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Professor

e-mail: fukuoka@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp

Masataka Nomura

Associate Professor

e-mail: nomura@maritime.kobe-u.ac.jp

Faculty of Maritime Sciences,

Kobe University,

5-1-1 Fukaeminami,

Higashinada, Kobe 658-0022, Japan

Proposition of Helical Thread

Modeling With Accurate

Geometry and Finite Element

Analysis

Distinctive mechanical behavior of bolted joints is caused by the helical shape of thread

geometry. Recently, a number of papers have been published to elucidate the strength or

loosening phenomena of bolted joints using three-dimensional nite element analysis. In

most cases, mesh generations of the bolted joints are implemented with the help of

commercial software. The mesh patterns so obtained are, therefore, not necessarily ad-

equate for analyzing the stress concentration and contact pressure distributions, which

are the primary concerns when designing bolted joints. In this paper, an effective mesh

generation scheme is proposed, which can provide helical thread models with accurate

geometry to analyze specic characteristics of stress concentrations and contact pressure

distributions caused by the helical thread geometry. Using the nite element (FE) models

with accurate thread geometry, it is shown how the thread root stress and contact pres-

sure vary along the helix and at the nut loaded surface in the circumferential direction

and why the second peak appears in the distribution of Mises stress at thread root. The

maximum stress occurs at the bolt thread root located half a pitch from nut loaded

surface, and the axial load along engaged threads shows a different distribution pattern

from those obtained by axisymmetric FE analysis and elastic theory. It is found that the

second peak of Mises stress around the top face of nut is due to the distinctive distribution

pattern of

z

. DOI: 10.1115/1.2826433

Keywords: xing element, bolted joint, FEM, helical thread modeling, stress

concentration, contact pressure distribution

1 Introduction

Threaded fasteners are the most widely used machine elements

because they can repeatedly be assembled and disassembled by an

easy operation. Mechanical behaviors of the threaded fasteners,

such as the strength and the stiffness of bolted joints, have been

analyzed by experiment, theoretical analysis based on elastic

theory, and numerical method. Finite element method FEM is

found to be the most powerful numerical method for solving the

problems of bolted joints. The development of FEM made it pos-

sible to evaluate the stress concentration at the thread root with

high accuracy 1,2. The stiffness of bolted joints, which has a

dominant effect on its fatigue strength, and stress concentrations

of the bolt thread and the bolt head llet have also been studied

systematically with help of FEM 3,4. In the conventional studies

on the stress analysis of bolted joints, axisymmetric FEM has

mainly been used. In the case of three-dimensional analysis,

threaded portions were modeled by using the threads with axisym-

metric geometry, i.e., the effects of lead angle and the helix of

thread prole were neglected.

Recently, some researchers have started to use helical thread

models that were constructed with the advanced modeling func-

tions provided by a couple of commercial software 58. Some

studies have tried to elucidate the loosing phenomena of bolted

joints using the helical thread models thus obtained 9. However,

the aforementioned procedures do not necessarily provide helical

thread models adequate for analyzing the stress concentration at

the thread root and contact pressure distributions at nut loaded

surface, because of the complexity of thread prole and the limi-

tation of softwares functions. Meanwhile, a thread cross section

perpendicular to the bolt axis is identical at any position. Accord-

ingly, the thread prole can be dened mathematically using rig-

orous expressions by taking the effects of root radius, where the

cross section is divided into three portions.

In this paper, an effective modeling scheme for three-

dimensional FE analysis, which can accurately construct helical

thread geometry, is proposed using the equations dening the

thread cross section perpendicular to the bolt axis. The present

procedure has such benecial performances as modeling each

thread with one-pitch height independently and using ne meshes

only around threaded portions. Therefore, it is possible to con-

struct nite element models of bolted joints with high accuracy

and computation efciency. Using the FE models thus obtained,

the mechanical behavior caused by the helical thread geometry

has been evaluated, such as the distributions of the thread root

stress along the helix and nonsymmetric contact pressure distribu-

tions at the nut loaded surface. It is found that the maximum bolt

stress occurs at the thread root located half a pitch from nut loaded

surface, and the axial load along engaged threads shows a differ-

ent distribution pattern from the previous studies by taking the

helical thread geometry into account.

2 Mathematical Expressions of Thread Cross Section

Prole

The specications of thread proles are given in ISO 68, 261,

262, and 724. The thread root has an appropriate amount of round-

ness to avoid an excessive stress concentration. In Japanese Indus-

trial Standard JIS, it is recommended that the thread root radius

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication

in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received September 1,

2006; nal manuscript received December 8, 2006; published online January 17,

2008. Review conducted by Sayed Nassar. Paper presented at the 2006 ASME Pres-

sure Vessels and Piping Conference PVP2006, Vancouver, British Columbia,

Canada, July 2327, 2006.

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology FEBRUARY 2008, Vol. 130 / 011204-1 Copyright 2008 by ASME

Downloaded 14 Feb 2013 to 129.5.16.227. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

should be more than 0.125P P: thread pitch for external threads

made of high strength steel. Figure 1 shows the cross sectional

prole along the bolt axis including the thread root radius. Assum-

ing that the rounded portion of the thread root is a part of a single

circle with diameter , the surface of external thread can be di-

vided into three parts such as A-B root radius, B-C thread

ank, and C-D crest. The thread prole perpendicular to the

bolt axis can be obtained by expanding those three parts into the

plane, as shown in Fig. 2. Its shape is naturally identical at any

cross section along the bolt axis. In the next section, helical thread

models are to be constructed by utilizing the characteristics ex-

plained here. The thread prole shown in Fig. 1 is expressed by

means of the following equations.

r =

d

2

7

8

H + 2

2

P

2

4

2

2

0

1

+

d

2

7

8

H

1

2

d

2

2

1

=

3

P

2

=

7

8

3

12

P H =

3

2

P

where d and H represent nominal diameter and thread overlap.

The prole of internal thread can be expressed in the same

manner.

r =

d

1

2

0

1

+

d

2

7

8

H

1

2

d

2

+

H

8

2

n

+

n

2

P

2

4

2

2

1

=

4

2

= 1

3

n

P

n

3

24

P

There are upper limits for the root radii of external and internal

threads, and

n

, appeared in Eqs. 1 and 2, in connection with

the thread geometry of minor and nominal diameters.

3 Proposition of Helical Thread Modeling With Accu-

rate Geometry

3.1 Conventional Methods. When analyzing the mechanical

behavior of bolted joints with three-dimensional analysis, it has

been a common practice that the threaded portion of the FE mod-

els has axisymmetric geometry, where the effects of lead angle are

neglected because of its small value. That is, external and internal

threads are modeled by stacking an appropriate number of threads

with axisymmetric geometry. Recently, some researchers start to

use helical thread models because of a growing recognition of the

importance of helical effects, e.g., loosening phenomena of bolted

joints. Their modeling procedures are classied roughly into three

categories in the case of external threads 59.

Type 1. Two-dimensional thread cross section model with one-

pitch height is rotated helically around the bolt axis 57. This

procedure inevitably generates a small hole around the bolt axis.

Type 2. Helical thread model made in the similar manner to

Type 1 is attached around a solid cylinder 8,9. Mesh patterns are

not coincident at the interface between helical threads and the

cylinder.

Type 3. Surface models of bolt and nut are made by means of a

sophisticated performance provided by commercial software, and

then the inside of the helical-shaped solid models of bolt and nut

is divided into three-dimensional elements using its automatic

mesh generation function.

In the case of Type 1, the effect of the small hole seems insig-

nicant. However, unfavorable meshes are to be generated due to

the helical rotation, especially around the far end thread and the

area connecting the thread runout and the bolt cylinder. The same

problem still remains in the case of Type 2. It is not an easy

practice even for Type 3 that highly stressed area is intensively

divided using small elements while the overall mesh pattern being

well balanced.

3.2 Helical Thread Modeling by Stacking Cross Sections

With Accurate Geometry. Helical thread modeling procedure

proposed in this paper is based on the fact that the shape of the

cross section perpendicular to the bolt axis is identical at any

position. The proles of external and internal threads are ex-

pressed mathematically by means of Eqs. 1 and 2. In Fig. 3,

illustrated are the real shapes of the cross section of external

threads with coarse pitch of P. In the following, it is shown how

the helical thread models of external thread with accurate geom-

etry can be constructed, where each ridge with one-pitch height is

divided into n thin plates with the same conguration. The proce-

dure consists of six steps.

Fig. 1 Thread cross section along the bolt axis

Fig. 2 Prole of the cross section of external thread perpen-

dicular to the bolt axis

011204-2 / Vol. 130, FEBRUARY 2008 Transactions of the ASME

Downloaded 14 Feb 2013 to 129.5.16.227. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

Step 1. Cross section of external thread with accurate geometry,

shown in Fig. 3, is properly modeled using two-dimensional ele-

ments. This is a basic mesh model.

Step 2. The basic model is placed at the reference position, z

=0.

Step 3. Rotating the basic model anticlockwise by an amount of

2/ n, it is placed at the position of z=P/ n.

Step 4. Connecting the corresponding nodes of the two basic

models placed at z=0 and P/ n, a three-dimensional model with

P/ n thickness is obtained.

Step 5. One-pitch helical thread model is completed by repeat-

ing Steps 3 and 4 n times.

Step 6. An appropriate number of one-pitch model obtained in

Step 5 is stacked, according to the number of threads of the ob-

jective bolted joint.

If the one-pitch model is constructed by simply stacking the

basic model according to the aforementioned procedure, the ele-

ments around the threaded portion might have a large aspect ratio,

which causes low accuracy of the numerical analysis. In addition,

the mesh pattern around the bolt axis becomes ner than is nec-

essary. From the numerical accuracy and computation efciency

points of view, therefore, the nite element meshes for thread area

and bolt core portion should be constructed separately. Figure 4

shows an example of the mesh patterns of the cross sections per-

pendicular to and along the bolt axis. The circular area inside the

four arrows, shown in Fig. 4a, is divided by rather coarse

meshes, and the outside area is modeled by fairly ne meshes.

Therefore, the bolt core portion is simply modeled as a cylinder

and only the thread area is modeled following Steps 16. Figure

5a shows a one-pitch helical thread model thus obtained. The

mesh patterns of the two separate models are completely coinci-

dent at the interface. It follows that the helical model constructed

here is expected to attain both high accuracy and computation

efciency. Thread runout is modeled by gradually varying the

depth of the groove along the helix so as to be smoothly con-

nected with bolt cylinder. Following the above procedure, it is

possible to construct an entire bolted joint model only by eight-

node brick elements.

Internal threads can be modeled in the same manner. In this

case, the outside area of threaded portion is modeled as a hollow

cylinder. The outer surface of the nut is modeled as a cylindrical

shape for simplicity, although it is possible to construct a hexago-

nal nut. Figure 5b shows the cross section of the nut model with

helical geometry. Figure 6 is an example of the entire bolted joint

model, which is tightened by a single bolt with coarse thread of

M16. The total numbers of nodes and elements are 78,520 and

86,504, respectively. Numerical analysis with FE models con-

structed here can be implemented by standard FE analysis FEA

software packages.

4 Stress Analysis of Bolted Joints Using Helical

Thread Model

4.1 Numerical Models and Boundary Conditions. The

mesh generation scheme proposed here can be executed without

any help of commercial software. However, it is favorable to use

some sophisticated functions of commercial software for an effec-

Fig. 3 Accurate cross section prole of metric coarse thread

Fig. 4 Mesh patterns of cross sections of bolt model

Fig. 5 One-pitch model of external thread and cross section of

nut model

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology FEBRUARY 2008, Vol. 130 / 011204-3

Downloaded 14 Feb 2013 to 129.5.16.227. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

tive modeling. In this study, Hyper Works is used for supporting

the mesh generation and the numerical calculations are conducted

as elastic problems by ABAQUS. Referring to the FE model shown

in Fig. 6, the axial bolt force is applied as a uniform displacement

at the lower end of the bolt cylinder. At the lower surface of the

fastened plate, axial displacements are completely restrained and

the circumferential ones are restrained at four nodes located

90 deg apart. The analytical objects are bolted joints tightened by

a single bolt of M16 or M12 with coarse thread. Bolt, nut, and

plate are supposed to be made of carbon steel whose Youngs

modulus and Poissons ratio are 200 GPa and 0.3, respectively. In

the case of M16, bolt hole diameters are changed as 17 mm,

17.5 mm, and 18.5 mm, which correspond to the rst, second, and

third classes specied in JIS, respectively. Coefcients of friction

are varied from 0.05 to 0.20 with an increment of 0.05 and

assumed to be identical at pressure ank of screw thread and nut

loaded surface. For a parametric study, a standard analytical con-

dition is dened as follows. Standard condition: M16, coefcient

of friction=0.15, bolt hole diameter=17.5 mm second class

4.2 Stress Distributions Along Thread Root. Many previous

studies have reported that the maximum stress occurs at the bolt

thread root located within one pitch of the nut loaded surface.

Most of the research on the stress concentration at the thread root

have been conducted using axisymmetric FE models. Even if in-

troducing such helical thread models explained in Sec. 3.1, it

seems difcult to evaluate the stress concentrations around the

thread root with practical accuracy. In this section, stress concen-

trations around the thread root are analyzed using the FE models

obtained in Sec. 3.2. Numerical calculations were performed us-

ing a single computer equipped with Pentium 4 of 3.4 GHz with

2 Gbyte RAM. CPU time changes from 3 h to 5 h as coefcient

of friction increases. It is shown in Fig. 7 how the maximum

stress, which occurred at the thread root, varies along the helix.

Mises stress at the thread root

eq

is normalized with respect to

the mean tensile stress

b

dened at the bolt cylinder. The ab-

scissa represents the distance from the nut loaded surface. The

maximum Mises stress

eqmax

occurs at half a pitch from the nut

loaded surface, as in the case of the previous studies 10, where

larger coefcient of friction produces higher peak stress. Then, the

stresses at the thread root gradually decrease toward the top face

of the nut, and they show a second peak. It is considered that this

phenomenon is caused by the low stiffness of the last engaged

thread for its bending deformation. In Fig. 8, shown are the effects

of friction coefcient and bolt hole diameter on the maximum

normalized stress

eqmax

/

b

. It increases slightly and almost lin-

early as coefcient of friction increases, and it almost decreases

linearly with increasing bolt hole diameter. As for the effects of

nominal diameter, larger bolt produces larger stress concentrations

as well as the previous studies 1.

4.3 Asymmetric Contact Pressure Distributions at Nut

Loaded Surface. The contact pressure at the nut loaded surface

decreases outward in the radial direction. It is predicted that the

contact pressure also varies in the circumferential direction,

though probably a small amount, because of the circumferential

variation of the stiffness of engaged threads adjacent to the nut

loaded surface. The latter phenomenon can be analyzed only when

introducing a helical thread model. Figure 9a shows the circum-

ferential contact pressure distributions at the nut loaded surface

for varying radial positions. The reference point of =0 is placed

at the plate top surface on which a fully formed nut thread with

one-pitch height exists. The magnitude of the contact pressure

varies in the circumferential direction, which is rather remarkable

along the bolt hole and at the outer end of the nut loaded surface.

In the radial direction, though not shown here, the contact pres-

Fig. 6 Fienit element model of entire bolted joint

Fig. 7 Mises stress distributions at the bolt thread root along

the helix

Fig. 8 Normalized maximum Mises stress occurred at the bolt

thread root

011204-4 / Vol. 130, FEBRUARY 2008 Transactions of the ASME

Downloaded 14 Feb 2013 to 129.5.16.227. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

sure decreases smoothly at any circumferential position. Shown in

Fig. 9b are the contact pressure distributions in the circumferen-

tial direction for third class bolt hole. The effect of the helical

shape of thread geometry appears similarly in the case of second

class. Such circumferential variation of the contact pressure dis-

tributions might cause various problems in the bolted joints.

4.4 Evaluation of Load Distributions Along Engaged

Threads. In this study, nite element meshes around thread ridges

have equal thickness in the axial direction, as shown in Fig. 4b.

Accordingly, the load distribution along engaged threads can be

evaluated by summing up the axial loads exerted on each thin

element with equal thickness. In a common bolted joint, bolt cy-

lindrical portion is subjected to axial bolt force F

b

at any position

between nut loaded surface and bolt head. Meanwhile, the axial

load F along the engaged threads gradually decreases from F

b

to

zero toward the top surface of the nut. It is well known that such

load distribution pattern causes various problems inherent to bolt-

nut connections. Yamamoto derives an equation for F along the

engaged threads based on the elastic theory, which shows that the

axial load F decreases following a hyperbolic function, sinhx,

where x denotes the distance from the nut loaded surface 11.

In Fig. 10, the load distribution along the engaged threads ob-

tained by the helical thread model is compared to that by Yama-

motos equation. Numerical result by axisymmetric FE analysis is

also shown, where the mesh pattern is the same as the cross sec-

tion of the helical thread model along the bolt axis. The axisym-

metric analysis gives a similar load distribution to that of concave-

shaped Yamamotos equation, except around the top face of the

nut. On the other hand, the numerical result by the helical thread

model shows slightly convex distributions both around the nut

loaded surface and the top face of the nut. In the cases of Yama-

motos equation and axisymmetric FE analysis, it is assumed that

every set of male and female threads is equally engaged. In the

actual engaged threads, however, the contact areas of engaged

threads rapidly decrease around the nut loaded surface and the top

face of the nut. It is considered that such effects could be repre-

sented by the helical thread models introduced here.

5 Discussions

A nut is classied into several kinds according to its shapes

around bearing surface and top face. The nut used here has a at

bearing surface that is completely in contact with the plate sur-

face. The threads at the top face of the nut are commonly cham-

fered, i.e., truncated at some angle, toward the bolt hole. The

effect of the chamfering is studied by FE analysis. Figure 11a

illustrates the nut cross section with and without chamfering. All

the numerical results presented so far are associated with the

chamfered nut models. Figure 11b represents the effect of the

chamfering on the stress concentrations at the thread root. It is

observed that for both chamfered and nonchamfered nuts,

z

shows characteristic stress distribution patterns, which steeply

vary between positive and negative values. Accordingly, it seems

that the second peak appearing in the Mises stress distribution is

caused by the distinctive distribution pattern of

z

. In the case of

nonchamfered nut, the second peak of Mises stress shows an un-

natural decrease compared to the case of chamfered nut. This

phenomenon can be mitigated by chamfering the top face of the

nut.

6 Conclusions

An effective three-dimensional thread modeling scheme, which

can accurately take account of its helical geometry, is proposed

using the equations dening the real conguration of the thread

cross section perpendicular to the bolt axis.

It is shown how the thread root stress varies along the helix and

that the maximum stress occurs at half a pitch from the nut loaded

Fig. 9 Circumferential contact pressure distributions at the

nut loaded surface

Fig. 10 Axial load distributions along engaged threads

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology FEBRUARY 2008, Vol. 130 / 011204-5

Downloaded 14 Feb 2013 to 129.5.16.227. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

surface. The stresses at the thread root gradually decrease toward

the top face of the nut and they show a second peak because of the

low stiffness of the last engaged threads.

It is shown how the contact pressure at the nut loaded surface

varies in the circumferential direction due to the effect of the

helical thread geometry. The axial load distribution along engaged

threads analyzed by helical thread models shows a different dis-

tribution pattern from those obtained by axisymmetric FE analysis

and elastic theory.

The second peak appearing in the distributions of Mises stress

at the thread root is caused by the distinctive distribution pattern

of

z

.

Acknowledgment

The authors would like to acknowledge Mr. Yuuya Morimoto

DAIHATSU Motor Co. for his contribution to the numerical

calculations conducted in this research.

Nomenclature

D

i

bolt hole diameter

d nominal diameter

d

1

minor diameter

F axial load along engaged threads

F

b

axial bolt force

H thread overlap

P thread pitch

r radial coordinate

z axial coordinate

coefcient of friction

circumferential coordinate

,

n

root radii of external and internal threads

b

mean tensile stress dened at bolt cylinder

eq

Mises stress at thread root

eqmax

maximum Mises stress at thread root

z

axial stress

References

1 Fukuoka, T., 1997, Evaluation of the Method for Lowering Stress Concentra-

tion at the Thread Root of Bolted Joints With Modications of Nut Shape,

ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol. 1191, pp. 19.

2 Fukuoka, T., and Takaki, T., 2003, Elastic Plastic Finite Element Analysis of

Bolted Joint During Tightening Process, ASME J. Mech. Des. 1254, pp.

823830.

3 Lehnhoff, T. F., Ko, K. I., and Mckay, M. L., 1994, Member Stiffness and

Contact Pressure Distribution of Bolted Joints, ASME J. Mech. Des. 1162,

pp. 550557.

4 Lehnhoff, T. F., and Bunyard, B. A., 2000, Bolt Thread and Head Fillet Stress

Concentration Factors, ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol. 1222, pp. 180

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5 Chen, J., and Shih, Y., 1999, A Study of the Helical Effect on the Thread

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9 Zhang, M., and Jiang, Y., 2004, Finite Element Modeling of Self-Loosening

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Fig. 11 Effect of the chamfering of the nut top thread

011204-6 / Vol. 130, FEBRUARY 2008 Transactions of the ASME

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