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Submitted By:

Muneer Hussain
Faisal Rasheed

Submitted To:
Dr. Ghulam Rasool Awan
Section: (A)
Zephyr Textile

Zephyr Textiles Ltd. is a manufacturing plant of woven greige fabric and finished towels. The company
headquarters are located in Lahore and manufacturing facilities are at one hour drive from Lahore.
The company has an annual turnover of about 3 billion rupees ($ 50 million) and currently employs
approximately 1100 people. The sales for woven greige fabric are split evenly between export and
local customers whereas hundred percent of the towel production is exported to different countries. In
addition to in-house production, external contract based production of greige fabrics remains a
significant source of revenue for the company.
Company History
The company initially started out as a brokerage and merchandizing firm by the name of Agentex in
1996. Zephyr Textiles (Pvt) Ltd. was established in February 1999 to capitalize on the rapidly growing
weaving sector. Zephyr was initially engaged in the commercial trading of greige fabric, subsequently
in 2003, the company established its own weaving facility via purchase of used 120 Sulzer looms with
a complete back process.
In March 2005, the company underwent another major expansion phase with induction of 144 state of
the art Picanol Omni plus 800 Air-jet looms with a complete back process. The towel manufacturing
business has been bolstered with the purchase of 12 Picanol (Belgium) Air-jet terry weaving looms
and a Thies (Germany) dyeing/finishing unit. By mid of 2005 the company was listed on Karachi and
Lahore stock.
Zephyr is a producer and exporter of greige fabrics using pure cotton and various blends of cotton and
polyester yarns. The fabric is supplied to both home textile and garment manufacturers. In addition,
the trading arm of the company provides a whole gamut of bleached, dyed and printed fabrics with an
extensive range of fabric finishes to the customers.
Zephyr is also producing terry products such as bath, hand and wash towels, bathmats, bath robes and
beach towels in a range of qualities and weights to cater to the basic and luxury ends of the laundry
and retail markets. The above mentioned terry products are manufactured as plain-dyed and yarn-dyed
using different varieties of imported and local cotton. The company takes special pride in producing
luxury towels incorporating loops of zero-twist yarns from Supima cotton.


222 air jet looms ranging from 190 cm to 340 cm wide, out which 16 machines are equipped
with dobby and 4 color weft insertion.
144 Picanol (Belgium) Omni Plus 800 in 190 cm, 218 cm, 280 cm & 340 cm widths.
78 Tsudakoma Air Jet looms of 280 cm and 340 cm width.
2 sets of Beninger sizing and warping machines along with all the allied equipment required
to run the weaving plant.
One set of Benninger Sectional Warping Machine.

We have 6 frames with a total 1152 spindles of Volkmann two for one (TFO) twister with a
capacity of 5000 kg based on Ne 20/2.

In total we have 31 looms which can weave 11,500 kg per day in a variety of different designs
The breakup of these looms is as follows
5 Picanol Terry Plus Air Jet looms in 110 width, each can produce 385 kg per day.
8 Picanol Terry Plus Air Jet looms in 134 width, each can produce 410 kg per day.
These looms are equipped with 20 levers dobby machines.
13 Picanol Terry Plus Air Jet looms in 118 width, each can produce 400 kg per day.
These looms are equipped with 16 levers dobby machines.
5 Air Jet looms in 102 width with jacquard machines, each can produce 225 kg per day.

Dyeing and finishing unit is equipped with machines by THIES GERMANY
1 ecoMaster F-Short Liquor Fabric Dyeing Machine Type 140/1 PL 250 Kg per lot
1 ecoMaster F-Short Liquor Fabric Dyeing Machine Type 140/2 PL 700 kg per lot
1 ecoMaster F-Short Liquor Fabric Dyeing Machine Type 140/3 PL 1,050 kg per lot
1 Tumbler from THEIS, T-310 / 3000 (Drying Range) and a Stenter with MAHLO for weft
Another dyeing machine from Fongs adds to dyeing capacity
1 Fongs Towel 8 1T (High Temperature Towel Dyeing) 400 Kg per lot
Having above machines & capacities with complete automation the unit can dye in Reactive
and VAT colors both P/C and Cotton fabric as much as 7,200 kg per day.

The stitching unit is partially automated with slitting and long side hemming. Cross hemming
is done manually by Juki and Brother sewing machines.

Zephyr Textiles Ltd. is poised for further rapid expansion and plans are under way to upgrade the
existing Sulzer with the newer generation of air jet looms. A sectional wrapper and 12 more looms of
terry towel is under production. To complement our terry as well as grey weaving production a yarn
dyeing facility is installed.

As we know that Quality refers to degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill
requirement ISO 9000: 2000
Purpose of Quality inspection
Purpose of the quality inspection for Zephyr textile refers to the visual examination or review of raw
materials (like fabric, sewing threads, buttons, trims, etc.), partially finished components of the
garments and completely finished garments in relation to some standards. The main objective of
inspection for Zephyr textile is the detection of the defects as early as possible in the manufacturing
process so that time and money are not wasted later on in either correcting the defect or writing off
defective garments.
Fabric Inspection
Fabric Inspection is an important aspect followed by Zephyr Textile to avoid rejects due to fabric
quality and facing with unexpected loss in manufacturing. Fabric inspection is done for fault/defect
rate, fabric construction, end to end or edge to edge shading, and color, hand or feel, length/width,
print defect and appearance because fabric inspection ensures to minimize the rejection of cut panels
or rejected garments due to fabric faults. Cutting inspected and approved fabric ensures not only
finished garment quality but also reduces rejects, improves efficiency and timely deliveries.
Following are the sections which are inspected to control the quality at three stages in Zephyr Textile:
Checking of Fabric
Sewing Thread
Product Size
Three stages of inspection in Zephyr Textile:
Receiving/Raw Material Inspection
In Process Inspection
Final Inspection

1) Receiving/Raw Material Inspection
Receiving inspection include the inspection of following Raw Materials:
Fabric inspection
Sewing thread inspection
Zippers and button
Trims and accessories inspection

Fabric inspection

In Zephyr Textile the fabric inspection is done through the machines. This inspection is very
important for Zephyr Textile most of the part of production of products based on the quality of fabric.
In fabric inspection they check several things e.g. if there is any defect available, a hole or variations
in the shade of the fabric etc. For this purpose they use 4 point method to inspect fabric. Reject rolls
are kept separately with red flags. Inspection records are kept in inspection format. Summary of the
fabric inspection is recorded in the summary sheet, for management information. Conforming goods
are kept separately with Green Sticker.
4-Point system
Also called the American Apparel Manufacturers Association point grading system for determining
fabric quality. Defects are assigned point values based on the Length of defect in fabric, either length
or width points allotted.
Up to 3 inches 1
Over 3 in. up to 6 in. 2
Over 3 in. up to 9 in. 3
Over 9 in. 4Over 9 in. 4
Holes and openings 1in. or less 2
Over 1 in. 4
Total Defects per square yard are calculated and normally those fabric rolls containing more than 40
points per square yards are considered rejected. Containing more than 40 points per square yards are
considered rejected.

Sewing Thread Inspection

During stitching fabric frequently brakeage of sewing threads one of the great problems for
Zephyr Textile Company. So to ensure the quality of the thread they necessarily check.

Thread Construction,
Sew Ability
Yardage of Sewing Thread.

Zipper and Button

Zippers are also checked for the following reasons:
Zipper tape should be uniform in color if required.
Zipper should not cause wrinkling or puckering, after it is sewn in the garment.
If the zipper can be washed or dry cleaned?
The force it takes to pull open the zipper.
Check also to be sure the slider locks securely.

Buttons should have large, clean sew holes that are free from flash and will not cut the thread.
Holes must be located properly in relation to the edge of the button. Buttons should be able to withstand
laundering, dry cleaning and pressing without any changes such as cracks, melting of surface and
change in color or shade etc.

Trims and Accessories Inspection

Before receiving accessories all necessary tests and inspection is conducted lot wise by the
accessories inspector under the guidance of Quality assurance Manager. If result found acceptable,
then the lot is accepted otherwise lot is rejected and kept in marked area with a red tag for the safety.
So that non-conforming goods are not used in process.

2) In Process Inspection
The purpose of In Process Inspection is to check the quality of component parts to identify the
source of quality problems as early in the manufacturing process as possible. And to uncover
deficiencies in workmanship as well as equipment malfunctioning. It is performed by quality
control inspectors and individual operators themselves after they perform their respective
In Process inspection is conducted on following stages.

Spreading Inspection
Cutting Inspection
Sewing Inspection
Table inspection

Spreading Inspection

Spreading quality measured by the Quality inspector with respect to the following factors:
Ply alignment: length and width
Ply tension: stretch, slack edge
Grain alignment: bowing
Damage placement
Surface direction and
Cutting Inspection

In the cutting inspection they determined how true the cut fabric parts are to the pattern, how
smooth or rough the cut surface is, material or fabric defects in the cut fabric parts, shade differences
between cut fabric pieces within a bundle. Cutting inspection is on the basis on random sampling. If
the lot is passed on sampling inspection then it is send for sewing operation, if not passed the whole
lot is re-inspected and rejected parts are replaced by good parts. In cutting inspection there are two
types of check block check & bundle check. Following points are inspected in block check such as
Size, Parts, Pattern check, Mis cut, Ragged cutting, Notches, Matching plies.
Following points are checked in the bundle check such as Size, Parts, Total quantity, Inspect
quality, Defect quality.

Sewing Inspection

This is very large and important section of the company. In-process inspection in sewing
involves the inspection of work from each operator, with a quality standard established to limit the
amount of bad work permitted and a provision for operators to re inspect and repair entire bundle.
Various sewing defects are listed below by the Zephyr Textile:
Needle damage
Skipped stitch
Thread break
Wrong stitch density
Uneven stitch
Improperly formed stitch
During the sewing process the quality inspector select 7 pcs at random from the bundle.
If the inspector finds defective unit, he will take following steps on operators duality Performance
He will mark red in the room against date of inspection with defect code and frequency as a
symbol for warning and recheck. He will hand over remaining units of the bundle to supervisor
for check and taking corrective action.
He will inspect next three bundles as follow up audit of the same operator and mark yellow in
three rooms if no defective units are found in next three bundles.
He will mark green in the room against date if no defective unit is found in the bundle.
The inspector will make operators monthly analysis to compare it with tables monthly defect
analysis to find out whether there is any lacking in the sewing inspection procedure.
QC Supervisor Sewing will monitor 7 pcs inspection, whether it is being done properly or not.


Table inspection is conducted by two/three/four inspectors (depends on hourly output) to inspect inside
and outside of the garments. They will record hourly inspected garments, defect found, defect
percentage; also calculate average defect percentage, quality index of the day and CV of defects. This
will help to represent the defects graphically with the help of MIS Inspector. Monthly table defect
analysis report is prepared and to compare it with operators monthly defect analysis.

3) Final Inspection
Final inspection consists of inspecting finished products from the consumers point of view.
Final Inspection occur before or after the towels and bad sheets are packed in poly bags and boxes. If
it is done after the towels and bad sheets are packed, then proper size and markings on the cartons are
also checked.
Final inspection is the inspection which is conducted before shipment or buyers inspection. It
is conducted in two stages.
Day Final.
Lot Final
Day Final
Day final inspection is the responsibility of factory QA Manager. He conducts this inspection daily on
available garments which has passed by table inspection. If it is passed, garments are ready for Central
QC Inspection or Buyers QC inspection
Lot Final
Lot final is conducted by Central QA Manager when the lot is passed by Factory QA Manager before
shipment or in case any buyer gives the authority to the factory to conduct final inspection before
shipment. It is also conducted when buyers inspection is conducted before shipment. If lot is passes,
they are ready for shipment and placed before buyer's representative for final inspection before the

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