 th , 15 th and 16 th). This was therefore when societies knowledge and awareness of nature and classical learning increased. This means that the movement was influenced by a variety of subjects these were all under the category of classical arts: politics, art, literature, philosophy, music, science and religion.

Religion inspired artists paintings in the way that 'Christian worship and symbology continued to inspire renaissance artists’; this therefore means that they included symbols in their paintings, which are associated with religion. Other things such as ‘roman history and mythology were explored for subject matter’ also inspired them.

Quote Art the Whole Story

Characteristics of renaissance? The art was characterised by a humanist aspect that meant that they were trying to capture the human element of emotion within the art; this therefore meant that they wanted to capture emotion within a scene rather than just concentrating on the visual beauty of the painting. Most important pieces and artists of the movement? Florence doors (gates of paradise) which were installed in 1452.

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Most important pieces and artists of the movement? Florence doors (gates of paradise) which were installed

image http://www.o -the-beaten-track.net/

travelogues/it04c02.html

Lorenzo Ghiberti made this door. The door is made up of ten panels. The doors are so important to the renaissance period because of the fact that 'Before him, nobody in Italy was able to create something in bronze so big in dimension, not since the end of the Roman Empire," says Annamaria Giusti, the director of the Museo dell'Opificio delle Pietre Dure' http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-

culture/the-gates-of-paradise-174431341/?

page=3

This therefore means that it was a great achievement, this is because at the time it would have been a great innovation to be able to create he had discovered a technique to create dimension using the material of bronze. This therefore show other artists how to use the material and mean that it paved away for them to use a similar technique to what he did and eventually lead onto bigger scale.

They are called 'The Gates of Paradise' and ‘received their name by Michelangelo who is believed to have exclaimed: "they are so beautiful that they would be

They held a competition and judged the competition which many artists competed in each one was judged on '(realism, dynamic composition, perspective techniques) that would become the keystones of the Renaissance, many scholars chose this date, 1401, to mark the beginning of the Renaissance', this was as these were the characteristics of the movement.

Quote from http://www.reidsitaly.com/destinations/ tuscany/florence/sights/baptistry.html Image from http://www.museumsinflorence.com/ musei/Baptistery_of_florence.html#

For example these renaissance sculptures are examples of pieces created after the doors have been

For example these renaissance sculptures are examples of pieces created after the doors have been created. The bronze doors had been created with bronze and then gold plated. This is because of the fact that the doors are a gold colour, if they were created using just bronze because the materials a brown colour it would be a brown colour.

David with the Head of Goliath , 15th century (1470– 80) This therefore means that

David with the Head of Goliath, 15th century (1470–

80)

This therefore means that the piece above would have been created using the same method. The sculpture also has slight erosion this is in the way that there is some brown colour showing through such as

on the sword she is holding this therefore shows the material that is underneath.

Paris, ca. 1500

shows the material that is underneath. Paris , ca. 1500 This one is a very good

This one is a very good example this is because of the fact that it is made out of both techniques. This is because the hair is a gold colour and the object,

which she is holding, is also gold. And the body of the person is a brown colour. The artist has used the technique of sculpting the body straight out of bronze and then the hair and the object the person is holding and plating it in gold. I think that this technique creates focus point on the sculpture, because of the contrast created. This is as the colours of brown and gold are very di erent toned hues. This is as the brown is a dark colour and the gold is a bright vivid metallic colour.

Triton, 16th century (1560–70)

vivid metallic colour. Triton , 16th century (1560–70) And this one uses the most basic technique

And this one uses the most basic technique although the subject has a lot of detail. This is because the artists has sculpted the subject straight out of bronze. This means that the sculpture has been made is a more straight forward way because it doesn't have as many

steps that the process of gold plating would take. And it also isn't mixing the two di erent techniques which therefore means that the technique which has been used is more basic because it doesn't require as much delicacy either because small details don't need to be gold plated either which would require a lot of neatness.

David Michael Angelo

which would require a lot of neatness. David Michael Angelo 'Michelangelo’s David has become one of

'Michelangelo’s David has become one of the most recognised works of Renaissance sculpture, becoming a symbol of both strength and youthful human beauty.'

quote and image http://www.museumsinflorence.com/musei/ David_by_michelangelo.html

'It was commissioned with the idea that it would stand in a niche on one of the cathedral’s tribunes, way up high. When Michelangelo was finished, they realized that it was far too beautiful to be placed up high, and so it was decided to build a base for the sculpture and to place it right in front of the main government building of Florence (like putting it outside the capital building in Washington D.C.)’ It was therefore to become the symbol of Florence as it was placed in front of the

Image from http://www.theguardian.com/

artanddesign/2014/may/06/michelangelo-david-

ankle-fractures-florence

Five masters of the Florentine Renaissance Image from (https://www.inkling.com/read/the-

louvre-lessing-pomarede-1st/italian-school-15th-

and-16th/five-masters-of-the-florentine)

louvre-lessing-pomarede-1st/italian-school-15th- and-16th/five-masters-of-the-florentine) The holy trinity

The holy trinity

This is so important to the movement because 'it's the earliest known example of true

This is so important to the movement because 'it's the earliest known example of true scientific one

point linear perspective

which had only been

discovered

a few years earlier.’ http://

smarthistory.khanacademy.org, they explain in the commentary how it creates an illusion of space. This is in the way that the technique 'an artist may suggest three dimensional depth on a flat surface' this technique was discovered by 'Alberta as outlined in his treatise on painting' the technique is 'as a science closely related to optics (the study of the vision of the eye'. (Art the whole story)

'Three part nature of god', hence the 'trinity part of the title'

The commentary talks about how the realistic form and details of the human body which has been illustrated in the painting creates sympathy for the viewer, in the way it makes it seem and look like an event that actually happened, the man in the commentary says 'extraordinary rendering of the human body' he goes on to explain how the details the artist has included of how the 'muscles are pulled', he also explains how the blood makes people empathy for Christ because it shows how he's su ering and in pain 'Christ is bleeding' and 'to see the hollow of the abdomen', I personally think that the hollowing of the abdomen is a way of conveying the theme of death and how the life has been sucked out of him.

http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/holy-trinity-

santa-maria-novella-florence.html (commentary)

The pieces purpose is to convey the message that death is inevitable and the path to eternal life (to have an afterlife) is to follow faith, this is shown in the way that Mary the one on the left side of the cross in gesturing with her hand towards her son ‘see’s pointing up to Christ', they are talking about Mary and how she looks very 'mournful' for her son on the cross, she is showing the way to eternal life. The theme of death is conveyed with the con which is at the bottom of the piece this is

in the way that the co n is see-through and you can see a skeleton and bones lying in in, this therefore conveys the ideas that the skeleton was apart of someone who once lived.

http://mbyl.hubpages.com/hub/the-holy-trinity-by-

massacio-masaccio-fresco-florence-paintings-

interpretation-analysis-picture-description

Plan, section and elevation of Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral in Florence (19th century)

http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/holy-trinity-

santa-maria-novella-florence.html

The piece below also shows this, 'In the Florentine church of Santa Maria Novella, Masaccio explored the illusionistic of perspective.’ (Art the Whole Story)

'Theories into about how to imply depth beyond a flat surface'

The plan below was for the Santa Maria Novella of Brunelleschi who constructed the roof of the cathedral, which replaced the old wooden one, which was there previously.

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! early netherlandish art Jan Van Eyck Leonardo de vinci

early netherlandish art

Jan Van Eyck

! early netherlandish art Jan Van Eyck Leonardo de vinci

Leonardo de vinci

The painting fits in well to the renaissance genre because of the way he's placed

The painting fits in well to the renaissance genre because of the way he's placed brush strokes so that the painting has dimension this is seen in the way the creases in the material of her clothing bunch up on her wrists and arms, although the lady appears very three dimensional looking I think the background doesn't show enough fine details to appear as if she's standing in front of it I feel as if she contrasts with the scenery too much almost like she doesn't belong in front of it but on the other hand it draws your attention to her the main focus and subject of the piece. He has also used light to create dimension such as on her neck area and using light and dark shadows on her face to emphasise parts such as her cheek bones.

Michelangelo

Michelangelo was also a very famous figure of renaissance but he was the figure of high renaissance. He also experimented with various techniques but he became famous as a sculpture before any of his paintings were well known. His sculptures were under the name of 'Lorenzo de' Medici' one well known sculpture of his is Pietà for St Peter's.

image from http://www.panoramio.com/photo/ 8481358 The sculpture is located in the St peters church in Italy,

image from http://www.panoramio.com/photo/

8481358

The sculpture is located in the St peters church in Italy, Venice that is located in Saint Marcs square.

In 1501 he started working on painting projects which are still left unfinished, this was partly due to the fact he was interrupted in 1505 as he was ordered to Rome to work on a sculpted tomb for 'pope Julius' the second this project lasted until

1545.

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The first photo above is of the Sistine chapel ceiling and then below is the sculpture for the saint’s tomb. The ceiling is apparently been painted in a particular way to present a message, this is in the way it is made of Jewish symbols it was apparently an act of defiance aimed at the pope and has to do with the crossover between catholic and Jewish faith. This is because they are found that there are 'shapes that correspond to Hebrew letters', follow the link to a telegraph article covering the findings from authors with the theory.

Raphael

Raphael is another high renaissance painter his most famous paintings were the Madonna’s another famous piece was pope Julius the second to redecorate his papal apartments in 1505 he was also appointed the architect of St. peters in Rome, Raphael died at the young age of 37.

St peters church

image from http://www.panoramio.com/photo/46894506 image from http://www.travellingbackflip.com/destinations/ italy.html

image from http://www.panoramio.com/photo/46894506

image from http://www.panoramio.com/photo/46894506 image from http://www.travellingbackflip.com/destinations/ italy.html

image from http://www.travellingbackflip.com/destinations/ italy.html

The madonna's

images all from the national gallery

from http://www.travellingbackflip.com/destinations/ italy.html The madonna's images all from the national gallery
Above are the madonna's which he is most famous for. This also includes the themes
Above are the madonna's which he is most famous for. This also includes the themes

Above are the madonna's which he is most famous for. This also includes the themes of classical arts, this is because of the fact that the babies are naked, the theme of the human form. However I find it strange that the baby is naked and the mother isn't. This is because in a lot of classical paintings more than one person will be nude.

The style of the painting is quiet realistic this is in the way the subjects in the painting is so realistic. For example the skin which is quiet a natural colour, this is in the way it is a colour between yellow and peach. It doesn't look like a false salmon coloured tone, which is quiet often used as a standard for skin colour.

The middle painting is the weaker painting this is because of the fact that the painting is partly cracked, this might be because of the fact that the painting is older than the other two paintings.

The a theme he has used in a few paintings. This is in the way the women aren't the same in the paintings and the babies aren't the same either therefore it is a theme or a concept which has been used several times.

The theme has religious connotations, this is because of the fact that.

vision of a knight

this is because of the fact that. vision of a knight This painting above by the

This painting above by the artist was called vision of a knight it dates to about 1504. The painting is based upon the idea that the knight represent the ideal attributes in a man these are conveyed in the use of objects in the piece. The book represents

the scholar for example reading and poetry and knowledge, which was very popular in the renaissance period. The sword represents strength in to protect and the flower represents the caring aspect the flower is used as it creates connotations to nature and mother nature and how's she's thought to be a caring force. Although the painting fits the renaissance genre with the subjects in the paintings theme I don't think the colour scheme appears very realistically because the colours use a blue vibrant tone and also a red tone. For example the lady on the left has light reflecting on her dress this creates a pale washed out look of colour which reminds of comic characters the painting doesn’t seem to have enough dark to contrast the light and a balance between the hues to make it have a realistic appearance.

Titan

The next artist Titan became famous for the painting called the portrait of a lady.

The painting fits in with the renaissance genre because the appearance of the scene in

The painting fits in with the renaissance genre because the appearance of the scene in very realistic in it's appearance this is the three dimensional qualities this is in the way the material of her dress has dark creases in the dress and the detail in the stone in front has a realistic appearance this is because of the texture of stone and how it's appears like it is in real life. I like the composition of the piece because it appears to be balanced in the way the subject and objects are placed in the frame, this is because there is a bulky pillar like object on the right and then on the left the lady and then the negative space around her balances the composition out.

The painting fits in with the renaissance genre because the appearance of the scene in very realistic in it's appearance this is the three dimensional qualities this is in the way the material of her dress has dark creases in the dress and the detail in the stone in front has a realistic appearance this is because of the texture of stone and how it's appears like it is in real life. I like the composition of the piece because it appears to be balanced in the way the subject and objects are placed in the frame, this is because there is a bulky pillar like object on the right and then on the left the lady and then the negative space around her balances the composition out.

Neo-classical- 1750

This was the art movement that started in Rome in

the 1750's to the 1830's, the word 'neo-classical' translates into the meaning 'new-classical'.

Characteristics of the art? 'Neoclassical art is characterized by its classical form and structure, clarity, and to an degree, realism', in which is the opposite of Romanticism. The codes and conventions for this style was influenced by 'political events' this was in the way that Characteristics of this style include: vases, swags and festoons, classical figures, real and fantastic creatures and beading.

Vases-

these were loved by people in the second half of the 18th century, they were the symbol of the ancient world and because it was a practical object to put things and also a design motif which is basically a decorative piece of imagery or design.

Swags and festoons-

These are hanging garlands of fabric like ribbons, flowers were also used especially husks which

were bud like motifs. These were based on classical Roman decoration

Classical figures-

These were used as the human figure is used in Classical Greek and Roman art.

Beading- Lines of small bead shapes adorn many Neo-classical objects, this is because it’s a common feature to classical architecture.

The aim of the movement was 'to revive the spirit

of the great civilisations of ancient Greece and Rome and developed as a reaction against hedonism and frivolity of the Rocco movement', the movement first started

by philosophers in France who talked about enlightenment examples of those philosophers are 'Denis Diderot' and 'Voltaire'.

The philosophers were against the Rocco movement this is because they didn't like the 'morel laxity of the Rocco style, and by association, the regime that had spawned it' they replaced it with 'art that was more rational, morel and high-minded. A revival of the culture of the classical world fitted this perfectly'.

quotes from http://www.vam.ac.uk

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this perfectly'. quotes from http://www.vam.ac.uk ! Main contributors of the movement? The movement started in

Main contributors of the movement? The movement started in Rome 'It's theoretical basis was provided by Johann Wickelman, a German scholar who worked for Cardinal Alessandro Albani, a wealthy collector of antiquities. In his books, Wickelmann proclaimed the superiority of Greek art, while also urging painters to dip their brush in intellect.'

This inspired Anton Mengs, an example of this is the ceiling painting in Alessandro Albai in his new villa.

characteristics of the movement?

'over the course of it's development across Europe neoclassic took on di erent characteristics and meaning'. This shows how there was a really varied amount of characteristics that the movement used over the years it was active.

quotes from Art the Whole story

Jacques- Louis- David

he perceived the movement as being 'a grand heroic movement that was associated with the French revolution'. This shows how the artist had one perspective on the art movement that there were several di erent takes on the movement. He is the example of artists who painted events in a heroic style.

quote from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/neoc_1/

hd_neoc_1.htm

Whereas the artist below Robert Adam had a completely di erent take on it. This is in the way that he used it in the medium of interior design. Still using the a similar style, the concept of everything being grand, for example this artists who painted heroic scenes whereas the designer below designed grand looking rooms they both have a grand look almost like they are making a celebrative statement.

whereas other contributors to the movement such as 'Robert Adam and James Wyatt, it became

whereas other contributors to the movement such as 'Robert Adam and James Wyatt, it became a fashionable, decorative form of interior design'.

'Robert Adam'

'Robert Adam was one of the most eminent architects of the second half of the 18th century. He played a major role in introducing Neo-classicism to Britain’ V&A. His work was so well known and liked that it was given the name 'adam' style. This therefore shows that his work was successful and had a good response from people. This is in the way that the 'Adam style' became a nickname. This is almost like it was something everyone was talking about and had become a house hold name. This is like the way celebrity's are re ered to today, for example when we are

talking about the singer Madonna Louise Ciccone we don't need to call her by her first name we can just re er to her as madonna this is because of the fact that she is so well known that we just know her by her first name. Another example

is the singer Beyoncé Knowles we just call by the name Beyoncé, this is because of the fact that she is so well known that everyone knows who she is by her first name. But this could be due to the fact that she has such as distinct name which not many people have. However it is a simuliar concept to the 'Adam Style'.

'Adam developed a distinctive and highly individual style which was applied to all elements of interior decoration, from ceilings, walls and floors to furniture, silver and ceramics. The 'Adam Style' was enormously popular and had a lasting influence on British architecture and interior design.’ V&A

He produced a wide variety of work 'interior decoration, sculpture, furnishing, metalwork and architecture.' V and A This means that he had a wide skill set to use in his career it meant that he could do a wide range of alteration work that his clients wanted.

do a wide range of alteration work that his clients wanted. whereas other contributors to the

whereas other contributors to the movement such as 'Robert Adam and James Wyatt, it became a fashionable, decorative form of interior design'.

'Robert Adam'

'Robert Adam was one of the most eminent architects of the second half of the 18th century. He played a major role in introducing Neo-classicism to Britain', his work was so well known and liked that it was given the name 'Adam' style. This

therefore shows that his work was successful and had a good response from people. This is in the way that the 'Adam style' became a nickname. This is almost like it was something everyone was talking about and had become a house hold name. This is like the way celebrity's are referred to today, for example when we are

talking about the singer Madonna Louise Ciccone we don't need to call her by her first name we can just refer to her as Madonna this is because of the fact that she is so well known that we just know her by her first name. Another example

is the singer Beyoncé Knowles we just call by the name Beyoncé, this is because of the fact that she is so well known that everyone knows who she is by her first name. But this could be due to the fact that she has such as distinct name that not many people have. However it is a similar concept to the 'Adam Style'.

'Adam developed a distinctive and highly individual style which was applied to all elements of interior decoration, from ceilings, walls and floors to furniture, silver and ceramics. The 'Adam Style' was enormously popular and had a lasting influence on British architecture and interior design.' He produced a wide variety of work 'interior decoration, sculpture, furnishing, metalwork and architecture.' V and A

This means that he had a wide skill set to use in his career it meant that he could do a wide range of alteration work that his clients wanted. His career started 'work as an architect grew out of his reputation as a painter', he then went onto architecture but he only built one the quote 'He only built one complete country house, Belvedere in Kent.' shows this fact that he didn't do much construction from scratch but he did other architecture in the form of alterations 'most of his work outside London consisted of alterations to existing houses and villas', the work was said to have come from upper class families who lived outside London in large towns, this is shown 'of alterations to existing houses and villas. Compact buildings near large towns, villas were used by their fashion- conscious owners for hospitality and display.' in the projects he used inspiration from his research into classical Greek and Roman buildings, incorporating elements into his alteration designs/ modifications, an example of this would be using ribbon

material decor motifs on a building front. An example of his work is the interior room design below.

The book by the artist below James Stuart inspired Robert Adam which was called Antiquities of Athens, this book meant that the things which people hadn't seen who didn't live in Athens would be able to be inspired from it.

'James Stuart'

One of the biggest contributions he made was the 'Antiquities of Athens' he published in 1762 accurate record of Classical Greek architecture and served as a principal source book for architects and designers well into the 19th century, this meant that designers who didn't live in Italy could access the inspiration away from the geographical location, this explains why the book was said to have 'impact on British design in the late 18th century is largely due to Stuart's landmark publication Antiquities of Athens’ V&A, the book was brought back to England when he returned in 1755 and published it in 1762.

England when he returned in 1755 and published it in 1762. The artist James Stuart did

The artist James Stuart did these two paintings, they are apart of his collection based upon the classical architecture of Greece and Italy. The paintings were deliberately made to be very accurate

Josiah Wedgwood The 'Sta ff ordshire potter' Josiah Wedgwood (1730 - 1795) was the one

Josiah Wedgwood

The 'Staordshire potter' Josiah Wedgwood (1730 - 1795) was the one who introduced 'Neo-classical ceramics', he was the one to make di erent types of ceramics (pottery) available which were very decorative 'Wedgwood did much to broaden the appeal of Neo-classicism by introducing new materials and new types of pottery goods.', he started out by copying 'designs from their books and antiquities.', therefore he got lots of inspiration from di erent imagery and sources and composed it all together. He did this from being 'introduced to the style by a number of collectors and architects’ V&A, this means that he took influence by artists and designers before him this means that he is taking inspiration from what they have learned worked and what didn't therefore he was informing him self.

He then found steady employment from those wishing to have houses and park buildings created in the latest and most authentic Classical style. He also designed Neo-classical silver and furniture.' and then gradually his work became known.

These ceramic vases are examples of what he produced.

image from v and a image from http://www.design-about.com/people-josiah- wedgwood.php

image from v and a

image from v and a image from http://www.design-about.com/people-josiah- wedgwood.php

image from http://www.design-about.com/people-josiah- wedgwood.php

image from http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006mk0g/ features/wedgewood The ceramics were very successful this was in the

image from http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b006mk0g/ features/wedgewood

The ceramics were very successful this was in the way that 'His

cream coloured earthenware was christened 'Queen's Ware' after Queen Charlotte, who appointed him queen's potter in 1762' BBC

'And also the fact that Wedgwood greatly improved the clumsy ordinary crockery of the day, introducing durable, simple and regular wares.' BBC

I like the way the designs are very simple. This is because of the fact that the it only uses two colours. The designs are very obviously inspired by classical greek art. This is in the way that the women are dressed on the design. The lady is wearing a toga dress. This dress is recognisable from the way the dress goes over one shoulder.

Romanticism-1770-

'The movement emerged when a combination of particular 'philosophical, political, social and artistic movements and conditions brought imaginative individualism and unconstrained activity to the fore'. This therefore means that it was a combination of di erent ideas that didn't come from art but from the situation in society that had occurred during the time.

It was brought on partly by German philosophers Immanuel Kant,

Karl Schlegel and Georg Hegel, they focused on the artists 'inner world as the content of the Romantic sphere', it was the idea of

a ' visionary, dreamlike core' and this was the inspiration for the early romantic works. In the way that it 'fuelled early romantic

works such as the mascabre painting The nightmare by the Swiss artist Henry Fuseli’.

Quotes From Art The Whole Story

this painting was first exhibited in 1782.

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Whole Story this painting was first exhibited in 1782. ! 'depicts a women lying defenceless on

'depicts a women lying defenceless on her bed, trapped within her nightmare vision, while a demon incubus squats on top of her looking defiantly out at a viewer’. This creature is used as a metaphor, this is from the way that the way it is sitting, it looks like a heavy mass on her chest. This therefore conveys the idea that the creature is weighing her down mentally so much that it is trapping her in the nightmare she is having.

Quote from Art the whole story

when?

This was the movement, which happened in 1782-1830, it started in Germany and then gradually moved to England and spread across Europe.

purpose?

The movement happened from the influence of German poets and

writers, they wrote about love hence the title Romanticism. It was also a reaction against the art movement of Enlightenment which happened in the 18th century, which was because of the 'war torn years across Europe.

movement characteristics?

The style was characterised by the fact that they refuse to use the traditional painting style such as landscapes, still lives and seascapes. Although the subject matter that they paint isn't classical the style in which they paint it tends to be. But the style developed into a more decorative style in its structure, form and mainly in the way there are luminescent colours used these were used. For the purpose of creating an emotional or spiritual like reaction to the viewer.

Because the paintings were influenced by writings this meant that they were based upon legends, mythology, fairytales and folklore which basically means a story which has been passed through word of mouth this therefore means that these story's are sometimes generations old. 'the idea of the inner world, specifically its visionary, dreamlike core’ Art the Whole Story , an example of this in a painting is in the painting of the nightmare by the Swiss artist Henry Fuseli, this painting has a 'dreamlike core' this is in the way that the subject has been taken over by her night mare, this is illustrated by the gremlin sitting on her chest and also in the way the women is lying spread hanging over her bed this is almost like the position of someone who has passed out, this could also be inspired by the story of sleeping beauty because they are inspired by fairytales and the lady is passed out in a similar way and the gremlin on her chest could be illustrating the character of who is evil and misleads her.

Because the Romantics were trying to evoke emotion in their audience they would sometimes use animals as there subject matter this is because animals could be used as metaphors for human behavior and nature forces by artists such as 'Delacroix, Antoine-Louis Barye, and Edwin Landseer.' quote from metmuseum

Influenced by?

The movement was influenced by the industrial revolution which started in 1779 when the coal Brookdale bridge was constructed in England, an example of this is in 1844 in turners painting Rain, Steam and speed 'allying Romanticism with the spirit of the steam' and the industrial revolution. Art the Whole Story Quote.

Also during the movement in 1789 the French revolution starts, the movement helped the French revolution as they produced art that promoted the cause of the revolution for example in 1793 the painting 'The death of Marat' painted by the artist Casper David Friedrich which was based upon the murder of his friend. The movement was also inspired by the French revolution this is in the way they rejected the 'the rational thought of the 18th century enlightenment', the enlightenment was the period of time when people 'had sought to rationalize the world and move away from the dominations of superstitions and religious ideals towards a more ordered world and more intelligent thinking' this was because during of the French revolution which occurred after the American revolution, it created a period of time when there was war right across Europe which lasted years. This therefore meant that people were losing faith in religion and the idea of having a higher power guiding them such as god, and looked for other solutions to the unsettlement.

Quotes from Art the Whole Story

This was one of the reasons the paintings were so dramatic and emphasised the emotion within the painting , this was referring to the trauma which was happening socially in the movement, for example the unsettlement of death during the war, they used nature to emphasise this such as animals and also weather such as sea storms and rain. The paintings seem to having a mainly deep and dark toned colour scheme.

Then in 1799 when Napoleon was brought to power in France he was the main subject of many paintings during the movement, the Spanish resistance was then painted later on, the theme of faith

was also used to produce dream like landscape paintings such as the paintings by John Martin.

The movement was also influenced by events in society. The French revolution which happened in 1789 which occurred because of the American revolution which happened between 1775 and 1783, this 'marked long war-torn years across Europe, illustrated by works such as the third of May 1808 by Eugene Delacroix.

by works such as the third of May 1808 by Eugene Delacroix. The piece above is

The piece above is called the wanderer above the sea of fog. The message behind the piece is that 'the artist is experiencing the world as no one has ever experienced it before. Fredrich's wanderer is symbolically at the edge of existence. He stands on the mountain top, confronted by a physical, and emotional, choice- he could end his life by hurling himself into the unknown or he could return to the world below and changed man’ V&A. This therefore is exploring the theme of death and the belief or idea that there might be an afterlife or we could just have one life, this is conveying the idea that no one really knows until they die if there is one.

The colours and textures that have been used also help emphasise the emotion the character is feeling this is in the soft texture of the waves and the blue colour, which has been used.

of the waves and the blue colour, which has been used. The painting above is called

The painting above is called The Raft of the Medusa, this piece is also conveying a very emotional scene 'placed an emphasis on the turbulence of human psychology and the awe inspiring power of nature Art the Whole Story'. The nature has been shown as very powerful in this painting, this has been conveyed in the way that the waves a gradually getting higher and therefore more powerful, the wave on the left is a little away from the raft but is on the way to the raft and is seen to be rising and is therefore a danger to their lives, then on the right side there is a wave a way away but is on it's way and appears like it's getting to them and is also a danger to them because it's also gaining strength like the other one.

'a major work in French 19th-century painting—is generally regarded as an icon of Romanticism.'http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-

notices/raft-medusa

'It depicts an event whose human and political aspects greatly interested Géricault:

the wreck of a French frigate o the coast of Senegal in 1816, with over 150 soldiers on board. The painter researched the story in detail and made numerous sketches before deciding on his definitive composition, which illustrates the hope of rescue.’ Louvre This therefore shows how the painter has based the piece on a real event of the time and by 'making many sketches before deciding his definitive composition' it shows that he has developed his ideas rather than picking the first one that came to mind straight away when deciding to make the painting.

The name of the painting is implying or speculating that the accident was too strong of a force just to be a natural accident this therefore means that the force had to be supernatural, which would be a much more powerful force. This therefore brings the legend of medusa into the title

The legend of medusa comes from 'Greek mythology, the most famous of the monster figures known as Gorgons. She was usually represented as a winged female creature having a head of hair consisting of snakes; unlike the Gorgons, she was sometimes represented as very beautiful. Medusa was the only Gorgon who was mortal; hence her slayer, Perseus, was able to kill her by cutting oher head'. http://

www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/372807/Medusa

Perhaps the artist is comparing the strength of the waves and the event to a force like medusa or perhaps those who survived, saw the event or where told about it speculated that it was this ancient Greek myth or medusa.

The colours used in the painting, which are very typical of romanticism, create a moody atmosphere, the artist to heighten and emphasise the emotion of the dictator and the experience for the people in it has used this. For example the colour scheme which has been used is: black, grey, navy blue, duck egg blue, beige, white, peach/ tan tones, and brown. These are all examples of very natural tones because they are seen in photos of woodlands or the sea. And although the artist has used some lighter colours to highlight the scene the colours, which are used, the most are darker tones this therefore makes use of the darker tones more therefore conveying a moody atmosphere.

This has also been created because of the body language of the people in the scene some are screaming, gritting their teeth, crying out for help and then some are just lying on the floor unconscious or dead. The ones which are crying out for help are reaching up and are waving their arms in the air like they are praying to god that it stop or that someone will see them, which looks unlikely that it will happen because no one is around so they are most likely turning to faith (to god).

The piece above is called The third of May, this piece is by the artist

The piece above is called The third of May, this piece is by the artist Franciso De Goya, which also represents a real life event in history. ' a French firing squad executing ordinary people in Madrid as punishiment for actions of the Spanish rebels, who revolted against the French occupation’. Which had taken place the day before he painted this on 2 may 1808.

'The painter used contrasts to tremendous e ect in this scene and the two groups of figures face each other at very close range'. Quotes from Art the Whole Story

'early Romanticism was shaped largely by artists trained in David’s studio, including Baron Antoine-Jean Gros, Anne-Louis Girodet-Trioson, and Jean- Auguste-Dominique Ingres.' (met museum) This therefore would contribute to the fact that they each have such a similar style because they a common piece of background/ foundation training, this is in the way they were all trained in Jacques Louis David's studio. Which means that they have been taught the same techniques and methods.

Baron Antoine-Jean Gros- Napoleon at Arcola-

The artist was ' trained in David’s studio' , before that he was first trained
The artist was ' trained in David’s studio' , before that he was first trained

The artist was 'trained in David’s studio' , before that he was first trained by his father. He met Napoleon through a friend Joséphine de Beauharnais who he met in 1785.

These two paintings are from the artist, both of Napoleon. He choose to paint him because he was 'his hero’ Art the Whole Story. This therefore means that he idolised and looked up to him a lot. This therefore could have added to the dream like state of the painting the Romantic fantasy like appearance of the paintings, because of the fact that when you look up to someone they become like a hero, almost god like and not apart of reality.

The fantasy like appearance has been created with the use of lighting. For example the either moody or vibrant appearance of the sky. The first painting is using a vibrant lighting this is in the way

that the yellow tone coming from the sky area is seen, it is therefore conveying sunny weather but the use of the yellow is properly emphasising the warm weather more than it is this is because the yellow is so deep, because on a warm day you an see a glow from the sky but it isn't as deep of a yellow tone which the artist has used he is therefore probably emphasised and therefore romanticised, meaning that it has been made to seem better than it actually was or is.

The scenes of the paintings are based upon the subject’s military career, these are therefore scenes where the subject is in conflict or just about to go into conflict. This is conveyed in the way that people are lying on the floor with the other people looking strong. This therefore conveys that they are dead because they don't have there eyes open and also the fact that a lot of people are lying on the floor in a heap, this emphasises how many people have been killed this therefore means that it's not just the one o person they've killed it's many this therefore means that it's initial this conveys the idea that there is a conflict and it's one side against another, this therefore means it's some kind of battle, this is also conveyed with the use of imagery where one man is holding a spear which is weapon which would be present it they where having a battle, but the others don't have them out because they have over powered the other side who have died and are standing in some kind of victory pose.

(Images from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/246595/ Antoine-Jean-Baron-Gros)

'By 1840, then, the emergence of an artist such as Théodore Chassériau, whose hybrid style fuses Davidian classicism—which he learned in Ingres' studio—with the Romantic painterliness and exotic subjects of Eugène

Delacroix, captures the contradictory stylistic impulses of his generation.'

the purpose/ How it happened? The movement 'o ered an alternative to Davidian Neoclassicism. David himself had been exiled to Belgium in 1816, where he died in 1825, and his loyal pupil Gros ran his studio until his own death in 1835. In pursuing the stylistic alternative that Romanticism o ered, French artists looked beyond their borders, emulating British prototypes, particularly in landscape and portraiture’. Art the Whole Story

This therefore means that some artists had become board with the movement of Neoclassism and it o ered something a bit more modern for the time period.

Characteristics? 'This blurring of stylistic boundaries is best expressed in Ingres' Apotheosis of Homer and Eugène Delacroix's Death of Sardanapalus (both Museé du

Louvre, Paris), which polarized the public at the Salon of 1827 in Paris.' (met Museum).

'the boundaries between Neoclassicism and Romanticism blurred, as

evidenced in the works of many of David's own pupils.'(met Museum). This is therefore saying that the characteristics of both movements almost emerged into one.

However the movement was freer for artists 'with its free handling of paint and expanded repertoire of subjects'(met Museum). This therefore means that they didn't have such ridged codes and conventions.

Other artists-John Martin-

'He was nicknamed 'Mad martin' because his brother was mentally ill produces awe inspiring Romantic landscapes that expresses his faith.’ V&A He was an artist in the later part of the movement when paintings were said to have been fully developed in techniques and therefore more impressive.

fully developed in techniques and therefore more impressive. When you look at the painting from a

When you look at the painting from a distance it looks like a calm scene of nature. This means that the artist is conveying the theme of heaven through the calmness of nature.

'The Plains of Heaven'

'The Plains of Heaven' But when you look closer at the painting you can see that

But when you look closer at the painting you can see that on the cli , where it looked like waves where crashing gently there are women wearing long floating dresses, although crashing isn't usually a word used for something and connotes something which is harsh or brash that happens, but the waves have been painted in a motion which appears soft this is because of the white which has been used and also the soft texture which they have been painted in. The women in long floating dresses connote the ideas and themes

which are in the bible this is in the way that there are supposed to be angels in heaven the hue which the dresses have been painted

in connotes purity this is because

this therefore connotes the

idea of angles being good and being present in heaven.

'was inspired by St John the Divine's fantastic account of the Last Judgment given in Revelation, the last book of the New Testament.', this means like the title suggests the painting is based upon the theme of religion, god and how there is a higher power in control rather than the people on earth making the decisions.

'to express the sublime, apocalyptic force of nature and the helplessness of man to combat God's will', by the use of the word 'apocalyptic' , this is referring to

the 'Biblical Apocalypse' ( Google definitions), This seen in the painting below which has a very chaotic, busy and moody atmosphere, the painting is apart of a three painting series which he based upon the same theme, the title of the series

being 'the Judgment Series'. The reason that the painting series fits the style of romanticism is because the theme is based upon the idea that there is a god which is a higher power in control of our path and that when we die that there is a heaven, although some people strongly believe that this is the case, they don't know for sure only when they die because no one knows that there is a heaven or hell for sure until they die because it isn't believed to be on earth or not accessible until our life on earth is over,

these paintings are therefore based upon the imagination of the belief this therefore means that the paintings have a dream like quality which is typical of the style.

have a dream like quality which is typical of the style. The colour scheme of this

The colour scheme of this painting adds to the moody atmosphere, which has been created by the artist, this is the way that they have used deep, dark and vivid hues. For example the colours used in this piece include: black, brown, grey, blue, white and red. The black and brown hue have been used in the most quantity this is in the way 2/3 of the painting are painted using them, because they are darker colours they connote a darker mood this is in that bright colours such as yellow connote a happy atmosphere because they are seen in hot and sunny weather this means that the dark colours connote the opposite because they are seen in rainy and cold weather. The dark colours also help create a contrast between it and the vivid colour of red this is because the vibrant colour against the dark brown and black, makes the red seem more vibrant this is in the way a contrast is created from the darker colours. The colour red also connotes the theme of anger and danger which the artist is trying to convey, this is because the

scene is about the 'Biblical Apocalypse' ,this means the idea of

the 'cataclysmic vision of destruction', this is therefore conveying the idea that god is

causing an 'Apocalypse' , this is in the way that god is getting angry with the people on earth. This is conveyed with the imagery in the scene of the angry looking sky, the sky looks angry and moody because of the way there are big storm clouds and the way that the orange and red lines in the sky look like lighting is brewing in the sky because they look like lighting bolts. The colour red also connotes anger and danger this is in the way that the colour red is associated because blood is red so it connoted death (the end of life) which we all fear out of human instinct because we are programmed to survive (the survival of the fittest.

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Quotes from V&A

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! 'Georgios Klontz' The imagery within the painting represents the ideas within religion that there is

'Georgios Klontz'

The imagery within the painting represents the ideas within religion that there is an after life and that there is a hell which people who haven't been good and have committed sins burn in red hot lava and singe in hell whereas the people who have been good go to heaven a live peacefully forever in their afterlife.

International Gothic

The title gothic refers to the ' Nordic tribes that overran the Roman empire in

It was called an international style because 'of the similarity between stylistic trends and techniques that appeared geographically distant European centers’ an example of this is in the way that artists from France, Italy, Austria, Bohemia (Czech republic) and England' all 'developed an artistic style that intensified elements of the gothic during it's last flourish'. This therefore shows how it happened in an international way.

The movement happened because the artists of the movement were influenced by the events during that time period, the European crisis that happened 'in the political, social, and cultural spears at this time'. This was caused by the decline of the holy roman empire. Two things ‘the schism in the church prior to the death of emperor Charles IV coupled with the removal of the papal court to Avignon further undermined the absolute authority of the church’ caused the decline in the holy roman empire. This was therefore a religious crisis and this means

that the people trust and respect in the church needed to be restored. Which in turn means why the medieval religious theme of the work in this is present, for example ' Religious figures and scenes were the periods predominant subject matter'. Quotes from Art the Whole Story

The hundreds of years of war during the medieval period from 1337 to 1453 between the countries of England and France were also an influence on the art work this is because the war e ected the 'social and political landscape of Europe', for example the piece below

landscape of Europe' , for example the piece below This piece is showing 'indirect expression of

This piece is showing 'indirect expression of struggle for power', this is therefore a metaphor for the people in the medieval period and how they had to do what ever the ruler wanted and had no say or freedom to state their opinion out of fear, this is therefore comparable to a modern dictator. The piece is therefore conveying their feeling of unsettlement in their lack of control in the situation in society.

Quotes from art the whole story

Gothic Architecture

The gothic movement also included gothic architecture, the style of the art was a type Medieval art that developed in Northern France which then spread throughout western Europe, it came from the Romanesque art which happened in 12th century AD, it occurred and was influenced led by the development of Gothic architecture which was 'developing side by side with Romanesque art.’ Art the Whole story

The movement lasted more than 200 years, the movement like the renaissance was apart of societies eort to move out of the darkness of the middle ages. Societies reaction to trying to move out the dark ages meant that Christianity strengthened, this therefore meant that the building of churches and cathedrals and the interior decor inside it for example tapestries, colourful windows etc.

'Gothic architecture is the result of an engineering challenge:

how to span in stone ever-wider surfaces from ever-greater heights? While most early medieval churches were covered with timber ceilings, many Romanesque buildings have either stone barrel vaults (i.e., semi-circular) or groin vaults (i.e., bays of barrel vaults crossing at a right angle). Their walls are necessarily thick to counter the outward thrust of the vault, and they allow only small windows. From 1100 onward, architects experimented with innovations that, once properly combined, allowed the dissolution of the wall and a fluid arrangement of space.' MetMuseum

This means that the movement arose from the want to have higher windows that the technical diculty of not being able to construct high windows resulted in them having a 'pointed arch' from this movement they also 'developed a system of stone ribs to distribute the weight of the vault onto columns and piers all the way to the ground' this innovation allowed them build bigger buildings which gave a grand appearance therefore creating a grand visual looking which would impress citizens this therefore is an e ort for artists, architects, designers to try and make the church seem appealing in someway an act of propaganda by using visual elements of colour

and great scale of building to draw people near to capture their attention, in my opinion to attract them with a big good looking building as it would stand out around the smaller buildings and therefore attract them to want to see what the buildings for.

The style was characterised by the naturalism aspects of work in the movement. The movement also had the purpose of 'art itself was created to enhance and explain religion. With widespread illiteracy, painting and sculpture became "teaching tools" to bring the stories of Christianity to the masses' Yahoo. This means that in a sense the imagery was used to convey the story and religion of Christianity to the people in society who were unable to read at the time so therefore weren't able to read the bible which is a heavy piece of written material, this therefore means that they were 'teaching tools' to make it easier for people to access the religion and understand it.

French Academic Art 1800-1900

The movement occurred when 'the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture' combined with 'two other academies and became 'the Academie des Beaux- Arts in 1816'.

The academy was first established in the 16th century 'replacing the medieval guild- apprentice system', the academy required each student to take an entrance exam before they could study 'several years' with them.

the currilicum involved :'a student would spend years copying works by past artists in order to assimilate their methods. Every drawing had to be approved before a student was allowed to advance to the next level’ v&A. This was therefore a very staged process in although it is an art subject academic. This is because of the fact that the students were judged very closely in what they produced.

They started by 'initially drawing from printa, then plaster casts of classical statues, finally progressing to drawing from life. Once proficient in drawing they learnt to paint, but there was a straight hierarchy of acceptable subjects’ Art the Whole Story . There success was then measured of competitions.

'History painting, which included biblical and classical subjects, had the highest status, next were portraits and landscapes and last were still life’s and genre paintings' these were of Romanticism and Neoclassicism they were 'academy approved styles that artists were encouraged to draw upon in their work’Art the Whole story. This therefore means that the kind of painting that they could produce was from a very narrow range, which means it's had a very straight and rigid structure, which later caused the movement of pre-Raphael art where a brotherhood was formed to rebel against the straight regime of French academic art.

The one thing that all the pieces of art noticeably have in common is that they all include the female nude. For example the birth of Venus there is a female standing in a shell, the next one there is back of a female figure, a women lying on a bed with just a sheet and in the last one there are many women unclothed along with men. This I personally think is to do with the roots in neo classism and Romanticism which have roots in the resistance which was inspired by the classic arts for example how in the renaissance period they used to sculpt the nude.

artists include

William Bouguereau- The birth of Venus

! image from http://www.u ffi zi.org/artworks/the-birth-of-venus- by-sandro-botticelli/ Jean- Leon Gerome -pygmalion
! image from http://www.u ffi zi.org/artworks/the-birth-of-venus- by-sandro-botticelli/ Jean- Leon Gerome -pygmalion
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image from http://www.u ffi zi.org/artworks/the-birth-of-venus-
by-sandro-botticelli/
Jean- Leon Gerome -pygmalion and galatae
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Alexandre Cabanel - phedre
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image from http://www.iment.com/maida/family/mother/vicars/p083.htm#color ! Thomas Couture ! ! image from

image from http://www.iment.com/maida/family/mother/vicars/p083.htm#color

! Thomas Couture ! ! image from http://www.musee-orsay.fr/en/collections/works-in-focus/painting.html?
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Thomas Couture
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image from http://www.musee-orsay.fr/en/collections/works-in-focus/painting.html?
no_cache=1&zoom=1&tx_damzoom_pi1%5BshowUid%5D=2031
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'all whom successfully combined the theories of Neoclassicism', this means that they stated art should be modeled on accepted classics of form and composite and 'not to repeat them but synthesis their qualities in new works'.

The 'Industialisation and European revolutions of 1848 transformed social conditions and artists began to reconsider the authority of academic art'.

French realists and the British Pre-Raphaelites were the first one's to question this, they did this because they 'objected to the conservatism and inflexibility structure of the academies, as well as their control of patronage'. And they also didn't like the method of academy painting because they had a 'polished finish' and 'showed insincerity and a perfunctory approach. To rebel against the movement they 'held alternative, uno cial exhibitions to show their unconventional work. Later on the Impressionists rejected their principles because they felt that 'all subjects were are equally acceptable and that the truthful depiction of the sensation of light is art's true goal

quotes from Art the Whole story

Realism 1840

When? This was the movement, which started in 1840. Purpose? The movement 'sought to convey a truthful and objective vision of contemporary life', (Metmuseum), this quote tells you that the movements purpose is conveyed by the title because the movement wants to convey a 'truthful vision', this means that the

purpose of the work in the movement is to be as realistic looking as possible to imitate what is seen with the eye.

They 'responded to the social and political changes by

rebelling against the art establishment and eschewing

Romanticism' they did this is the way that they choose 'to depict ordinary people and events in a naturalistic, almost photographic, painting style based on close observation'. (Metmuseum),

'they also painted such scenes on large- scale canvases to deliberately elevate their significance to that of major historic events'. (Metmuseum), This therefore shows that

events in society The movement happened because of the influence of the French Revolution in 1848,Metmuseum ' As French society fought for democratic reform, the Realists democratized art by depicting modern subjects drawn from the everyday lives of the working class. Rejecting the idealized classicism of academic art and the exotic themes of Romanticism'. This means that although realists liked the classical style of painting things how they appeared to the eye they did not like way paintings only painted a limited range of subjects, which were usually of the upper class. This is the reason why they decided to paint di erent subjects, which were not usually considered such as the 'working class'.

Characteristics? Realism was based on ‘direct observation of the modern world. Metmuseum shows how not just the style was realistic but also the subject matter they painting because it was 'based upon direct observation of the modern world'. This means the art was used as a means to make a statement, the way they represented the lower class people by painting them and also by painting them in such as

realistic style this was in order to give people who didn't see this side of society an idea of what they are like and how they live through imagery "They often used a detailed technique 'Realists recorded in often gritty detail the present-day existence of humble people'", it therefore a message to help the lower class community and protest against the higher societies opinions of them and establishment, the use of detail is in order to make them seem as realistic as possible hence the title 'Realism'.

'They often used a detailed technique 'Realists recorded in often gritty detail the present-day existence of humble people', this was to raise the awareness of the way the lower class lived and the presence of them this is because higher class societies were generally the ones to attend art exhibition events, this therefore gives them an insight into the way they live as they don't live in the same area so they would not usually associate with them only walk past them occasionally.

Other things influenced this movement such as literature, 'in the naturalist literature of Émile Zola, Honoré de Balzac, and Gustave Flaubert. The elevation of the working class into the realms of high art and literature coincided with Pierre Proudhon's socialist philosophies and Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto, published in 1848, which urged a proletarian uprising’. This quote is explaining how the publications of the

literature by people like Emily Zola it gave awareness to the lower and working class people he stated his purpose in the following quote 'I have but one passion:

to enlighten those who have been kept in the dark, in the name of humanity which has su ered so much and is entitled to happiness.', he therefore believed that the lower and working class people were being kept in the 'dark' by this he means they are being undermined and that they aren't being considered he wanted to make people aware that they exist.

quotes from Metmuseum

'Gustave Courbet'

He is considered to be the 'leader of the realist movement', the painting of his called 'up seven years of my artistic and moral life declares his political agenda'. Art the Whole story

life declares his political agenda'. Art the Whole story image from

image from (http://www.musee-orsay.fr/en/collections/works-in- focus/painting.html?

no_cache=1&zoom=1&tx_damzoom_pi1%5BshowUid%5D=2364)

In this painting he was making a joke out of academic art, this was in the way that it had a 'ridiculing the idealised stance of academic art' (art the whole story), this is referring to the way that academic art makes things appear perfect or better than prefect, this is in the way that the definition of idealised is to 'regard or represent as perfect or

better than in reality', (Google definition). He is therefore making a joke out of how they make everything seem perfect or better than perfect this is in the way that model is standing in the middle (the naked women) but around her are di erent people for example on the right there are people who are from upper class background, this is because of the clothing that they are wearing (of the dresses which have patterns), one women the closet to the viewer on the right side has a pattern which appears like it's gold, the colour of gold denotes ideas of a higher standard because it is associated with being pure and a good quality metal as well as being a desirable item because of it's cost and beauty people associate with it, therefore because of desire for it is worth a lot this therefore means that only people in a higher class can a ord it because you need to have money to attain it.On the left side of the model and where the artist is set up are people from the opposite walk of life this is also conveyed in what they are wearing this is because they are wearing what the typical working class person would wear in that time period which was in the Victorian era, which started in 1837.

Madame Auguste Cuoq (Mathilde Desportes, 1827–1910)

1837. Madame Auguste Cuoq (Mathilde Desportes, 1827–1910) This piece fits the genre of realism in the

This piece fits the genre of realism in the way that the painting style is realistic but in the scene of the painting the painting doesn't quiet match that aspect of it, this is because the lady is placed in a dress and sitting on what looks like a well made chair this therefore

connotes the idea that the lady is sitting in a well made comfy house, which also means that the lady is secure financially, this therefore made me think when first looking at the piece why is it in the realism painting category because wasn't the purpose of the movement to represent the lower classes, but then the idea came to me that maybe this painting isn't conveying the social realism aspect maybe it's conveying emotive realism in the way that the subject is posed she looks as if she's thinking deeply, she doesn't look happy or unhappy, it's the kind of deep expression that could connote that she is in some sort of depression or facing some sort of problem she needs a solution to if I had to sect I've her emotion it would be deflated ( neither happy Or unhappy) just in a dream like state, this is therefore connoting the realism of her emotions and peoples emotions, this is because in paintings before the movement subjects tended to be in planned poses and this therefore didn't connote the emotions people face in real life because this means the subjects aren't portrayed or captured in a natural pose but are put in a pose which isn't natural this therefore forces their facial expressions. The colours on the piece also add to the moody, deflated emotion that the artist is trying to convey this is in the way he has used dark hues. For example the colour schemes which the artist has used are: black, brown, vivid green and burgundy and beige hues, this therefore connotes a depressed mood this is because of the connotations which the colours bring into your mind for example black which is quiet often thought of as a funeral colour in western countries this is because black is worn to funerals to represent morning whereas if the artist had used colours which had bright hues this would create the opposite connotations this is because colours which are bright such as yellow make you think of happiness this is as they are associated with warm weather because of the sun and how it is yellow, and also because of the fact that days get lighter and brighter in the summer and the night comes later whereas winter has long nights.

Woman in a Riding Habit (L'Amazone),

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The painting above is not also obviously representing the lower or working class, this is

The painting above is not also obviously representing the lower or working class, this is because although the women isn't in a fancy dress the women is dressed in a horse riding outfit this is an activity which you had to have some money to do unless the women worked in a stable this therefore would mean that she was working class but in that period of time it was unlike that she works as she was a women who didn't usually have jobs and stayed at home. The realism of the piece like the one before was done in the detailed brush technique that the artist used therefore conveying as much detail as he could to make it close to what the eye could see in real life, this means that it is slightly photorealistic, this appear similar to the way it would in real life, for example the screen shot below of photorealistic art.

Colour scheme- I feel like the colour scheme is quiet dark like the previous one for example the piece uses the colour scheme of:

black, dark green, blue, navy blue, white and peach skin colour. Although the painting has some lighter and brighter colours such as the hue below the navy blue which is a light blue colour, the lighter shade of the deep green, the white, the pale skin colour a peach tone and the rosy red colour of her cheeks. This therefore means that the painting isn't as dark as the previous painting, this is because it has slightly more lighter hues than the previous painting. But I still feel like the colour scheme adds to the moody, morbid, and depressed atmosphere that the painting connotes, this is in the way that the subject (the women) is dressed in mostly

black which brings ideas into my mind such as death this is because the colour is very commonly worn to a funeral in the western world it is therefore a colour which is considered to be a colour for mourning, for example widows mourning wear all black to convey/ communicate their deep sadden emotion. Also the fact that the women is the main focus of the painting and therefore the black colour is the first thing you saw. The women is the focus point because of where she is placed on the canvas of the painting, she is placed so her body is placed in the middle of the paintings width, this means that she stands out from the background immediately, this therefore means that the eye falls on her straight away. Also I think the light blue hue and the lighter green hue which is present in the background has a contrast between light and dark because of the darkness of the black, the eye also falls on the white gloves she is wearing because they are light against the dark of the black they then look at her and she becomes the main focus of their attention.

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This piece above by the artist Alyssa Monks who is a photorealistic painter, the painting is much more photorealistic than the painting above but I feel like it does have an aspect of realism in the way that it is interpreting what the eye see's but it isn't as realistic as the photorealistic because the photorealistic painting concentrates on the tiny little details such as the fine lines of the girls face, the details which are captured by the painter are as intricate as a camera would capture if you were taking a photo with a SLR high quality camera.

'The artist Mary Cassatt admired this work as "the finest woman's portrait Courbet ever did."'

Pre- Raphaelite Art -1848-1900

! This was created in rebellion to the form of the art academies. It was
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This was created in rebellion to the form of the art academies. It
was formed when students at 'London Royal Academy formed a
society 'called the pre-Raphaelite brotherhood' the president of the
group they were going against the 'dictates of the academies first
president Sir Joshua Reynolds' they wanted to move away from
the 'somber colour pallets, fixed subject matter and rigid
conventions', they marked their paintings with PRB instead of
signatures, the movement lasted about five years.
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The three founding members were 'Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel
Rossetti and William Holman Hunt. Who were later joined by
'Thomas woolner, frederic george stephens, James collision,
William Michael rosette.
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Everett Millais-
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! ! Dante Gabriel Rossetti ! !
! ! Dante Gabriel Rossetti ! !
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Dante Gabriel Rossetti
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William Holman Hunt apart from the group's members they also had associates influences-

William Holman Hunt

William Holman Hunt apart from the group's members they also had associates influences-

apart from the group's members they also had associates

influences-

'early Italianate art and were nostalgic for the medieval period, believing that medieval art to be freer and more experimental than in their own era. ‘This therefore means they were influenced by art movements that had freer codes and conventions because they were reacting against the rigid rules that the French academic art followed that they didn't like.

the purpose of the movement 'was the melding of art and literature and they produced a monthly magazine, the germ, sub titled 'thoughts towards nature in poetry, literature and art'. the publication wasn't successful as 'very few copies were sold' and 'only four issues were published', however later it was considered 'highly influential' besides the fact it was a 'financial failure at the time'.

They liked the theme of nature this is in the way that they had a 'painstakingly fidelity to nature'. They therefore had a very big interest in nature and it was a theme they enjoyed.

They like the theme of fantasy this is in the way that they ‘often choosing medieval romance as their subject matter', this therefore means that they liked themes that contained more freedom in the painting.

'although the French impressionists are usually credited with beginning the practice of plain-air painting, the pre- Raphaelites were painting out of doors several decades earlier'. They therefore goes with the theme they have of being more free with the art, this is because the studio can be quiet restricting because they could only paint what was in their heads or from their imagination. I think that going outside would provide extra stimuli for inspiration in the painting.

Millais- Ophelia

Quotes from Art The Whole Story

Symbolism 1880

This movement came about in the 1880's and came about because

it was a reaction 'against the rationalism and materialism that had come to dominate Western European culture'.( metmuseum). The artist Jean Moréas, proclaimed the 'validity of pure subjectivity and the expression of an idea over a realistic description of the natural world.' This is therefore a reaction against

the realism as the imagery in the pieces isn't portrayed in a realistic way but in a symbolic way in the technique they use for example they use a less detailed method where not every piece of the imagery is exact like the accuracy used in realism.

This movement was also created as a reaction against naturalism 'Symbolism was soon identified with the artwork of a younger generation of painters who were similarly rejecting the conventions of Naturalism.' This is because of the

fact that that the piece is using di erent brush techniques in the way that the brush strokes used were quicker and a dot like dabbed shape. This is therefore much

di erent to naturalism this is because of the fact that the style is more abstract than based on the realistic look of the object.

The movement was also the opposite to realism as they 'believed that art should

reflect an emotion or idea rather than represent the natural world in the

objective', this means that rather than having the imagery representing the subject exactly as we see it in the real world with accuracy that the realists used they instead wanted to convey emotion in the art or an 'idea' which is meaning a concept.

The movement was caterorised as an avante grande movement, the 'symbolism related more to an artistic approach than to a particular style'. This therefore means that it was a new innovation a new concept that had been thought up.

Influenced By? 'the poet jean more as unfolds the symbolist manifesto in an article about poets stephane mallarme and Paul Verlaine in the French newspaper le Figaro 1886.'

'It was also a reaction against 'the 19th century preoccupation with materialism and technological change'. This means that the way they were engrossed with 'materialism and technological change'. They therefore wanted to have a simple basic style that conveyed an emotive atmosphere rather than work that conveyed the theme of the industrialisation and the concept of how technology was developing.

characterised by? The style was characterised by the 'recreation of emotional experiences in the

viewer through color, line, and composition', this means that they used the

message rather than having the subject in such detail, they therefore chose to leave out tone this therefore means that they choose to use a much more simple

style in their work because they would have mainly used blocks of colour with lines to make up the scenes.

The imagery that they used was ' Wanting to imbue their works with spiritual value, these progenitors of Symbolism produced imaginary dream worlds populated with mysterious figures from biblical stories and Greek mythology as well as fantastical, often monstrous, creatures. Their suggestive imagery established what would become the most pervasive themes in Symbolist art: love, fear, anguish, death, sexual awakening, and unrequited desire. Woman became the favored symbol for the expression of these universal emotions'. love, fear, anguish, death, sexual awakening, and unrequited desire. Woman became the favored symbol for the expression of these universal emotions’. This therefore means that their works were inspired by spiritual values (religion) and also myths from the way they were inspired by Greek mythology, along with the themes of love, fear, anguish, death, sexual awakening, and unrequited desire and women. They liked these themes because they were freer than the themes used by other art movements which have themes which are based much more on reality than the themes used in this movement such as Greek mythology, which is based upon, hear say.

Quotes from met museum

Artists in the movement?

the artists that were involved in this movement: Paul Gauguin, Emile Bernard, and Paul Serusier.

Paul Gauguin-

movement? the artists that were involved in this movement: Paul Gauguin, Emile Bernard, and Paul Serusier.

Gauguin: The Yellow Christ, 1889

The piece above fits into the impressionist style this is in the way the piece doesn't have extreme amounts of detail such as the previous piece, this piece has more sections of colour and lines to make up the main details of the painting, for example the Jesus Christ figure on the cross has been painted in mainly the colour of yellow and then blocks of tone of areas of one colour not mixing two di erent shades because otherwise there would be di erent variations of the tone of the colour in the area which has been painted in.

The colour scheme of the painting is very bright this is in the way that colour of yellow, the colour yellow connotes ideas of happiness because the colour is the colour which we think of when we think of summer because the summer has warm and bright weather and also the sun is a burning hot yellow/ orange colour. The rest of the colour scheme is made up of: orange, green, a bright hue of navy blue and a light blue colour. This therefore means that because most of the colour which has been painted on the canvas is made up of orange and yellow this therefore means that the painting has made up of a lot of bright colours mainly and with the use of other colours such as the blue which is used which

is a light based colour this means that the painting isn't made up of any dark sections this means because the painting has a very bright appearance which is seen when first looking at the painting, for example when you first look at the painting the vibrancy of the hues is the first thing that strikes you and comes to mind and therefore the happy atmosphere that the tones connote, like the

e ect a summers day has on your mood.

The scene is of Jesus Christ when he was crucified on the cross, which is now the event which we celebrate Easter for, the painting connotes a happy atmosphere which makes you question why if someone is being killed because it's not something we usually celebrate. However I think the reason the artist has represented and communicated a happy atmosphere because Christians think of it as a positive thing that Jesus sacrificed his life to rid the sins of everyone's sins, therefore why they celebrate Easter, so many be the message behind the painting is that there is a happiness, hope

or light in the sad occasion that there is positivity that will come out of it.

Emile Bernard

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is positivity that will come out of it. Emile Bernard ! The painting above also uses

The painting above also uses the same technique of placing blocks of colour and then another one over it and using lines rather than detailed toning.

The paintings colour scheme connotes a calm atmosphere this suits the scene as it is by the river, a scene which looks like a boat harbour could be near or something similar this is because of the two rowing boats which are placed near the river bank, the water of the river connotes ideas of peace this is because the noise that waves make and how water can move in a slow peaceful motion.

The colour scheme that makes up the piece is: blue, beige, white/ greyish colour, a darker sort of duck egg blue colour, green, lime green and a red/ orange colour.

The colours like the previous one aren't accurate to what the objects would actually look like in real life, this is because the movement was rejection to the naturalist movement which the movement of realism which it employed the object to convey the natural world as the eye sees it. An example of this in the painting

is the lime green and the red/ orange colour of the boats on the river side, the colour tones are probably not the colour of what the boats actually are in real life because boats are made out of wood and also in that time period they wouldn't have painted the wood on the boats that colour because the modernist movement came later and also the 60s decade in which they loved the use of bright and bold colour in wasn't in the time of Symbolism because the movement happened in 1880. The unnatural colours which the artist has used is to convey the relaxing atmosphere by the riverside, what the experience of being by the riverside is like rather than what it looks like which is why the artist has used colours such as light blue because they convey a calmness and peaceful ness, the colour of green which had also been used connotes nature because plants, scrubs etc. which are seen in nature are green it is therefore commonly seen in nature therefore means that's it is a strong connotation of nature.

Paul Serusier

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it is a strong connotation of nature. Paul Serusier ! The piece above is an etching,

The piece above is an etching, which illustrates the main details of a street scene from that time period the piece uses two colours of black and a cream colour. The black that is not technically a colour because it does not emit wave lengths this is because the definition of a colour is something, which emits wavelengths.

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The piece uses like the others, areas of blocked in colour except the areas are black (not a colour) and the space is cream, and then the details of the piece are made up of black lines. An example of this is the market stool tent on the left of the piece in which the lines make up the fabric creases on the object.


 IN 1900 Pablo Picasso also adopts the style when a close friend dies express
IN 1900 Pablo Picasso also adopts the style when a close friend dies
express his grief
in order to
inspiration 'attracted by the mix of folklore and devout Christianity they
encountered in the inhabitants of this remote, rural area.' Art The Whole Story
'They experimented with images of dreams and memories using flat, simplified
forms in unnatural colours and rhythmic patterns'.
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Impressionism-1860-1900

and rhythmic patterns'. ! Impressionism-1860-1900 Claude Monet How it was created? The movement was first

Claude Monet

How it was created? The movement was first started by a group of artists , which the artist Monet worked with. As a reaction to historical scenes in 19th century and also as a reaction to highly polished French academic art this therefore is why the painting has an unfinished look to the people who where in the 19th century 'looked unfinished to the 19th century eye'. Because the French Academic art used a lot of layers in their paintings whereas the impressionists included enough detail for you to know what the scene is clearly. Which means that the paintings wouldn't appear finished compared to the French academic art which society was used to.

The movement originally got it's name when Claude money's painting above was exhibited and the art critic Leroy wrote a article titled 'Exhibition of the impressionists', this was intended as an insult at the time. This was because of the fact they were used to the highly polished look of French academic art. Which means the insult was intended to be an insult and that it was intended to be calling the painting only a impression only a attempt that failed.

Characteristics? The movements characteristics were 'bold, bright colours and in broken brushwork', the type of scenes they painted as well were very shocking to people in the 19th century as well this is because people in the 19th century were used to seeing people's portraits which were posed and the painter would tell the person how they want them to sit or position themselves this therefore means the paintings scenes were set before hand, whereas in the impressionist paintings they often captured scenes in the surroundings of Paris, France where the movement started. For

example they captured scenes of a ballet studio or in a launderette these scenes, which were so real, and where said to have been 'scenes deemed radical', this was properly because they were so

di erent and natural compared to the scenes they were used to

seeing in the previous art movements such as realism. The movement also used 'flat colours, simple designs, dynamic and

o center compositions'. This therefore shows that the codes and

conventions that the artists used in the style where very modern for the time. This is because of the fact using techniques such as flat colour hadn't been used before, in the way that in movements such as renaissance and French academic art they liked to have a lot of dimension in their work. They liked to create the look of 3-D objects.

Quotes from Art the Whole Story

'Landscapes, and scenes from modern urban and suburban life painted in bright, pure colours are typical. Impressionists often began (and sometimes completed) their paintings outdoors

rather in a studio. Their rapidly applied brushstrokes are often visible'. (national gallery).

This quote also tells us how the impressionists preferred a more natural approach to their work rather than setting up a scene, which has been, though about and therefore has a forced appearance. The 'rapid brushstrokes' were because they had to capture the movement more quickly when working outside depending upon if they were capturing a moving subject or not, this e ects the texture of the work it makes the scene appear energetic than the smooth texture that realism paintings have and paintings from movements such as romanticism.

Reaction? The scenes where also thought of a 'radical' and shocking because 'Traditionally in France the middle classes had not been considered fit subjects for serious painting, while the working classes and the peasantry were usually portrayed as comic yokels, or timeless figures of rural life.' (national gallery) This therefore means that this was not thought to be the norm capturing lower class and the middle class. The quote explains how they did not think of them as worthy subjects to paint, and they therefore might not have thought of them as interesting subjects. They therefore looked past the bias and segregation, which other movements had. This lifted other people's views such as Novelists who 'took as much pleasure in describing the cafés, bars and theatres of Paris as the artists did in painting them'. National Gallery

This therefore shows that they preferred a more realistic approach. This is in the way that liked to convey the surroundings, which were in society. Rather than only selecting the higher class subjects or regal looking buildings. This means that they are conveying things from society in everyday life, which therefore means you get a better idea of what society is like.

The new discoveries of the 19th century influenced this movement, the colour spectrum informed the artists which colours they had to use for them to compliment each other for example 'Orange and

blue were understood to be opposite' (national gallery). During the 19th century discoveries about the brain and how it processes what we see 'interest in the way in which the human mind processes what it sees' (national gallery). 'When we look at a landscape, or a crowd of people, we do not instantly see every face, or leaf in detailed focus, but as a mass of colour and light. Impressionist painters tried to express this experience.' (national Gallery). This means that by paying attention to the way the human brain works they made their painting style suit the theory. This means it makes the viewing experience of the painting more enjoyable for the viewer because it is easier on the eyes. Because the painting style pays attention to the order we see things, therefore creating a suitable visual hierarchy for the brain to deal with and process. This therefore makes viewing the painting a more relaxing experience because the brain doesn't have to work too hard, to figure of what the di erent elements of the painting are, they give the brain just enough information to process it as a life like scene, to create that experience similar to the one in reality but not as complex.

'innovation of ready-made paint in tubes', this was another development in the 19th century instead of having to mix paint, which was inconvenient, and time consuming 'Grinding pigments in order to make up oil paint had been a laborious and untidy process'. And also they couldn’t carry around a lot of paint very easily. The tubes now meant that the paint would preserve as long as the lid was on the tube. This meant that the impressionists could paint around Paris easily without running out of paint or it drying out. Which was therefore more convenient for the urban scenes they wanted to create , 'the availability of a wide range of ready-made colours meant that artists could work outdoors, rather than in a studio.' They also used the innovation to capture speed paintings. They could also work at much greater speed, at moments applying the paint straight from the tube without even using a brush. This meant that they could capture a moment within minutes or even seconds. Which allowed them to capture moving subjects such as people in their natural environment more easily ,which suited the scenes they

wanted to create. They worked outside because 'they wanted their paintings to be so real that they sometimes worked outside'. The idea of working outside was to capture the real atmosphere and feel of the place, this meant rather than painting from their imagination or taking a photograph.

Quotes from Art the Whole Story !

Influenced By? The movement was influenced by photography, this was in the way that the artist Edgar Degas's pictures of ballet dancers were inspired by the freeze frame photographs of Edward Muybridge 'these revealed how animals and humans move'.

The main artists involved in the movement were:' Monet, Renoir, Pissarro and Degas.' (national gallery)

Monet

Renoir, Pissarro and Degas .' (national gallery) Monet Bathers at La Grenouillère This painting is very

Bathers at La Grenouillère

This painting is very typical of impressionism this is because it is a natural scene. This piece is a much more photorealistic than the others. Which are less detailed representations of scenes and which would be more quickly interpreted. This is in the way that paintings such as the one below, which has a slightly rougher texture, which looks more, rushed. In my opinion, it looks as if the painting had has less time spent on it, and therefore had more

rough quick brushstrokes rather, than creating long smooth brush strokes than the one above.

However the figures in the far right of the painting. On the boardwalk next to the boat harbor, they aren't in a realistic detail, this is like the way that if you were looking at this scene with your eyes. This is because of the fact that the eye would see the people in more detail rather than the blurred out state of them in the painting. However the painting does meet the purpose that the style set out to create. This is in the way that piece imitates the scene. And what one person might be looking at, focusing on or just the purpose of giving an impression, of what was going on within the piece.

Renoir

an impression, of what was going on within the piece. Renoir The Water-Lily Pond This piece

The Water-Lily Pond

This piece has a more rough texture, this therefore appears like the painting was rushed like there wasn't time to create long, smooth textured brush strokes. This is because the impressionists went out into their scenes to paint them rather than to create the painting from their imagination. This was therefore to create a more realistic impression of the scene ,but not to create an exact impression of the scene so that it's so detailed that it's photorealistic, or as realistic as realism pieces to get a balance between the experience of a scene and what it actually looks like.

The scene above was painted outside this means that the artists time was probably limited. This is because outside they can only have so much time where the scene stays the same, so objects in the scene don't move. Whereas if you were to paint it in the studio then you'd have endless time because the scene you were painting would be stored in your mind, and also you wouldn't have to worry about the weather, such as if it started raining or snowing for example.

The piece uses a colour scheme that again suits the scene this is in the way the scene is natural and the colours convey the theme of nature. This is in the way the colour scheme is made up of: green, blue, pale pink, and a bit of brown. There is a lot of green used in the painting, this therefore means that the painting conveys the theme of nature very well. Because green as a colour represents nature as it's consistently seen in plant life such as scrubs, flower stems, and also on the grass. It also conveys a calm atmosphere because we associate nature with peace. For example because a walk in the woods is calm, the ideas of birds chirping and a gentle breeze. Which in turn convey ideas of peace and harmony whereas a city connotes ideas of busy trac noise, horns, buses the smell of co2 and pollution, which aren't thoughts that provoke calmness in people's minds.

Pissarro

buses the smell of co2 and pollution, which aren't thoughts that provoke calmness in people's minds.

This piece has an even more grainy look to it this is because of the fact the artist was painting a person and therefore a pose could only be held for a limited time this means that the artist would have to get the main details of the mans face as quickly as possible in order to capture the scene.

The composition of this piece is balanced this is in the way that the subject has been placed in the middle and then the scene out the window and the window frame behind the subject. The contrast, which has been created, this is meaning the way that the scene in the background uses paler hues whereas the subject of the man is dressed in black (of his hat and his coat). But however you don't focus on his outfit you focus on his face this is because of the fact that the mans beard is pale colour of cream/white and also the colour of his skin which is the peach tone, this therefore means that there is also a contrast created between his outfit and his face, so this therefore becomes the focus point of the piece this is because of the fact his face and beard are placed almost in the middle of the paintings canvas.

Degas

his face and beard are placed almost in the middle of the paintings canvas. Degas Arts

Arts and Crafts- 1861

When and where?

The art and crafts movement occurred from 1861-1914, in Great Britain in the 1880's the movement spread throughout Europe, the movement happened because they didn't like theatrical age where there was mass production of goods during this time, which relied on heavy machinery rather than hand production.

Purpose? This happened because of the writer John Ruskin who wrote about the e ects of Industrialization aesthetic eects (the principles underlying the work) and also social e ects (at a earlier time period. The textile designer William Morris put this into practice by producing hand-printed, hand-woven, hand-dyed designs. The movement involved a very humane view toward workers and labor. Morris's goal was never reached because the expense which was needed to complete the process, the goal to create art for the masses. The movement was progressed mainly because of the arts and crafts exhibition society in 1888.

What they produced? In this movement textiles, books, wallpaper, stained glass and furniture as well. Artists who produced work for the movement include: William Morris, Walter Crane, Norman Shaw and Phillip Webb. A hand made style, which had a slight medieval style, characterized the style of the work. The work was often rough- hewn oak furniture or textile or wallpaper design ('Finely crafted'), the pieces are connate the style of medieval art because of the 'linear, opaque colors angular, simplified quality intricate, sometimes geometric, detail'. http://www2.palomar.edu/users/

William Morris- This piece is one of William Morris's wallpaper designs for the arts and crafts movement the piece is made from pencil, water colour. The piece is a sketch for a wallpaper design although it isn’t the finished product it shows the way they choose to keep to the traditional process this is in the way they choose to work from scratch and hand-render their work rather than produce it by machine. This therefore means that they were had the intention of keeping quality in design rather than the purpose of mass producing to make money. The piece has the movements

characteristics of being linear because of the lines which are used in the form of the design for example the way the flower leaves have many lines these help with making the flowers in the illustration have a 3-D look and therefore have more of a flowing movement in the way that the leaves are positioned so that they are curving and gives the piece a relaxed feel in the way the that the piece has smooth curving shapes the piece has a relaxed feel and atmosphere because of the smooth flowing and soft edged shapes and also with the pale soft looking colours, the composition is very busy but because the colours very soft in the way that the colour scheme which has been used of blue, yellow, beige, lavender and brown. The colours of yellow and beige are quiet pale colours whereas lavender can be quiet intense but the media which the artist has used means that the tone has quiet an translucent look to it because of the way the media is water based and has been used in a traditional way whereas if the paints had been used in a dry brushing technique then the colour would be less watered down and more pigment would be placed on the page. The piece is also very characteristic of the movement because of the way the piece is very detailed there are also ‘intricate’ details that are small and delicate the whole piece has lots of small details but each detail is in the same high quality throughout the piece like it has been thought about, the lavender colour in the piece has been used to create a focus point because the hues of yellow, beige and brown are all earthy tones whereas the purple tone is more vibrant and isn’t really a natural hue tone. I think although there is a focus point created in the piece with contrast the piece has a very busy appearance in the way the flowers seem to be placed extremely close together. Walter crane This was an invitation, which was created for one of the arts and crafts exhibitions, which they had during the time of the movement. This piece of design for the invitation has a hand rendered style which is characteristic of the movement which by the way it also has an illustrative style by the way the two people in the scene have been drawn using a slight linear style for example on their clothing where the material falls lines have been used to show this detail, this means that it still keeps a simple style because the people haven’t been drawn in a tonal way so that the piece is too detailed which would make it complex and therefore

harder to find a focus point for the eye and too make it’s way around the piece with too much detail which would make it confusing. The piece also uses a very simple colour scheme of brown and beige, this means that because the piece contains a lot of small details for example in the top corners where some branches with many leaves are illustrated there have been fine details drawn for example the line which is usually present in the middle of the leaf, but because there are some many small leaves the piece appears quiet detailed but because the colour scheme is

simple it means that the eye is likely to get less confused because if there were many colours then it would be looking at the range of

di erent colours rather than the illustration work. This also means

that if there was a wide colour scheme the piece would have too many details in the design elements of the piece.

The composition of the piece has been designed so that the eye looks at the two medieval looking men who are shaking hands and then be drawn up to the title of the exhibition which lets you know what the invitation is for this therefore is a piece of vital information to gain interest in the exhibition. The title is emphasized by the way the text has been illustrated using negative space around the positive space to make the letter shapes up, this helps emphasize them because the brown background colour of the negative space and then the cream light colour of the positive space contrast each other and therefore draw your eye to the text with the contrast of light and dark colours. But the piece does include many details although there are less details at the bottom of the piece I thought that the way there are quiet a lot of linear marks used in the illustration this makes the piece seem quiet detailed and therefore I think busier than it should be so that you don’t have to spend a long time looking at it in order to understand what the pieces purpose is, although the piece has been balanced out by the colour scheme and could have been more complex I still think that there are too many details for it’s purpose however this gives it a medieval style which is often present in work from this movement. The medieval style has also been conveyed with the way the men who are illustrated are dressed this is because they are wearing an old style of dressing such as the loose style of top they are wearing which appears almost like a tunic which is not often worn by men now but in previous history.

Norman Shaw He was the architect who influenced the 1890’s arts and crafts architecture, he explored several styles including gothic styles although he is most know for his ‘urban queen Anne’ style. is a notable example. ‘Shaw’s Queen Anne buildings combined modern materials and construction methods with authentic 17th- century town-house motifs.’ http://www.countrylife.co.uk/culture/

He was alive during the dates of 1831 and 1912, and he worked from the 1870’s to the 1900’s. The reason he shaped the arts and crafts movement was because he was said to have ‘recreated late Victorian architecture and late Victorian England’ (rosemary hill interviewed in the Guardian), this means that he embraced the past style of Victorian architecture which had a more handmade method and less industrial which was what the movement was fighting against. This also meets the characteristic of arts and crafts pieces, which tended to have an old look such as how the Walter crane invitation had a medieval look to it. An example of how he created this appearance in his work ‘was its soaring chimneys, pre-Raphaelite stained glass and blue-and-white china glimmering against dark wood’ the part where rosemary mentions dark wood is significant this is because the material is a very common characteristic in Victorian architecture. Also the fact that she picks up on the ‘pre- Raphaelite’ stained glass is also apart of common characteristics because this often influenced this artists in the movement. He was also known for being a good draughtsman this meant that he sketched the properties/ buildings he intended to build before hand this meant that the process happened from scratch.

Post Impressionism- 1870-1912

This was a term, which was used to describe the development of French art since the artist 'Mamet' who was one of the first French 19th century artists to paint modern life. By roger fry the French art critic when he organised an exhibition.

The movement was a development on the Impressionism movement but the artists of the movement rejected the limitations

it had. 'they continued using vivid colours, often thick application of paint, and real-life subject matter, but they were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to distort form for expressive e ect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary colour.’ wikipedia This was said to have come from experiencing the 'Impressionist' movement and then moving on from it 'to explore new artistic territory'.

The movement was mainly of the work of the following four artists:

Paul Cezanne, Georges- Pierre Seurat, Vincent Van Gogh and Paul Gauguin. But they didn't work in a group form but in their own

di erent take on the style therefore the style varying a lot. 'Cezanne focused on pictorial structure; suerat was interested in the scientific nature of colour; Van Gogh's expressive brush strokes

expressed his emotional intensity; and Gauguin experimented with the symbolic use of colour and line. (Art the Whole story), they therefore each developed the previous style in a di erent way with their own take on the style, this therefore means that while pieces in the style will have a similar atmosphere the pieces won't have a similar structure to their characteristics. The movement was categorised as a European contemporary movement, this was why it wasn't received very well by people in France at first because it was much more modern than anything that anyone had ever seen.

received very well by people in France at first because it was much more modern than

Henri Edmond cross-

The painting above is made up of brushworks which are dots, this therefore creates a texture which doesn't occurred naturally if you looked at the scene in real to the eye, it therefore rejects the naturalist ideas as well as the symbolism. The colours which are used are quiet similar but they aren't exact for example the use of lilac dots which cover most of the painting, but other than that the scene looks realistic and quiet similar to the way the eye would see it. This in the way that he has used the dots to show light and dark in the scene, this is in the way that there is yellow and darker hues in the scene to represent where light and shade is falling. For example on the tall fur trees there are warm yellow tones this therefore represents the light and where the warmth of the sun is falling, the colour connotes this because the colour yellow connotes the sun and the warmth of the summer. The summer shows a little bit of shade at the bottom of the piece where the

green grass is this is in the way that the artist has used di erent shades of green dots, in the way that they go from a light green to a darker deeper green.

The composition of the painting has a balanced appearance this is in the way that the fur trees frame the scene this means that the piece has a calm atmosphere this is in the way that the objects are spaced evenly in the painting this therefore connotes the feeling of nature and therefore suits the scene which appears to be the countryside.

Vincent van Gogh This piece uses a smoother texture and also uses line a lot

Vincent van Gogh

This piece uses a smoother texture and also uses line a lot more whereas the painting before used dots, which meant the absence of line. The piece uses it for example to show the shape of the old tree and how the tree has curved shapes in its form. The lines, which have been used, are dark brown smooth lines, which have been painted on. The colour scheme of the piece goes well with the natural scene, this is in the colour used and what atmosphere they connote. The colour scheme, which has been used, is of: brown, beige, tan and some greys. The colours are pale based hues so they connote a calm atmosphere and also the green is associated with nature as it is seen in nature so much so it connotes ideas of peace.

Georges- pierre-seurat The piece above is also made up of a many dots but unlike

Georges- pierre-seurat The piece above is also made up of a many dots but unlike the piece before it is made up of smaller dots so it therefore doesn't have as much of a grainy texture as the other painting. The colour scheme which has been used in this painting is very vibrant this connotes a happy atmosphere this is because the bright areas on the lawn show that there is bright sunshine and also the light areas on the river do this therefore makes you feel happy when looking at the painting because it recreates the feeling that you feel when there’s a summer day and it's bright and warm, the weather of the day therefore e ects your mood. The colours, which have been used, are: light green, yellow, light blue, darker blues, brown and red hues. The most prominent colour in the piece is the lime green hue this is in the way that it covers most of the river bank of green grass next to the river where the people are socialising this therefore means it's a main focus point of the piece which you will see when you look at them, the painting is also full of people who are dressed in brightly coloured summer clothes, this therefore makes you feel the atmosphere of summer when looking at the painting. Art Nouveau -1890-1910

The movement first came from France the name came from an art

dealer called Siegfried Bing who lived in Paris in 1895, the name of the shop 'La Maison de l'Art Nouveau. However it was referred to

di erently when it reached di erent countries. For example in

Austria it was called 'Sezessionstil' and in Italy it was called 'Stile Liberty'.

The artists who brought or 'pioneered' this new style were said to be Alphose Mucha and Jules Cheret, this was in the way they 'both became well known for their images of colourful images of attractive young women.

Extremely influential it gained 'huge popularity through Europe and the U.S', it was also influential because of the fact that 'It a ected every branch of the arts from painting to architecture to graphic art and design'. This was due to the characteristics of the art movement being 'versatile, decorative style', this therefore meant that it could be used across a wide range of mediums.

The other characteristics of the movement are the 'use of sinous, linear patterns. Stylised natural forms, such as leaves or tendrils, predominated, but stylised natural forms were also occasionally employed, as were relatively abstract motifs such as whiplash curve and the arabesque.'

The way the movement is highly decorated means that it is based upon the beauty of the work rather than the concept behind it, this in the way that 'designers avoided symbolic or expressive content in their work, focusing instead on it's decorative appearance.'

The influences 'bold simplifications of Japanese prints' 'which proved an inspiration to the impressionists'.

'Arts and Crafts movement in Britain and, in particular, by the rhythmic, floral patterns in the wallpaper designs of William Morris. In addition there were echoes of the stylisations employed such artists as Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh and edvard munch'.

They influenced more abstract art movements after it because, 'by diverting their subjects of emotional or narrative content'. This was also because of the highly decorative nature of the movement using a lot of shapes such as the use of Japanese prints.

Quotes from Art the Whole Story

Examples

Jan toorop fatality

Quotes from Art the Whole Story Examples Jan toorop fatality (image from pinterest). The image has

(image from pinterest). The image has a very heavily decorated style.

otto Eckmann

otto Eckmann
otto Eckmann
otto Eckmann

These pieces above are typical Art Nouveau pieces because of the way they have vivid colours, celebrate women and also have a highly decorative style.

Hector Guimard- aricutectual features 'wrought - iron

entrances'

'for

the city's new metro stations'.

'for the city's new metro stations'. screenshot and Quote from http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/

screenshot and Quote from http://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/ conservation/objects/objects-metro-project.html

'A German variant', this therefore means that the style was developed in Germany. The magazine influenced the ‘variant’, which was title 'Die Jugend' which means 'youth' it was published 'from 1896 to 1914'. The magazine was 'an important showcase for the new style', this therefore means that artists in that time period could be up to date with what was happening in the style and also artists who hadn't been introduced to the style could become aquatinted with it and find out what the style is and what it's about. This therefore means it acted like some of the modern day design magazine's that we have today such as creative review or computer arts, both which tell you the trends in the design community to keep up to date in the industry for graphic designers and other creatives in the industry, however computer arts is more to do with the digital side of graphic design whereas creative

review covers more of a wide range of mediums. For example 'is

simply on anything and everything to do with creativity in communication excellence and innovation in design, advertising, new media, photography, typography and illustration.' Whsmiths.co.uk

These magazine covers use a very illustrative style because of the way most of the imagery has been drawn with a line and then blocked in with big areas of colour. For example there is a line around the flowers and then they are coloured in with di erent shades of orange.

they are coloured in with di ff erent shades of orange. The main subjects of the

The main subjects of the covers are women and femaimity. This is in the way on the right side of the cover there is a women this therefore is making her the main subject/ focus point of the cover. And also the imagery which has been used links very closely with women. This is in the use of flowers and how she appears to be standing around a field of flowers or some flowers. This is connoting ideas of how women are sometimes seen as very delicate creatures. In the use of flowers which are thought of as a female thing, because of the delicacy of flowers of there petals.

image from http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jugend_(Zeitschrift)

image from http://german.lss.wisc.edu/~smoedersheim/gr677wm/ texte.htm 'one of the principle illustrators was the

image from http://german.lss.wisc.edu/~smoedersheim/gr677wm/ texte.htm

'one of the principle illustrators was the Hamburg artist Otto Eckmann', who illustrated the first cover shown on this post, of the girl with orange flowers around her. But he also created other work in a wide range of disciplines. For example 'furniture, ceramics and wallpaper'.

review covers more of a wide range of mediums. For example ' is simply on

review covers more of a wide range of mediums. For example 'is

simply on anything and everything to do with creativity in communication excellence and innovation in design, advertising, new media, photography, typography and illustration.' Whsmiths.co.uk

excellence and innovation in design, advertising, new media, photography, typography and illustration.' Whsmiths.co.uk

images from WHsmiths.co.uk

The movement also developed in Britain and Glasgow , this in the

way there were 'linear stylisations' made in Britain from the artist 'Aubrey Bearsley such as the Peacock skirt'. And in Glasgow 'Charles Rennie Mackintosh', who used the 'interest of Celtic

decoration' and also the influence of 'The studio

which

exhibited illustrations of the work of Beardsley and Toorop'.

Aubrey Beardsley

of the work of Beardsley and Toorop'. Aubrey Beardsley The illustration has a very linear style.

The illustration has a very linear style. This is in the way that there is only a few filled in sections with black and there are no sections filled in with a mid-tone such as grey. The piece suits the movement in the way that there have been very abstract shapes which have been used such as the Japanese style prints which are one the left hand lady's skirt located at the bottom of the piece.

Charles Rennie Mackintosh

image from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willow_Tearooms The Willow tea rooms-Glasgow The interior above is one of his most

image from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willow_Tearooms

The Willow tea rooms-Glasgow

The interior above is one of his most famous designs. An example of this is the geometric shapes which are on the chairs, this is the simple arrangement of the squares which are at the head of the chair.

Fauvism- 1900-1910

The art movement was the first Avant- garde movement the movement happened between 1900 and beyond 1910, the art movement which was a group of artists experimenting with new ideas and methods. The fauve painters were the first to make impressionism popular, the style of the art movement used ‘bold

brush strokes, high keyed vibrant colors’, and they painted nature and people.

The developments 'Inventions such as the motor car and radio, and the wider availability of electricity, were transforming people's everyday lives.' http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/fauv/hd_fauv.htm Artists who were apart of this movement included: Henri Matisse, Maurice de Vlaminck, Kees van Dongen, Charles Camoin, Henri-Charles Manguin, Othon Friesz, Jean Puy, Louis Valtat, and Georges Rouault. Georges Braque and Raoul Dufy joined these in 1906. It was created when the artists of: Henri Matisse, Andre Derain, Maurice de Vlaminck exhibited their work together at the

Salon d'Automne in 1905 Louis Vauxcelles and described them as fauves. In 1908 Paul Cézanne had order and structure in his work which made many of the artists reject the emotionalism of fauvism for the structure of cubism.

The word 'Fauvism' means 'wild beast' in French, it was the word often used by French art critics to describe an artist who painted freely and used a lot of bright colour in their work, these artists also distorted their subjects and therefore did not conform to the classical style.

and therefore did not conform to the classical style. Matisse This painting above by the artist

Matisse

This painting above by the artist Matisse has the two most common characteristics of fauvism paintings one being that it has vivid bright colours and two that the subjects characteristics are portrayed in a very simple way using coloured blocked in with some tones but as little tone detail as possible. The woman is placed in the middle of the frame this therefore means the piece has a clear focus point of where the eye needs to concentrate most

of it's attention on. However I feel the piece has a busy atmosphere because of the wide range of di erent hues which have been used I feel if he had used a smaller selection of colours it would make it much easier to concentrate on what to look at. However the wide range of vivid colours which have been used give the piece a warm, happy and summer atmosphere. This connotation has been created because the summertime is generally bright from the warm sun. I also feel like there isn't much contrast from the background because both the background and foreground are as bright as each other if there was even a slight contrast it would mean the eye would be able to focus more.

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it would mean the eye would be able to focus more. ! Jean Puy The painting

Jean Puy

The painting above is by the artist jean Puy, this painting compared to the previous painting has a good sense of visual hierarchy. This is in the way light and dark shadows have been used to make the eye focus on certain areas of the painting before the others, for example the bottom of the painting where most of the scene is happening is brighter but with shadows of trees on the ground and then in the distance of the painting there is clear blue water, this therefore make the eye look at the scene first and then into the distance which follows an order of importance.

Georges Rouault

V&A The piece above uses a strong contrast between the bright red and the darker

V&A

The piece above uses a strong contrast between the bright red and the darker hues in the painting such as the darker grey hue, however there are lighter colours used this is in the skin colour which has been used and the light grey. The focus point of the piece is what looks like a king with a sliver/grey crown on his head. The motion which seems to be in the painting is interesting, this is in the way it looks like the main focus the man in the middle looks like he has been duplicated in di erent positions like he is turning around, for example you can see the side of his face on the far left, in the middle he is facing you and the one on the right is turned towards you but about to turn away. But because the faces aren't obviously the same person this is because the details aren't precise which was a characteristics of impressionism not conveying exactly what you see, but there is an extreme likeness and similarity between the three figures and because they are dressed the same you assume that the figure is the same person. The composition of the piece is very busy this is because of the fact that it there isn't a lot of positive space around the figures, this is because of the fact that the figure makes so much positive space present in the painter this therefore means they aren't

balanced with each other this makes quiet a busy appearance. The one thing I would say I don't like about this painting is that it isn't clear that the figures are judges this is because it appears like they are wearing crowns it doesn't look like they are wearing judge’s hats which they are supposed to be because of the title 'the three judges'. Therefore I think the brush strokes and details of the painting aren't crisp enough to see clearly what the subjects are supposed to be. However I like composition of the painting and how the painting isn't clear makes you think about it but I don't think the painting is clear enough.

Expressionism-1905

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think the painting is clear enough. Expressionism-1905 ! ! Edvard Munch the piece above is by

Edvard Munch

the piece above is by the artist called 'Edvard Munch' the piece is based upon the structure of many di erent lines the piece has a distorted kind of appearance. This piece appears like it's using the lines to illustrate sounds this is because the subject who is screaming, the lines that make up the composition seem to be illustrated a high pitch distressed scream this is in the body

language the subject has in the way it has it's hands at the side of it's face, this connotes that the subject is feeling distressed so therefore I think the use of lines emphasises this. The composition has a good visual hierarchy because the eye focuses on the main subject this is because it is placed in the middle of the width of the painting but not of the height this means that because it's at the bottom of the painting it doesn't get lost in the details because the top area of the painting is more textured with more colours and details.

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in the details because the top area of the painting is more textured with more colours

Vincent Van Gogh

This next painting above by Vincent Van Gogh called sunflowers has more of a calm and relaxed atmosphere, I think this has to do with the fact that the piece is not heavily textured like the previous one and also the colour scheme is more limited whereas in the previous piece uses roughly about ten di erent hues. I like the Van Gogh has used a smooth background and then slightly texturised the flowers this therefore creates a contrast between the foreground and background. There is also a contrast between light and dark which has been created this is because the background colour (apart from the darker surface which the vase sits on) is lighter than the flowers that are against the wall which are colour between yellow and brown a sort of tan like shade and others a deep yellow colour.

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a sort of tan like shade and others a deep yellow colour. ! Auguste Macke This

Auguste Macke

This painting above has a much more or a vibrant colour scheme this piece also uses more subtle texture within the imagery. For example the trees in the imagery has a slight texture this has been created by layering a few (properly two) shades of green. The piece has a vibrant appearance because of the colours of blue, red and yellow. However because the piece uses a few very bright colours this means that there isn't much di erence between the positive and negative space in the foreground and background, this therefore means that the eye struggles to find a point of focus

although the trees help to see where the people in the painting are walking towards (where the path is because the brown of the trees is slightly darker than the other hues in the painting so it helps slightly to work out what’s going on in the painting.

Avante Garde

The avante grande movement was the French meaning for Originally a French term, meaning in English vanguard or advance guard (the part of an army that goes forward ahead of the rest). (Tate modern), this implies that the movement intends to be a forward thinking and appearance, because of the emphasis on the strength and the advantage because of the connotations van guard creates.

The movement happened during the second world war

The typical characteristics of work during the movement involves experimenting with new artistic methods and techniques in order to create higher quality work.

The movement is very experimental and pushes the boundaries of what is the norm or of what's expected, because of this it is thought of being very closely linked with modernism, this is shown in the following quote 'People often use the term in French and English to refer to people or works that are experimental or novel, particularly with respect to art, culture, and politics. According to its champions, the avant-garde pushes the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm within definitions of art/culture/ reality. ' (http://www.citrinitas.com), this means that the movement was ament to be something which was good quality and something which was to amaze people because of the fact that they were trying to create 'novel' work the connotations of novel this implies that they were looking to create award winning ideas and that amazed people, they did this by 'pushing the boundaries’ V&A, this was done with a variety of movements which are categorised under the name of an avante garde movements, the movements include:

Cubism, De stilji , Futurism and Surrealism. The movements had the concept in common 'The notion of the avant-garde enshrines

the idea that art should be judged primarily on the quality and originality of the artists vision and ideas. This means that the idea should be the most important thing in the movement rather than a lot of codes and conventions, many codes and conventions still appeared in the art movements but the concept of the art movement the idea behind the art movement should be the most important thing. For example the art movement of de stijil concentrated on conveying harmony in their work

cubism-1908- 1916

It was created in the early 20 th century (1907) by the artists Pablo Picasso and the artist Georges Braque in Paris.

the movement started from their common interest in the painter Paul Cézanne, he was a Post-Impressionism artist this is a type of art movement where they pleased with the colour and vitality which came from Impressionism but felt the movement had limitations he used a di erent method in the way he painted, this was in the way that he didn’t try to apply illusion in the depth meaning to create a 3-D dimension whereas he used a di erent technique in his painting which was to be aware of the 2-D dimension of the paper, he instead wanted to emphasise the texture of the paper this therefore was more modern because not many artists have done this before, this was done by applying regular brush strokes.

'Picasso and Braque wanted to create a more truthful form of representation than naturalism’

The influence of the movement was from 'primitive cultures' for example 'in stylisised African tribal masks'.

The movement is based upon representation.

'without cubism there would be no duchamp, no pop art, no conceptual art, and no multi-media installations' this was because the 'culmination of a phase within western art that challenged the classical ideas and orthodox methods of representations'.

(Quotes above are from art theory for beginners Richard Osborne and Natalie Turner)

This in the way that it paved the way to more modern and contemporary movements. This is in the way at first it wasn't received very well because it was considered 'Radical' in the way that it was criticised, an example of this is when the art critics: 'Guillaume Apollinaire, Andre Derain, Georges Braque and Henri Matisse all came to see it and everyone of them initially rejected Picasso’s painting' saying that it was 'some kind of joke'. The movement although initially rejected was one of the most important ones because it 'influenced almost every other movement in the 20th century', it took a long time before the art community came around to the movement 'more than thirty years', this shows how modern the concept of cubism was

The movement was influenced by Primitivism and non- Western sources. It was characterised by being highly geometric, modern and a distorted perspective. The movement was also influenced by the new technologies of the era ‘such as photography, cinematography, sound recording, the telephone’, http://www.artyfactory.com/art_appreciation/ art_movements/cubism.htmthis therefore meant that artists needed a new way of presenting their work so that the perspective still appeared interesting now that the new modern technologies were about and had appeared this was because photography had become such as good use for documenting things it meant that the camera had taken over painting which was used as a form of documenting things and because the camera invention made it easier and quicker to document things such as events etc. This meant that painters were being employed less since the invention and needed a new style so that the work had a new way of seeing things which was interesting to set it apart from the camera which produced a hyper realistic image. The movement was the first abstract movement in art.

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Pablo Picasso The piece above is by Pablo Picasso called Factory, Horta de Ebbo' it

Pablo Picasso

The piece above is by Pablo Picasso called Factory, Horta de Ebbo' it was the first modern abstract style which was developed in the 20th century, this style was made with the aim of changing the conventional forms of representation in art this means the way subjects are represented such as in the renaissance period painters made their subjects in a realistic appearance and in the three dimensional style, accurate colours and textures.

The piece above uses oil on canvas the piece it uses an abstract

e ect of texture and colour where the colours are blending into

each other slightly. This has a bold e ect because the colours used are: orange, green, grey and blue. I think that it has a bold appearance because for example the colours green and orange and layered over each other the two colours aren't usually seen together. Also because of the perspective used of cubes and rectangles to make the structure of the scene this takes away what the eye is used to this is because in this scene the factory chimney at the back would be made to round in the real world this makes you think about the perspective he's used. The piece is also quiet busy with the details the piece is made up of such as the many objects making up the piece, texture and the colour and also the fact that the whole piece is covered there isn't any negative space this gives it a busy composition.

Georges Braque

Road near L'Estaque This piece above is a scene of a country road side scene,

Road near L'Estaque

This piece above is a scene of a country road side scene, the natural shapes of the scene which would have been seen wear changed into a geometric shapes and also the cube like forms to make the scene out of cube like shapes which portray an abstract look. The colour scheme of the work has a natural appearance this is in the way that the it uses the tones of: green, beige and brown. This is in the way di erent shades of green are used and the way tan and a light brown is used and a beige colour. This therefore means that it connotes ideas of nature but it has a modern look in the form and composition of the painting, this is in the way that the geometric shapes give it a modern constructed look which connotes ideas of machinery and new technology. This is because machines are made up of many components, this is similar to the piece because it is made up of pieces of shapes which were put together to make the scene.

Constructivism- 1913-1924

Influenced by- This was another movement which was influenced by the Russian Revolution, the constructivism movement was stylised with the way it was a 'non-objective, abstract art'. The movement occurred mainly in Germany due to its geographical location to Russia,

Purpose-

The movement was created because the artists who created the

movement 'to move beyond the autonomous art object, extending the formal language of abstract art into practical design work', the meaning

'autonomous' connotes the meaning or standalone or independent, this is referring to art which is just art and doesn't have another function, with this movement they were trying to create an art and design movement that communicated something as well as looking good.

This want was caused by the social Utopian vision which was initially created by the Russian revolution 'Utopian climate following the October Revolution of 1917, which led artists to seek to create a new visual environment, embodying the social needs and values of the new Communist order.' (moma.org). There were several takes on the utopian vision this was in the way that several movements were caused by this vision and this therefore another take on the solution to creating a utopia on earth.

'geometric abstract art that is ‘constructed’ from autonomous visual elements such as lines and planes, and characterized by such qualities as precision, impersonality, a clear formal order, simplicity and economy of organization and the use of contemporary materials such as plastic and metal.'

The techniques which were used in this movement were of a very

wide ranging media for example 'however, to work in the traditional artistic media of painting and sculpture, while also experimenting with film and photography and recognizing the potential of the new formal language for utilitarian design'.

This movement was created by the 'artist and merchant Tattling went to visit Picasso’s studio in Paris. Tattling was determined the painting planes he saw in Picasso's cubist works into real materials in real space

Another significant designer in the movement is El Lissitzky's who produced the Russian Civil War poster Beat the Whites with the Red Wedge. The work was influenced by 'supermatist shapes and Dada-influenced typography to convey its political message.

They movement was supported by the communist part of the government, this was because of the fact that 'Artists such as Tatlin and Rochencko began to seek ways of aiding economy by devoting their skills to the design of practical objects, such as workers clothing and domestic heaters and product marketing',

he had developed the photomontage technique which he developed under the influence of dada he also produced things such as 'designing book covers, film posters and even advertisements for biscuits.

His brother Naum Gabo was also influential in the movement this is because of the fact that he laid down the principles of 'constructivism in the realistic manifesto' which happened in 1920.

'He experimented with ways to construct space without depicting mass' he used 'sheet materials such as cardboard, plywood and galvanised iron' this experimentation resulted in works such as the Head of the woman'.

Futurism 1909

Purpose?

The purpose of the movement was to create a modern looking style 'The style was characterised by a modern appearance 'the Futurists rejected anything old and looked towards a new Italy' (Tate), this therefore shows that they wanted to create a modern, vibrant looking and exciting looking movement. This is in the way that they 'rejected anything old and looked towards a new Italy', this was because they found the history that Italy had 'Heavy' and therefore depressing, 'the weight of past culture in Italy was felt as particularly oppressive', the art movement was therefore created with the intention to lift people's sprits. But unlike symbolisation they wanted to use the theme of technology 'What the Futurists proposed instead was an art that celebrated the modern world of industry and technology', this shows how they wanted to embrace it with the use of the word 'celebrated'.

Quotes from the Tate

Influences?

The movement was inspired by several previous movements ,'From an original blend of elements of Neo-Impressionism and Cubism, the Futurists created a new style that expressed the idea of the dynamism, energy and movement of modern life.', The movements that it took inspiration from were therefore: Neo-impressionism and Cubism.

Artists?

'Giacomo Balla'

The pioneer of the movement was Giacomo Balla 'he created the movement because he viewed Italy as a country which was ' artistically complacent', this means that' 'Then rapidly became one of the most original and inventive of the Futurist painters, exploring plastic equivalents for motion, in which he adopted the serial images of cinephotography, and the dynamic expression of velocity in machine forms.’

Art the Whole story

This piece seems to emphasising the scene of a lamppost light up at night, This

This piece seems to emphasising the scene of a lamppost light up at night, This is the way there are two di erent main elements of the piece, the lamppost and the moon and then another layer where there the area which is the dark of night around the area where the glow of the lamppost cuts of but there is also a pattern around the lamppost this is where the many di erent coloured lines/marks, they are placed over the glow of the lamppost. This therefore meant that the piece was very detailed and this means that there wasn't a simple visual hierarchy created like the first one. Personally I think the piece is chaotic with the amount of details and colours. The way that the details of the pattern are so small and fill up so much space and also the fact that this covered the lamppost and the glow this therefore means that the piece is full of details.

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Carlo Carrà-


 Italian painter, critic and writer. He was apprenticed to a team of decorators at
Italian painter, critic and writer. He was apprenticed to a team of decorators at the
age of 12, after the death of his mother. His work took him to Milan, London and
Switzerland, as well as to the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900.
He met Umberto Boccioni and Luigi Russolo, and together they came to know
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and to write the Manifesto dei pittori futuristi
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Gino Severini-
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Luigi Russolo-
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futuristi ! Gino Severini- ! ! Luigi Russolo- ! Image from V&A This piece has less

Image from V&A

This piece has less details than the lamppost piece, this is because the di erent elements of the piece has more blocked in colours. And only uses the colours of: blue, red, yellow, and green. The hues which have been used use quiet bright hues this is in the way that there us a lot of red and yellow used in the piece the focus point of the piece is the yellow and the red because it is placed in the middle where the eyes fall first. Although the piece is less detailed I still think that the piece doesn't possess a very clear visual hierarchy because of the vibrancy of the colours which because there is not much balance in the colour scheme and they are all vibrant it means that the eyes find it hard to focus and work out what the painting is about.

Dada-1915-1924

The movement was founded by a group of artists in Zurich, Switzerland and new york, in the 20th century it was also a development of the Cubist movement. It then later became popular with artists in: Berlin, Hanover, Cologne and Paris.

Dadaists which were the artists who worked within the movement 'were united not by a common style but by a rejection of conventions in art and thought, seeking through their unorthodox techniques, performances and provocations to shock society into self-awareness.’Moma This also relates to the meaning of dada which when translated means anti- rationalism. The movement concentrates on its anti war politics they used graphic design as a way to get their message across. 'The movement

primarily involved visual arts, literature, poetry, art manifestoes, art theory,theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti- war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works.' This therefore was an early influence on graphic design because they were conveying a message through imagery.

The movement was a development of the cubist movement in the way that it developed the collage techniques and it is also was influenced by futurism, this was in the way that it adopted 'Futurism's'.

The movement was influenced by the world war one this was in the way that 'It pilloried the notion of the spiritual rebirth that some Expressionist artists hoped war would bring and the excitement at the prospect of mechanised warfare. Dadaists felt art had betrayed humanity' and also the fact that the 'World war saw many artists go into exile’. Moma

Artists who are significant in the movement

Hugo Ball, he went to Switzerland and he opened the Cabernet Voltaire night club in Zurich with other artists, the 'club became the stage for the first dada performance'.

The characteristics of the performance got known to be 'loud' and 'provocative' performances for example the performance of Hugo ball when he wore a 'metallic shiny jumpsuit and conical hat, in this specific performance he announced a new genre of poems called sound poems these 'consisted of symbols and sounds' an example of this the poem of his called 'Elephant Caravan' which was 'comprised of a stream of sounds and an African drum beat

The artists were united in their ideas but they did not have a unified style like other movements such as cubism or fauvism. This was because the movement attracted many di erent artists such as 'Raoul Hausmann, Hannah Höch, Johannes Baader, Francis Picabia, Georg Grosz, John Heartfield, Max Ernst, Marcel Duchamp, Beatrice Wood, Kurt Schwitters, and Hans Richter', this therefore means that because these artists are from di erent styles of art they will interpret the style in many di erent ways to each other because of the di erent approach and training in art.

The group was formed ' around the poets Hugo Ball, Emmy Hennings, tristan Tzara and Richard Huelsenbeck, and the painters Hans Arp, marcel Janco and Hans Richter'. The artists in the movement took influence from many di erent sources such as 'art, music, poetry, theatre, dance and politics', the movement was created as a protest movement as a message against establishment for example the government. It was a negative reaction people had to the First World War this was in the way that 'Dada rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense, irrationality and intuition'. Some people therefore believe that dada is a nonscenece word because of that but others believe it comes from Romanian language meaning 'yes, yes', some has speculated it means hobby horse because it was found in a French dictionary by Richard Huelsenbeck and Hugo Ball. The name was apparently chosen for it's 'foolishness and naïvety', this therefore was probably chosen for an added e ect of rebellion against society. It also

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'encompassed both a deeply destructive urge and a seemingly limitless, playful inattentiveness. They used 'nonsense over logic and science because it was the Dadaist way of undermining the belief that society could use logic and science to resolve any problem', this therefore was their way of defying society.

Quotes from MOMA

therefore was their way of defying society. Quotes from MOMA Image from MOMA The piece above

Image from MOMA

The piece above is called 'Incision With The Dada Kitchen Knife Through Germany's Last Weimar Beer Belly Cultural Epoch'.

This piece was made in 1920 and is a collage, this piece is made up of similar pieces of imagery this means that the images work well together for example because the elements of the piece are similar in colour they appear like they belong with each other as a combination. This piece is very similar to early graphic design

such as photomontage which is a basic type of graphic design in the way that they use only imagery and words to convey a message. This piece has a similar feel in the way that the piece only uses imagery, words and characters on their own, the piece below has more of a photomontage feel because there is a focus image in the middle and then uses imagery a, letters and words around the focus image this is therefore using much more simple imagery and conveying a message in a much more simple way than the piece above. The two pieces are similar in the way that the objects have a similar hue tone and also with the limited colour scheme which therefore creates a close relationship with the objects, whereas if you have a wide colour scheme then the objects don't have so much of a close connection because the design elements in that situation therefore fight for attention and in my opinion don't have a clear hierarchy.

for attention and in my opinion don't have a clear hierarchy. RAOUL HAUSMANN (1886-1971) 'ABCD' 1920

RAOUL HAUSMANN (1886-1971)

'ABCD' 1920 (collage)

Image from the V&A This next piece is very di ff erent from the previous

Image from the V&A

This next piece is very di erent from the previous one which is a piece of sculpture, it has a much more simple style than the previous pieces this is in the way the elements of the piece are all placed in the middle of the piece this therefore has a very clear focus point. This in combination with the limited colour scheme creates a very focused piece. The piece also includes a face which is similar to the previous two pieces because they all have some sort of face in the piece. For example the first has a Shakespeare like looking face in the left, top hand corner. The next one has a face in the middle top looking like it is shouting and this third one which looks like a mannequins head, this could therefore be relating to the social element in the art movement such as the way they are rebelling against society.

MARCEL DUCHAMP (1887-1968) 
 'L.H.O.O.Q', 1919 (ready-made) The piece below is example of rebellion as

MARCEL DUCHAMP (1887-1968)'L.H.O.O.Q', 1919 (ready-made)

The piece below is example of rebellion as well this is because the artist has defaced the Mona Lisa, this is therefore o ensive to the artist, kind of like grati in the way that the artist has drawn on Mona Lisa’s face with a moustache and a slight beard, and then below he has placed his initials, this therefore reminds me of a grati tag it. This kind of reminds of the gra ti work by the artist 'banksy' who pops up gra ti/ art work ( based upon opinion), which is a modern form of protest, this piece yet again includes a person.

image from the V&A GEORGE GROSZ (1893-1959) 
 'The Pillars of Society' 1926 (oil on

image from the V&A

GEORGE GROSZ (1893-1959)'The Pillars of Society' 1926 (oil on canvas) This is another example of how the work in the movement varies, this piece appears like it's from another movement because it has a very painterly style but the content that is painted fits in the movement because of the content in the painting. The painting has a good hierarchy still of design elements this is in the placement of the design elements and in the use of colour. The painting is based upon all the masters in one room. The painting was painted for the purpose of reveling the 'hypocrisy of the politicians'.

banksy-

Photomontage- hannah hock, david hockney etc.

Photomontage- hannah hock, david hockney etc.

Image from David Hackney Website This is a more modern example of the photomontage technique

Image from David Hackney Website

This is a more modern example of the photomontage technique using photos to make a collage hence the name photomontage, the piece above by David hackney.

Modernism- 1914

The style of Modernism 'was not conceived as a style but a loose collection of ideas' (V&A) , this means that it was formed gradually and not created for a specific purpose. 'We live in an era that still identifies itself in terms of Modernism, as post-Modernist or even post-post-Modernist' (V&A), this means that the world that we live in for example the buildings and the things we use as a day to day objects in our lives have been shaped by this movement, for example the chairs.

The movement came about from ' loose collection of ideas' (V&A), this means that the work from the movement variety quiet a bit but

had a similar atmosphere and pieces from the movement had a very similar feel. 'A range of movements and styles that largely rejected history and applied ornament, and which embraced abstraction'(V&A), the pieces from the movement had a very modern characteristic look, the pieces had a very modern feel in the way that they

they were also inspired by the technology of the day 'They believed in technology as the key means to achieve social improvement and in the machine as a symbol of that aspiration.' (V&A)

'The carnage of the First World War led to widespread utopian fervour, a belief that the human condition could be healed by new approaches to art and design – more spiritual, more sensual, or more rational. At the same time, the Russian Revolution o ered a model for an entirely new society.' (V&A), this is from the V and A article where it describes the influence of the want in society to have a 'utopian' world, it describes that society could be repaired or 'healed' with the presence of art and design, they belived that by having 'new approaches' that it would make people feel better, this is in the way that they had a more 'spiritual, more sensual or more rational', with the use of the word 'spiritual' it means that they were creating art that would make people feel at ease and calm. There were di erent types of the vision for utopia: Social, Spiritual, Dionysian, and Rational.

The Russian revolution contributed to this art movement because it was the thing that tried to create 'utopia' and also in the way that art became an important part of people's lives during the time of revolution in 1917. 'Art was to become part of everyday life, and technology was to be extended to its limits and beyond', this meant that the technology of the day went through major development, the innovations that came from the revolution were:

'theories and institutions, developed new types of buildings and produced all kinds of innovative propaganda. Many worked under the banner of Constructivism, proclaiming that the task of art was ‘not to adorn life but to organise it’'.

'They saw the machine and industrial production as ways of creating greater equality', the technology therefore influenced the movement in the 'endless possibilities o ered by science and technology', for example the production process that was available, their vision of utopia being 'the potential power of technology'.

Movements that influenced it 'The Dutch group De Stijl believed in the spiritual as well as social dimensions of their work. The Bauhaus school in Germany abandoned its initial spiritual emphasis for the ‘New Unity’ of art and technology.''

The want for 'utopia' and 'spirituality' was caused by the first world war as shown in this quote by the article 'First World War there was a wave of spirituality', this is referring to the way the horrors of the war shocked people, the shocks such as bombings, deaths, etc.

The modernism era when they attempted to build their vision of 'utopia', was in the 1920's this was also when the economy was starting to improve, 'In the mid 1920s, as the post-war economy improved', this meant that there was more resources available because production would have increase this is because of the fact that the countries money wasn't all being used for the resources to sustain them during the war.

The avante garde was apart of the movement and moved it forward alot this was in the way that they now had jobs as designers and other confirmed positions which were classed as a career, 'Designers now had o cial positions as city architects or organisers of large international exhibitions. This gave them a stage on which to promote the ‘New’, and to do so in ways that proclaimed the unity and internationalism of the arts. The New Architecture, the New Dwelling, the New Photography, the New Typography were all terms used during the period.'

De stiljl-1917-1932

this title means 'the style' in Dutch, it was formed with the publication of de 'stiji journal' which was published in the

Netherlands in 1917 .This Journal ' expressed the theories of multi- faceted artist and poet Theo van doesburg and painter piet mondrian' and their neo-Plastiscism views this term is used for the technique of using a combination of three colours with the hues of black, white and grey, they also used a retracted method for composition by only using horziontal and vertical lines and rectangular planes of space the movement also used the composition in a balanced appearance that produced a calm atmosphere. The movement also 'embraced an abstract, pared- down aesthetic centered in basic visual elements such as geometric forms and primary colors'. this therefore creates a calm and balanced composition because of the basic design elements which because they are not complex create a clean look which also creates a calm atmosphere the following quote shows how this was the aim of the movement and that in my opinion when you look at the work in how they have composed it creates that e ect of calmness so they have achieved there goal, 'Its members, working in an abstract style, were seeking laws of equilibrium and harmony applicable both to art and to life'. (britannica.com)

'The De Stijl aesthetic and vision was formulated in large response to the unprecedented devastation of World War I, with the movement's members seeking a means of expressing a sense of order and harmony in the new society that was to emerge in the wake of the war.', the reaction of the war therefore people where seeking out more harmonised way of life rather than the horror of the war such as bombings, deaths, home raids, dictators etc., after the war people wanted to feel like society was being rebuilt. The style is therefore in my opinion trying to create an experience for the viewer that makes them feel at ease in their mind, in this aspect of the style it sort of reminds me of Japanese feng shui which is based upon balance and harmony in the positioning of objects in the home.

The reason for the publication was because they wanted to create a 'forum for architects, designers, and painters sharing an abstract aesthetic'. This publication was influenced by the architect Frank Lloyd Wright 'the flat, coloured planes and thin black lines of decorative stained glass'. The movement was also influenced from

writings of 'philosophical and utopian' and non- representational paintings (contemporary).

There were three major painters who contributed to the movement:

van does burg, mordrian, bart van der leck who were the three main members of the group, who took influenced from the movement of impressionism.

The movement influenced- Yves saint Laurent , Prada fashion, Paul smith.

influenced- Yves saint Laurent , Prada fashion, Paul smith. image from tate Theo van doesburg This

image from tate Theo van doesburg

This piece uses the common balanced appearance of the movement it therefore gives a calm atmosphere. The piece is made up of shapes which appear like they are on some sort of grid like structure and black and white are only used in the piece it therefore has a very simple and basic structure. The piece is made up of the background which is the grid like structure and then thicker black lines are placed at an able to the right, left and center, but the way they are placed make the piece seem perfectly balanced.

Image From Tate Bart Van der Leck This piece also has it in common that

Image From Tate Bart Van der Leck

This piece also has it in common that the piece has a simple makeup of design elements, a balanced amount of positive and negative space. However this piece is slightly di erent this is in the way it uses colours instead of black and white and how the square objects just seem to float because there is only space behind them rather than the grid which the previous piece had.

to float because there is only space behind them rather than the grid which the previous

Georges Vantongerloo

This piece is much di erent to the other piece this is because it is a structure rather than a piece of 2-D flat design. The materials also

di er as well because it's a sculpture, it is made out of some kind of stone. The design appears to be one whole piece rather than the individual shapes of the structure being stuck together. Although it is a sculpture I feel like it still has a balanced structure that conveys a calm feeling, I think this is

because of the fact that they all meet at one point at the top of the structure. And because of the fact that there isn't much of a colour scheme because it is all made out of the same material.

Bauhaus-1919-1933

The title of the movement means 'build the house', it was a school of arts and crafts, which was foundered by the architect in the city of Weimar in Germany named Walter Groupius who was a modernist. Purpose? He created the movement initially with the objective to reimagine the material world, this came from the 'utopian vision' but the next intention was to create unity in all the arts, ' to create a new guild

of craftsmen without the class distinctions that raise an arrogant barrier between craftsmen and artist'(art the whole story Stephan Farthing) , he did this by having a wide curriculum at the Bauhaus school this was covering: 'fine arts -ceramics, murals, stained glass, typography, metalwork, book binding, stone sculpture and furniture-making.

structure of the school

In the beginning of the Bauhaus school it was based upon more

craft based workshops which was criticised by the Dutch de stiji

artist 'Theo van Doesburg' in 'from 1921 to 1922

of lectures at the Bauhaus' (page 414 of art the whole story Stephan farthing), he was influenced by the constructivist ideas

he believed that the school needed to cover more on production. The criticism that he made changed the way the Bauhaus school taught. It therefore started out by being influenced by arts and

-gave a series

crafts then became more influenced by contemporary constravist ideas.

Johannes Itten- compulsory preparatory course "'the analyses of the paintings of the old masters', 'drawing the nude' and 'studies of materials'".

Wassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee - colour theory and analytical drawing.

They were taught the course by Johannes Itten alongside Kandinsky and Klee's course, after progression of the compulsory course they then 'would enrol in workshops, in metalwork, weaving, theatre/stage, pottery, wall painting, typography or print'.

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The aim of the program was therefore to bridge the gap between students, artists and designers, craftsmen and the industry. Another aim of the movement was to create ' fresh, functional, streamlined aesthetic' this has come from his modernist roots. He therefore believed that it needed to be both beautiful and practical, this was therefore was a technique like graphic design where everything made has to have a purpose, to be practical, functional and pleasing to the eye.

Influenced by? 'Gropius was influenced by the old Arts and Crafts movement of the late 19th and early 20th which had emerged as a response to the intense industrialisation of Victorian England.', with the idea in mind that arts and crafts would survive through industrialisation, therefore creating the type of work that could mass produced. Because the movement broke traditions it created a very modern looking style, this was apart of the 'utopian vision' which involved 'a community of artisans and artists producing simple, well made craft products'. This was taught by 'Johannes Itten' and 'Paul Klee' and 'Wassily Kandinsky', 'Itten' teaching a preparatory course for example the analysis of paintings of the old masters, drawing after the nude and studies of materials 'Klee' teaching colour theory.

The movements which influenced the movement were: modernism, arts and crafts movement and constructivism.

Artists/designers involved? When the crafts based teaching was criticised by Theo van Doesburg and because of this Itten was replaced with 'Laszlo Moholy-Nagy', who changed the teaching so the Bauhaus course was divided into two this was in the way that 'Laszlo Moholy- Nagy' taught 'theoretical aspects of how materials function' and then 'Josef Albers' taught the practical side of it. The school then showed their first exhibition called 'Art and Technology: A new unity', this therefore showed the change in the Bauhaus school method, in the way that they had become more production based rather than crafts.

In 1925 it taught a stage workshop taught by oskar schlemmer. Also during this year when the conservative government was elected there was a pressure for 'progressive' design schools to close, this when there was a Bauhaus circle of friends created to give it financial and morel support, Albert Einstein and Marc Chagall joined it.

In 1926- the school moved to an 'iconic glass and metal school and residential complex in Dessau', the school was then given 'school of design' status which meant that they could award diplomas in the same way as a university.

The school became the most successful during the years of 1925 to 1930 when they took on several design projects including 'standard Mobel furniture'.

Movement characteristics

simplicity, modern materials often appear in the design, and had an industrial look celebrating the power of the machine. 'natural balanced'- this was said to be a key characteristic which

was introduced by 'Laszlo Moholy-Nagy', 'balance in their design, focusing on the distribution of weight and space as well as colour

and texture', this was said to become 'a key facet of Bauhaus style'.

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1928- The founder left the group and Hannes Meyer took over his position who eventually left in 1930, the position was then taken over by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe which was the schools last leader because the Nazi party came to power in Germany they accused the Bauhaus school of having 'subversion'.

Wagenfield lamp

school of having 'subversion'. Wagenfield lamp This lamp was created with the concept that the school

This lamp was created with the concept that the school had of 'form follows function, which also influenced the Swiss school.

The modern style of the design by using geometric shapes which create a simple composition of the mechanical elements of the lamp this is because they fit together so neatly, this is in the way the lamp uses mainly rounded shapes with the use of the

'circular base, cylindrical shaft, and spherical shade. (MOMA)' This method also meant that the lamp was produced in the most ecumenical way possible, this is because the way that it is constructed in shapes means that it's constructed in whole sections and can be put together by hand. The di erent sections of the lamp for example in the way that the lamp head is made out of a 'spherical shade ', this is one whole piece and then the base is also one whole piece being a 'circular base' and also the 'cylindrical shaft', this therefore means that the main elements of the lamp are made up out of whole shapes this means that this design of lamp is much easier to put together than something which has more design elements and components, for example if you compare it to a chandelier, which has many little pieces of glass making up the elements/ components of the piece, this therefore means they have a much more complicated or more lengthy construction process.

Bauhaus Chair-

This chair was inspired by the bicycle which was created when he ' experimented with

This chair was inspired by the bicycle which was created when he

'experimented with extruded steel to create a series of lightweight metal furnishings' (The metropolitan), this was used because the movement has interest in 'industrial materials' and 'manufacturing techniques', this therefore means that they had a interest in the embracing the industrial age.

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The designer took inspiration from the ' flexibility and strength of his beloved metal bicycle frame, Breuer applied the same material and construction principles to chair design'.

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The design he decided to settle on was a 'fluid, minimal design in which the chair is supported on tubular metal runners. The taut, un-upholstered seat, back, and armrests of simple black canvas contribute to the stark, dematerialized appearance of the chair. It became known as the "Wassily" chair''. The way that

the design is so simple and minimal, the colours which are visible in the design is black (technically not a colour) and the sliver chrome of the bent metal of the chair.

! The bicycle is also a type of machine he was therefore inspired by a
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The bicycle is also a type of machine he was therefore inspired by a type
of machine that had been constructed this is an influence from the industrial age
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Bauhaus wallpaper
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influence from the industrial age ! Bauhaus wallpaper ! After producing the Bauhaus wallpapers the school

After producing the Bauhaus wallpapers the school opened up a trading company under the name of Bauhaus Co. Ltd. And near this time in 1925 the school turned it's typography workshop into a professional graphic design studio with Herbert Bayer and Moholy- Nagy leading it.

The piece above also has the common look which the school created this is in it's simple design, this is because it has two main design elements this is in the way that the pattern and the background are the only components of the design, this simple structure of the foreground is also the way the designer has used the colour scheme in a simple limited way not incorporating too many colours that it is overwhelming this therefore means that the wallpaper turned out to convey and simple and clean style which was typical of the movement. This is in the way that mainly black

and white were used (which are technically not colours) and then also the use of very pale pink and lilac.

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Johannes Itten-

also the use of very pale pink and lilac. ! Johannes Itten- image from the V&A

image from the V&A This piece has an exciting atmosphere because of the vibrant and deep colours such as the deep blue and the vibrant pink/red hue used. This piece uses what looks like sections of someone's face and the piece is also made up of shapes. The piece therefore has a busy composition because of the many di erent sections of the piece which are placed very closely together, the combination of this and the deep/vivid colours means that the eye can't easily find a place to focus on because the piece doesn't have any contrast or negative space to separate the objects the piece is therefore confusing however the piece is energetic and has an exciting atmosphere.

Bauhaus typography-

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Kandinsky- Swinging When you compare these three screenshots of the pieces by the three di

Kandinsky- Swinging

Kandinsky- Swinging When you compare these three screenshots of the pieces by the three di ff

When you compare these three screenshots of the pieces by the three di erent Bauhaus artists there is something that they all have in common, the pieces in the way they have been composed seem like they all have some sort of grid like structure to the composition. They also all use bright vivid colours in some way. This piece above by Kandinsky uses a point perspective grid, it appears this way because of the way the triangles are placed on the composition. The piece above has a busy composition but the main body of design elements are placed mainly based around a certain area of the piece still leaving quiet a bit of negative space around the design elements. This piece has a very contemporary style because of the way only geometric shapes have been used in the piece, some are layered over each other with some transparency, the shapes have varying details which makes them

interesting for example some of the shapes have a gradient e ect.

Paul Klee-

! This piece above is made up of triangles, rectangles, squares and circles, the shapes
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This piece above is made up of triangles, rectangles, squares and
circles, the shapes are placed on top of each other. The pattern
also reminds me of 'elmer the elephant' book this is because of the
combination of vivid colours which have been used, this is also
because of the primary colours which are present in the piece such
as the red which connotes the idea of being a young child when
you learn about them in primary school. The piece has more of a
loose structure than the previous one because the shapes aren't a
particular size in their staked up form.
Lyonel Feininger-
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This woodcut above has a much simpler composition than the previous three pieces this is

This woodcut above has a much simpler composition than the previous three pieces this is partly because the black and cream background colours are the only ones used in the piece this therefore means that the eyes focus on the shapes within the

pieces rather than a wide range of colours like the previous piece.

Art Deco-1930s Art deco became popular in the 1930’s it was a very modern looking movement like its predecessor Art Nouveau it was said to be an ‘electric style’ this was because work created in the movement had a vibrant and modern appearance, the inspiration for art deco came from many sources not just one theme of movement, the art movement was a mixture of dull traditions which were outdated and a bit dull with new life in order to create a new exciting style which is a ‘decorative new language’, the movement came about from the social pressure of the war to have a clean cut style and also because art and design was put to a standstill and also the things produced during the war tending to be dull and uninspiring, this therefore ‘they borrowed from historic European styles, as well as from the pictorial inventions of contemporary Avant Garde art, the rich colours and exotic themes of the Ballets Russes, and the urban imagery of the machine age. They also drew on more distant and ancient cultures. The arts of Africa and East Asia provided rich sources of forms and materials. Archaeological discoveries fuelled a romantic fascination with early Egypt and Meso-America http:// www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/a/art-deco/

It a ected all sorts of art and design including fine art, decorative, film, photography, transport and product design. Artists which were involved are : Eileen Gray, Clarice cli , Frank Lloyd Wright, Rene Lalique, Josef Ho man, Charles Rennie Mackintosh and Louis Comfort ti any. It was also influenced by neoclassical, constructivism, cubism, modernism and futurism. Inspiration also came from Africa and East Asia, these countries provided materials and forms for the art movement. Africa provided exotic imagery for the designers of the movement, they used: geometric zig zags, hatch marks, circles and triangles which are often seen in African textiles.

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Elieen Gray

which are often seen in African textiles. ! ! Elieen Gray Eileen Gray was a furniture

Eileen Gray was a furniture designer who was most famous for her art deco design but also for her modernism design. An example of her art deco design is the screen below which is inspired by the east this is because of the laquer technique she's used which is a

typical Asian technique. The technique also means that the piece has characteristics typical of art deco because the piece is influenced 'by both The arts of Japan and China were important ingredients in the eclectic mix that informed the style and spirit of Art Deco.' This means that it gives the style it's exciting e ect but although the style is described as electric it is also elegant at the same time, this is because of the limited colour scheme which is mainly black and then uses earthy tones of brown, orange and a beige colour which means it doesn't have bright overpowering tones. This also means that the middle of the screen is the focus point because of the brighter colour contrast against the black. The design is also elegant because of the box like shapes where the textures and colours are placed. The boxes have varying sizes and some are overlaid.

The technique of lacquer is used from the material called lacquer with is from the sap of a tree in east Asia.

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Clairice Cli was a art deco pottery maker she first started working in a pottery factory at the age of 13 as an apprentice enameller and then at the age of 17 she started working for the company 'A. J. Wilkinson's Royal Sta ordshire Pottery' as a lithographer this is using the printing method of drawing with oil, wax or a fat onto a limestone plate which has a flat and smooth level for the printing this is also referred to as a lithographic plate. She then attended evening classes at Burslem school of art from about 1924 to 1925 and then went on to study sculpture at the Royal Collage of art in 1927, she then returned after a few months and set up a small studio at Wilkinson's Newport Pottery.

Bizarre Ware- This was the first collection that was designed by her, it had been put out for market testing in 1927- 1928, there were 60 dozen pieces in the entire collection, the market testing was organised by Colley Shorter who was the managing director of Wilkinson's and helped nurture her skills and her become successful he also later became her husband, in 1940 she became managing director of the firm and shortly after married Colley.

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Clairice Cli

The reaction to Bizarre ware was that the designs were boldness of them but this had a surprisingly good impact on sales as they sold at a rapid pace and turned out to be very popular, this continued her success in 1931 she was supervising a pottery workforce of 1000 workers at Newport. The name bizarre was dropped in favour of her own name for the brand with more designs being produced but with varying shapes and patterns because of people's tastes changing in 1935-1936 but unfortunately her success was stopped by the war in 1939 and then in 1972 she passed away. Although she continued to work on the pottery during the wartime her work declined because most of her workforce was recruited by the armed forces and also there were wartime restrictions on decorative pottery which meant the style the pottery had before pre wartime wouldn't be produced again by the factory. And she passed the work into other hands and began to spend most of her time promoting the factory until later on in 1964 when she decided to retire and sold the factories which meant the end of production for all original Clairice Cli ware.

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of production for all original Clairice Cli ff ware. ! ! This Jug was apart of

This Jug was apart of the Bizarre collection the geometric bold pattern is characteristic of art deco with the use of triangles and a geometric pattern is influenced by Africa this is often seen in art deco pieces and it also adds to the bold exciting atmosphere of art deco, the bold colours also remind me of African tribes slightly because of the use of vibrant orange because they often wear or paint bright colours on their faces, although it is bright I think the colour works well as a focus point because the jug has the darker

colour of brown or burgandy and then the two lighter colours of beige and green to create a balance so it isn't too overpowering.

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social realism 1934

'Term used to refer to the work of painters, printmakers, photographers and film makers who draw attention to the everyday conditions of the working classes and the poor, and who are critical of the social structures that maintain these conditions.'

Cause of the movement- The influence of the movement was the 'Industrial Revolution', in the way that 'Their preoccupation with the conditions of the lower classes was a result of the democratic movements of the 18th and 19th centuries, so social realism in its fullest sense should be seen as an international phenomenon', this was in the way that the lower classes generally worked in the factories.

Varying style-

'While the artistic style of social realism varies from nation to nation, it almost always utilizes a form of descriptive or critical realism (e.g. the work in 19th- century Russia of the Wanderers).', this means that although the style of the work varied the concept behind it stuck to the social aspect of representing the poor but in the way that they represented the movement they had an aspect of realism in the style for example the way the style is realistic in the amount of detail which is used in the work.

'Social realism’s origins are traceable to European Realism, including the art of Honoré Daumier, Gustave Courbet and Jean-François Millet. In 19th-century England the Industrial Revolution aroused a concern in many artists for the urban poor.', this means that because.

'Similar concerns were addressed in 20th-century Britain by the Artists international association, Mass observation and the Kitchen sink school. In photography social realism also draws on the documentary traditions of the late 19th century, as in the work of Jacob A. Riis and Maksim Dmitriyev; it reached a culmination in the worker–photographer movements in Europe and the work by Dorothea Lange, Walker Evans, Ben Shahn and others for the Farm Security Administration (FSA) project in the USA in 1935–43', this shows how the artists were concerned for the poorer people in society (lower class and working class) this therefore shows that the artists felt a responsibility to these groups of people.

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Artists Involved-

The artists involved in this movement :'Franti š ek Kupka',Käthe Kollwitz, for

instance, expressed concern for victimized women, as in Raped Woman (etching, 1907; Hannover, Sprengel Mus.)


 'Neue sachlichkeit of the Weimar Republic era, as portrayed in George Grosz’s Teutonic Day
'Neue sachlichkeit of the Weimar Republic era, as portrayed in George
Grosz’s Teutonic Day (1921; Hamburg, Ksthalle) or the work of Otto Dix and Max
Beckmann'.
The movement was influenced by the realism movement which also had similar
origin roots for example in the way that the 'industrial revolution' concerned them
and made them feel a social responsibility to the lower and working classes. 'A
related realism was also evident in the Netherlands in the work of Charley Toorop
(e.g. the Friends’ Meal, 1932–3; Rotterdam, Mus. Boymans–van Beuningen), Pyke
Koch and others, this is seen in the work of 'Charley Toorop'.
'Maurice de Vlaminck and Roger De la Fresnaye, and the more critical works in the
1930s of Jean Fautrier and Francis Gruber, pursue social realist objectives. With
the political polarization of the period the distinction from Socialist Realism
became increasingly blurred, as exemplified by the position in Italy of Renato
Guttuso. After World War II social criticism was absorbed by Socialist Realism in
Eastern Europe, while in the USA and Western Europe it became overshadowed by
the dominance of abstract art movements, though it continued to be important in
cinema.', this shows how these artists were really concerned with the concept of
the piece, the visual aspect of the piece was still important but it was apart of the
artists work that he wanted emphasised. !
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Jacob Lawrence (American, 1917–2000) !

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Another of the social causes of the migrants' leaving was that at times they did not feel safe, or it was not the best thing to be found on the streets late at night. They were arrested on the slightest provocation' Moma The piece above was based upon the social issue of migration and how immigrants were arrested when caught crossing the boarder

of another country. The piece above uses a very basic style this is in the way that the artist has used blocks of colour to make up the

di erent elements of the pieces imagery, this therefore means that

the piece is very clear this is in the way that the eyes can focus

because they don't get confused with lots of details.

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The focus point of the piece is the man standing in the middle this is in the way that the man is wearing a warm tone of brown whereas the other two men are wearing black, this means that because he is dressed in brighter clothing he contrasts with them. I also think that the bright tone of the gold/ tone which is between yellow and orange contrasts against the pale beige/ light brown hue of the wall this therefore means that your eyes are drawn to them and they become the other focus point of the image because you first look at the man then the handcu s which are around the man, therefore this whole area in the center of the piece is the focus point.

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The scene is of three men handcu ed together this therefore conveys the message that they are criminals or have been enslaved, this is because of the fact that the men have black skin colour, without trying to be racist. It reminds me of the subject apartide where African Americans worked for white people and where their slaves and also the way that they were thought of as below the white people, therefore there wasn't an equality with black and white people in society. This means that in my opinion the piece doesn't communicate the meaning very clearly specifically meaning that the piece in my opinion doesn't convey obviously that it is about migration of people who didn't feel safe in

their previous country, this means that because the three men have been handcu ed together it conveys the idea that they have been enslaved, it makes you wonder have they been migrated because they've been enforced in the salve trade.

because they've been enforced in the salve trade. ' David Alfaro Siqueiros (Mexican, 1896–1974) Echo

'David Alfaro Siqueiros (Mexican, 1896–1974) Echo of a Scream'.moma

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This piece above conveys ideas in my mind that it is about people who live in poverty in unfortunate countries. This is because there are three visual elements of the piece. This is because there is a baby's head at the top of the piece the first thing which you see because it is so big compared to the scale it is in reality which is just below the head, then the third element of the piece is the environment that the child is sitting on, the environment looks like a junkyard/ recycle pit where put things that have no use. The fact that the child is sitting on top of things which have no use makes you wonder, why is the child there? where are it's parents?

is this where the child lives? has there been some kind of environmental tragedy like a tornado to bring all the matter to one place? has its mother abandoned it? this means that the terrible situation which the child is in is though evoking, the fact that the child is alone, screaming and in distress makes you think about the reality that this probably happens to a lot of children but we just don't see it, that is if you live in a fortunate country for example like the USA or England.

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The colours and the style of painting which has been used emphases the seriousness of the child's situation. For example the colours which have been used have an intense feeling this is in the way that deep colours have mainly been used. The colours which have been used: Black, brown, grey, deep burgundy red and also a vibrant red. The colours of 'black, brown, grey and deep burgundy', create a serious mood this is in the way that they create such a dark tone to the painting. This e ect has been created by the way that a dark sky connotes a dark feeling whereas a bright sunny sky connotes ideas of summer and happiness and making people think of lazy summer days, this would also be created with the use of bright colours such as yellow, however because the sky has a dark hue, this therefore connotes sadness and tragic situation. The vibrant red colour could be connoting ideas of danger because while red doesn't always symbolise danger in this situation it probably does. This is because of the fact that the child is sitting on their own, the fact that the child is dressed just in the red colour and the way that the red colour is so vibrant against the dark colours. This therefore makes it look like the artist is trying to convey a message with the extreme contest which has been created. In my opinion the child has either been placed in the vibrant red because they want the child to be the focus point of the image, but the child already is because the artist has captured a close up view of the child's face. This therefore means that the child has been placed in red because of the connotations and ideas that it evokes. This is in the way that red is associated with danger, this is because of the fact that signage in modern society such as danger signs involve the use of red and also the way it is linked with death in the way that someone bleeds the colour of the blood seen is red.

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José Clemente Orozco (Mexican, 1883–1949)

The Subway

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This piece is based upon the subject of apartide, this is because the scene of the painting is a white man sitting on a bus and the two black men on the bus are behind him and standing up this therefore is signifying the message that the white and black people are not equal, and also the message that the white person is seen to deserve the seat more than them or that he has more right to the seat than them. The colour scheme again is quiet dark and moody, which seems to be a common convention in social realism, this is probably because it helps convey the harshness of reality and how unfair life can be sometimes if you get the rough end of the stick. The colour scheme is made up of: brown, black, grey, white and beige. Although their are lighter colours in the piece the darker colours of the piece have been used in a much bigger quantity.

The placement of the people within the painting also symbolise the placement of the races within society. This is in the way that the white man is sitting in an area of the bus that has more open space in front of him, whereas the two black men have their backs turned to the viewer of the painting and are stood in a cramped area of the bus.

! ! Abstract Expressionism- 1946-1967 The movement appeared in the 1940's 'A new vanguard emerged
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Abstract Expressionism- 1946-1967
The movement appeared in the 1940's 'A new vanguard emerged in the early
1940s, primarily in New York, where a small group of loosely affi liated artists
created a stylistically diverse body of work that introduced radical new
directions in art'. ' The first generation of Abstract Expressionism flourished
between 1943 and the mid-'50s.
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Artists involved

'Among others, artists such as Jackson Pollock (1912–1956), Willem de Kooning (1904–1997), Franz Kline (1910–1962), Lee Krasner (1908–1984), Robert Motherwell (1915–1991), William Baziotes (1912–1963), Mark Rothko (1903–1970), Barnett Newman (1905–1970), Adolph Gottlieb (1903–1974),

Richard Pousette-Dart (1916–1992), and Clyord Still (1904–1980) advanced audacious formal inventions in a search for significant content.'

'In 1947, Pollock developed a radical new technique, pouring and dripping thinned paint onto raw canvas laid on the ground (instead of traditional methods of painting in which pigment is applied by brush to primed, stretched canvas positioned on an easel). The paintings were entirely nonobjective. In their subject matter (or seeming lack of one), scale (huge), and technique (no brush, no stretcher bars, no easel), the works were shocking to many viewers'

Characteristics of the movement- Another path lay in the expressive potential of color. Rothko, Newman, and Still, for instance, created art based on simplified, large-format, color-dominated fields. The impulse was, in general, reflective and cerebral, with pictorial means simplified in order to create a kind of elemental impact. Rothko and Newman, among others, spoke of a goal to achieve the "sublime" rather than the "beautiful," harkening back to Edmund Burke in a drive for the grand, heroic vision in opposition to a calming or comforting e ect. Newman described his reductivism as one means of "… freeing ourselves of the obsolete props of an outmoded and antiquated legend … freeing ourselves from the impediments of memory, association, nostalgia, legend, and myth that have been the devices of Western European painting." For Rothko, his glowing, soft- edged rectangles of luminescent color should provoke in viewers a quasi-religious experience, even eliciting tears. As with Pollock and the others, scale contributed

to the meaning. For the time, the works were vast in scale. And they were meant to be seen in relatively close environments, so that the viewer was virtually enveloped by the experience of confronting the work. Rothko said, "I paint big to be intimate." The notion is toward the personal (authentic expression of the individual) rather than the grandiose.

style characteristics- 'but it can be clustered around two basic inclinations: an emphasis on dynamic, energetic gesture, in contrast to a reflective, cerebral focus on more open fields of color. In either case, the imagery was primarily abstract. Even when depicting images based on visual realities, the Abstract Expressionists favored a highly abstracted mode.'

The purpose of the movement was to create a reaction against what was already accepted in art ,'Breaking away from accepted conventions in both technique and subject matter, the artists made monumentally scaled works that stood as reflections of their individual psyches—and in doing so, attempted to tap into universal inner sources. These artists valued spontaneity and improvisation, and they accorded the highest importance to process.', they therefore created a movement which pushed the boundaries in the way they used scale and made 'monumentally scaled works', this therefore means that they pushed the boundaries of what was thought to be the norm in terms what was a big scale of work for artists to produce. They also used techniques which weren't usually used for example 'Spontaneity and improvisation', this means unlike other art movements which involve planning the piece in advance they experimented with a more unplanned method this means that the piece will therefore have a more expressive feel and also abstract this is because the shapes or subject will have a softer appearance. The movement also had 'an emphasis on dynamic, energetic gesture, in contrast to a reflective, cerebral focus on more open fields of color. In either case, the imagery was primarily abstract. Even when depicting images based on visual realities, the Abstract Expressionists favored a highly abstracted mode', in my opinion this links in the 'Spontaneity and improvisation', because of the 'energetic gesture' this means with the use of spontaneous mark making techniques for example paint splatting mark making which was a technique 'Jackson Pollock' is known for it means there will be more flow and energy in the work because of the natural line and the shapes don't have a forced appearance and also because of the fact that the paint dries in a more 3-D way in the thick texture it has the work will not have a planned appearance which a flat painting has.

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Previous events in history influenced this art movement such as 'the great depression', which occurred in 1929-39 'The Great Depression yielded two popular art movements, Regionalism and Social Realism, neither of which satisfied this group of artists' desire to find a content rich with meaning and redolent of social responsibility, yet free of provincialism and explicit politics. The Great Depression also spurred the development of government relief programs, including the Works Progress Administration (WPA), a jobs program for unemployed Americans in which many of the group participated, and which allowed so many artists to establish a career path'.

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The great depression 'was the deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in the history of the Western industrialized world. This

e ected countries like America 'soon after the stock market

crash of October 1929, which sent Wall Street into a panic and wiped out millions of investors', This meant that because

of the countries economic state people couldn't a ord to buy so many things from shops from the way that 'consumer spending and investment dropped', this therefore meant that because people were buying less that there was a less of a demand for products and services this inturn meant that there was a decline in demand and therefore there didn't need to be as much production

as before, 'causing steep declines in industrial output'. This

also caused unemployment in the way that there was less production in factories needed 'and rising levels of

unemployment as failing companies laid oworkers', this

therefore caused some companies to go into liquidation as they couldn't sell enough products to cover their costs and therefore couldn't sustain the business anymore as their overhead costs

weren't being covered. '13 to 15 million Americans were unemployed and nearly half of the country’s banks had

failed.', this therefore means that it wasn't just a ecting the companies because the companies were being aected it then

a ected the banks because people and businesses were no longer borrowing as much money or holding as much money in the bank, therefore they couldn't function (do day to day business) like normal, and therefore 'nearly half of them failed', which therefore made the problem even harder to resolve. The countries president then put a plan in place 'Though the

relief and reform measures put into place by President Franklin D. Roosevelt helped lessen the worst eects of the Great Depression in the 1930s', but this was a slow process as

it took nine years to get it to pick up 'the economy would not

fully turn around until after 1939', which in that year the world war started shown in the following quote 'when World War II kicked American industry into high gear', this therefore

means that this time wasn't a happy time for people and there was a lot of tough events taking place in society and eecting them and were therefore issues they had to deal with.

WW2

This is also the reason why the war influenced the movement 'The

crisis of war and its aftermath are key to understanding the concerns of the Abstract Expressionists. These young artists, troubled by man's dark side and anxiously aware of human irrationality and vulnerability, wanted to express their concerns in a new art of meaning and substance. Direct contact with European artists increased as a result of World War II, which caused so many—including Dalí, Ernst, Masson, Breton, Mondrian, and Léger—to seek refuge in the U.S. The Surrealists opened up new possibilities with their emphasis on tapping the unconscious. One Surrealist device for breaking free of the conscious mind was psychic automatism—in which automatic gesture and improvisation gain free rein.', they therefore wanted express the distress that the war had placed upon society through their art work this was influenced by 'their increased direct contact with European artists ' which 'increased as a result of world war two' who many evacuated because of the war therefore they were probably hearing what living with the war was like and hear the e ects of it.


 http://www.history.com/topics/great-depression Jackson Pollock !
http://www.history.com/topics/great-depression
Jackson Pollock
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'Like almost all his New York colleagues, Pollock began his abstractions with drawings of figures,

'Like almost all his New York colleagues, Pollock began his abstractions with drawings of figures, which were subsequently abstracted or obliterated. This canvas shows on its verso traces of drawing in black and yellow that are no longer visible on the surface, having been obscured by layers of other colours.'

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/2006.32.51

This piece has a very busy composition with the painting being filled with paint splats/ shapes from each edge of the painting. However I think that the painting is balanced out by the fact that it only uses three colours, these are black, white and grey, it doesn't tone down the busyness of the painting but it doesn't make the painting appear confusing to look at, for example when you look at it you don't panic because it so busy. Although he has used a very simple technique and media the painting is quiet interesting in my opinion this is because the shapes of the painting seem to have some consistency in there movement. This could be with the way he was said to have begin every painting in the same way ' with drawings of figures', this means that figures were the basis of the paint splats this therefore means that similar shapes were the foundation of the painting this therefore means if he has using many of the same shape then there would be a sense of repetition.

Black Reflections , 1959 Franz Kline (American, 1910–1962) Oil and pasted paper on paper, mounted

Black Reflections, 1959 Franz Kline (American, 1910–1962) Oil and pasted paper on paper, mounted on Masonite; 19 x 19 3/8 in. (48.3 x 49.2 cm) Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Norman Schneider, 1964 (64.146) © 2011 The Franz Kline Estate / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York

In 1956, Kline reintroduced color. Black Reflections, an intensely colored small work on paper, may in fact relate to an earlier black and white piece. Kline's work, so apparently spontaneous or impulsive in its emphasis on highly dramatic gestural brushstrokes, is, in fact, carefully considered. The sweeps and rapid brushings of both thick and diluted paint are the product of much meditation. He often drew inspiration for large compositions from small studies, and he also

continued explorations of key elements in works even years after their creation. In this case, the central black shape is a mirror image of the shape in a black and white untitled painting of 1954.

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/64.146

This piece of work is an very abstract piece which resembles part of a person vaguely which is from the fact that he took inspiration from a reflection he saw in the mirror, however the piece is very abstract so this means that the piece only resembles a face slightly. The colours which make up the piece also add to the vibrant look of the piece because they create an exciting atmosphere. The colours which make up the piece are: brown, red, yellow, green and white.

! Pop Art-1956-1967 Origin- 

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Pop Art-1956-1967
Origin-

'The term originated in the mid-1950s', therefore the movement is quiet modern. The techniques were all quiet modern as they used a variety of media 'painting, sculpture and printmaking', 'The movement was created at the ICA, London in the discussions held by the Independent group concerning the artefacts of popular culture' the group included the artists of Richard Hamilton and Eduardo Paolozzi as well as architects and critics. Lawrence Alloway (1926–1990)'. In the discussion they

talked about 'pop culture', 'Richard Hamilton' one member of the group

'defined pop as' "Popular (designed for a mass audience); Transient (short term solution); Expendable (easily forgotten); Low Cost; Mass Produced; Young (aimed at Youth); Witty; Sexy; Gimmicky; Glamorous; and Big Business", this means that the term pop derived from the word 'popular', this means that it is intended for a 'mass audience', this therefore means that the type of art being produced is for a more commercial use so that it isn't just a niche product but a product which appeals to a lot of people ('mass'), which most art movements are more niche.

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'the critic who first used the term in print in 1958, conceived of Pop art as the lower end of a popular-art to fine-art continuum, encompassing such forms as advertising, science-fiction illustration and automobile styling.' This also a reason why the movement in my opinion is very modern because they published the work in a mass production way, this is because they are using a more modern technology for production, whereas a lot of art was only produced once whereas they produced many copies of one piece this in the use of mass printing the techniques that were used rather than painting on canvas (which is a more

who

traditional method) and only ever having one original piece., this shows who gave the movement its name and why

Hamilton set out, in paintings such as £he (1958–61; London, Tate), to explore

the hidden connotations of imagery taken directly from advertising and popular culture, making reference in the same work to pin-ups and domestic appliances as a means of commenting on the covert eroticism of much advertising presentation (for illustration see Hamilton, Richard)'.

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American pop art/ development of the movement- 'In the mid-1950s in America, independently of the activities in England, the terms for certain aspects of Pop art were established by Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg. The irony and anti-art gestures of their work initially attracted the term ‘neo-Dada’', this shows how the movement started in Britain and then moved to America where artists there developed it.

Larry Rivers, also provided a transition to Pop art in paintings such as Dougherty Ace of Spades (1960; Provincetown, MA, Chrysler A. Mus.), basing both format and imagery on ordinary objects such as playing cards, cigarette packets and restaurant menus. Themes from contemporary life were similarly introduced in the Happenings devised in the late 1950s by performance artists such as Allan Kaprow, Claes Oldenburg, Jim Dine and Red Grooms (b1937).

American vs British-

'American Pop art emerged suddenly in the early 1960s and was in general characterized by a stark and emblematic presentation that contrasted with the narrative and analytical tendencies of its British counterpart. At its most rigorous, American Pop art insisted on a direct relationship between its use of the imagery of mass production and its adoption of modern technological procedures. Whereas British Pop art often celebrated or satirized consumer culture, American Pop artists tended to have a more ambiguous attitude towards their subject-matter, nowhere more so than in the mixture of glamour and pathos that characterized Andy Warhol’s silkscreened icons of Hollywood film stars, as in The Marilyn Diptych (1962; London, Tate).'

'Compared to the disparate nature of British Pop art, from the early 1960s American Pop art appeared to be a unified movement.', this means that the American version/ development of pop art had a more 'unified' appearance meaning that the similarity of the pieces was more meaning the pieces looked like the belonged to the same movement in a more obvious way when someone who isn't educated in the style or its history, so that you can just look at them and know they belong to the same collection of art, they are therefore more easily identified with the same movement. This was in the way the artists of 'Peter Blake, Richard Smith and Joe Tilson, who studied together in the mid-1950s at the Royal College of Art, London, took separate paths into Pop art', this shows how the

approaches in the style. However there were a group of British artists who worked in a more 'unified' way 'The most cohesive group of British Pop artists, and those to whom the label was first consistently applied, emerged at the Royal College of Art between 1959 and 1962. It included the American-born R. B. Kitaj as well as younger students such as David Hockney, Allen Jones, Peter Phillips, Derek Boshier and Patrick Caulfield. This shows how there was a group of British artists who worked in a more unified way so that the style was more similar and has an all round recognisable look but the Americans did this in a much more e ective way.

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Artists-

The artists who where involved are: 'Jim Dine, who consistently rejected the term,' 'Richard Artschwager,' 'Billy Al Bengston (b1934),' 'Allan D’Arcangelo''Öyvind Fahlström,' 'Joe Goode (b 1937)','Robert Indiana','Ray Johnson''Mel Ramos (b 1935', 'Ed Ruscha','Wayne Thiebaud', 'John Wesley (b 1928)'and 'as well as the sculptors Marisol and George Segal'.

Influenced by-

'Notable among related developments that took place in other countries was Nouveau réalisme in France.'

techniques used- 'Compared to the disparate nature of British Pop art, from the early 1960s American Pop art appeared to be a unified movement. Its shared formal characteristics included aggressively contemporary imagery, anonymity of surface, strong, flatly applied colours and a stylistic unity often associated with centralized compositions. Each of the American artists was quick to establish his or her identity, often with the ironic suggestion that the art was like any consumer product or brand name to be marketed. Foremost among them were Warhol’s testaments to machine-line production and to capitalism, such as 80 Two-dollar bills (1962; Cologne, Mus. Ludwig), and Roy Lichtenstein’s formalized enlargements of the frames of comic strips, often violent or melodramatic, for example Drowning Girl(1963; New York, MOMA; for further illustration see Lichtenstein, Roy). Oldenburg produced sculptural paraphrases of ordinary objects, often on a huge scale, as in Floor-burger (Giant Hamburger) (1962; Toronto, A.G. Ont.), while James Rosenquist favoured dream-like combinations of grossly enlarged familiar images, which he painted in the manner of billboard advertisements, such as I Love you with my Ford (1962; Stockholm, Mod. Mus.). Tom Wesselmann specialized in provocatively posed female nudes and in domestic still-life’s of consumer products, for example Still-life #30 (1963; New York, MOMA).'

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Richard Hamilton

" Just What Is It that Makes Today's Homes So Di ff erent, So Appealing?

"Just What Is It that Makes Today's Homes So Di erent, So Appealing?"

The piece was created using a collage technique, but in a kind of photomontage because he took the di erent elements of the imagery from 'predominately U.S magazines' and then put them together to make another piece of work from it (the scene you see above).

Jasper johns

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Stars and stripes Robert Rauschenberg 
 ! Andy Warhol 
 campbell's-

Stars and stripes

Robert Rauschenberg 
 ! Andy Warhol 
 campbell's-
Robert Rauschenberg
!
Andy Warhol
campbell's-
image from http://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/andy- warhol-campbells-soup-cans-1962 'it defined the style for

image from http://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/andy-

warhol-campbells-soup-cans-1962

'it defined the style for pop art the embrace of the idea of mechanical repetition, the idea of doing things in a modular series, and the idea of simply in a dead pan cold on apparition taking a label a brand name and reiterating and not even by a paintbrush but with a silk screen by a mechanical means '. moma audio recording

! Twenty Marilyn’s- ! !
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Twenty Marilyn’s-
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'Marilyn Monroe died in August 1962. In the following four months, Warhol made more than

'Marilyn Monroe died in August 1962. In the following four months, Warhol made more than twenty silkscreen paintings of her, all based on the same publicity photograph from the 1953 film Niagara. Warhol found in Monroe a fusion of two of his consistent themes: death and the cult of celebrity. By repeating the image, he evokes her ubiquitous presence in the media. The contrast of vivid colour with black and white, and the e ect of fading in the right panel are suggestive of the star’s mortality.'

image and quote from http://www.tate.org.uk/art/artworks/warhol-

marilyn-diptych-t03093

The photo above is the photo referred to as' the same publicity photograph from the

The photo above is the photo referred to as' the same publicity

photograph from the 1953 film Niagara.'

from ( http://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/andy-warhol-gold-marilyn-

monroe-1962).

the technique used-

silk screen printing

' a technique he had adopted for transferring a photographic image to canvas'.

there were small variations of the photo reproductions 'are full of small variations, the paint is applied by hand and the e ect is remote the surface gloss and perfection of fanzine photography.

'lurid colours'

the reason why he decided to use her was because 'he was entranced by the glamour of celebrity, found beauty in the face of a Hollywood sex symbol and sought to abolish both the craftsmanship and genius of the individual artist through embracing mechanical reproduction'. (art the whole story)

The other reason for choosing her as a subject was because she 'Andy Warhol specialised in pop icon's', Marilyn Monroe became a pop icon for her films of 'name'. And still is a pop icon 51 years after her death she is still being used a pop icon for example the advertisement campaign below.

(http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?criteria=O %3AAD%3AE

(http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?criteria=O

%3AAD%3AE

%3A6246&page_number=55&template_id=1&sort_order=1)

Also one of the most well known photos of her below contributed to her being known a sex symbol.

Also one of the most well known photos of her below contributed to her being known

The song 'diamonds are a girl's best friend' which boosted her career a lot is still used today in advertisements and has also been frequently covered by modern artists today.

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has also been frequently covered by modern artists today. ! screen shot from https://www.youtube.com/watch?

screen shot from https://www.youtube.com/watch?

v=eL7ETLLkQTY&feature=kp

for example the advertisement above from the youtube video link of https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6dw7Y7dVvIU . whaam!

for example the advertisement above from the youtube video link of

whaam! Roy Lichenstein

advertisement above from the youtube video link of https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6dw7Y7dVvIU . whaam! Roy Lichenstein

techniques used

this was an adaption 'Whaam!' is based on an image from 'All American Men of War' published by DC comics in 1962' Tate which was made by the 'illustrator Jerry Grandenetti that appeared on issue 89' (book)

The dots in both of these pieces are called 'Benday Dots' they are seen as the background layer of the wham! and the big explosion clouds on the one below. They are 'stenciled dots' which 'reproduces the dots that were once a mechanisms by which tone and mixed colour were achieved in a printed image.

The whaam! text this is influenced by cubism and conceptual art 'to endorse rather than to create meaning', the influence can also be traced by to ancient Egyptian tombs which had the inclusion of text in painting.

the colours which have been used in the painting has been influenced by two di erent 'sources: a basic modernist aesthetic and the range of primary colours used to print cheap comic books', for example the primary colour of yellow which has been incorporated in the painting.

The black outline is another element of the piece

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This piece above is called exposition which was also by Lichtenstein post modernism- 1960's/1970's

This piece above is called exposition which was also by Lichtenstein

post modernism- 1960's/1970's

The style was very di erent to modernism this is because the style was based upon 'simplicity and clarity', it is extremely di erent to modernism this is because the 'post-modernism' movement was a rejection to modernism. The characteristics of the movement link closely to 'unrestrained avant-gardism of the modern movement', it includes the characteristics of 'an unstable mix of the theatrical and theoretical, postmodernism was a visually thrilling multifaceted style that ranged from the colourful to the ruinous, the ludicrous to the luxurious.' The style of 'Postmodernism shattered established ideas about style. It brought a radical freedom to art and design through gestures that were often funny, sometimes confrontational and occasionally absurd', this links to the way the movement is rejecting the way of modernism that used a more structured composition style this is in the way that style had ' utopian visions, which had been based on clarity and simplicity', this means that the two di erent movements had opposite ideas this is in the way that post-modernism represented freedom in the work and modernism represented clarity and simplicity which would therefore have used more structure in the production of the work whereas the movement of post-modernism ' was a style statement', meaning that it was supposed to be loud, vivid and bright to capture people's attention. This is also backed up with the quote 'The excitement and complexity of postmodernism were enormously influential in the 1980s. In the permissive, fluid and hyper-commodified situation of 21st-century design, we are still feeling its eects', they were therefore creating a style which was about image and therefore a style that would last in popularity.

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The movements of: intermedia, installation art, conceptual art and multi-media, movements which involve video are usually all summed up and grouped into this movement. The movement is also classified as a contemporary movement.

Developments during the movement-

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'The most important delivery systems for this new phase in postmodernism were magazines and music.' the energy of post-punk subculture was broadcast far and wide through music videos and cutting-edge graphics. This was the moment of the New Wave: a few thrilling years when image was everything. 'preferred style of consumerism and corporate culture'

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Society's influence-

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'Postmodernity as a phase of knowing and practice, abandoning the assumptions, prejudices, and constraints of modernism to embrace the contradictions, irony, and profusion of pop and mass culture.' above is another definition This shows how it was a period of truth finding not believing what they were told being 'sceptical' about theories, this could have been caused by the increase in politics in the time.