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The Student's Greek Grammar.

A GRAMMAR
OF THE
GREEK
LANGUAGE.
BY BE. GEORGE
CURTIUS,
PROFESSOR IN TIIE UNIVERSITY
OF.LKIPZIO.
.TRANSLATED
UNDER THE REVISION OF THE AUTHOR.
BY WILLIAM
_SMITH, D.C.L., LL.D.,
EDITOB OF THE CLASSICAL AND LATIN
JIIllTIONABIES.
For the Use of
Colleges
and the
Upper
Forms in Schools.
ELEVENTH EDITION.
LONDON:
JOHN
MURRAY,
ALBEMARLE STREET.
1882.
,
WORKS BY
PHOFE33OH
CUBTIU3,
A Smaller Graek Grammar. For the Middle mil Lower
Foiius iu Schools.
Abridged
from the
present
U'u.K. r2mi>. 3t. tkl.
Greek
Accidence;
extracted from tho above Work. 12:no.
2s. 6d.
Elucidations of the Student's Graek Grammar. Trans-
lated
by
EVELYN ABBUT. PoU 8vo. 7. ttd.
Principles
of Greek
Etymology.
Translated
by
A. 8.
WILKINS, M.A.,
mid K. B.
EXGLAXII,
M.A. 2 vols. svo. li.
each.
The Greek
Verb;
Its Structure nnd
Development.
Trans-
lated
by
A.
S.'WiLKixs, M.A.,
aud E. II.
ENUI.A.ND,
M.A. vo.
18*.
Uniform
with the
present
Work.
The Student's Latin Grammar. For the
Higher
Forms in
Sc'iools.
By
WM.
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and THKoi-tiiLUa 1).
HALL,
M.A.
1'o^t 8vo. e*.
A Smaller Latin Grammar. For the Mid.lle and Lower
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A School
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liy
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unJ Tutoi'iiiLUa D.
HALL,
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A
Primary English
Grammar for
Elemen'ary
Schools
With 134 Exercises and
<,'uesiioiif>. Fuundvd 0:1 the ab^vj Wurk.
By
TMKOPHILUS IJ.
HALL,
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A Manual of
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With
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Illustra-
tions and Practical Exercises.
By
TnKoi-niLUa 1).
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EDITOR'S PREFACE.
THE Greek Grammar of Dr. Curtius is
acknowledged
by
the most
competent
scholars,
both in this
country
and in
Germany,
to be the best
representative
of the
present
advanced state of Greek
scholarship.
It
is,
indeed,
almost the
only
Grammar which exhibits the
inflexions of the
language
in a
really
scientific form
;
while its extensive use in the schools of
Germany,
and
the
high
commendations it has received from
practical
teachers in that
country,
are a sufficient
proof
of its
excellence as a school-book. It is
surprising
to find
that
many
of the
public
and
private
schools in this
country
continue to use
Grammars,
which
ignore
all the
improvements
and discoveries of modern
philology,
and
still
cling
to the division of the substantives into ten
declensions,
the
designation
of the Second Perfect as
the Perfect
Middle,
and similar
exploded
errors. Dr.
Curtius has stated so
fully
in his Preface the
principles
on which this Grammar is
constructed,
that it is unnec-
essary
to
say
more
by way
of introduction. It
only
remains to
add,
that the translation has been made
from the fifth edition of the
original
work
(1862),
with
the author's
sanction,
and that the
proof-sheets
have
enjoyed
the
advantage
of his final correction and
revision.
An
abridgment
for the use of the lower forms ia
published simultaneously
with the
present
work.
W. S.
Ismdon, March,
1863.
a2
FROM THE AUTHOR'S PREPACK.
THE fact that within a few
years
the
present
Grammar
has found its
way
into a
large
number of schools in
various countries of
Europe
seems to be a
satisfactory
answer to the
question
whether a
thorough knowledge
of Greek is attainable
by
the method I have
adopted.
Much, therefore,
of what I
thought
it
necessary
to state
on the first
appearance
of the book does not now re-
quire
to be
repeated
;
but I consider it incumbent
upon
me to make some observations
upon
the
objects
and
the use of the
Grammar,
and I
beg
to recommend
these to the careful consideration of teachers.
Few sciences have within the last half
century
been
so
completely
reformed as the science of
language.
Not
only
has our
insight
into the nature and
history
of
human
speech
been
greatly
advanced,
but and this is
justly regarded
as a matter of still
greater importance
quite
a different method in
treating language
in
general
has been
discovered,
after a new era had been
opened
up by
the
philosophical inquiries
of William von
Humboldt,
and the historical
investigations
of Francis
Eopp
and Jacob Grimm. No
one,
unless he desires
to exclude schools from the
progress
thus
made,
and
to confine them to the mechanical
repetition
of
imper
feet and
antiquated
rules,
will
probably
doubt that the
new
knowledge,
the
principles
of which have stood the
test of
nearly
half a
century, ought
to exercise its in-
fluence on the
teaching
of
language.
If the
teaching
of a
language
in our schools is in-
PREFACE.
v
tended to lead not
only
to a
thorough understanding
of
the master-works of
literature,
but at the same time to
cultivate and stir
up
the
youthful
mind
by indepen-
dent exertion and
by occupation
with a
subject
so im-
mensely
rich and so
harmoniously quickening
the most
different mental
powers
as
language,
such
teaching
cannot
possibly
continue to
keep
aloof from the
pro-
gress
of scientific
inquiry,
which
is,
unfortunately,
still the
case in
many places.
The
teaching
of
Greek, however,
seems to be
specially
called
upon
to make a commence-
ment. The modern science of
language
has, indeed,
exer-
cised its influence on
every part
of
grammar,
but none
has been more affected
by
it than the
first,
commonly
called the accidence. In Latin scientific
inquiry
into the
structure of the forms has not
yet
reached the same
completeness
as in Greek. The structure of the Latin
language
is less
transparent,
and we miss so
many
aids
which we
possess
for the Greek in the
high antiquity
of
its literature and in its dialects. A scientific treatment
of the structure of the Latin
language
in schools
is,
moreover,
a matter of
great practical difficulty,
on
account of the
early age
at which the elements must
necessarily
be learnt. We
ought
not, however,
on this
account to
separate
the
teaching
of Latin from all con-
tact with scientific
inquiry,
the influence of which can
show itself with
advantage,
at
least,
in a more suitable
arrangement
and distribution of the matter.
Granting,
therefore,
that our
boys,
as
heretofore,
must commit to
memory
a
large portion
of Latin forms
;
granting
that
the most
important object
in
learning
Latin
consists,
perhaps,
more in the
acquisition
of fixed laws of
syntax,
which
obviously
form the
principal strength
of the
Latin
language
;
the case of the Greek is different.
The Greeks are
justly
called an artistic
people,
and the
VI niEFACE.
Greek
language
is the most ancient work of art wlii< h
they
have reared
upon
a
very primitive
basis. Tin-
student,
who
approaches
the Greek after he has
already
gone through
a considerable
preparation by
the
study
of
Latin,
ought
to be
impressed
with the idea that tho
structure of this
language
is one of the most marvellous
productions
of the intellectual
powers acting
uncon-
sciously. Everything
lies here clear before us: the
sources of our
knowledge
are more
varied,
and the
necessity
of
analysing
the
given
forms is rendered so
absolute,
even on account of the Homeric
dialect,
that
this
analysis
has,
in
fact,
never been
entirely wanting,
and after the first
appearance
of
Buttmann,
in
1782,
made considerable
progress.
The
attempt,
therefore,
to connect in a still
higher degree
the
practice
of the
school with the
spirit
of
science,
can here
point
to
numerous
precedents,
and it
is,
no
doubt,
mainly owing
to this circumstance that it has met with so favourable
a
reception. My object
has been to
produce
a con-
sistent
system,
a careful
selection,
and a clear and
pre-
cise
exposition,
rather than an
entirely
new
system.
In
selecting
and
expounding
the results of scientific
inquiry,
I have
always kept
in view the idea that the
book was intended for
practical
use in schoola The
first
requisite,
therefore,
was not to admit
anything
which is
beyond
the
sphere
of the
school,
to
explain only
that which is
necessary,
and to admit
only
that which
is
absolutely
certain. For a school-book must
speak
categorically,
must exclude all matters of mere
opinion,
and has no
space
for discussion and
inquiry.
It
is,
however,
perfectly
indifferent whether a result has been
obtained
by special
researches into the Greek
language,
or
by
the more
general inquiries
of
comparative
pliilology.
PREFACE.
VU
f was further
obliged
to admit
only
those
things
which find their
explanation
in the Greek
language
itself,
or at most in a
comparison
with the Latin
; but,
even within these
limits,
I have confined
myself
to
such innovations as
really
afford an
important insight
into the structure of the
forms,
whereas all that
belongs
to
philological learning
and
many
other
things
have
been
passed
over because
they
seemed
unnecessary.
Among
such
superfluous
innovations I include
espe-
cially
all
changes
of
terminology,
and the entire altera-
tion of whole
parts
of Grammar which are often still
less
necessary,
but to which
formerly
too much
impor-
tance used to be attached.
The new technical terms I have introduced have
generally
been
approved
of,
and the
principle
stated in
my preface
to the first
edition,
though
not followed
with
pedantic consistency,
"if
possible,
to
put signifi-
cant names in the
place
of dead
numbers,"
as for e.
g.,
A
Declension, Declension,
instead of First and
Second
Declension,
will
scarcely
be found fault
with,
for a name with a
meaning
at once
gives
a
piece
of
information,
and therefore facilitates
learning.
Doubts
have been raised
only
about the
expressions strong
and
weak,
which I have
employed
to
distinguish
the two
Aorists and Perfects. I am as well aware now as I was
at the first
that,
from the
point
of view of scientific
inquiry,
much
may
be said
against
the
expressions,
but
[ nevertheless feel that I cannot
give
them
up.
For
the old
designation by
numbers is
unsatisfactory,
unless
we are
prepared
for its sake either to sacrifice a more
consistent
arrangement
of the
verb,
or to mislead the
pupil by calling
the Aorist which is treated of first the
second,
and first
the,
one with which he is made ac-
quainted
afterwards. But a common name to distin-
Till PREFACE.
piish
tho two forms of the Aorist Active Middle and
1'us.sive,
and of the Perfect
Active,
is
indispensable
in a
system
of Greek Grammar. An innovation had
here become
necessary,
for both
negative
and
posi-
tive reasons. The
expressions strong
and weak have
this
advantage
that after
being
introduced
by
Grimm
into liis German
Grammar,
they
have also been
adopted
by English
Grammarians
;
and
though
I use them not
quite
in the same
sense,
they
are
easily intelligible.
It will
surely
not be difficult to make a
pupil
under-
stand that those forms are called
strong
which
spring
from the
root,
as it
were,
by
an internal
agency,
and
weak those which are formed
by syllables
added ex-
ternally especially
as he
may easily compare
the
English
take, took,
and
love,
loved. I still know of no
designation
which,
with so few
disadvantages,
offers so
many advantages
as
tliis,
and I shall retain it until a
better one is
suggested;
and,
after
all,
in
necessary
innovations it is often more
important
that men
agree,
than on what
they agree.
The fact that the most essential
changes
I have
made in the
arrangements
of the
subjects
as,
for
example,
the strict adherence to the
system
of Stems in
all the
inflexions,
and
especially
the division of the
verb
according
to
temporal
Stems have met with the
approval
of
practical
teachers,
has been to me a source
of
great gratification,
it
being
a clear
proof
that the
demands of scientific
inquiry
are
by
no means so much
opposed
to a
right system
of
teaching
as is still
imagined
by many.
The
arrangement
of
temporal
Stems is made
less
upon
scientific than
upon
didactic
grounds,
in such
a manner that kindred forms are
joined together,
and
due
regard
is
paid
to the
progress
from that which is
easy
to that which is more difficult.
HIEFACE. IX
The
chapter
on the formation of
words,
though
some-
what
enlarged,
has for the same reasons still been
kept
very
brief.
But,
in
treating
of the
verbs,
I have directed
attention to the formation of verbal nouns : in
treating
of the verbs of the different
classes,
I have
always
directed
attention,
by
a number of characteristic exam-
ples,
to the
application
of the different Stems in the
formation of words.
By
this means the learner has an
opportunity, during
the
study
of his
grammar,
of
making
himself
acquainted
with a number of
words,
and I have no doubt that teachers will
give
their sanc-
tion to this
arrangement.
In
regard
to
Syntax,
the
positive
results of recent
linguistic inquiries
are as
yet
less numerous. In this
part
of the
Grammar, therefore,
I follow the
principle
of
stating
the essential idioms of the Greek
language
with the utmost
possible precision,
and in the utmost
logical
order.
Only
in some
chapters, especially
in
that on the use of the
tenses,
my system presents
con-
siderable differences from the usual one. All minute
disquisitions, conjectures,
and more or less
probable
theories
among
them
especially
the
ever-repeated
theory
about the
original
local
meaning
of the
cases,
with which I cannot
agree
at all have been
rigorously
excluded. In this
part,
also,
I have never
neglected
to
compare
the
phenomena
of the Greek
language
with
the
corresponding
ones of
Latin,
and
occasionally
also
of
English,
where this could be done with
brevity
and
advantage
;
for as the
usage
of a
language
must bo
mainly comprehended by
a
feeling
of
language,
I
imagine
that
every appeal
to a Latin
usage already
embodied with our
feeling
of
language,
or to an
English
usage
familiar to us from
childhood,
advances our
knowledge
much more than
philosophical
definitions or
*
PREFACE.
technical terms of
vague
or various
meanings.
For 1 ho
same reason I
everywhere
attach
great importance
in
an accurate translation of a Greek idiom into
English
or Latin. I need
hardly guard myself against
the
opinion
as if I considered such a translation to be a
philosophical explanation
of a
linguistic phenomenon.
A real
explanation
is
beyond
the
problem
of a
Grammar.
I
scarcely
need
repeat
here that the
present
book is
not
intended,
like an
Elementary
Grammar,
to be com-
mitted to
memory paragraph by paragraph
; but,
in
teaching,
a suitable
selection,
according
to the
degree
of the
pupil's
advancement,
should be made
by
the
teacher.
By
a difference in
type
I have
myself,
at
least
partially,
indicated this.
It
may
be remarked in
general
that the first business
everywhere
is that of
memory,
and
only
when the
actual
forms,
with the aid of the
paradigms,
have been
committed to
memory, analysis may
be added. First
knowledge,
then
understanding
this
ought
to be the
leading principle
; but,
as I have said in another
place,
"
Memory
can neither
accurately grasp
the
great variety
of Greek forms nor retain
them,
unless it be
supported
by
an
analysing
and
combining intelligence,
which
furnishes,
as it
were,
the hooks and cement to
strengthen
that which has been
learned,
and
permanently
to im-
press
it
upon
the mind." If details learned at different
times and
carefully
committed to
memory, during
a
subsequent repetition variously
combine with one an-
other,
and form various
groups;
if, then,
many things
at first
sight strange, appear
to the
pupil
in the
light
of
a law
pervading
the
language,
such
insight
is
certainly
not a mere
support
of
memory,
but animates the desire
to
learn,
and incites to exercise the
power
of
thought
in
PREFACE.
XI
a
variety
of
ways.
The
present
book offers to teachers
abundant
opportunities
for such
exercises,
and
acquires
its
highest efficacy
under the
guidance
of
thinking
teachers who are
truly
familiar with
it,
and take a
delight
in its
subjects.
That the book has
actually
found such teachers has been
proved
to me in various
ways,
and caused me sincere
gratification,
G. 0.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION.
TUB QBEEK LANGUAGE AND ITS DIALECTS.
FIKST PART. ETYMOLOGY.
I. Letters and Sounds.
CHAP. I. THE GUEEK CHARACTERS. SEC.
A. Letters .. .. 1 9
B. Other Characters 1016
C. Accents 1722
D. Punctuation 23
CHAP. II. THE
SOUNDS.
A. The Vowels 2429
B. The Consonants ..
3034
CHAP. III. COMBINATIONS AND CHANGES OF SOUNDS.
A. Vowels in Combination 35 39
B. Other kinds of Vowel
Changes
40 43
C. Consonants in Combination with one another .. 44 54
D. Other
Changes
in the middle of a word .. .. 55 62
E.
Changes
of Sound at the end of a word .. .. 63 69
CHAP. IV. DIVISION OF SYLLABLES AND THEIK
QUANTITY.
A. Division of
Syllables
7073
B.
Quantity
7478
CHAP. V. ACCENTS .. 70 99
XIV CONTENTS.
II. Inflexion.
A. INFLEXION OF NOUNS AND PRONOUNS.
CHAP. VI. DECLENSION OF SUBSTANTIVES AND ADJEC-
TIVES.
FIRST PRINCIPAL
(OR VOWEL)
DECLENSION.
SEC.
A. TLe A Declension
112-113
(Commonly
called the First
Declension.)
1. Femiuines 114 119
2. Masculines 120 123
B. The Declension .. 124131
(Commonly
called the Second
Declension.)
Attic Declension 132 133
SRCOND PRINCIPAL
(OR CONSONANT)
DECLENSION .. 135 143
(Commonly
called the Third Declension.}
1. Consonant Stems :
a. Guttural and Labial Sterr.s 144 145
b. Dental Stems 146149
c.
Liquid
Steins 150 153
2. Vowel Stems :
a. Soft Vowel Stems 154158
6.
Diphthong
Stems 159161
c. Stems 162163
3. Stems
suffering
Elision :
a.
Sigma
Stems 104167
K T-Stems 168169
c. .-Stems 170171
Irregularities
in Declension 174 177
Case-like Terminations 178 179
CHAP.
VII. OTHER INFLEXIONS OF THE ADJECTITS
A. Gender 180191
B.
Comparison
192200
C. Adverbs of
Adjectives
201204
CHAP. VIII. INFLEXION OF PRONOUNS 205 219
CHAP. IX. THE NUMERALS , . 220224
CONTENTS XV
B. INFLEXION OP VERBS. SEC.
General
Kemarks .............. 225230
LIST OF PABADIGMS. TABLE.
Et/xt,
lam .......... . ....... I.
Synopsis
of
\vo>,
I loose
(exhibiting
the
meanings
of
the
Tenses)
................ II.
VERBS
IN
Q.
A. Vowel Stems :
1.
Uncontracted,
Xu<D ......., .. IIL
2.
Contracted,
Ti/naco,
iroiea,
SovXda) .. .. IV.
B. Consonant Stems :
1. Guttural
Stems, xXeVco,
<f)evy<o,
rd<r<ra> .. V.
2. Dental
Stems,
-^ev8ofj.ai,
irfidco, /co/t/fo>
.. VL
3. Labial
Stems, TTfpTr<o, \fina>,
Ka\virra> .. VII.
4.
Liquid
Stems,
S/pw, dyy/XXo), airfipo)
.. VIII.
VERBS IN MI.
First
Class, Tt'^fit, S/Sw/Ltt, tcrrj;/it
........ JX.
Second
Class, fieiKi/v/it
............ X.
CHAT.
X. FIRST PRINCIPAL CONJUGATION OB VERBS IN O.
I. The Present-Stem : SEC.
A. Inflexion of the Present-Stem ...... 231233
B. The
Augment
............
234242
C. Contracted Verbs .......... 243244
D. Distinction of the Present-Stem from the
Verbal Stem ............ 245253
II. The
Strong
Aorist-Stem .......... 254257
III. The Future-Stem ............ 258266
IV. The Weak Aorist-Stem .......... 267271
V. The Perfect-Stem .............. 272
1. Perfect Active
............ 276282
2.
PluiKjrfect
Active
..........
283
3. Perfect Middle and Passive
...... 284289
4.
Pluperfect
Middle and Passive ...... 290291
VI. Forms of the
Strong
Passive Stem ...... 292295
VII. Forms of the Weak Passive Stem ...... 296299
Verbal
Adjectives
..............
300
Verbs which leave their Stem-Vowel short .. 301
XY1
CONTEXTS.
CHAP. XI. SECON'D PRINCIPAL CONJUGATION
OB VERBS
IK MI. sue.
Preliminary
Remarks 302304
1. First Class
305317
2. Second Class 318319
CHAP. XII. IRREGULAR VERBS or THE FIRST CONJU-
GATION 320 327
Anomalies in
Signification
328 330
Outlines of the Accentuation of Verbal Forms .. 331 333
Peculiar Verbal Forms of the Ionic Dialect . . 3l'.4 D 338 D
III. Derivation.
CHAP. Xm.
A..
Simple
Derivatives 339340
1. The most
important
Suffixes for
forming
Substantives
341349
2. The most
important
Suffixes for
forming
Adjectives
350352
3. Derivative Verbs
B.
Compound
Derivatives :
1. Form of the Combination
354 358
2.
Meaning
of Combination
359360
SECOND PART. SYNTAX.
Preliminary
Remarks '.. 361
CHAP. XIV. NUMBER AND GENDER 362367
CHAP. XV. THE ARTICLE ..
.,
368391
CHAP. XVI. USE OF CASES :
A. Nominative 392393
B. Vocative 39*
C. Accusative
,. .. 395 406
D. Genitive 407423
E. Dative 429443
HAP. XVII. THE PREPOSITIONS 444
General view of the
Prepositions
448
L.
Prepositions
which take
only
One Case .. .. 449 457
2.
Prepositions
which take Two Cases 458 461
8.
Prepositions
which take Three Cases 462468
CONTENTS. XVli
SEC.
CHAP. XVIII. THE PBONOUNS 469475
CHAP. XIX. THE KINDS OF VEBBS 476483
CHAP. XX. USE OF THE TENSES 484
1. The forms for the
Incomplete
Action 486 491
2. The forms for the Indefinite
(Aorist)
Action ..
492 498
3. The Future 499501
4. The forms for the
Complete
Action 602506
CHAP. XXI. USE OF THE MOODS.
A. In
Simple
Sentences :
1. Indicative 507
2.
Subjunctive
508513
3.
Optative
514517
4.
Imperative
518
B. In
Compound
Sentences :
Connexion of Sentences with
one another ..
519 524
1.
Dependent, Declarative,
and
Interrogative
Sentences 525 529
2. Sentences
expressing
a
purpose
530 533
3. Conditional Sentences 534 550
4. Relative Sentences 551 555
5.
Temporal
Sentences 556 558
CHAP. XXII. THE INFINITIVE.
1. Use of the Infinitive in
general
559 566
2. The Case of the
Subject
and Predicate with the
Infinitive 567572
3. The Infinitive with the Article 573574
4. The Infinitive with m 575576
5. The Infinitive instead of the
Imperative
.. .. 577
CHAP. XXIII. ON PARTICIPLES.
1. Attributive Use 578
2.
Appositive
Use 579583
3. The
Participle
with an Absolute Case .. .. 584586
4.
Supplements
to
Participles
587 588
5. The Predicative
Participle
589594
6. The
Participle
with av 595
7. Verbal
Adjectives
596
CHAP. XXIV. SOME PECULIARITIES IN EELATIVE
SENTENCES 597 60E
xviii CONTENTS.
CHAP. XXV. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
CHAP. XXVI.- THE NEGATIVES.
1. Use of
Simple Negatives
2. Several
Negatives
combined
3. Some
Negative
Phrases
CHAP. XXVIL THE PARTICLES.
A.
Conjunctions
1.
Copulative Conjunctions
2.
Disjunctive
3. Adversative
4.
Comparative
6. Declarative
6.
Temporal
7. Causal
8. Inferential
9. Final
10.
Hypothetical
11. Concessive
B.
Emphatic
Particles
SEC,
606611
012518
G19 fiiil
022
623
624625
626627
628630
631632
633
634635
636
637
638
639
640
641643
EMGLIBH
INDEX..
QBBBK INDEX ..
PAQE.
852
356
THE
STUDENT'S
GREEK GRAMMAR.
INTRODUCTION.
THE GREEK LANGUAGE AND ITS DIALECTS.
THE Greek
language
is the
language
of the Ancient
Hellenes
('EXA^ve?),
the inhabitants of
Greece,
with all
its islands and numerous colonies. It is related to the
languages
of the
Indians, Persians, Romans, Slavonians,
Lithuanians, Germans,
and Celts. These are all sister-
languages,
and
together
form the
Indo-European family.
The Greeks
were
early
divided into
races,
each of
which
spoke
a different dialect. The chief dialects of
the Greek
language
are the
Aeolic, Doric,
and Ionic.
At first each race
employed
its own dialect both in
poetry
and in
prose.
1. The IONIC dialect was
spoken by
the Ionic
race,
especially
in Asia Minor and
Attica,
in numerous
islands,
and in the Ionic colonies. It was the first of
the dialects
developed by poetry,
and
produced
three
different but
nearly
related
dialects,
viz. :
a)
The Old-Ionic or
Epic
dialect,
which is
preserved
in the
poems
of Homer and Hesiod as well as of their
followers.
b}
The New-Ionic
dialect,
which we know
chiefly
from the
history
of Herodotus.
Obs. The Old and New Ionic dialects are also
designated \>y
the
common
name, Ionic,
as
distinguished
from tbe Attic.
c)
The Attic
dialect,
in which are written the nume-
rous works in
poetry
and
prose produced
at Athene in
B
2 INTRODUCTION.
the time of her
glory.
The
principal
writers of the
Attic dialect are the
tragedians, Aeschylus, Sophod.-s
Euripides,
the comic writer
Aristophanes,
the historians
Thucydides
and
Xenophon,
the
philosopher
Plato,
the
great
orators
Lysias,
Demosthenes,
and Aeschincs.
Through
the
importance
of Athens in
Greece,
and the
excellence of the Attic
literature,
the Attic became the
chief dialect of the Greek
language.
Obs. A less
important
distinction is made between the earlier and
later Attic writers. The
tragedians
and
Thucydides belong
to
the earlier
Attic,
and the
remaining
authors to the later. Th
language
of Plato is intermediate between the two : that of the
tragedians
has also
many
other
peculiarities.
2. The AEOLIC dialect was
spoken by
the
Aeolians,
particularly
in Asia
Minor, Boeotia,
and
Thessaly.
Alcaeus and
Sappho
wrote in this dialect.
3. The DORIC dialect was
spoken by
the
Dorians,
chiefly
in Northern
Greece,
in the
Peloponnesus,
in
Crete,
and in the numerous Doric
colonies,
especially
Sicily
and Lower
Italy.
Doric is
essentially
the dialect
of Pindar's
lyric poems
and Theocritus' bucolics
(herds-
man's
poetry).
The choruses in the
tragedies
also con-
tain some Doric forms.
4. After Athens ceased to be the
leading city
in
Greece,
the Attic dialect still remained the
language
of
educated Greeks. But it soon
began
to
degenerate
from
its
primitive purity
and
excellence,
and thus from the
third
century
before Christ the common Greek dialect
(77
KOLVT]
SiaXeicros)
was
distinguished
from the Attic.
On the
boundary-line
between the older Attic and the
common Greek dialect stands the
great philosopher
Aristotle.
Amongst
later
authors,
the most
important
are : the historians
Polybiw,
Plutarch, Arrian,
Dion
Cassiiis
;
the
geographer
Strabo
;
the rhetoricians
Dionysiw
of Jlalicarnassus and Lucixn.
PART FIRST.
ETYMOLOGY.
I. LETTERS AND SOUNDS.
CHAP. I. THE GREEK CHARACTERS.
A. Letters.
1. The Greek letters are the
following
:-
Luge
Character. Small Character. Name.
Pronunciation.
A
4 LETTERS. 2.
2. For s there is a double
sign
in the small charac-
ter: ff at the
beginning
and in the
middle,
and
9
at the
end,
of a word.
Hence, crvv, creiw,
r^crav,
but
TTOJ/O?,
Kepas.
In
compound
words
9
may
also stand at the end of the
first word in the
compound
:
Trpos-epxo/jiai,
8iV/3aro9.
3. From the names of the first two letters arose the
expression "Alphabet"
The characters of the Greek
alphabet
do not
essentially
differ from those of the
Latin and of modern
languages.
All come from the
alphabet
of the Phoenicians.
In
regard
to
pronunciation
the
following points
are
to be observed :
4. All Greek letters are
always pronounced
alike.
But
7
is an
exception,
since,
before
7,
K,
%
or
f,
it is
pronounced ng.
Hence in Latin it is
represented by
n
reyyw
is
pronounced
tengo
;
0-iry/eaXtu, syngkftlo
;
X^^T;,
longche
;
<$>6pp,iy%,
phorminx
5. is
pronounced
like the
English
z. It is of
very
different
origin
in different cases.
Compare
p-ei^wv (for
/j.ejia)v)
from
/j,eya<}
;
vyov
with Latin
jugum, Engl.
yoke;
&c.
6.
^>
we
pronounce
as
/,
but
probably
the Greeks
pronounced
the
p
and h
separately
;
hence
ph,
not
/,
is
used in Latin for
</>
:
<tXocro$i'a, philosophia
; ^>i\oKr^TT]<f,
PhUoctetes.
7. 9 we
pronounce
like the
English
th.
8. Of the
diphthongs,
at and et are both
pronounced
as ei in
height
;
01 as
oy
in
boy
; av,
as aw in law
; ov,
as
ow in bow
;
vi,
as
wy
in
why (hwy)
;
ev and
tjv,
as ew in
new. The iota
subscriptum
(underwritten)
is not
pro-
3. Dialects.
The Greek
language
had in the most ancient times
another
letter, F,
which was called
Diyamma (8rya/i/iu
=
"
double
gamma ")
from its
form,
and Van
(fav)
from its
pronunciation.
It
was
pronounced
like the Latin v:
Folvos,
wine= Lat. vinum. At a
later time it was written
only by
the Aeolians and Dorians.
14.
OTHER CHARACTERS. 5
nounced in
a,
y,
&>. It is not written
under,
but
after,
capitals,
as
At, Hi, fit,
but still remains
unpronounced.
9. When two
vowels,
usually pronounced together,
are to be
pronounced separately,
the latter has over it
a
diaeresis,
(8
lal
pea
is
=
separation)
: thus
Trai'9
is
pru
uounced
pa-is
;
ainrvos,
a-upnos.
B. Other Characters.
10. Besides the
letters,
the Greek
language
has
also the
sign
',
which is
placed
over the initial vowel
to which it
belongs,
and
represents
the h:
e|
is
pro-
nounced hex
;
aTra%, hapax.
This
sign
is called
spiritus
asper,
"
rough breathing."
11. For more exact
distinction,
the Greeks also
mark those initial vowels which have not this
breathing
with the
sign
'
i.
e.,
the
spiritus
lenis,
"
gentle breathing."
This sound indicates
only
the
raising
of the voice which
is
necessary
for the
pronunciation
of a vowel when no
consonant
precedes
: e/c is
pronounced
ek
;
ayca, ago.
12. In
diphthongs
the
breathing
stands over the
second vowel :
ovros=howtos
;
el8ov=eidon. But when
the first vowel is in
large
character,
the
breathing
stands
before it:
r/
AtS^?=
Hades
;
'liSr)=Ode.
13.
Every
initial
p
has the
spiritus asper
over it :
pa^yBos, pevpa.
In Latin the
aspirate
is written after
the
p
:
rhapsodus,
rheuma.
When two
p's
come
together
in a
word,
'
is
usually placed
over the
first,
and
'
over
the second :
T[vppos=Pyrrhus
;
Ka\\ipp6r]
=
Callirrhoe.
Obs.
Many
write the double
p
without
any breathing: Ilvppos
;
KuXXippdjj.
14. As in
Latin,
so in
Greek,
the
sign
~
over a
vowel denotes that the vowel is
long,
w
that it is
short,
and
~
that it is sometimes
one, sometimes the other
In Greek
they
are used
only
with the vowels
a, i,
u.
since
e, 77, o,
u> are
distinguished by
their form.
6 ACCFNT8.
i*
lf>. The
sign
'
at tin
1
junction
of two words indicate*
the omission of a vowrl <n-
diphthong.
and is Him called
an
apostrophe
:
Trap
1
exetvy
for
Trapa eKeivy,
with that
one
;
/j,rj '<y<u
for
//.?) 706
(ne ego).
16. The same
sign
lias the name coronis
(rcopwvty
when it stands over the
junction
of two words contracted
into
one, rovvo^a
for TO
ovopa,
tJie name
;
Ka.ya.06s
for
Kal
dyados,
and
good.
It indicates that a crasis
(Kpa<ri<t,
mixture)
or contraction of two words has taken
place,
and,
like the
breathing,
stands over the second vowel
of a
diphthong
;
rauro for TO
aj/ro,
tlie same.
C. Accents.
17. The Greeks also indicate the tone or ACCENT
(7rpo9&>oYa)
of words. The
sign
'
over a vowel is called
the acute accent
(6%eia TrposySia),
that
is,
the
sharp
or
raised tone :
Xtxyo?, Tot/reo^,
Trapa,
erepo?.
The
syllable
thus marked must be raised above the rest.
A w
r
ord
having
the acute accent
upon
the last
syllable
is called
oxytone (o^vrovov)
:
Trapa,
etVe,
/3acrtA,et;<?.
A word
having
the acute accent
upon
the last but one
is called
paroxytone (Trapo^urovov)
:
\ejca, fyatvat'
A word
having
the acute accent
upon
the last but
two is called
proparoxytone (irpoTrapo^irrovov)
:
18. Obs. A.
proparoxytone having
a
lonp;
vowel or
diphthong
in the second
syllable
of the
word, ought
to be
pronounced
so
sis to
give
the accent on the third
syllable,
and
yet preserve
the
length
of the second
syllable
:
$'/37/ca
should be
pronounced
"bebeka
; anoftaiiH, apobaine.
The
accent, however,
is
usually
disregarded
in the
English pronunciation
of Greek words.
19. The
sign
N
over a vowel is called the
grave
accent
(fiapela TrposwoYa).
It indicates a low
tone,
that
is,
that
a
syllable
is not raised in tone. Thus in
aTrojBalve,
the
last two
might
have the
grave
accent. The
marking
of
them, however,
would be
superfluous,
the absence of
the acute
being
a sufficient
guide.
All words without
23.
PUNCTUATION.
7
an
accent on the final
syllable
are therefore called
barytone
(ftapvrova)
:
A,eya>, erepo?.
20. The
sign
\ however,
also denotes a subdued
acute,
and
occupies
the
place
of an acute in
every
oxytone
not
immediately
followed
by
a
pause
:
awo,
from,
but airo
TOVTOV,
from
this
; /Sao-tXeu?,
a
king,
but
/SacriXet"?
eyevero,
he became
king. Oxytones,
therefore,
retain their accent
unchanged only
at the end of a
sentence.
21. The
sign
"
over a vowel is called the
circumflex
accent
(Trepio-Trw/Aewr) TrposwSla),
from its
shape.
The
circumflex is a combination of the acute and the
grave
\
A word
having
a circumflex on the last
syllable
is
called
perispomenon (TreptcrTrco/^evov)
; ayadots,
cvaa?.
A word
having
a circumflex on the last
syllable
but one is called
properispomenon
22. In
diphthongs
the
accent,
like the
breathing
( 12),
is
put
over the second vowel:
<f>ev*yei,
TOVTO.
When the circumflex accent and the
breathing
meet
upon
the same vowel the accent is
placed
over the
breathing
:
OUTO?,
^#o<?,
'Xlro?.
The
acute,
in a similar
case,
stands to the
right
of the
breathing
:
dye,
cp^o/tai,
"low.
05s. The acute is
placed
between the two
points
of a diaeresis
(9), atStor,
but the circumflex over
them, irpavvai.
D. Punctuation.
23. For the
purpose
of
dividing
sentences and
periods
the Greeks
employ
the comma and the full-
point.
For the
sign
of
interrogation they
use the
semicolon : rl
et7ro,9
;
what did
you say
f For the
colon or semicolon
they place
a
point
at the
upper part
of the line:
epcorco
vitas'
TI
eTroirjcraTe
;
I ask
you:
what did
you
do?
ea-Trepa rjV
rare
rj\.6ev ayyeXos,
ft
was
evening
;
then a
messenger
came.
8
VOWELS.
U4.
CHAP.
II. THE SOUNDS.
A.TJie Vowels.
24. The Greek
language,
like the
Latin,
has five
vowi-ls,
of which the first four are like the
Latin,
a, e, o,
'. But instead of the Latin
u,
the Greeks
have v
(pronounced nearly
like the French u and the
German
ii).
25. Tho
vowels,
apart
from the distinction of
long
and
short,
are divided into two classes the hard and
the
soft
vowels :
a,
e,
rj, o,
<o are hard
; v, i,
soft.
26. From the union of hard and
soft
vowels
together
arise
diphthongs (Sfydoyyot,
i.
e.,
double-sounds). They
are:
av from a and v. ov from o and v.
at a
,,
i* 01
,,
o L.
ev e v.
T)V i)
v.
ei e i.
27. The union of
long
hard vowels with i
produces
24. Dialects. The
Dialects,
in
many
words and
forms,
admit
different vowels from those usual in the Attic Dialect. Thus
1. The Ionic
(Epic
and
New-Ionic)
dialect
prefers 17,
lor Attic
d : Att.
$<opa,
Ion.
Oapqi;, breastplate
: Att.
dyopd,
Ion.
dyoprj,
market: Att.
vavs,
Ion.
vrjvs, ship:
but Ion.
/ifo-a/xjSpi'ij
for Att.
Hn)p.fipia, midday.
2. The
Doric,
on the
contrary, prefers
5 : Att.
8^/toj,
Dor.
8afta$
people
: Att.
jiijnjp, mother,
Dor.
fidrrjp (comp.
Latin
mater)
: Dor.
'Addva for
'Adrjva, goddess Athena,
even in Attic
poets.
3. The Ionic dialect often
changes
e to
,
and o to ov : Att.
Voj,
Ion.
dvos, foreign:
Att.
tWica,
Ion.
tivtxa,
on account
of:
Att.
fjiovos,
Ion.
povvos,
alone:
Att.
ovopa,
Ion.
ovvopa,
name.
Rarely
o to
01,
or a to at : Att.
tjyvorjtrf,
Ion.
rryvoirjtTf,
he knew not.
26. Dialects.
'The New-Ionic dialect has moreover the
diphthong
*>v, which,
however,
only
comes in
place
of av in the other dialects.
OuvfM
for
davpa,
wonder: CMVTOV for
e'avrov, of
himself:
v must
be
pronounced
as ou.
33.
CONSONANTS. 9
the
spurious diphthongs,
a, 17, w,
in which the under-
written iota is not heard.
(Comp. 8.)
28. The Greek
language
also combines v with
t,
but
only
before vowels:
p,vla,
a
fly.
29. We further
distinguish
the obscure o-sound
(o, <y),
the medium a-sound
(a),
and the clear e-sound
(e, 77),
and the more obscure v from the clearer i.
B. The Consonants.
30. The consonants are divided : I.
According
to
the
position
in the mouth where
they
are
produced,
i.e.,
according
to their
organ (opydvov,
"
instrument
"),
into :
1. GUTTURALS
(throat-sounds)
K,
7,
^.
2. DENTALS
(teeth-sounds)
r, B, 0,
if, \,
p,
a.
3. LABIALS
(lip-sounds)
TT, /3,
</>, p.
31. II.
According
to their
power,
that
is,
whether
they
can be
pronounced
with or without a
vowel,
into :
32. 1. MUTES
(mutae)
:
(a.)
hard
(tenues)
K, r,
TT.
(b.) soft
(mediae) 7,
B,
fl.
(c.) aspirated (aspiratae) %,
9,
(f>.
Obs. The
aspirated
consonants contain each a hard consonant
with the
rough breathing, x
therefore='
(kh);
6=r
(th);
<j>=n (ph>
33. 2. VOCALS
(semivocales)
:
(a.) Liquids (liquidae)
X,
p.
(b.)
Nasals
(nasales) 7 (7
before
gutturals, 4),
v,
/*,
(<?.)
Sibilant
(sibilans)
a-
(9).
32. Dialects. In the Ionic dialect the
aspirates
often lose the
breathing
:
St'/co/xat
for Attic
8e'xo/u, accept;
avris for Attic
avSis,
again.
The New-Ionic sometimes
transposes
the
breathing
: KiOur
for
Att.
xmoi>,
tunic : tvQevrfv for Att. (vrevdev.
10
VOWELS IN COMBINATION.
34.
."
L The double consonants
belong
to both kinds:
|f, -v/r,
: fur
gtca,
i/r=7ro-,
=8 with a soft sibilant
( *)
Ois. K<r
only
occurs in
compounds
with :
cWd>fa,
7 rescue.
CIIAF. III.
COMBINATIONS
AND GUANOES OF
SOUNDS.
A. Vowels in Combination.
35. In the inner
part
of a word not all vowels
may
34. Dialects. A
peculiarity
of the Greek
language
is the want
of the
breathing
v. The
v, however,
was not
altogether
wanting;
for
1. The
digamma (
3, D.)
occurred in the Homeric dialect in
the
beginning
of the
following
words:
ayvvfu,
break; SXis,
rous
',
dXiVnco/iat,
am
caught; uva, ruler} ai/acrcra), rule;
a
please
;
apuids,
tender
; ao-rv, city ;
tap, spring [ver] ; tdvos, swarm,
people;
("moa-i, twenty [Dor.
FIKOTI,
Lat.
vigintt] ;
fi/cw,
yield ; ftXw,
press; (Kr/Ti, willingly
;
(Kvpos, father-in-law;
(KVV, willing ; (Xtrofiat,
hope;
the
pronominal
Stem e
(to,
sz)
foixa, appear;
tiros
word;
tirrov,
spoke
;
(pyov,
work
;
epya>,
close in
;
fppa>, go
on
;
fpvta,
draw
;
fpea),
shtill
say ; (<r8r)s, clothing ; tlp.a,
dress
(Stem
Fes,
Latin
vestii)
;
(Trjs,
relative; rjbvs, agreeable ;"l\ios, city
Jlios
; la-os,
equal; OIKOS,
hoji.se
; oivos,
wine
(vinum).
On the
operation
of the
digamma,
see
63
D.,
75 D.
2. The F in the middle occurred in
ois, sheep,
from
ofts,
(Latin
ovis)
;
vrj-os, of
the
ship,
from vaFos
(Latin flavin),
Gen. of vav-s.
3. The Dorians and Aeolians retained the
digamma
at the be-
ginning
of
many
words : Aeol.
Ftros, year,
Dor.
FiSios,
own.
4. In
Homer,
at the
beginning
of
many words,
t stands for f.
it, him, self; ft'iKovt, twenty
;
tun;, e'jital
; ctSvov, marriage-gift^
tdvov.
35. Dialects.
The Dialects
vary
much in
regard
to the com-
binations of vowels. The
Epic
and New- Ionic leave
many syllable.*
uncontra-cted :
tr=(v,
well:
6ir>fj.ai= oiofj.ai,
I think:
ira.'is=irais,
boy:
KXJS=VOVS,
sense:
0tXf7re=rf>tX^r (ameiis)
:
tuKm>=&Ktv
l
unwilling.
Some of the forms
usua'ly
uncoritracted
are,
on the
37. VOWELS IN COMBINATION.
11
combine. The dissimilar vowels
pair
with one another
best :
1. The
soft generally
remain
unchanged
before the
hard vowels :
cro</ua,
wisdom :
\vw,
I loosen :
lava),
1
slumber:
vet,
it rains:
evvoia,
benevolence.
2. Hard vowels
before soft
ones become
diphthongs
:
ev, ev,
good
:
Trai'?,
Trafc
,
boy
:
yevei, yevei,,
to the race.
Obs.
Diphthongs
sometimes lose their second
part
before vowels :
/3ou-oy
becomes
po-os
(bov-is),
Kai-ta, nd-co,
burn.
Comp.
160,
248,
Obs.
36. Similar
( 25)
vowels cannot well stand to-
gether,
and hence when
they
meet are often contracted
according
to the
following
laws :
1. Two similar vowels melt into one
long
vowel :
Xaa?
becomes
Xas, stone; ty\6a),
n\G),
I am zealous
;
Xuo<?,
Xto?,
a Chian
;
<pi\er)Te, ^>i\rjre,
ametis,
in which cases
e and
77,
o and <o are similar.
Still it must be observed that ee
usually
become
6,,
and oo become ov:
Trot'ee, Trotei, do; 7rXoo9, TrXoi)?,
passage by
sea. Vowels before a similar one
beginning
a
diphthong disappear
:
TrXoou, TT\OV,
of
a
passage
;
ol/ceet, ol/cel,
dwells
;
(f>i,\erj, (fri\fj,
amet.
37. 2. Dissimilar vowels form a
compound
in which
contrary,
contracted in these dialects:
tpo's=Jepo'j, holy
:
/3o><ras=
/Soijo-aj,
one who has called.
2. The abbreviation in the
diphthongs ending
in v is
explained by
this letter first
becoming f,
and then
being quite dropped (comp.
34,
D.
2):
/3ov-o's jSof-dy
[bov-is]^o-6s.
37. Dialects.
1. The Dialects
supply many exceptions.
Thus
in New-Ionic
especially,
eo and eov are contracted into
ev,
not into
ov :
iroieofifv, Ttoifvptv,
we make :
-nouovcri, TroieOcri,
they
make.
2. In the Ionic
dialect,
ao
(r/o),
often
changes
to fo> :
'ArpelSan
'Arpei'8fo>, of
Atrides :
tXaos, iXeco?, merciful,
a before <o is olten
changed
into the thinner sound e :
IIocretSecoi/=no(mSaa)i',
Att.
rioo-eiSdii',
the God Poseidon.
3. In
Doric,
ao, aw,
are contracted into 5 :
'Arp6/Sao='Arpf3a,
VOWELS IN
COMBINATION.
38.
a)
the obscurer vowel
overpowers
the
clearer
(
20).
Thus from
oo comes o> in
T)0
5*3.
OTHER VOWEL CHANGES. 13
B. Other kinds
of Vowel-changes.
40. Another
change
of the vowels consists in their
being lengthened.
Two kinds of
lengthening
are dis-
tinguished,
viz. :
1.
Organic lengthening,
i.
e.,
that which is
required by
inflexion or derivation.
By organic lengthening
a
generally
becomes
ij rifj.au>,
I
honour,
Fut.
D
always
o>
7X00),
I am
jealous,
e
i either
or
sometimes
v either
or
Troieo),
/
make, Troir]<ra>.
t
ruo,
I
honour,
rrcna.
St.
XITT,
Pres.
XetVo),
/ leave.
01
XITT,
Adj. Xowro'y, remaining.
v
Xuw,
/
loose,
Fut. Xaaw.
fv St.
<pvy,
Pres.
(pevyco,
I
flee.
41. Obs. After
e, i,
and
p,
a is
changed
to a instead of
i;
:
(d<a,
1
leave, allow;
fut. eacro)
;
St.
ta,
heal
;
larpos, physician
;
St.
opa,
see;
opa/za,
a view. The Attic dialect is
altogether
averse to the
combinations, rj, ir), py,
and
frequently puts ea,
ta,
pa,
in their
place.
42. 2.
Compensatory lengthening,
i.
e.,
that which
is used as a
compensation
for lost consonants.
By
it
a,
even when
e, i,
or
p
does not
precede,
is often
changed
to d:
?ra9,
every,
from
Tra-vr-s
e
generally
becomes
et:
elfii,
I
am,
from
eV-/u ( 315)
o
generally
becomes
ov :
SiSou?
for
SiSo-i/r-?
[Lat. da-n-s]
t
always
becomes
I,
and v
always
v:
Seiicvv-s
for
Seucvv-vr-s,
showing.
Obs.
Exceptions,
in which e becomes
T],
and o becomes
o>,
are
given
in
147,
and in which a becomes
17
in 270.
43. The three short hard vowels often
interchange
in one and the same
Stem, when,
generally,
e is re-
garded
as the Stem-vowel :
rpeTrco,
I turn
;
erpa-rrov,
1
40.
Dialects. The extension of v to ov
appears
in
am
come,
from Stem Xv<9
( 327, 2).
41.
Dialects. The Old and New-Ionic dialect does not avoid the
combinations
trj, iij
and
prj
:
tre?;=
Attic
iVe'a, pasture
:
lr)Tpos=Alt.
larpos, physician
:
7retp;cro/na4=Att. Treipacro/^ai,
I will
try.
The Doric
dialect,
on the
contrary, regularly lengthens
a into
a :
Tipa<r(>)=Tiii.T)(rci>,
I will honour
( 24,
D.
2).
14 CONSONANTS IN COMBINATION. 44.
turned
;
rpoiros, turning
: Stem
7>e<?,
Nom.
7^1/09,
[comp.
Lat.
generis,
Nom.
genws]
:
QXeya),
I burn
;
$Xo, flame.
v)
also is at times
changed
to o> :
apr^w,
I
help
;
9,
helper.
C. Consonants in combination with one
another.
44.
Consonants,
in
regard
to their combination. :m-
subject
to still
greater
limitation and
change
than tli<'
vowels. Those which are dissimilar
(comp.
32,
33)
agree
best with one
another,
especially
the mutes with
the
liquids.
That discordant consonants
may
continue
together,
they
are either made more like one another
(assimilated)
or more unlike
(dissimilated).
The essential law* f<>r
the
necessary changes
of consonants are the
following
:
45. 1. Before mute dentals
(
30,
31) only
conso-
nants of other
organs
wnich are of the same order
(that
is,
both
hard,
both
soft,
or both
aspirated, 32)
can
stand
;
consequently,
the
only
allowable combination!
of sounds are
KT, TTT,
78, ySS,
%&, </>
.
When a different mute stands before the dental.
through
inflexion or
derivation,
it must be assimilated
to the order of the latter.
Consequently,
icS and
^8
become
y8.
irS and
<p8
become
|38.
*
76 x&
T0
po <j>e.
yr X
T "
P
T
^
>
7rr-
Therefore,
ir\fK-0r)vai
becomes
TrXe^^^at
from
TrXeVo,
I weave.
Xfy-ros
Xe/crdf
Xryco,
7
say
[lectia
instead of
leg-tits],
i,
1 receive
[tractus
instead of trah-tus from
traJio],
nm
-0r)vai rvfyGrivai.
from
TVTTRB,
I strike.
ypa<p-Tos ypuTrros
>,
ypdcpv,
I write.
ypd&8T)V
01)8. The
preposition tie,
out
o/"(Lat. ex)
remains
unchanged
in
all combinations :
tK0to-is,
casting out,
fic8pop.T),
running
out.
48.
CONSONANTS IN COMBINA'" <DN. 15
46. 2. Before mute
dentals,
mu'e dentals to be audi-
ble are
changed
into a
(Dissimilation)
:
therefore,
\T, 8r,
and #r become or
r-0, 8<9,
<9<9 ard: hence
ai/vr-ros becomes
awa-ros,
accomplished
from
ai/vrw,
I
accomplish.
qB-Tfov
aareov,
caner.dum est
a8u>,
I
sing.
ireid-Orjvat nfKrdqvai,
to be
persuaded
itfidu)
1
persuade.
47. 3. Before
p
a
guttural
becomes
7,
a dental
a,
a
Jafo'a?
/A.
Therefore,
8iWK-/*os
becomes
Siwyjtoj, persecution,
from
StwKco,
I
pursue.
8e-&pfx-p,M peppeypai,
I have been
wetted,
from
Pp(x<0.
1
wet.
i'6-/xfi/ Tcr/iev,
we
know,
from
o?Sa,
7
know.
i, ,, Tjwa-pai,
I liave been
perfected,
Irani
awrw,
7
fVoy, persuaded,
from
mlda,
I
persuade.
KOTT-/JIOS
.,
Kop.fjLos,
a
striking,
from
KOTT-TO),
7 strike
[sitmmus
from
swp-mMs].
T-rpi!3-p.at rtrpifjLfjiai,
I have been
rubbed,
from
rp//3a>,
7 rwft.
ypa<p-fjM ypdp/jia,
letter,
from
ypd<f)a>,
I write.
Obs. Sometimes in derivation the
gutturals
and dentals remain
unchanged
:
OK/JIJ,
bloom
;
pvdpas,
movement,
rhythm
;
apidpos,
number.
The
preposition
leaves its K
unchanged
:
cK/jacrcra>, wipe
owf.
48. 4. Before
cr,
as a hard
consonant,
7
and
^
be-
come
/e,
and
/3
becomes TT
(Assimilation )
: /c<7 is then
written
,
and TTCT
-^
:
therefore,
ay-aw
becomes
ax-crca,
written
o^-w,
7 shall lead
1
,
from
ayw,
7 lead
[rexi
instead of
reg-si
from
reg-o],
dfX-<Top.at SfK-o-op-ai,
written
Se^o/xat,
Ishall
receive,
from
8exop.at,
I receive
[traxi
instead of trah-si from
trah-o],
Tpifi-oGt Tpnr-trd),
written
Tptya,
I shall
rub,
from
rpijBa),
I rub
[scripsi
instead of scrib-si from
scrib-o].
ypn<p
-(TCI)
ypoTr-CTw,
written
ypa^w,
7 sAaZZ
write,
from
ypu(p-u>,
I write.
Obs. It. is clear from 34 that
every
K and TT with <r must
47. Dialects. The
change
of dentals and
gutturals
before u
is
frequently
omitted in Ionic :
iK-^ei/os, favourable,
from St. IK
(i/cai/w,
7
come)
;
axaxp-fvos, pointed,
from St.
a*, (Lat. aczio)
;
dvTfj.fj, breath;
u8p.fi, smell,
from St. 08
(ou>) [o'.Z-or],
Att.
60--^:
lb-nev,
we know=Att.
Ifr-^fv
:
KfKopv0p.fvos, equipped,
from St.
16 CONSONANTS IN COMBINATION.
41
become and
^
: hence ir\( K-O-U becomes n\((a from
I weave
;
\(in-<r<i> becomes A
ty&>
from
\fin<a,
1 leave.
49. 6. The
drnliils,
when
standing separately
before
<r,
are
dropped
'without
compensation
;
in like manner v
disappears
before .
Therefore,
becomes
Zvvvis, accomplishment,
from
dvvTat,
I
accomplish.
{jo-opm,
1 shall
rejoice,
from
rjSopai,
/
rejoice [laeti
for laed-si from
laed-o],
Kopvd-<ri
,,
Kopv<n,
to the
helmets,
from
Kopvs,
Gen.
i<6pv-6os,
helmet.
8ai/iof-crt ,, o'aifj.oa'i,
to the
daemons,
from
cWfxwv,
daemon.
<rvv-vyos <rvvyos, yoked together,
from
<rvt>, together,
and
(vyov, yoke.
Hence <r before another <r is lost :
rft^eo--o-t
becomes
Tfi%f-<ri.,
to
'Malls
(from rd^cs, watt)
;
ctr-cro/xai, e-o-o//at.
06s. 1. y is not
always dropped
before o- or
C
' n
composition.
In the
preposition
eV the v remains for the sake of clearness :
e'i/o-raeo,
/ trickle in
;
tv&vywiu,
I harness. The v in
irav,
all, every,
and
nd\iv,
again,
either remains
unchanged,
or is
assimilated to the
following
<r:
irdvcro<pos,
all-ioise,
ira\i<r-
O-VTOS from
ira\iv-a-vrot, starting
back. The v in
crvv, irltli,
is
dropped
before or <r with a consonant
following
:
(rvfayos
(see above)
;
<rv<rTrnia, system ;
it is assimilated before a
simple
(r : (TiKTvi-riov from
OWV-VITIOV,
common meal.
2. Sometimes p remains
unchanged
before <r in the 2d. Pers.
Sing.
of the Perf. Mid. :
7rf-(pav-<rai,
thou hast
appeared.
3. In
exceptional
cases
compensatory lengthening ( 42)
takes
place
when a
single
v is omitted : for
instance,
a)
In some Nominatives
Sing.
:
/xeXa-r, black,
for
p.(\av-s.
b)
In the 3rd Pers. PI. of the chief
tenses,
where a- has taken
the
place
of r :
Xv-ou-ert,
they
loosen,
instead of Xv-ov-trt
(originally Xu-ov-rt) ( 60).
c)
Often in derivation :
ytpovcrta,
senate,
instead of
ytpoinia,
from St.
yepovr,
Nom.
ytpa>v,
old man.
50. 6. The combinations
in, vO, i/S,
are likewise
omitted before
cr,
but cause a
compensatory lengthening
(^2):-
iravrtri becomes
irao-i,
to
aU,
from St. iravr- Nom. iru-s
ri6(VT-s
Tidtit,
putting,
Ttdevr.
yepov<ri,
to old
men,
ytpovr
Nom.
ytputv,
49. Dialects. Homer often assimilates a mute to the
following
cr :
roa-o-i=Att. iro<ri for no8-(ri
(pcdibus).
He often
preserves
one
before another
r
?
rr-n-ouat,
51, CONSONANTS IN COMBINATION. 17
r i
>,fromSt.8eiKwi'TNom.cetKj/v-s,
rTTfj/5-<r&>
crTretVa),-!
,., .?
I,
<nrev$ Pres. (T7TVS<a,
rrfvd-0-ofj.ai
irfl<Top.ai,
Ishall
suffer,
-nevd Pres.
TTOO-^W.
Ois. 1. J/T
disappears,
without
compensation,
in the Dat. PI. of
Stems of
Adjectives
in en- Nom. ft-s : St.
x
a
P
lfVT
t
Nonx
\apifis,
Dat. PI.
xapie-a-i
for
xapteir-o-i.
2. Of j># before
o-,
j/ remains in
e\p.iv-s, tape-worm,
instead of
f\p.ivd-s,
St.
e\nivd
:
Tipw-s,
the
city Tiryns,
instead of
Tipvvd-s,
St.
Tipvvd.
505. In later Attic o- is
readily
assimilated to a
preceding p
:
Old Att.
xfpfrwqo-oy,
New Att.
x
f
PP
v1
l
cros
> Peninsula;
Old
Att.
tfapcrai,
New
Att.
6appo>,
I am
courageous.
51. 7. v remains
unchanged
before mute
dentals;
it becomes the nasal
7
before
gutturals ( 4), //-
before
labials,
and is
assimilated before
liquid
consonants :
, JJOT< together,
is
unchanged.
),
/ caZZ
together,
becomes
crvyKaXe'a).
s,
contemporaneous, ,_, vvyxpovos.
s, experienced, efjLireipos
from eV and
n-eipa, ^>ro</
[so in-peritus
becomes im-
peritus].
s, inspirited,
e/x^u^oj
from eV and
v|'u^^,
sow?.
s, metrical,
e/z/nerpo?
from V and
pfrpov,
measure
[so
in-modicus be-
comes
im-modicus],
<rvv-pfa>,
I
flow together,
o-vp'peco
from crvv and
pew,
I
flow
[so
con-ruo becomes
cor-ruo].
<rw-Xeyo),
7
collect,
o-uXXeyw
from o-w and
X/yca,
7
gather [so con-ligo
becomes
col-ligo].
06s. 1. v in the
preposition
tv remains
unchanged
before
p
:
fi>pvdp.os, rhythmical.
2. v is combined with
p by
means of 8 in
dv-8-pos
Gen. of
avr)p,
man. So is
p.
with
p by /3
in
p.f<rrjfj.-^-pia, mid-day,
instead of
/x<o-?/p.(e)pia (p,eVo?
and
fjftepa, comp. 61, c).
51.
Dialects. In the
Epic
dialect
(3
is often inserted between
u
and
p,
and between
p.
and X :
p.f-p.-p-\u>ica,
I have
gone,
from Stem
/ioX, by
metathesis
( 59). /*
before X or
p
becomes
/3
at the be-
ginning
of a word :
XO>-CTKG>,
I
go,
Present of the Sten?
>ioX ;
/3p<m>'s,
mortal,
for
p.porof,
from the Stem
/ipo
or
/xop [rnor-ior,
r>wtuus
sum].
I)
18 CONSONANTS IN COMBINATION. 52
52. 8. Sard mutes
(tenues)
unite with a
following
rough breathing (spiritus asper)
into
aspirates
(^,
0,
<)
:
hence
V
(Vi)
and
iy/pa, day,
become
ttf>r]p(pos,for
a
day.
fait
(8<Va) ijufoa, day, fic^/ifpoj, /or
ten
days.
ten
avr
(avri) viraros,
Consul
avffvnaros,
Proconsul.
53. 9. At the end of a
word,
when the
following
word
begins
with a
spiritus asper,
the hard mute is
changed
into an
aspirate
:
oii\ ovros,
not
this,
for ovtc
OVTOS.
a<p' ftrrias,from
the
hearth,
air
(aTro)
etm'ar.
naff
f)p.(pav, by day,
KOT
(ara) fyupa*.
Obs. If another hard mute stands before the one to be
aspirated,
the first must also be
aspirated ( 45)
: tirrd and
r)ptpa
form
f(f>0f]p.fpos,
for
seven
days
;
VVKTCL and
5\nv become
vv\ff oXyv,
totam noctem.
536. 10. Two
syllables immediately following
one
another cannot both
begin
with
aspirates
in the follow-
ing
cases :
a)
In
reduplication
the
corresponding
hard mute
takes the
place
of the
aspirate
:
Kt-X<pr)Ka.
for
xe-xp>7Ka,
I have
proceeded,
from
x
w
p">>
I
proceed.
T/-&7/U 6l-6r)iit.,
I
put.
irt-<pvKa
,, <pf-(pvKa,
I have become.
b)
The Aorists Passive of the verbal Stems Be
(TiOrj/ju,
I
put),
0v
(6va>,
I
sacrifice), adopt
the same modifica-
tion :
-Te-9r)v,
I was
put,
for
-0e-dijv; e-Tv-Orfv,
I was
sacrificed,
for
-0v-0rjv.
(Comp. 298.)
c)
In the
Imperative
of the First Aorist Passive
( 297),
on the
contrary,
tJie second
aspirate
is
changed
to a tenuis
:
<r(b-0r)-Ti,
be
saved,
for
a-(D-0r)-0i.
d)
Isolated
instances are :
d/i7re^;&),
embrace,
for
a/t^e^o)
;
eKe^eipta,
for
e^e^eipta,
armistice,
from.
to
hold,
and
^e/p,
hand.
52 and 53. Dialects. The
aspiration
is omitted in New Ionic
rirrifntpos, for
a
day
;
aTrt'q/u,
7 send
aivay
;
OVK
ovT<at=ov\
OVT&JI
ttol
so;
dv'
ov,from
the time
wfen,
Att.
a^'
ov.
55. OTHER CHANGES OF SOUND. 19
Ols. Sometimes the
spiritus asper
is
changed
to the
lenis>
because the
following syllable begins
with an
aspirate
:
8-(ppa,
till,
for
6-<ppa
from the relative Stem 6
( 213, 217) e^w
for
?
X
a> from St.
e'x ( 327, 6).
54. Some Stems
beginning
with T
change
this letter
to 6 when an
aspirate
at the end cannot be retained
( 45).
This
happens
:
a)
In the Substantive
Stem
rpix,
whose Nona, is
6pi%,
hair,
Dat. PI.
Opi%L
The other cases are
regular,
formed from the Stem
rpi-% (Gen. T/DI^O?,
Norn. PI.
rpfyej).
b)
In
rcfxys, quic
,
whose
comparative
is Bacrcrwv
for
Ta%ia)v
(
57
;
comp. 198).
c)
In the
following
Verbal Stems :
Tafp
Pres.
Sdnru),
I
bury,
Fut.
0<tyu>,
Aor. Pass,
(rdtprjv,
Subs.
ra(p6s, grave.
rpp Tpe<pa>,
I
nourish, 6pftfsco,
Subs,
ffpepfui,
cattle.
rpfX
T
P
(
X
co,
I
run, 0pfopai
j
+pwf> 6pv7rTa>,
I rub to
pieces, Bptyv
\
( 260).
rv(p Tv<pa>,
I
smoke, 6v^a> }
Obs. In the Passive First Aorist
( 296)
and in the Infinitive of
the Perf. Mid. the
aspirate
of the Stem remains
unchanged, yet
the initial tennis is
aspirated,
because the Stem-consonant is
not felt to be
necessarily
an
original aspirate,
as it
might
have
been modified
by
the influence of the after it
( 45)
:
P. Other
changes of
Consonants and
Vowels
in the
middle
of
a word.
55.
Important changes
of sounds are
produced by
the modifications of the soft vowel t in connection with
consonants
(comp.
186, 198, 199,
250-253).
Fre-
quently,
for
instance,
1. 4 after v or
p
is
put
a
syllable
farther
back,
where it forms a
diphthong
with the
preceding
vowel.
Hence,
20
OTIIKIt CHANGES OF SOUND.
56
Ttivta from
rtv-tat,
]
tti-ftrh,
Pt. rtv
[/eW<j.
/iuiVop,at fj.av-tofj.ai,
I
rage, pav.
tififivuv ,,
ufjitv-iu>v, better, ,, afj.iv,
Ktipo)
from
Kfp-iv,
I
shear,
Ktp.
SoTftpa 8oTtp-ia,
the
giuer,
fern.
Sorfp (boTi)p, giver).
Xtipuv x
(
P-"*
v
> worse,
X(P
.
56. 2. i is assimilated to a
preceding
X :
fwXXov
from
p.a\-tov, more,
from
fjn'iXa,
much.
oXXo/zat dX-to/iat,
/
spring,
St. dX.
[salio].
uXXor
,, dX-ioj,
unotlier
[alius],
OTfXXo)
,, (rreX-tea,
/
send,
St. ortX.
57. 3. Gutturals
(T
and ^ less
frequently)
coalesce
with a
following
i to <rcr
(New
Att.
TT)
:
rj<r<ra>v
from
IJK-HOV, Zess,
St.
^c, superl. TJKHTTCI.
Qpa<r<ra
QpaK-ta, Thracian,
fern.
(masc. 6pa|)
St.
Tao-traj
,,
ray-ia),
I
arrange,
St.
ray.
fXao-awi/,,
eXa^-iwi/,
smaller,
Xa^, superl.
e
KpJJcro-a Kp^r-ta Cretan,
fem.
(masc. Kpijs)
St. K
Kopva-a-u) Kopvd-ia),
I
arm,
St.
Kopvd (nopvs, helmcf).
58. 4. S and sometimes
7
coalesce with a
following
i to
tofj.ai
from
f8-i.op.at,
I
sit,
St. e'S
(ro
eSos,
</e
sea<).
Kpd^o) ,,
Kpay-i(t>,
I
cry,
St.
xpa-y (Perf. Ke-Kpay-a").
Other
changes of
sounds are :
59. 1.
Transposition (fierddea-is),
which most fre-
quently
occurs with
X,
p,
also with
/i,
and v :
dpdo-os together
with
ddpcros,
boldness.
$paxrKa>
from the St.
6op,
I
spring,
Second Aorist
tdopov.
fi(-l3\7)-Ka )9aX,
I have
thrown,
tfiaXov.
Tf-dvTj-Ka
6av,
I am
dead,
tdavov.
riirj-a-is rep.,
a
cut,
Pres.
Tfpvca,
I cut.
Obs. In the last four
examples
the vowel is moreover
lengthened.
59. Dialects.
Transposition
is more
frequent
in the Homeric
dialect
(comp.
295,
D.): Kaprepo'rand icparepos, strong ; <cdpri(rror=
Att.
/cpdrtoToy,
the
strongest,
from
icpdroj,
strength ;
rpair-flofj.^
(comp. 295, D.)
for
Tapir-ciouev,
we desire to
rejoice,
St.
rtpir (jip-
nofiai).
So a^o in
fSpanov,
I
saw,
St.
8pc (8fpKop.ru)
; (irpaOov,
1
destroyed,
St.
irtpQ (jrtpQui).
Homer:
arap7ro'y=Att.
arpaTror, path.
62.
OTHER CHANGKS OF SOUND.
21
60. 2. The
weakening
of
single
consonants.
The
most
important weakenings
are :
a)
The
very frequent
one,
especially
before
i,
of T to o- :
dvaia-drja-ia,
want
offeeling,
for
dvaicrdtjTia,
from
avaiir&qTOS,
without
feeling,
(pavi
fo
(fravn, they say.
On the
rejection
of v and the
compensation
for
it,
which
frequently
occur in this
case,
see
49,
Obs.
3,
c
;
comp.
187.
b)
The
weakening
of initial a- before vowels to the
spiritus asper
:
vs, swine, together
with crvs.
Comp.
Lat. su-s.
i-cmj-ju
for
o-t-onj-fu,
I
place. Comp.
Lat. si-sto
( 308, 327, 5, 6).
61. 3. The entire
rejection
of sounds. The fol-
lowing
cases are
important
:
a)
a- is
rejected
where it would have to stand between
two consonants in inflexion :
yeypd<p-6ai,
for
yeypacp-crdai,
to le
written,
St.
ypafp,
Pres.
ypa^xa.
TtTV<f)-df Tf-rv(p-cr0e,
be
ye struck, TVTT, ,,
TVTTTO).
b)
a- between two vowels is
very
often
rejected
:
X/ye-cu, Xy?7 ( 38)
for
Xeyeoxa,
thou art
said,
St.
Xey,
Pr.
Xt'yaj.
eSfiKw-o for
ebtuannro,
thou wast
shewn,
Pr.
8fiK.vtp.i.
ytvf-os
for
yfvaros, of
the
race,
St.
yevtcr ( IGfi).
e)
The
rejection
of a vowel between consonants in
the middle of a word is called
syncope (a-vy/coTrij)
:
e-TTT-o-fj.'rjv
for
e-Trer-o-fivv,
I
flew,
St. Trer
(
326,
34).
Comp.
51,
Obs. 2.
62. 4. The
doubling
of a consonant. This is
rare,
GO. Dialects. The Dorians retain r :
^>avrl=^>a<Ti(y\ they say.
The older Att. less
frequently
:
Trj/j.fpov=(Tf]p.fpov, to-day.
61.
Dialects.
Syncope
is more
frequent
in Homer : rirrre for
TiiroTf,
why ever, why? fK(K\fro=e-K(-K(\(To,
he
called,
St. *eX.
62.
Dialects.
In Homer
simple
consonants are
readily
doubled
the mutes more
rarely:
o7T7ra>$=Att.
OTTUS, how;
6irnolos= Att.
qualis ;
oTTi=Att.
ort,
that
;
the vocal consonants often*
22 CHANGES AT THE END OF WORDS. 6&
when it has not arisen
through
the assimilations men-
tioned above
(
47, 506, 51,
50).
Thu
liquid
p
is tho
most
frequently
doubled :
eppl^ra
for
epl-fya,
I hurled
;
apprjKrof
for
a-prj/cros,
not breakable. The
aspirates
be doubled
only by
the
corresponding
tenuis :
E.
Changes of
sound at the end
of
a
word.
G3. When a word
ending
in a vowel is followed
by
another
beginning
with a
vowel,
whether
accompanied
by
a
spiritus
lenis or
asper,
there is a hiatus. The
Greeks
very
often suffer the hiatus in
prose
;
but fre-
quently
the hiatus is
avoided,
especially
if the first word
is a shorter one and of itself of little
importance.
This
is done in three
ways,
that
is,
either
by
elision
(rejec-
tion of the final
vowel),
or
by
crasis
(contraction
of
the two
vowels),
or
by synizesis (collapse
of two
syllables
into
one).
eXXa/3e=
Att.
eXa^Se,
he took
;
0iXo/^ui8ijv=Att. (^tXo/^eifiijr, readify
xinilintj
;
tvvvr]Tos=Mt. tv-vrjTos,
well-woven
;
u<jaov= Att.
oaov,
how
<jreat /
veKv<rcri=Att.
vfnvat,
to the
corpses;
oTrur<Te>>
=
Att.
oTriVw,
back. On the
contrary,
Homer sometimes has a
single p
where the
Attic has double:
<i>Kvpoos=<aKvppoos, svnft-Jlowing.
Often also
both forms are usual
together
: 'AiXeu? and
'
AiXXev
63. Dialects. The Homeric dialect admits the hiatus in
many
cases : the most
important
are :
1. The hiatus is
only apparent
in words with, the
digamma
: Kara
GOCOJ/ for Kara
foiKiv,
at home.
2. It is allowed after weak vowels in forms with which elision
is not usual : TTtuSi
onavo-fv,
he
gave
to the son.
?>. It is softened
by
a
pause
or a caesura after the first short
syllable
of the third foot :
KaBrjcro, e'/i<5
8' (mrrd.6fo
p.vdci>,
sit
doivn,
and
obey my word;
TO>V ol e
eyeVoj/ro
ev\
prydpoicri, of
which six
were born to him in the chambers.
4. A
long
vowel or
diphthong
before another in the thesis be-
comes
short,
and causes
only
an
improper
or weak hiatus :
'Arpdbai
T( Kal oXXoi
fiJKvf)iJ.i8(s 'Axaioi,
Ye Atridae and
ye
other
well-greaved
Achae<*.is
-*.-r*
"*%
Comp. 75,
D. 2.
5
5. ELISION CRASIS. 23
04. 1.
Elision,
or the
rejection
of the final
vowel,
of which the
apostrophe ( 15)
is the
sign,
occurs
only
with short final
vowels,
but never with
v;
most fre-
quently
at the end of
dissyllabic prepositions, conjunc-
tions,
and adverbs : CTT' avTai
,
with
him,
for e?rt
auT<,
ouS'
eSvvaro,
he could not
even,
aX\'
rjkOzv,
but he
came
;
less
frequently
at the end of nouns and verbs :
ol travT
elsayyeXXovres,
i.
e.,
ol iravra
etVo77eA.Xoj/T9,
who
reported
the whole.
06s. 1. The
prepositions irepi
round,
axpi
and
ptxP
1
till,
and
the
conjunction
OTI
that,
never suffer elision.
2. In
compounds
also the elision
occurs,
without however
being
indicated
by
the
apostrophe
:
fir-epxapai
from
cm-epxop.at,
1
come
up ;
but
irfpifpxop.ai,
/
go
round.
3. On the
change
of consonants
occurring
with elision
(e<' r^ipa),
see 52.
65. 2. Crasis
(/cpaa-is, mixing),
is
governed,
on the
64. Dialects. Elision is much more
frequent
with the
poets
than in
prose
; thus,
not
only
f and t even hi nominal and verbal
forms are
elided,
but also the
diphthongs
tu and
01,
in the verbal
terminations
pat,
arm, rat, <rdai,
and in the forms
pot
and TO*. In
Homer i in on that is also sometimes elided.
A
change
of the final
vowel,
occurring only
in
poets,
'is the
Apo-
cope (aTroKoTnj).
It is the
rejection
of a short final vowel before a
word
beginning
with a
consonant. The
apocope
is
frequent
in
Homer with the
prepositions
ava,
Kara,
napd,
and with the
conjunc-
tion
upa
now,
seldom with oV6 and VTTO : it takes
place
in coni-
]K)imds
as well as at the
meeting
of two
separate
words. The v of
ai/(a)
then suffers the
changes
described in
51 ; the T of
*<-(),
the 57 of
a?r(o)
and
i>7r(o)
are made like the
following
consonant:
(ii/fii;erat=ai'aSi;erai
emerges,
KO.TT Trebiov
=
Kara TreSt'oi/ on the
plain,
K(i\\LTTf=KUTt\nrf
left behind,
irupOfroTraptdcTO put before,
un~
Ktp\rfi
=
dis-onfu^ft
will send
away,
Kardaveiv
=
Karadavtiv die.
65. Dialects. Crasis in Homer is
very rare,
but
very frequent
in the Attic
poets:
e.
g.
ov= 6
', K^>8vpfrai=
KM
o8vp(Tcu
and
laments,
S)va=a> ava{-
king, xo>7rdcroi=icat
OTTO'CTOI and how
many.
Herod. a>XAoi=o aXXot the rest. The loss of a short initial vowel
is sometimes indicated
by
the
apostrophe ( 15)
:
^ 'yo>
=
/xij eyco
itc
c<jo, rjdr) 'gfp%fTai
=
qSr] e^tp^tiat
he is
already coming
out.
24 SYNIZESIS. 66.
whole, by
the laws
given
for contraction
(
36
30).
li
occurs
chiefly
after forms of the
article,
of the relative
pronoun (especially
o
quod
and a
quae),
after the
pre-
position TT/JO, for, before,
Lat.
pro,
and the
conjunction
/cat',
and. The
syllable produced by
crasis is
necessarily
long.
The
sign
of crasis is the coronis
( 10)
:
ray
add,
bona,
from ra
aryaOd,
ra\\a from ra
a\\a,
the other
things, rovvopa,
the
name,
from TO
oVo/ia,
ravro,
the
same,
for TO avro.
Obs. 1. The
rough breathing
of tke article or relative maintains
its
place
in
spite
of crasis :
avfjp
the man
irregular
for 6
di/;;/j,
in which case the coronis
disappears
;
in
doi/jorioy
from TO
Ifjurriov
the
dress,
the
spiritus asper
has
changed
r into 6
( 52),
so also
durtpov irregular
for TO
trtpov
tlie
other.
2. The new
syllable,
formed
by crasis,
has t
subscript only
when t is the last of the contracted vowels : KOI eV and in
becomes
KJ/,
but KOL flra and then becomes Kara.
On the accent with
crasis,
89.
66. 3.
Synizesis (sinking, comp. 39)
occurs at the
meeting
of two
words,
only
after a
long
vowel,
espe-
cially
after the
conjunctions
erret, as,
ij,
or,
77 num, /j,-tj,
not,
and after
eyeo,
I: eTrel
ov,as
not
;
yrj
a\\oi,
ne
alii,
670) ov,
I
not. It is
perceptible only
in the
poets,
who
reckon the two
syllables
as one.
67. No Greek word ends in
any
consonant
except
the
vocal
ones,
v,
p,
and
5
(%, -^r).
The
only exceptions
are :
the
negative
OVK
(before
consonants
ov)
and the
prepo-
sition
eK,
out
of
(before
vowels
e),
which attach them-
selves so
closely
to the
following
word that their K can
hardly
be looked
upon
as final.
When
any
other
consonant,
except
these
three,
appears
nt the end of a
word,
it is
usually rejected
:
fit\i honey (?ne?)
for
^t\ir (Gen. //cXir-or)
1
*
/
e-\ ,
f comp,
<T(t)/j.a ooai/ mo^ar QLren. (rw/xaT-oj-j
|
ycrav
they
were
i^avr (comp.
Lat.
erat.t)
tix
MOVEABLE CONSONANTS.
23
But mute Dentals in this case are often
changed
into
vocal
5.
irpos
for
irpvr
from
irport
to
(Horn.).
86s 8od 8061
give.
repay rtpar
Geu.
repar-os
miracle.
68. Certain words and forms
have,
after a short
vowel at the
end,
a moveable v
(y efyekKvamicov).
This
v is used before words which
begin
with a vowel
by
which the hiatus is avoided and before
longer
pauses.
Poets
employ
it also before
consonants,
espe-
fially
at the end of the
verse,
to make it more sonorous.
The words and forms which have a moveable v are
the
following
:
1. The Dat. PI. in
<ri(y)
: iracnv
eS&>/ea,
I
gave
to all
;
but Tracrt, Bo/cel
OVTO>S
elvat,
to all it seems to be so.
2. The
designations
of
place
in
ert(v)
:
'Afaqinjo-ip rjv,
he was at Athens
;
but
'AQijvyat
roSe
eyevero,
this
hap-
pened
at
Athens.
3. The
single
words
etoo-t(y), twenty
;
jrepv<ri(v'),
last
year;
and iravr
dTrd(n(v), entirely
;
eitcoaiv
avSpes,
twenty
men
;
but ei/coai
'yvvaiices, twenty
women.
4. The third
person Sing,
in
e(v)
: e&wo-ev
avrovs,
Jit
saved
them,
but ecrcoo-e TOV?
Aj&qvaiov?,
he saved the
Athenians.
5. The third
person
PI. as well as
Sing,
in
<ri(v)
:
\eyovaiv
ev
they speak
well,
but
\eyovcn
TOVTO,
they say
this;
Sei/cvvo-iv
etcelcre,
he
points
there,
but SeUvvci, TW
avSpa,
he
points
out the man.
68. Dialects. To the words which have a moveable v there are
added in Homer the adverbs of
place
in
6t(v)
:
avtv6f(v), from
afar
;
ira.poi6t(v\from before, formerly
;
the
particles /'(")> perhaps,
and
vv(v),
now.
The New-Ionic
dialect,
which aamlts the immediate succession of
vowels,
omits the moveable On the K in OVK befrre a
sjnritus
asper,
52 D.
O
DIVISION OF SYLLABLES. 69.
C9. Obs. 1. In like manner
ov, not,
takes K
oulj
before
vowels,
which becomes
%
before the
spiritus asper ^
52)
: ov
(frrjcri,
he
says
not
;
OVK
avros,
not he
himself; ofy ovrus,
not so. The <
appears
also in ovKfri and
/iij'ri,
no more.
2.
(K,
out
of,
is
'
before vowels
(Lat. ex)
: e'<
rijc jroXftor,
out
J/
the
city
;
i
d</jo7roXe<i>r,
out
of
the
acropolis,
or castle
;
tK\iy<o,
I
speak
out
;
t^tXtyov,
I
spolce
out.
3. Without
any
definite reason the words
OVTVS,
thus
(adverb
of
ovros,
this), uxpis, fu'xpis, till, very frequently
lose their
final s
;
but
n-oXXoxtr, many times,
loses it
only
in the
poets
CHAP. IV. DIVISION OF SYLLABLES AND THEIR
QUANTITY.
A. Division
of Syllables.
70. The
Syllables (<rv\\a/3ij, collection)
in Greek
words are divided
according
to the
following
rules.
Every
vowel which stands before
another,
but does not
form a
diphthong
with
it,
or
collapse
with it
by syni-
zesis
( 39),
is reckoned a
separate syllable: l-arpos,
physician, trisyllabic,
71. A consonant which stands between two
vowels,
belongs
to the second
syllable
:
e-^et,
has
; o5-ro9,
this
;
J-Ka-vos, capable.
Two or more consonants
usually belong
to the fol
lowing
vowel :
a-rrXoO?,
simple
;
a-pi-crre-pos,
on the
left
hand;
e-cr^ov,
I
had; a-fjivos,
lamb;
-^6p6<?,
ini-
mical
;
likewise double consonants :
o-tyo-ftat,
I shall
see; e-o>,
Isit.
72.
Exceptions.
1.
Liquids
and nasals
join
the
preceding
vowel :
op-pa, carriage
; deX-<o9,
brotlier
;
Kay-xafo,
I
laugh
; ev-Sov,
within
;
a/t-^xw, both,
ambo.
fiv
only join
the
following
vowel :
/ea-yxi/ty,
I
suffer.
2. When a consonant is
doubled,
the first
belongs
to
the
preceding,
the second to the
following syllable
:
horse
; /3d\-\ca,
1 throw
;
Hvp-pos.
The same
76.
QUANTITY. 27
takes
place
when
aspirates
follow the
corresponding
tenues : 'Ar-01
73.
Compounds
are divided into the elements out
of which
they
are formed :
crw-e^o),
I hold
together
;
),
I drive out.
B.
Quantity.
74. With
regard
to the
quantity (length
or short-
ness)
of
syllables,
the same
rules,
in
general,
hold
good
for the Greek as for the Latin. An
important excep-
tion,
however,
consists in one vowel before the other
not
needing
to be short in Greek :
6a>ij,
penance
; Xao?,
people
; j3e\Tiov,
better. Nor do the
special
Latin rules
for final
syllables
hold
good
in Greek.
75. A
syllable
is
long by
nature when it contains a
long
vowel or
diphthong
:
vpels, you
;
Kpfvca,
I decide
;
uSfo,
I
sing.
The
recognition
of
quantity
in Greek is
rendered much easier
by
the characters :
SO/AO?,
room,
house
; S&yta,
house
;
in other cases
by
the accent
(
83,
84)
;
the rest can be learnt
only by practice,
and from the lexicon.
Obs.
Every
contracted
syllable must,
of
course,
be
long
:
Skav,
unwitting
=
ai<a>v, tpos
=
itpos, holy.
76. A
syllable
is
long by position,
when a vowel is
74. Dialects.
Diphthongs
and
long
vowels are
very
seldom
shortened before vowels in the same word : Horn, oioy
(giialis
"
"),
and
fifp\T)ai,
with short
rj.
75. Dialects.
1. The
quantity
of the common vowels is
very
uncertain
generally,
but
especially
in Horn.
7o/iei/,
let us
yo, Apfs
Apes,
Ares,
Ares.
2. A final
syllable ending
in a
long
vowel or
diphthong
in Horn,
and the
tragic
choruses is shortened before a
following
vowel : OIKOI
tfrav,
they
were at home
(""""), f)p.tvr)
kv, sitting
in
("""").
Com
p.
63,
D. 4. But those words which
began
with
digamma ( 34, D.)
leave a
preceding
vowel
long
in Horn. : KaXXei re
o-riX^cov
/cm
("
" w
" "
""""),
glittering
with
beauty
and
garments.
28
QUANTITY
77.
followed
by
two or more
consonants,
or a double conso-
nant,
whetner
a)
both consonants or the double consonant stand in
the same word :
^dp^a,
joy (~
"), et?,
mien
(~ "),
Katrrtwo
)
the first concludes the first
word,
and the rest
begin
the second :
fobs
Be,
but God
("'"),
eV TOZ/TW.
meanwhile
( ),
or
c)
both or the double consonant stand at the
begin-
ning
of the second word ra
Krrjp-ara,
the
goods (~
' *
"),
%wv,
the
living
one
(~ ~).
Obs. When the vowel thus
placed
is
already long by
mature,
this
must be indicated in the
pronunciation
: the a in
TrpSoxrw,
1
act,
sounds
differently
from that of
racra-a,
I
arrange, though
both words make a
spondee
in verse
;
that in
/zaXXop
different
from that of
KuXAor, beauty, though
both form a trochee.
77. When a vowel short
by
nature stands before a
mute with
X,
p,
v,
p, following,
the
syllable may
be
long
or short:
TCKVOV,
child
(~"), Tix^Xo?,
blind
(~"),
TI
Bpas,
what art thou
doing (~ ")
?
The
syllable,
however,
is
necessarily long
in the fol-
lowing
cases :
78.
a)
when the mute stands at the end of the
first,
the
liquid
or nasal at the
beginning
of the second
word : e'/c
vrjwv,
out
of
the
ships ( ),
and in
compounds
in which the mute
belongs
to the first element :
e'/cXeyoj,
1
speak
out
( )
;
d)
when a soft mute
(y8,
7, 8)
is followed
by
X,
/t,
or v :
s,
book
(" "), Tor^ua,
task
(
~
"), estiva,
snake
(
).
77. Dialects.
In Horn, a mute with
X,
p,
v,
p. following.
almost
regularly
mates
position
: rtnvov ri
icXawtr, child, u-ly
weepest
thou f
(
" " "
"),
VTTVOS
Travfia/xarwp, all-subduing slcej>
(
""
"). Kay,
even
X, o, v,
p,
at the
beginning
of words have
often the
power
of
lengthening
the short final vowel of the
pre-
ceding
word :
Ka\f]fTf fj.(yd\r]VT(,
a
beautiful
and
great ( "---y
8 in the Stwn 8i
(Sflo-cu), fear,
and in
8fjv, long,
has the same
etiect.
83. ACCENTS. 29
CHAP. V. ACCENTS.
79. The
general
rules for the accentuation of words
are the
following:
1.
Every
word must have one and can never have
more tlian one
principal
accent,
which is called
simply
the accent:
irokmrpay^ocrvvri,
busy occupation
;
ajrapa-
a-KevacrTos,
unprepared.
On the
designation
of words
according
to the
accent,
see
17, 19,
21.
80. 2. There are two kinds of
accents,
the
sharp
accent or the acute
(oeta),
and the
lengthened
or the
circumflex (Trepia-TrcofAevr/).
On the mode of
using
both,
see
17,
21.
81. 3. The acute
may
be
upon long
or short
syllables,
the
circumflex only
on such
syllables
as are
long
by
nature:
as,
\eya),
I
say
;
\r)^w,
I cease
; ra\o?,
beautiful
; aXijdrjs,
true
;
avdpcoiros,
man
;
/ce/iez/o9,
lying
; tceiTai,
he lies
;
aw^a, body
; ev,
well.
82. 4. The acute accent can be
only
on one
of
the
last three
syllables,
and on the last but two
only
when the last is short:
aTroticos, colonist,
but not
aTToiKov
(Gen.)
;
eXeyov,
I
said,
but not
eXeyrjv,
I was
said.
83. 5. The
circumflex
can be
only
on one
of
the last
two
syllables,
and on the last but one
only
when the
last is short
by
nature:
av/cov,
fg,
but not
O-VKOV,
(Gen.)
; crw/j,a, body,
but not
o-w/iaro?
(Gen.)
;
Trpaft?,
act,
but not
7rpdei$ (Nom. PL).
05s. 1. When the last
syllable
is
long by position,
it does not
hinder the circumflex from
being
on the last
syllable
but one :
av\a, furrow,
Gen.
avXaKos,
but it does when it is
long by
nature as well as
by position, $<*>pa, breast-plate,
Gen.
dapaKos.
Comp.
145.
2.
Exceptions
to 4 and 5 will be adduced
separately
in the
chapters
on inflexions. It is
specially
to be
observed,
that
10 ACCENTS. S4
most of the
exceptions
occur with the final
syllables
in <n and
o :
unoiKoi,
although
ot is
long, yvaifjtat, opinions, rvvrrrat,
he is
struck.
Comp. 108,
122 D.
3, 133, 157, 229,
268.
84. 6. A last
syllable
but
one,
when
long by
nature,
can have no other accent but the circumll. \. if
the last is short
by
nature :
favye, flee,
not
<J>evye
:
oi>,
I
reigned,
not
r\p*xp
v
'
^-* f
ine same
9
e
>
n t
,
(Gen. 77X4*09)
:
Kparlvos,
not
Kparlvos.
It
in;iy,
however,
be without an accent :
eiVe,
speak
;
avQpwTros,
man.
Obs. 1.
Apparent exceptions,
such as
SxrTt,
so
that, ijfc, this,
are
explained
in 94.
2. So fixed is the
rule, apart
from these
cases,
that the
quantity
of the final
syllable
or of the last but one
may
often be inferred
from the accent: Wi
(t), go
;
rrpwra [prima
Nom.
PL] (a);
yvvaiicas (a), women,
Ace. PI.
;
yi/w/ias (u), opinions,
Ace. PI.
85. 7.
Compound
words have the accent on the
last
part
but one of the
word,
as far as is
possible
according
to
82,
&c. :
iiiridt,,
go away
;
a<f>i\o<;, friend-
less
;
<^t\6yvvo<;, friendly
to women
; a-TroSo?,
give
back
;
irapevdes, put
in besides.
(Comp.
359,
Obs.
2.)
86. The accent of a word is
variously
altered
by
the
changes
which a word
undergoes,
as well as
by
the
connexion of a word with others in a sentence. That is :
1.
Every oxytone
subdues its
sharp
tone when fol-
lowed
by
another
word,
so that the
grave
takes the
olace of the acute.
(Comp. 20.)
87. 2. In a contraction in the middle of a
word,
the
syllable produced by
contraction
acquires
no accent if
none of the
syllables
to be contracted had it :
yeveos
yevovs, of
the
race; rlfiae Tt/za,
honour. The accent
of a contracted last
syllable
but one is manifest of itself
from the
general
rules on
accent,
hence
rt/i&We?,
honouring (Nom. PI.)
from
rijuiovTes, rifuavrcav (Gen.
PI.)
from
rifiaoirrwv
(according
to 83 and
84).
A
contracted final
syllable
has
ACCENTS. 31
a)
the
circumflex,
when the
jtfrs
of the uncontracted
syllables
was accented :
rt/^aet Tt/^a,
Ae honours
;
Xpvaov, of golden ;
b)
the
acute,
when the last was accented:
ecrra>9,
standing.
88. 3. With elision
( 64) oxytone prepositions
and
conjunctions entirely
lose their accent
;
all other kinds
of words throw it
upon
the
previous syllable
as acutes
err'
avTu>,
on him
=
en-t
avrw,
ovS
1
eBvvdftwv,
I could
not even
=
ouSe
ISwdfwjv, dp 'OSvo-ev?,
/ am
Odys-
seus
==
elul
'OSfcrei;?,
enV
fj(rav,
there were seven
=
eirra
ijcrav.
89. 4. With crasis
( 65)
the accent of the first word
is lost :
rdyaOd,
bona
=
ra
dja&d, dolfidriov,
the dress
=
TO
ipdriov. Only
when
paroxytones change
the
first
syllable by
crasis into one
long by
nature,
this
receives a circumflex: ra
aXXa, alia,
gives
raXXa,
TO
epyov,
the
work,
rovpyov.
On the
changes
of the accent in
declension,
see 107-109
;
oc
the accent of
verbs,
see
229,
and 331-333.
90. The
dissyllabic prepositions,
with the
exception
of
dp(f)i,
dvri, avd, Bid,
when
placed
after the noun or verb
to which
they belong,
throw their accent on to the first
syllable
: rovrwv
irkpi
about those
(jrepl TOVIWV)
;
ID
like manner
when,
used
adverbially, they
include the
substantive
verb,
as
vrdpa
=
Trdpeari,
it is
there,
near
;
evi
=
evea-ri,
it is
therein,
is
possible.
This
drawing
back of the accent is called
anastrophe. Comp.
446.
91. Some words of one and of two
syllables
unite so
closely
with the
preceding
word,
that
they
throw their
accent on to it. Such words are called enclitics
(eyicXi
90. Dialects.
Prepositions,
whose final
syllable
is lost
by elision,
have not the accent even when
they occupy
the
position
indicated in
90. Horn.
Tyo-i nap'
fli'dfrts
xdXiceuov, among
them 2
forged
rtwe
years long.
32 ENCLITICS.
$
a
Xe'ei?,
i. e.
inclining words),
and the
throwing
back
of
tht
accent,
is called inclination.
92. The
following
are enclitics :
1. The indefinite
pronoun
rt?, rl,
some
one,
something
t
through
all forms
( 214).
2. The three
personal pronouns,
in the fonns
/iou,
/AOI, /AC, WZ, Wifo', wie; o-oO, crot,
o-e, w, $z, te;
ou, ol, e, sui, iibi,
se
;
a<j)a)iv,
to them two
;
and
a(f)i(Ti(v),
to them.
3. The Indicative Pres. of
el/j.1,
I
am,
and of
<j>r}[ii
inquam,
with the
exception
of the second Pers.
Sing,
et and
^779.
4. The indefinite adverbs TTOV or
iroOi,
somewhere
;
TTIJ,
somehoiv
; TTOI,
someivhither
; iroOev,
from
somewhere
;
Trore,
sometime
; TTW?,
somehow
;
TTCO, yet.
5. The
particles 76, quidem
; re, and; roi,
truly
;
VVVOT
vu, now;
Horn. /ceV or
ice,
perhaps,
I
suppose
;
pa (apa),
then
;
Horn.
OTJV, truly
;
irep, very
;
and Be
(meaning
towards,
and as a demonstrative
appendage). Comp.
212.
93. These words throw their accent back on the
preceding
word,
in the
following
manner :
a)
A.
preceding oxytone
leaves its
sharp
tone un-
subdued
( 20),
and this tnen serves also for the en-
clitic :
ayadov n,
something good
;
avros
(frna-iv,
lie
himself says.
b)
After a
perispome
the accent of the enclitic is
entirely
lost :
opfa
riva?,
I see some
;
ev
eariv,
it is ivell
;
Ti/iw o-e,
I honour thee.
c)
After a
paroxytone,
enclitics of one
syllable entirely
lose their
accent;
but those of two
syllables
retain
their accent on the last
syllable: </>/Xo?
pov, myfriend
;
Tt9,
a
speech;
but
\6yoi
rives,
some
speeches, \6jo3v
(Gen. PL).
92. Dialects. The Ionic additional form of
?,
ds is
enclitic,
so
also
a(j)fas (Ace. PI.)
them
=
Att. er<os and
fiiv, him, her,
205 1).
97. ENCLITICS.
33
d) Proparoxy
tones and
properispomes
retain their
accent,
but receive also from the
following
enclitic
another accent as acute on the last
syllable,
which
remains unsubdued:
avdpwrros
rt?,
a
man;
6e8cuoi
elaiv,
they
are
firm
;
aw^d ye,
the
body
at least
;
jraiSes
T'69,
some
boys.
e)
Atona
( 97)
receive the accent of
following
enclitics as
acutes : ov
(prjaiv,
he
says
not
;
&s
re,
and now.
94. Obs. Several words of one
syllable
form one word with
enclitics
following
:
thus, vsre,
so that
; el-re,
sive
;
cure, neque
;
ftrjTf, neque
; olosrt, capable
; OSTIS,
whoever
; fjroi, truly ;
Kairoi,
and
yet
;
to this also
belongs
the Se mentioned in
92,
5 :
58e,
this one
; oiKaSe,
homewards. These words form
partly
apparent exceptions
to 79 and 84.
95.
/)
When several enclitics follow one
another,
each throws its accent
upon
the
preceding
: el
rt9 uoi
</>
770-4 Trore,
if any
one ever
says
to me.
96. The enclitics in certain cases retain their accent
(become orthotoned),
viz. :
1. when an enclitic forms the first word in the sen-
tence,
and therefore has
nothing
on which to throw its
accent:
rtye?
\eyovcri,
some
say.
This
position,
hovr-
ever,
is rare.
2. when an enclitic is made
emphatic
: ere
Xe7,
.
mean
you
no one else
;
el
ea-nv,
if
it is
really
so. Whei
e'urt denotes
exist,
be
allowed,
possible,
it retains the
accent and that too on the last
syllable
but one : &n t
#eo?,
there is a
Grod;
OVK
eariv,
it is not
allowed,
not
possible. Comp.
315,
Obs. 2.
3. After elision : ravr ecrrt
tyev&f),
this is
false
=
Tavrd ean
"frevSfj.
4. Enclitics of two
syllables,
in the case mentioned
93,
e.
97.
Atona,
i.
e.,
words without
accent,
also called
proclitics
or
inclining
forwards,
are several words of one
D
34
ATONA.
f
98
syllable,
which have so little
independence,
that in
regard
to accent
they
combine with i\\Q
following
word.
They
are the
following
:
1. of the
article,
the forms
6, 77,
ol,
al
;
2. the
prepositions,
ev
(in
with the
Dat.)
;
e?
or
etV
(into
with the
Ace.),
ex or e' out
of
;
3. the
conjunctions,
el,
if,
and
o><?, 7wM>, that,
the
latter also in its use as
preposition
to;
4. the
negative
ov or OVK
(ou%).
06s.
otyi,
a more
emphatic
ov,
is
always
accented.
98. Atoua receive the accent
only
in two
cases,
viz. :
a)
when
they
are at the end of a
sentence,
and therefore
have no
following
word on which
they
can rest :
</>$?
rj
ov
;
Do
you say
so or not ?
;
so
always
o>9
when
placed
after the word with which a
comparison
is made :
#eo?
o>9,
like a
god,
Horn.
;
b)
when followed
by
an
enclitic,
which throws back
its accent : ov
(foai,
he
says
not.
Comp.
93,
c.
99. The
following particles
are
distinguished
accord-
ing
to the accent:
?;,
as, or,
and
?;, truly,
or interro-
gative,
Lat. num
;
apa,
now,
consequently,
and
apa
as an
interrogative;
vvv, now,
and enclitic
vv(v),
now,
particle
of transition
; a>?, how,
and
o>9,
so
; OVKOVV,
therefore,
ar.d
OVKOVV,
not
therefore.
100. DECLENSION.
35
II. INFLEXION.
A. INFLEXION OF NOUNS AND PRONOUNS.
CHAP. VI. DECLENSION OF SUBSTANTIVES AND
ADJECTIVES.
100. Inflexion is the
change
which
nouns,
pronouns
-nd verbs
undergo,
to indicate their relation in a sentence.
A distinction must be made in inflexion between Stem
and Termination. Stem is the fixed
part,
Termination
the
changeable part
which is
appended
to the Stem to
indicate the different relations.
The inflexion of nouns and
pronouns
is called Declen-
sion. As the nominal and
pronominal
Stems are modi-
fied
according
to
Cases,
the terminations added to them
are called
Case-endings.
The
form,
which
arises,
from u
case-ending being
added to a
Stem,
is called the Case-
form.
Thus
Trpdy/AaT-os
is a case-form of the Stem
Trpay/jLar,
formed
by
means of the
case-ending
-05.
Great care must be taken not to confound the
Stem and the Nominative case. The Nominative is
itself a
case-form,
often
quite
different from the Stem.
Thus the Nominative of the Stem IT
pay
par
is
7rpdy/j,a,
thing, \6yos, speech,
is the Nominative of the Stem
^070,
which
appears,
for
example,
in the
compound
word
Acr/o-
7pa<o-9,
a writer
of speeches*
The Greeks
distinguish
in the Declension :
1. Three Numbers : the
Singular
for
one,
the Dual for
two,
the Plural for several.
2. Mve Cases:
Nominative, Genitive, Dative,
Accu-
sative,
Vocative. The Dual has
only
two
case-forms,
one for the
Nom., Ace.,
and
Voc.,
the other for the Gen.
and Dat. In the Plur. the Voc. is
always
like the Nom.
3. Three Genders :
Masculine, Feminine,
Neuter.
The Stem will
always
be left unaccented.
36 OENDEB OF SUBSTANTIVES. 101.
101. The
gender
is known :
1. From certain
general
characteristics of
sex,
in
which the Greek
language
almost
entirely
coincides
with the Latin. Besides the rule founded in the
nature of
tilings,
that the
designations
of male
]>
arc
masculine,
those of females
feminine,
the
following
rules are to be observed :
102.
a)
The names of rivers and winds
(gods
of
rivers and
winds)
and months
(o ^v
the
month)
arc
masculine: 6
Eup&mi?,
the river Eurotas
;
o
Ze<po9,
the
icest
u'ind;
6
'E/caro/i/Satcoi/,
the month Hecatombaeon.
103.
o)
The names of
trees,
lands
(rj
777
the
land),
islands
(fy
VTJO-OS
the
island)
and most
cities,
are
feminine
:
77
Spvs,
the oak
; 17
'Ap/caSla,
Arcadia
;
77 Aecr/3o9,
the
island
of
Lesbos; 77
KoX-o^xav,
the
city of Colophon.
Most abstract substantives
also,
i. e. those which denote
a
condition, relation,
act or
property,
are feminine :
77
e\7ri5,
hope
; 77
vi/cn,
victory
;
rj SiKaiocrvvij,
righteousness
;
>}
ra^yrj;?, quickness.
104.
c) Many
names of
fruits
are neuter : TO
av/cov,
the
jig
;
most diminutives also both of masculine and
feminine words : TO
yepovnov
dimin. of 6
yepcov,
the old
man;
TO
"/vvcuov
dimin. of
rj 'yvvij,
the woman. Fur-
ther,
every
name and
word,
which is adduced
merely
;is
a word : TO avO
pwiros,
the name
"
man
;"
TO
BiKatoavvn,
the idea
of
"
righteousness
;"
and the names of the
letters,
TO
a\<f>a,
TO
crlypa.
105. 2. From the
ending
of the Stem the
gender
is
known
according
to
113, 125,
137-140.
3. In Declension the Neuter
may
be
distinguished
from the Masculine and
Feminine,
for all Neuters have
a)
no Accusative or Vocative distinct from the Nom.
b)
no
5
as
case-sign
of the Nom.
Sing.
c)
the
ending
a in Nom. Ace. and Voc. PI.
106. The Greek
language,
like the
English,
em-
ploys
the definite
Article. The forms of the Article aro
th fol
lowing
:
109.
ACCENT IN DECLENSION. 37
38 TrvJ A
DECLENSION. HO,
(Jen.
Sing.
<>f
Trora/io?,
river
;
rififj
Dat.
Sing,
of
7^77,
honour
;
TTO&WV Gen. PI. of
TTOU?,
/0o
/ UTJVOIV
Gen.
Dual of
/iji>,
month.
110.
Originally
there was
only
a
single
declension,
for which reason much has still remained
common,
which we shall
put together
below,
173. But we dis-
tinguish
Two
Principal
Declensions
according
to the
ending
of the Stems :
1. the First
Principal
Declension
(vowel
declension),
which
comprehends
the Stems
ending
in a and
o,
and
2. the Second
Principal
Declension
(consonant
declen-
itiori),
which
comprehends
the Stems
ending
in conso-
nants,
but also those in the soft vowels
t, v,
in
diphthongs,
and a small number of Stems in o.
FIRST PRINCIPAL DECLENSION.
( Vowel-declension.)
111. The first
principal
declension is subdivided
into
two,
viz. :
A. T/te A Declension.
B.T7ie O Declension.
What is common to both is
put together
below,
KM.
A. THE A DECLENSION.
(Commonly
called the First
Declension.)
112. The A Declension
comprehends
those
words,
whose Stems end in a. In certain
cases, however,
this
a becomes
17.
Hence the A Declension of the Greeks
corresponds
both to the A or
first,
and to the E or fifth
Declension of the Latin
language.
113. The A Declension contains
only
Masculines
and Feminine*. The two
genders
are most
easily
distin-
guished
in the Norn.
Sing.,
in which the masculines take
<?,
the feminines no
case-ending.
Hence the
terminations
H5. THE
A DECLENSION. 39
of the Nom.
Sing,
are in the feminine
a, 77,
in the
masculine
a?, 179.
114. 1. Feminines.
Examples.
40 TUT. A DECLENSION.
II '.
a)
a remains in the Nom.
Sing,
after
e,
i or
p, ( 41)
:
St.
oo<f>ia,
Nom.
Sing. crania,
wisdom
;
Dat. PL
Trerpat?,
Nom.
Sing. jrerpd,
rock.
b)
a remains in the Nom.
Sing,
after a- and after the
double consonants
, ,
^r, ercr(or
T T
),
XX,
as well as in
the feminine
designations
in -aiva: St.
a/*aa,
Nom.
Sing. a/jLa%d, carriage;
Gen. PI.
\e.cuvwv,
Nom.
Sing.
Xeatvd,
lioness.
c)
After other vowels and consonants a is
generally
changed
into
77
in the Nom.
Sing.
: St.
/3oa,
Nom.
Sing.
/3otj,
cry;
Ace. PI.
vv(o/j,d<j,
Nom.
Sing.
yvat^r)
(opinion).
More
important exceptions
are to
a) Koprj,
girl ;
Kopprj, temple ;
dfipr),
neck to
6) (pa-rj,
dew to
c) oroa,
hall
;
xP
a
>
^our
;
ToX/xa,
boldness; Si'aira,
mode
of life.
116. 2. In order to form the other cases in the
Singular according
to a
given
Nom.
Sing.
:
a)
If the Nom.
Sing,
ends in
77,
this letter remains
throughout
the
Sing.
:
BIKTJ, justice,
SIKVS,
SUp, SUijv, SLKIJ.
b)
If the Nom.
Sing,
ends in
a,
this letter remains
always
in the Ace. and Voc. :
a/j-a^a, ap,a%av.
c)
If the Nom.
Sing,
ends in
a,
this letter remains
also in the Gen. and Dat. when
preceded by
a vowel or
p
( 41)
: Nom.
Sing. ao(j>id,
wisdom,
Gen.
c-oc/ua?
;
Nom.
Sing.
cToa, colonnade,
Dat. c-roa: also in some
proper
names with
long
a : Nom.
Sing.
A^a,
Gen.
Aij&d<;,
and
in
pud
(contracted
from
fivdd),
Gen.
p,vas.
d)
Otherwise a of Nom.
Sing,
becomes
77
in Gen. and
Dat. : Nom.
Sing, fiova-a,
Gen.
/zoycr?;?
;
Nom.
Sing.
S/atra,
Dat.
biairy.
117. For the
quantity
of a in the Nom. and Ace.
Sing.,
the
general
rule is .- a
purum (after vowels)
and
a after
p
is
long, every
other a is short :
6ed, goddess ;
&/j.i\\d, fyht.
The
exceptions
are
generally
shown
by
the accent
( 84,
Obs.
2).
The most
important
are the fern,
designations
in
-rpia
and
-eta
;
^aXr/jia,
female player
; jSacr/Xeia, queen (but
/3a<r/Af
la,
dominion'),
and several words with
diphthongs
in the last
syllable
but
one,
as
o-<paipa, ball, fvvma, good- will,
u.n'i
120. THE A DECLENSION.
118. The Gen. PI. has the
ending
iov,
which com-
bines with the Stem a to form
dwv,
c'ontr. wv. This is
the reason that the Gen. PI.
of
all words in this declen-
sion has the
circumflex: %o>(
oa
^wpwv,
\eaiva \eaivojv
(Exceptions,
181.
Comp. 123).
119. The Dat. PI.
originally
ended in
a-i,
before
which i is added to the a of the Stem. The ai<ri thus
formed is
usually
shortened into a i
9,
but the
original
form is found even in Attic
writers,
in
poetry
and
prose.
(Comp.
128,
D.)
120. 2. Masculines.
42 THfi A DECLENSION. 1J1
Examples
for Declension.
rafiias,
treasurer
orpartam/r,
warrior
adoXVx7r,
bubbler
Nuct'ar,
Xici^s
wai8orpi^T]st wrestling- *AX/j3ta8i;c
Tjt, judye
master
121. In the
Masculines,
as well as in the
Ferainines,
ul irn a vowel or
p precedes,
the a of the Stem remains
and is
long
;
after
every
other letter it becomes
ij
in the
Nora. JDat. and Ace.
Sing.
Those words which in the Nom.
Sing,
end in
TT;-S,
names of
peoples,
and
compound
words,
have a short in
the Voc.
Sing.
:
TroXtra,
Hep<ra (Nom. Sing. IIepo-7^?
Persian), yewpeTpa (Nom. Sing.
"/ewpeTprj-s
land-
measurer).
The Voc. Se<nroTa
(Nom. Sing. Seo-Tror?;-?
lord)
draws back the
accent,
contrary
to
107, a,
to
the first
syllable.
All others have
tj
in the Vocative :
K.povi&r) (Nom. Sing. KpoytS?/-?).
122. The Declension of the Masculine* is distin-
guished
from that of the Feminines
1. in the Nom.
Sing, by
5
being
added to the
Stem,
2.
by
the Gen.
Sing, ending
in o v.
Obs. The termination of the Gen.
Sing,
of the masculines is
pro-
perly
-o,
which with the a of the Stem forms -ao
(see
the
Homeric
dialect) ; by weakening
a to t
(
118
D.)
and contrac-
tion
( 37)
arises ov : iroXtYao
(woXiTeo)
troXtYov.
121 and 122. Dialects.
1. The
Epic
dialect in some words
omits the s
of the Nom.
Sing.,
in which cases the a remains short :
wnrora, horseman, i>e<eXjpye/3eVa, cloud-gatJierer. (Comp.
Lat.
poeta,
scriba.)
2. The Dorians also in the masculines
put
a for
ij
and contract o
into a.
(
24 D.
;
37 D.
3.)
3. Homer has three forms in the
Gen.
Sing.
:
n)
the
original
-oo :
'Arpdoao ;
6)
-t<a with the
quantity transposed (where
e is lost
by synizesis,
37
D.,
39
D.)
:
'\rpfi8o.
The accent remains
unchanged,
in
r,pite
of the in the final
syllable.
The New-Ionic form is the
same.
c)
-
by
contraction :
'Ep/icua (Nom. Sing. 'Ep/ieta-r
=
Attic
), /3ope (Nom. Sing. /3op/ar). Comp.
37 o.
(
12.V THE O DECLENSION. 43
(contracted
from
/3ope'd-s
north
wind),
contracts the ori-
ginal
ao in the Gen.
Sing.,
after Doric
fashion,
into a:
poppCi.
The same takes
place
with some Doric and Roman
proper names,
and a few other words :
SvXAay, Sulla, opvidodrjpas, fowler
Gen.
Sing.
a.
123. In the Dual and Plural the Declension of the
Masculines is the same as that of the Feminines.
Exceptions
to the accentuation
prescribed
in 118 are
usurer,
frrja-iai, trade-winds,
Gen. PI.
the 0-declension from
xPW
r s
>
good)
and
B. THE DECLENSION.
(Commonly
called the Second
Declension?)
124. The O Declension
comprehends
those words
whose Stems end in
o,
together
with the few whose
Stems end in w
( 132).
It answers to the o- or Second
Declension in Latin.
125. The O Declension is the
complement
of the
A Declension in
regard
to
gender.
It contains Masculines
and
Neuters,
but
only
few Feminines.
The termination of the Masculines and Feminines in
the Nom.
Sing,
is
0-9,
that of Neuters o-v
[Lat.
u-s,
u-m\.
The Masculines and Feminines are declined alike
;
the Neuters are
distinguished
from them
(comp. 105}
only by
1. The Nom. and Voc.
Sing, taking
the Accusative-
ending
v :
Swpo-v (gift)
\donu-m\.
2. The Nom. Ace. and
Voc. PI.
ending
in a:
\dond\.
4-i THE O DECLENSION.
126.
126.
Ivxamj.les.
130. THE O DECLENSION. 45
5.
Single
words :
,3t/3Xor,
Joo&
;
pdfiBos, stajf
6ia\ros,
dialect
;
j/o'eros, disease;
SpocroS)
dew
; &OKOS,
beam.
Many designations
of
personal beings
are
common,
that
is,
with the same form
they
are masculine when
they
denote a
male,
feminine when
they
denote a female : 6 6eos
, god ; i] 6(6s, goddess ;
6
avdpurros
and T av
128. The
ending
of the Gen.
Sing,
is
-o,
which with
the o of the Stem is contracted into ov
(conip. 122)
:
dvdpo)7ro-o
=
129. The Nominative form is sometimes used
instead of the Vocative form : the Vocative of 6eos
is
always
the same as the Nom. : &
6eos
[Lat. dens']
:
d8eX<o5, brother,
has
aSeXc^e
in the Vocative with the
accent thrown back.
Contracted Declension.
130. Several words which have e or o before the
last letter of the Stem
may
contract these vowels with
the o. The rules of 36 and 37 are here
applied:
ea,
however,
contrary
to
38,
is contracted into a.
128. Dialects. The
Epic
dial, in the Gen.
Sing,
has the older
form -10 for the
ending;
to with o of the St.
produces
oto :
av6pa>~
jroto,
TreSt'oio
(n-f8iW,
field).
We
also, however,
find the Attic ov.
Other
Epic peculiarities
are : -ouv
=
oiv in the Gen. and
Dat.
Dual :
up.ouv (u/ioy, shoulder")
:
OKTI^V")
=
ais
in the Dat.
Flur. :
ai'#pa>7rot(Ti(i>),
which is also New-Ionic and is found even in Attic
writers
(comp. 119).
$
130. Dialects.
The Ionic dial, leaves the forms uncontracted.
(6 CONTRACTED O DECLENSION.
Examples.
$
134. ATTIC DECLENSION. 47
Stem
goes through
all the
cases,
but at the same time
takes the
case-endings
as far as
possible.
Most of these
words have e before
&>,
and for -e&> there also occurs the
additional form -d o :
vea>-$,
temple, together
with
vao-s,
Xeco-S:
people, together
with
Xao-9
(comp.
37,
D.).
This
Declension is called the Attic.
On
adjectives
in
to-9,
see 184
;
on some words which
fluctuate between this and the second
principal
declen-
sion,
see 174.
Examples.
Stems.
48
CONSONANT DECLENSION. 135.
1.
the masculines have in the Norn.
Sing,
the
eil'lhlg
-9.
2. the masculines have in the Gen.
Sing. (
122,
1 Js
)
the
ending
-ov.
3. all
three
genders
have i
subscriptum
with a
long
vowel in the Dat.
Sing.
4. all three
genders
have -v in the Ace.
Sing.
5. all three
genders
have the Stem vowel
lengthened
in the Nom. Ace. and Voc. Dual.
6. all three
genders
affix
-/
to the Stem vowel ir
the Gen. and Dat. Dual.
7. all three
genders
have -wv in the Gen. PI.
8. all three
genders
affix -aiv or
5
with
preceding
i to
the Stem vowel in the Dat. PI.
9. the masculines and feminines affix -i to the Stem
vowel in the Xom. PI.
10. the masculines and feminines affix
-9
(for i><?)
in
the Ace.
PI.,
lengthening
the Stem vowel to
compensate
for the v
dropped. ( 42.)
The difference therefore is
only
in the formation of
the Gen.
Sing,
of the feminines and in the accentuation
of the Gen. PI.
SECOND PRINCIPAL DECLENSION.
CONSONANT-DECLENSION.
(Commonly
called the Third
Declension.)
135. The Second
Principal
Declension
comprehend?
all the Stems which end in
consonants,
the
soft
voweh
i and
v,
or
diphthongs,
and a small number of Stems in
o
(Xom. <y).
The Stem is best
recognised
in the Gon.
Sing.,
where what remains after
rejecting
the termina-
tion o
9
may generally
be considered as the Stem : Gen
Xeoi/T-09,
St. \eovr
(Xom.
\ecov,
lion),
Gen.
<f)v\a/c-os,
St.
<f>v\a/c (Xom. $v\a%, guard).
13*. CONSOKANT DECLENSION. 49
Hence for the exact
recognition
of a word of this
declension,
not
only
the Nominative but also the Stem or the Genitive is
necessary
:
as,
Norn.
8ais,
St. 8<ur or Gen.
Sairoy,
meal
[Lat.
rex,
St.
reg
or
Gen.
regi&\.
To the second
principal
declension
correspond
in Latin the third
and fourth declensions. In it the
case-endings usually appear
pure,
i. e. not mixed
up
with the end of the Stem.
The Stems
ending
in the soft vowels follow the third
declension,
because the soft vowels
( 35,
1)
can be used
together
with
the vowels of the terminations : Gen. TT'ITV-QS
(Stem TTITV,
Norn.
TTITV-S,
pine-tree).
In the Stems
ending
in
diphthongs
the v is
sometimes resolved into F : for
example,
the Stem
/Sou (Nom.
/Sou-r, ox)
was
originally
in some forms
/3of (Lat. Jew),
as Gen.
|3oF-o?
(= bov-is).
See
35,
06s. The O Stems have
probably
lost a final consonant.
136. The Second
Principal
Declension
comprehends
all three
genders.
The Neuters
may
be
recognised by
the
inflexion,
according
to
105,
from their
having
the Nom. and
Ace.
alike,
and these cases in the PI.
always
with the
ending
-a :
o-w/^ar-a
(St.
trocar,
Nom.
Sing, crw/za, body).
137. For
determining
the
gender
from the Stem
the
following
are tl>e most
important
rules :
a)
Masculine are the Stems in eu
(Nom. ei/-9), rtjp
(Nom. Typ), rop (Nom. reap),
vr
(with
Nom.
9
or v
preceded by
a
long vowel),
as well as most Stems hi v
(of
various
Nominatives)
with a
preceding long
vowel :
St.
ypacfrev,
Nom.
<ypa<f>evs,
writer;
St. and Nom.
awTrjp,
saviour
;
St.
prfrop,
Nom.
p^ra>p
f
orator;
St.
Xeoi/r,
Nom.
XeW, lion,
leo
;
St. and Nom.
aytav,
contest
138.
b)
Feminine are all Stems in 8
(Nom.
-49
,-a<i),
most in i
(Nom. -4-9),
those in o
(Nom.
-co or
-o>-9),
and
the names of
qualities
in
rrjr
(Nom.
--7-77-9)
: St.
\7rtS,
Nom.
eX-wi9,
hope;
St.
-TroXt,
Nom.
770X49,
city;
St.
Tret
0o,
Nom.
TreiOw,
persuasion;
St.
ICOTIJT,
Nom.
U70T779,
equality.
139.
c)
Neuter are the Stems in
par (Nom.
/ia),
the substantive Stems in
9
with Nom.
09
or
a9,
those
in
i or v which
append
no
s
in the
Nominative,
and those
E
50 CONSONANT DECLENSION.
140.
in
p preceded by
a short vowel in t-lie Nom. : St.
Minn,
o-co/ia, body;
St.
^ei/e?,
Nom.
7^09, genus;
St.
ond Nom.
yijpas,
age;
St. and Nom.
a-ivdm, mustard;
St. and Nom.
aoru,
city
;
St. and Nom.
Trrop,
heart.
140. The
following
words must be noticed
sej >ar;ildy
:
q
yaa-rrjp (St yaarep},
belly
;
6
Trot;?
(St. TroS),
17
x
64
/
3
(*^k X
l
p)>
fand
;
TO
ou?
(St. tor),
ear;
6
(St. TT^XU), forearm; fj
<f>pijv (St. <f>pev), diaphragm,
mind;
6
TreXe^u?
(St. 7reXe/ct),
axe;
6
florpvs (St.
Borpv),
bunch
of grapes
;
6
o-ra^u9 (St. crra^y),
ear
of com;
6
cr^>7;| (St. O-^TJK), wasp;
6
/if)9 (St.
w>wse
[mws]
;
6
t^i5? (St. l%6v\ fsh
;
6
arjp (St.
a
azr;
TO
TTV/J (St.
TT v
p),
fre
;
TO
uSa>/3 (St.
vS
Of two
genders (common)
are several names of
animals,
as : 6 and
TJ akfKTpvcav (St. dXeicrpvoi'),
coc/j and
hen;
6 and
17 vr,
or
<rvy
(St.
v or
o-v),
swine
[sus]
;
6 and
17 a"^ (St. aiy),goat;
6 and
17 /Sovj (Stem /Sou),
ox;
and
many
names of
persons:
6 and
17
TTCUS
(St. TraiS), 6oy
and
girl
;
6 and
^ baifuav (St.
8at/w/), ^otZ
and
goddess
;
6 and
ij pdvris, prophet
and
prophetess.
141. The
endings
of the consonant declension are
the
following
:
143, CONSONANT DECLENSION. 51
142. The accent in the Second
Principal
Declen-
sion deviates from the rules laid down in 107 in
the
following point
:
Words of one
syllable
accentuate the Gen. and Dai.
of all numbers on the
case-ending (circumflex
if the
vowel be
long, 109)
:
77-08-69,
iroS-t
(but iraS-a),
TroSolv,
TToBiOV,
TTOCTl.
EXCEPTIONS. 1.
Participles,
as:
&v, being, OVTOS; fids, going,
fidm-os
accentuate the Genitive and Dative of all numbers on
the last
syllable
but one.
2.
iras, omnis,
has
iravros, iravrt,
but
Travrcov,
m<ri(v).
3. The words
irals, loy
;
8p.a>s,
slave; 6d>s, jackatt; Tpwy, Trojan
;
TO
(f)S>s, light; fj (pus,
blister
;
77 8as, torch;
TO
ovs, ear;
6
<r;j,
moth;
are
paroxytones
in Gen. PI. and Dual :
Trat'S-wv,
Spu-ov,
6u)-u>v,
Tpw-coi', <p(OT-a>v,
(pcpS-ow,
fiaS-cov,
&T-OIV,
<re-o>v
(Com-
pare
further
177,
9).
4- The words which have become
monosyllables by
contraction :
rip
=
tap, spring (yer\ ^pos, rjpi.
142 5. In
regard
to the
quantity
it must be observed that
several
monosyllables,
in
spite
of the short
Stem-vowel,
are
lengthened:
St.
7708,
Nom.
Sing. TTOV-S, foot ;
St.
TTCIVT,
Norn.
Sing.
Neut.
irav, everything;
St.
irvp,
Nom.
Sing, irvp, fire;
St.
a-v,
Nom.
Sing, a-vs,
boar
143. The Stems of the Second
Principal
Declension
are divided into three Classes with different sub-
divisions :
I. CONSONANT STEMS.
1. Guttural and Labial Steins.
2. Dental Stems.
3.
Liquid
Stems.
n. VOWEL STEMS.
1. Soft-vowel Stems.
2.
Diphthong
Stems.
3. o Stems.
III. ELIDED STEMS.
1.
9
Stems.
2. T Stems.
3. v Sterna.
52 CONSONANT DECLENSION.
5
144.
1. CONSONANT STEMS.
144. l. Guttural and Labial
Stems,
i. e. Stems in
K,
%
7,
TT,
</>,
/?.
Examples.
CONSONANT DECLENSION. 53
1 16. 2. Dental
Stems,
i. e. Stems in
T, #, S,
v.
Exam.
54 CONSONANT DECLENSION.
147
pigma
the consonants
r, 8, 0,
when
they
stand
alone,
disappear altogether ( 49)
:
Xa/iTraS-?, Xa/iTra-?,
KopvO-s, Kopv-s,
helmet;
but v and vr have the short
vowels of the Stem
lengthened by way
of
conijii-n-
sution
(
42),
so that
a, t, t/,
become
a, t, 5;
but e
becomes e
t,
and
o,
o u :
Travr-s, Tra-?,
every
;
ei>-<?,
e*-
9,
one; oSovr-s,
oSou-9,
tooth.
EXCEPTIONS. The
monosyllabic
Stem 7708
[ped] (
1-12,
?*)
has
the vowel
lengthened exceptionally,
irov-s
[I.at. ;J-s,
i. e.
pcrf-s]
;
SapapT
has Nom.
Sing. 17 Sd/xap, spouse,
for
dapups,
because
of its harshness.
2. Without
Sigma being
affixed to the
Stem;
but
in its stead the
Stem-vowel,
in case it is
short,
is
lengthened,
so that
by
this
lengthening (
42,
Obs.)
e be-
comes
?;,
and o becomes w: St.
Troi^ev,
Nom.
TTOI/JUJV,
sJiepherd;
St.
-tjye/^ov,
Nom.
rjyepwv.
If the Stem-
vowel is
long
of
itself,
the Nom.
Sing,
is like the Stem :
6
ayaiv,
contest.
The T of the Stems in vr in this formation is
rejected according
to 67:
yepovr,
Nom.
yepew (for
yepuvr).
The
simple
T of the
Participial
Stems in OT
is
changed
into
9:
St.
\G\VKOT,
Nom.
Sing.
(for XeXu/cwr), having
loosened.
Obs. 1. The vowel <a shows that s is not a mere affix
one who has loosened. Com
p. x.dpl-s, favour,
St.
\apir.
OPS. 2. The Stems in
8, 0,
as well as those in
avr, tvr, always
form the Nom.
Sing,
with
sigma ;
but Stems of substantives in
OVT and the Stems in v
generally
without s.
147 b. The Neuter has the
pure
Stem hi the Nom.
Ace. and Voc.
Sing. ( 136),
as far as the laws of sound
in
regard
to final consonants
( 67)
admit it :
\vdev(r),
loosened
(see 187),
XeXu/co?
(for XeXtor); yaXa,
milk,
from the Stem
<ya\atcT (Gen.
>yd\aKT~o<;
=
Lat.
lact-is).
On irav
(Stem Train-),
see 142 b.
Obs. On the Ace.
Ring,
in
v, belonging
to some Stems in
IT, id,
18, vd, v8,
see 156.
149. CONSONANT DECLENSION. 55
148. The Vocative of masculines and feminines
sometimes has the
pure
Stem,
as far as is
possible
:
v
Apre/z.i (St. 'Apre/itS),
Alav
(St. Alavr), <yepov (St.
yepovr);
sometimes it is like the Nom.
(necessarily
so when the accent is on the last
syllable)
:
^ye/^cav
:
and in all
participles
even when the accent is not on
the last
syllable: \eyow (St. \eyovr), speaking.
The Voc.
irai,
boy,
from the St.
TraiS,
is
specially
to be observed.
06s. The Steins
A7roAAwi>,
HotreiSav,
which are like the
Nom.,
shorten the vowel and draw back the accent in the Voca-
tive :
'ATToXXoi/,
n6<rfi8ov. The accent is also drawn back in
many compound
words :
'Ayd/j.efjn>ov, 'Apia-Toydrov ( 85).
149. The formation of the Dat. PI. results from the
laws of sound
(
49,
50).
r, 8,
6 and
simple
v,
are
dropped
before
cri(v)
without
leaving any
trace;
but
vr is
dropped
with the
previous
vowel
lengthened by
way
of
compensation.
EXCEPTION. The
adjectives
(not participles)
in err admit no
lengthening
of the vowel
by way
of
compensation
: St.
x ap
t e I>T
(Nom.
Sing.
x
a
pi
fls
> graceful,
Dat. PI.
xapiWt(i').
See In-
flexion, 18V;.
148. Dialects. The Vocative of the Stem O.VO.KT
(Xom. Sing.
!iva, rider')
is in Horn, ava
(shortened
from dvaKT :
comp.
the neuter
yaAa,
147
V)
;
some Stems in vr lose the v in the Voc. : "ArXa for
'ArXai'(r).
149. Dialects. Homer forms the Dat. PI.
iroa-<ri(v)
instead of
ro8-<rt(i'),
Att. Troo-tV
(novs,foot) ;
the 8
being
assimilated insteac
cf
being rejected.
CONSONANT DECLENSION.
150
1 -">0. 3.
Liquid
Stems,
i. o. Stems in X and
p.
Kxam.
CONSONANT DECLENSION. 57
yao-rep, A^/iT/re/o (Noras. Trarrfp, father
;
fj,t]rr/p,
motlicr
;
dvydrrjp, daughter; jaarrjp,
belli/;
A^yLtr/r^p),
reject
e in the Gen. and Dat.
Sing. (
61,
<?.)
The
first four throw the accent on the
case-ending
;
the last
draws it back
(warpo?, AT^T/T/OO?).
The e is accented
where it
appears
:
/nrjrepa,
in
spite
of
/^r^p, except
in
the
Voc.,
where the accent is drawn back :
nrdrep,
in
spite
of
Trarrjp,
but Ace.
Sing. A/^rpa.
In the Dat.
PL the
syllable rep
becomes
by
metathesis
( 59) rpa'
fj,r)Tpd-cri(v).
Obs. The Stem
do-rep (Nom. Sing, dcrnjp, star) belongs
to these
words
only
in the formation of the Dat. PI. :
d<rrpacrt(i/).
For
dvrjp (St.
a
yep), see,
under the
irregular words,
177. 1.
II.
VOWEL STEMS.
154. 1.
Soft-
Vowel
Stems,
i. e. Stems in t and v.
Exam.
Stems.
58 CONSONANT DECLENSION. K.5.
155. The Nom.
Sing.
Mnsc. and Fern, is
always
formed
by Sigma.
The Neuter
Sing,
as well as the
Vocative
Sing,
of all
genders
has the
pure
Stem. Yet
sometimes the Norn, form is used for the
Vocative,
and
this is the case in all
monosyllables.
In the Ace.
Sing.
Masc. and Fern, v is affixed to the Stem.
On the
lengthening
of
monosyllabic
Stems,
142 b.
But this
lengthening
takes
place
also in the Nom. and
Ace.
Sing,
of some
polysyllabic
words.
15(5.
Bart/tones
in
IT, tS, tO, vS,
vd
(Nom.
t?,
1/9),
form the Ace.
Sing, generally by affixing
v after
rejecting
the Stem-consonant: St.
e/u8 (Nom. ept-<?,
strife),
Ace.
epi-v,
St.
/copvd
(Nom.
icopv-s, helmet],
Ace.
Kopv-v\
St.
opvlO (Nom. opvl-$, bird),
Ace.
opvl-v.
The
Oxytones,
on the
contrary, always
have a;
e\7ri-9,
hope,
Ace.
\7TiSa; /cXet?,
key,
stands
alone;
St.
K\iS,
Ace.
K\elv,
(seldom K\elS-a,)
Ace. PI.
/cXei?
or
Examples, fj epi-s, strife fj (\ni-s,
hope
Stems.
ipt8
t\iri8
Singular, epi-s
epiS-t
(\iri8-t,
epi-v
eATTt'S-a
157. Most Stems in
i,
as well as
adjective
and
some substantive Stems in
v,
change
their final vowel to
e in Gen. and Dat.
Sing.,
and in all the cases of the
156. Dialects. The Ace.
Sing,
in a of dental Stems is more
frequent
in Horn.:
yXauAcwn-iS-a (yXavKotiris, bright-eyed'), epi8-a;
K\f is is
K\TJIS,
Ace.
KArjcS-a.
157. Dialects. The Ionic dial, leaves i
unchanged
: Gen.
TTO\I-OJ,
Dat. TroXc
(from
7roXt-i),
Nom. PI.
iro\i~fs,
Gen.
iro\i-w,
Dat. in
Herod.
TrJXi-crt(i'),
Horn.
7roAi'-o-cri(i>),
Ace. iro\i-as
(Herod,
also
n-oXtf).
Other
additional forms of the Horn, dialect are : Gen.
Sing.
iro\T)-os,
Dat.
Sing.
TroXe-t and
71-0X77-1,
Nom. PI.
no\r)-ts,
Ace. PI.
iro'Xry-ers.
The Stems
in u have
always
o s in the Gen.
Sing.
The Dat.
Sing.
only
is contracted
:
iri%fi. cvpv-s,
broad,
has the additional forip
evpea
in the Ace.
Sing.
158. CONSONANT DECLENSION. 59
Dual and PI. Before the
ending
of the Gen.
Sing,
this s
remains
unchanged
;
in the
Stems, however,
in
i,
and in
some substantive Stems in
v,
e is followed
by
MS
(instead
of
09),
called the Attic
termination,
which does
not
prevent
the accent from
being
on the
antepenult
:
7roXe-o>9,
7reXe/ee-&>9
(-TreX^/cu-9, axe).
In the Dat.
Sing,
el is contracted into
et,
in the
Nona. PI.
eg?
and Ace.
ea<?
into
et9,
and ea of neuter
substantives into
77. Adjectives
maintain the uncon-
tracted form e a :
acrrrj,
but
<y\vKea.
158. The contraction of ee to
77
in the Norn. Ace. and
Voc. Dual is rare. The Gen. PI. of Stems in i follows
the accent of the Gen.
Sing.
: TroXe-wv like
7roA,e-&>9.
Most substantive Stems in v leave this vowel un-
changed;
but others like acrrv follow the
analogy
of
Stems in
i,
and
change
v into e. ve are sometimes
contracted into v in the Nom. Ace. and Voc. Dual
;
in
the Ace. PI. also we find
t'%009,
with
fydv-as
fish),
and
cxfrpvs,
Ace. PI. of
o^)pu-9,
eyebrow.
ey%e\v-<;,
eel,
retains v in the
Sing.
: Gen. e'
but
changes
it in the Dual and PI. into e : Nom. PI.
The
adjective t'Spt-9, acquainted
with,
St. IS
pi, keeps
its i
unchanged through
all the cases.
158. Dialects. The Dat.
IxBvl
is in Horn, contracted into
t^^vi.
lu the Dat. PI. a is sometimes doubled :
vficv-(T<ri(v)
with vt
Kv-e<r<ril(v)
(vtKV~s, corpse)
O
CONSONANT DECLENSION.
159.
I
.">:). 2.
Diphthong
Stems,
i. c. Steins in
eu, av,
ov.
Kxain.
162.
CONSONANT DECLENSION. 61
Some
compounds
of
7rou-9,
foot,
form the Ace.
Sing.
like Stems in ov:
rpiirovs, three-footed,
Ace.
rpiTrovv.
For
mt)-9,
see
among
the
irregular
words, 177,
11.
161. The stems in ev moreover have in the
a)
Gen.
Sing.,
eu?
for
09.
Comp.
157.
b)
Dat.
Sing.,
et
always
contracted for et.
c)
Ace.
Sing,
and
PL,
a is
long
and not contracted.
d)
Nom. and Voc.
PL,
ee?
contracted
by
older Attic
writers into
77
9,
by
the later into
649.
e)
Words which have a vowel before ev
may
be con-
tracted also in the Gen. and Ace.
Sing.,
and in the Ace.
PL: St.
Heipatev,
Nom.
Heipaiev-s,
port of
AtJiens,
Gen.
Heipaiw,
Ace.
Heipatd
;
^oeu-9,
measure,
Ace. PL
Obs. The Gen. in -ens has arisen
by
transmutation of
quantity
( 37,
D.
2)
out of the Horn.
17
os. Hence the
length
of the
final
syllable.
In the same manner the Ace.
Sing,
td has
arisen out of
jja
: still 5 is also
found,
like eas in the Ace. PI.
;
(as is contracted
by
later writers into (is.
162. 3. O
Stems,
i. e. Stems in o and a).
Examples.
CONSONANT DECLENSION. 163
Example*
for Declension.
t -
VX)
ecjt
,
AJ;TO), 6/ico-s (St.
-c
(St. /iijrpw),
avunculus.
163. The Stems in
o,
all
feminine,
form the Nom.
Sing,
without
sigma, except
the Stem at
So,
Nom.
Sing.,
ai'Sco-9, shame,
Ace. ai'Su. The Ace. which is liki- tin'
Num. is
oxytoue (contrary
to
87)
:
7rei0o>,
not TreiOw.
The Vocative ends in
ot;
all other cases are con-
tracted. The Ace. of Stems in o>
usually
remains un-
contracted. The Stem
eo>,
Nom.
77
eiw-?, dawn,
\i-i<
Gen.
Sing,
eiw,
Dat. cat
(according
to
132),
Ace. ecu
(from
ea>a).
Obs. Several Stems in ov follow the above declension in some of
their forms:
drjbvv, nightingale,
Gen.
drjftovs,
with
aijfidfoy;
etKtiv, image,
Gen. etxovs
(comp. 171).
lives also in cos and
Cy
CoSvo-fCr),
Datives in
el, ft,
and Accti-
Eat
:
vcs in
ea, ?;
:
TvS^.
The New-Ionic dial, leaves e
frequently
uncontracted :
fBacriXf-ts.
163. Dialects. Horn, contracts
^pwt
into
rjpip,
Mlvaa into
MtVu. The old and
poetic
form for ca>-j
is
^co-r (St. 170),
declined
like ai5c!)-s. Some
proper
names in a in the
Nom.
Sing,
have in the
Now-Ionic dial, an Ace. in ovv :
AiproCv,
'low.
65.
CONSONANT DECLENSION. 63
III. ELIDED
STEMS,
i. e. Stems which
reject
the final
consonant in certain forma.
164. 1. 2
Stems,
i. e. Stems which elide
sigma.
Exam.
64 CONSONANT DECLENSION.
166.
into o in the Nom. Ace. and Voc.
Sing.:
St.
7evo9.
Neuter
adjectives
leave
unchanged:
Masculines and Feminines form tlie Nom.,
Sir.g by
lengthening
e?
into
779
(
147,
2),
as
9
cannot be ullix.-il :
fvyewjs
from
evyeves,
like
Trot/jitjv
from
Trot/iev.
Masculines and Feminines have the
pure
Stem in the
Voc.
Sing.,
and in
compound
words which are not
oxy-
tone in Nom.
Sing,
the accent is on the last
syllable
but two
(comp.
148,
85):
Nom.
SWparT??,
Voc.
SwAcpaTe?
;
Nom.
A^/iocr^ej^?,
Voc.
A^/iocr^ei/e?.
06s. The Neuter
d\rjd(s (Masc. dXijdfjs,
true)
draws buck the
accent in
interrogations
:
aXrjdts, really
*
166. In all other forms
5
is
rejected (
61 and
49)
:
yeve-l
for
yeve<r-i \_gener-i].
Wherever two vowels meet
they
are contracted
: ee in the Nom. Ace. and Voc. Dual
become
77;
ea
generally
77,
but when another vowel
stands before e
they
sometimes become
a,
according
to
41: St.
evBees,
Nom.
evbefa defective,
Ace.
evBed;
St.
i7te9,
Nom.
irfiijs, healthy,
Ace.
vjid,
but also
ir/iri;
St.
xpee9,
Nom. TO
%/oeo9,
debt,
Neut. PI.
%/sea.
The
adjectives
in
-0i>^9 (St. (f>ve$)
have
<f>vr)
and
<j>va:
ev<f>vij<>, well-disposed, ev^ufj
and
ev<f>va.
Obs.
Barytone adjectives
have the accent in the Gen. PI. on the
last
syllable
but
one, contrary
to 87 :
avrapiuav (Nom. avrdpnijs,
self-sufficient).
So also
rpiTjpijj, trireme,
used as a
substantive,
Gen. PI.
Tpif/peav.
167.
Proper
names in
-*cXjr compounded
with
xXeoj, glory
(St. (cXeer),
have a double contraction in the Dat.
Sin^.,
and a
single
one in all the other cases : Nom.
(lIc/MJcXf^ff) ElfpiKXijr,
Gen.
(rifpt/cXeeoj) IlfpiK\fovs,
Dat.
(ll(piK\ff'i, HeputXtti) Tltpt.-
K\('I,
Ace.
(Ilfpt/cXeea) IkpucXco,
Voc.
166. Dialects.
A vowel before e is often contracted with it in
Hum. : (rnfos or
(nrflos, cave,
Gen.
fftiaos,
Dat.
a-Trfj-i (from <nri(i\
Dat. PI.
<77rijecr(7i(i')
and
<r7rVcri(v)
; fvK\frjs, ylorious,
Ace. fvK\t'ias
(from (vK\(faf~),
but
aK\rjis (from dcXeij9, inglorious).
Herod.
/8eef
(VSei7f, defective), uvdpcairotyvfas (dvdpanrofpvfjs,
human).
167.
Dialects.
The
Epic
dial, forms
'Hpa/cXij?, 'H;pa>cX^-or,
the New-
Ionic,
'HpaK\(rjs, llp<iK\f-oi
169. CONSONANT DECLENSION.
C5
168. 2. T
Stems,
i. e. Stems which elide T.
Examples.
Stems.
66 CONSONANT DECLENSION. 170.
170. 3. N
Stem*,
i. o. Stems which elide v.
Example.
172. CONSONANT DECLENSION.
172.
Synopsis
of terminations in the
fipal
Declension.
67
Second Prin-
Nona.
C8 CONSONANT DF,( I.F.NSION.
Xora.
i"3. CONSONANT DECLENSION. 69
N"jrn.
70 IRREGULARITIES IN DECLENSION.
174
The
principal
differences in the
endings
arc :
1. In the Gen.
Sing.,
where the Second
Principal
Declension
always
has
09
(to?).
2. In the Nom.
PI.,
where Masc. and Fern, of the
Second
Principal
Declension
always
have
9.
Irregularities
in Declension.
174. The
mixing
of two Stems which
may
have one
Nom. is called
Heterodising (eTepoK\icria, different
in-
flexion)
: Nom.
cvc6T09, darkness,
Gen. CTKOTOV
(O-Declen-
sion),
and
O-KOTOVS
(Second Principal
Declension)
;
TUT/CO?,
hare,
according
to the Attic
declension,
but Ace.
\arf5).
An
important irregularity
of this kind occurs with
proper
names in
179:
^.wKparij^ (St.
2
&> K
pa
re
9),
but
Ace.
"ZaKparnv (as
if from Stem
^.cofcpara
of the A-
Declension)
with
^.wKpdrij.
But those in
-/cX% ( 167)
follow the Second
Principal
Declension
exclusively.
175. The formation of some cases from a Stem
which cannot be that of the Nom. is called
Metaplasm
(fj,eraTr\aa-fi6<f, change offormation)
: Nom.
Sing.
TO Sev-
Spov,
tree,
Dat. PL
Sev&pea-i(v),
as if from St.
BevSpesi
Nom.
Sing.
TO
Sdtcpvov,
tear,
Dat. PI.
Sd/cpv(n(v),
from
St.
Sa/cpv (poet.
Nom.
Sd/cpv)
;
TO
7rvp,Jire,
PI. TO.
Trvpd,
Dat.
Tofc
7ru/)oi9 (O-Declension)
;
Nom.
Sing, oveipo-s,
dream,
Gen.
oveipaTos,
Nom. PL
ovelpara,
176. A
peculiar irregularity appears
in several
174.
Dialects.
Several Masc. Stems in
a,
Nom.
rjs
in
Herod.,
have ta for
17
v in the Ace.
Sin.c;.
:
SecrTron;-?, master,
Sta-jrorsa.
6
o^o-r, carriage,
in Horn, has PL Ta
o^ea, oxf<r$i(i'),
from the
St.
o\(s.
OiSiVovy has
poet-forms
from a St.
OtSiTroSa,
Gen.
Sing.
OiStwoSao,
trag.
Oi&wroSa. Horn.
SapmjScii',
Stems
2apirr)ftov
and
SapirrjBovr.
MiVcos,
Ace.
Sing.
MtVcaa
( 163),
and Mivuv.
175.
Dialects-
Horn,
metaplasms
are : l)at. PL
di/8pa7roSeo-crt(i'),
Nom.
Sing, dvftpdirobov,
slave
;
Nom. Ace. PL
jrpocraWara,
Nom.
Sing.
rrp6<r<i)irov,
countenance
; ficV/xara, bonds,
Sing.
6
Stereos
;
tpirjpo-s,
confidential,
Nom. PL
(pirjpts; aXc^, strength,
Dat.
Sing. d\K-l;
battle, vo'p.ivi
;
IX&P,
divine
blood,
Arc.
Sing. J^w.
177.
IRREGULARITIES IN DECLENSION. 71
Neuter Stems in
apr,
as
(frpeapr. They reject
r in the
Nom. Ace. and Voc.
Sing.,
and
p
in the other cases : TO
(frpeap,
well,
Gen.
^pearo? (also (j)prjr6^)
;
TO
rjirap,
liver,
Gen.
rjTraros ',
TO
aXei^ap
and
a\.ei(j)a,
salve,
Gen.
To these
correspond
the Stems a tc a
(p)
T and
v&a(p)r:
Nom.
o-KMp,
dirt,
Gen.
cvcaTo?
;
#o\wp,
Gen.
/SaT09.
177.
Social irregularities
in
alphabetical
order :
1.
avrjp,
man,
(comp. 153) rejects
e of the St.
dvep,
and inserts 8 in its
place (51,
Obs.
2)
:
av-S-p-os, av$pi,
avSpa
;
Voc.
avep
; Dual,
avftpe, avftpo'iv
;
PI.
avbpes,
2.
"A/37J9 (the god Ares):
St.
'Ape
9,
Gen.
"Ape<u9
and
*Apeo9, Acc/Ap7;v, together
\^th
"Ap^
;
Voc.
regul."Ape9.
3.
dpi/,
without Nom.: Gen. rov and
r^9
dpi/-o9, o/
iAe
7am^,
apvi, apva
;
Dat. PL
apvdcri(v).
4. TO
yovv,
knee
(genii),
Nom. Ace. Voc. All the
rest from St.
jovar,
Gen.
^ovaro^.
5.
77 yvvij,
woman. All the rest from St.
Gen.
yvvaiKos,
Dat.
lyvvai/cl,
Ace.
yvval/ca,
Voc.
Dual
'yvvaltce, <yvvaiKolv ;
PI.
yvvaltc-es
-wv
-%i>(v)
-
6. TO
Sopu,
woo^,
spear:
St. S
op
a T
(comp. 4).
Gen,
SopaT09, poet.
8
op
09,
Dat.
Sop/
and
Bopei.
7.
Zey?
(<Ae
^(xi
Zews),
Gen.
Ato9,
Dat.
Att;
Ace.
Ai'a,
Voc. ZeO.
8. o and
rj Kvwv,
dog,
with Voc. KVOV from St. KVOJ:
All the rest from /cuy : Gen.
KVVOS,
Dat.
/cui/t,
Ace. KVVO
;
I^l.
Kvves, tcvvwv,
KV<TL(V),
/cvvas.
9. o
Xa-9, s^owg,
from Horn.
Xaa-9,
Gen.
Xa-o?,
Dat.
177.
Dialects. The
following
forms are
peculiar
to
dialects:
1.
avrjp, poet,
'avfp-ot, 'avtp-t, 'avep-a
;
Dat. PI.
ai'8pe<rcri(i').
2.
*A.pr)s, llom.''A.pr]OS,*A.pr)'i,*Apr]a.
4.
yow,
Ion. and
poet, yovvar-os, yovvar-a, yovi>a<ri(v)
; Ep.
Gen.
Sing, yovvos,
PI.
ycwi/a, yovvtav, yovi>-f<r<ri(v).
6.
fiopv, SovpaTos, Ep. Sovpoj, Sovpl, 8ovpf, bovpa,
7.
Zevj,
poet.
St.
Zjv: Zrjv-os, Zrjv-l, Zrjv-a (also Z^/
from
Zij).
I
72 IRREGULARITIES IN DECLENSION. 177,
Xa-t,
Arc.
\aa-v,
\av
',
PL
Xa-e?, Xa-a>i>,
\d-ecrcn(y)
or
Xa-e<n(i/),
Xa-a?.
10. 6
/xayory-9,
witness,
with Dat. PI.
iiapTv<ri(v),
from the St.
paprv.
The rest from the St.
pdprvpos, fj-dprvpi,
&c.
11.
77
i/a
0-<?,
*A//>,
i/e-ct)?,
1/77-1; i/aD-v;
PI.
r/)-
vav-cri(v},
i/at)<?.
Com
p.
1 ">!).
(As. The Nom. Ace.
Sin;.:.
and Dat. Ace. PI. rest on the St. vuv.
Before vowels vav becomes
(according
to
3">,
D.
2) vrjF, vrj ,
w-civ
is for
i/j-or (
37,
D.
2).
12. 6 and
77
opz/Z-?,
ii'rcZ,
St.
opi/i^andopvc opvld-os,
opvWi, opvWa
and
o/avti'
;
PL
opvldes
and
opveis, opvewv.
13. TO
oJ9.
ear. All the re8t from St. COT:
&>TO?,
O>T/;
PL
aJra, amov,
a>-o-/(i/). (On
the
accent, 142,
3.)
14.
T]
lilvvg (the Pnyx),
St.
irvtcv, HVKV-OS, HVKV-I,
15. o
Trpevftv-s,
the
aged,
has in the Gen. and Dat.
Sing.,
and
throughout
the PL its forms from
Trpeafivra
(Nom. Sing. 7rpea-/3vrr)s)
;
Trpia-fteis, Trpeo-fiewv, irpe-
<r/3e<n(i>) signifies
ambassadors,
to which the
Sing,
is
16. T<iv.
Only
Voc. ea rdv or w
raf,
friend
or
friends,
a defective Stem.
17. o
f<o<, son,
St.
ft'o, u/, vlev,
Gen.
u<'t'o?,
D.
ft'et,
Ace. viea
(rare),
PL
y/et?, viewv,
viecri(v),
uiet9.
But also
regularlv
vlov,
&c.
IS.
fj
xeLp,
liand,
St.
X
1
P>
^UQ^
x
e
P'
v
>
^at- PL
Dialects.
11.
vav-s,
from St.
vijv, lon.wjO-r,
llom. Ace.
Sing.
VT}-a,
Dill. I'l
i>^f(T<ri(i'), VT)V(rl(y),
Ace.
^a?.
from St. vt
v,
Ion.
w-of, M-t, i>t-a, ve'-ty, v(-(i)v, vt-fcrat,
vt-as.
from St.
vav,
Dor.
i/a-oy,
i/a-t
(mivt"), vd-(cr<ri(v).
13.
our,
Ion.
c*aj, ovaT-or;
PI.
oiJar-a,
Dor.
S>s,
&>r-or.
17.
utd-j,
Ep.
Gen.
vi-or, vi-i,
vl-a, vl-es,
vi-a<ri(v),
vl-as.
18.
xti'p, poet,
and New-Ion.
x
(
P~
s
>
X
f
P~i> Ep.
Dat. I'l.
Or
%(ip-T(ri(v).
To these add the words which are anomalous
only
in dialects :
19. Horn. 'At'8-9
(Att. "AiS^r),
St.
'Ai'3,
Gen.
'Ai8-os,
*
also
ATfWeu-r,
with
regul. inflexion, according
to 15'J.
178. CASE-LIKE TERMINATIONS. 73
Case-like Terminations.
178. Besides the
case-endings,
there occur certain
suffixes
or
appendages,
which in
meaning very nearly
resemble
case-endings.
To these
belong
:
1. -6
1,
answering
to the
question
where:
d\\o-6i,
elsewhere
;
2.
-6ev,
to the
question
whence :
olKo-Oev,
from
home
;
3.
-
8
e,
to the
question
whither :
ol/ca-Be,
hometvards.
Dialects.
20. 6
eptor,
Jove,
Stems
epcor
and
f'po, poet.
Ace.
epo-v.
21.
Befus,
justice,
St
$e/xi
and
$f^ucrr,
PI.
$e'/xi<rr-es-, dtpicrr-as.
22. ro
Kapa, head,
Horn. St.
Kaprjr, Kaprjar, Kpdar, Kpar, <ap.
Horn. Nom.
Sing. napy.
Gen.
Ktipr/T-os, Kaprjar-os, Kpaaros, Kparos.
Dat.
KaprfT-i, KapyaT-i, Kpdar-i, Kpar-l (trag. Kapa).
A.CC.
,, Kuprj,
rov
Kpar-a,
TO
/cap.
Norn. PL
Kapa, Kaprjar-a, Kpnar-a, secondary
form
Kaorjva.
Gen.
Kpara/v, Kap^v<i>v.
Dat.
Kpa.ffi(y).
Ace.
=:
Nom.
(also
TOVS
Kpar-as").
23.
TI p,acrTi, whip,
Horn. Dat.
p-aa-rl,
Ace.
p.duTi-v.
24. 6
fifis, month,
Ion.
=
Att
^v.
25.
oa-a-f, eyes,
Nom. Ace.
Dual,
Neut. in Horn. The
trag.
have Gen. PI.
oo-o-coi/,
Dat. ocrerois or
oa-o-oio-i(i').
178. Dialects.
The three local suffixes are
very frequent
in
Horn. :
oiKo$i,
at home
;
'lAidtfi
wpo,
in
front of
llios
;
oipav66tv,from
heaven;
dyopfjdt
v, from
the
assembly.
6tv also
supplies
the
place
of the Gen.
-ending
: Kara
KpyOfv,
dmm
from
the
head, entirely
;
e'
a\66fv,
out
of
the sea. -6e is
generally
affixed to the Ace. :
oiKov8(,
homewards; icXicr/qfSf,
into the tent
; iroXivSt,
into the
city
;
(frofiovof,
into
flight. (pvyaSf,
into
flight,
and
epa(t,
to the
earth,
are
peculiar.
A suffix
peculiar
to the Horn,
language
is
$i(/);
it is added to
the Stem of
nouns,
and
supplies
the
place
of the Gen. or Dat. ter-
mination in both
Sing,
and
PL,
as :
1. A- decl. :
/3nj-$t,
with
force
;
KX<(ri>/-(/)t,
in the
tent;
wro
vtvp^'
(piv,from
the
bow-striuy.
2. O- decl. : 6t
6-<$>iv,
from
the
gods
; 'lAto-(ii>, from
Jlios.
3. ConK.~dafl. :
KOTv^rjoav-o-tyiv,
with the suckers
(on
the feelers
of the
polyput);
air"
o^fcr-0t(i'),
from
the
carriage ;
trapit vav-<j)i(v),
the
shiys;
ano
KpaTta-$>t.v,from
the head.
(
177,
D.
22.)
74 INFLEXIONS OF ADJECTIVES. 179.
These suffixes are
joined
to the Stem of the noun :
A0/)VTj0ev, from,
AtJtem,
(with
Ion.
rj)
; KVK\60ev,
from
the
circle,
(KVK\O-<;).
Sometimes o comes in
place
of the
A-sound :
pi60ev (radicitus)
from
pi%a (radix)
;
it also
serves as a
connecting
vowel with consonant-steins: iri'iin-
o-Oev,
from
all sides. The o is sometimes
accented,
contrary
to
107,
a :
Kvtc\-6-0ev,
Mapa0fi)v-6-0ev, from
Marathon. The enclitic suffix Se
(
92,
6)
is often also
combined with the Ace. form :
Meyapa-Se,
to
Megara
;
'EXeuo-ty-u-Se,
to Eleusis.
oi/c-a-Se, home,
from Stem
OLKO,
is
irregular.
For Se we find
ere, e,
with the same
meaning:
aXXocre,
elseivhither
;
'AQrjvafa
to
Athens;
?7/3ae,
to
Thebes
;
0vpae (foras).
179.
Moreover,
a few words have an old Locative in
i for the
Sing.,
and
<TI(V) (without
a
preceding i)
for the
Plur.,
answering
the
question
where:
OIKOI,
at
home;
TLvdot,
at
Pytho; 'Icr0/*oi,
on the
Isthmus;
'A6ijvr)cri(v),
in Athens
;
H\aTaidcri(v),
in Plataea
;
6vpd<ri(v),
at the
door,
(forts)
;
a>pd(ri(v),
at tJie
right
time.
CHAP. VII. OTHER INFLEXIONS OF THE ADJECTIVE.
A.
Inflexion according
to Genders.
ADJECTIVES OF THE VOWEL DECLENSION.
180. The most numerous class of
adjectives
is that
which in the Masc. and Neut. follows the
O-Declension,
and in the Fern, the A-Declension
; which,
consequently,
has in the Nom.
Sing.
05,
17 (or a),
ov
[Lat,
us, a,
urn].
180. Dialects.
The lonians have
frequently
here also
?
for
Att. a :
182. INFLEXIONS OF ADJECTIVES. 75
Sing.
INFI.KXIOXS OF ADJECTIVES. 183.
,
the Bias".
Ix-ini:
used for the IVm. : Masr. and
Fein,
^o-u^os.
NVut.
^a-v^ov,
quirt.
Coninoioid
tives
especially
are all
of only
two
endings
:
are/cz/o?,
child-
less
;
Kapiroffropos, fruitful.
183.
Adjfctircs
ciidini;
in
eo<?
and
009
in the Nona.
Masc.,
are
generally
contracted
( 1150)
:
^puo-eo?,
golden,
and
aTrXoo?,
simple,
are thus contracted :
Sing.
Num.
<!>
n.
Dat.
Ace.
Voc.
Fern. Kent.
Xpvrrovs XP
vcr
tf xp
v&(tvt/
XpVGOV X^
v(
^1^
Muse. Frm. Ncnr.
Air\ovs
AirXr)
AirXovv
t'mXov
tbrXovf
AnXovv
Dual.
\'. .I.!'
a. D.
OTrXa
Xpvcroiv xP
va
'
aiV
XP
vffotv ('irrXut
riur.
Nom.
den.
Ace.
Xpvani xP
vrru
vtrolv
xprnnut XP
V(rn
'
ls AirXois AffXuls AirXoi
anXuvs AnXas uirXa
In the
Singular (but
not in the Dual or
Plural)
the
Fern, e a is contracted to
w,
except
w hen
preceded by
a
vowel or
p
;
it is then contracted to d:
dpyvpea, apyvpd.
The Nom. PI.
oa, oat,
produce
a,
a i :
inrXa,
cnrXat.
The contracted final
sy
Hal >le also receives the circum-
flex,
contrary
to 87 :
^pucreo?,
^pva-ovf.
But com-
pound adjectives
retain the accent on the last
syllable
but one:
evvovs,
well-disposed,
Gen.
evvov,
Dat.
evva>,
Nom.
PI. evvoi.
184. A few
adjectives
in
&><?
in the Nom. follow
183. Dialects.
Theadjectives
in
(os, oos,
ofk-n remain uncon-
trncto-1 : I
loin,
xpvatu (where
e
disaiijiears by
syuizcsis), KaXXippoos,
aiitii/-oii'i/i/.
184. D alects.
-
1 1
im.
iXnor,
ir\('.os, TrXf/rj,
-rr\(lov
;
New-Ton.
eor= Att.
tus
;
for Att.
air
(salvus),
lloin.
o-oor, >;, ov, compa-
rative
crucbrepos.
INFLEXIONS OF ADJECTIVES.
the Attic 0-Declension
( 132):
t'Xe&x?,
Neut,
tXea>v,
gracious; d^to^pea)?,
Neut.
-wv, considerable; 7r\e&>9,
TrXea, ir\ewv,
full,
aws
(from
o-ao9,
saluus)
has in the
Nom.
Sing.
Fera. and Neut. PI.
era;
but also the forms
(TW09, <7o;a,
PI.
(Tooot,
awai.
ADJECTIVES OF THE CONSONANT DECLENSION.
185. Other
adjectives
in the Masc. and Neut. follow
the Consonant
Declension,
and form from the Stem a
peculiar
Fern, with the
ending
ta, which, however,
undergoes
various
changes
in combination with the Stem.
Such
adjective-stems
of three terminations are :
1. Stems in v
(Masc.
and
Neut,,
154).
The Fern, is
formed from the Stem as it
appears
in the Gen.
(77
8
e)
;
e and i a are
contracted,
and the accent remains on the
last
syllable
of the Stem : hence
78 INFLEXIONS OF ADJECTIVES.
Examples
for Declension.
y\VKi>s,
sweet
/3pa^vf,
short
tipvs,
broad,
fjpa&vs,
slow
raxvs,
swift
Obs.
6?f\vs, female, differing
also in
accent,
occurs as a Feminine.
186. 2. Stems in v. The i in ia is tran.-:'
to the
preceding syllable ( 55):
St.
p,e\av,
N<>m.
Masc.
/ieXa?,
Fern.
p,i\aiva
(from fj,e\av-ia),
Kent.
/LteXaz>,
black.
Singular.
137. INFLEXIONS OF ADJECTIVES.
&0 INFLEXIONS OF ADJECTIVES.
18s
Ob. Tlie form of the Fern, is
explained
from r before t
becoming
v,
accord in
4
to
(!0,
t U-in^
dropped
after
tr,
and v before a
I'dtij;
thrown out and
OOmpettMted
fir
1-y
a
IciiL'tlu'iiin^
of tlie v.mv! :
iravria, iravcria, irava-a,
Trutra
; \votma, Xuovirtu, Xuoi/era,
Xuovcra.
188. 4. Stems in or. The
partir-iples
of the
feet Active in or
(Norn.
Sing.
Muse,
ox?,
Neut
09)
have via in tlie Fern. :
XeXu/cco?, \e\vKvca, \e\vic6s,
one who has
freed.
See
146,
147.
Singular.
191. INFLEXIONS OF ADJECTIVES. 81
Other
Examples
for Declension.
fi.vrifj.aii>,
mindful of tin\f)(rp,c>>v, forgetful of
Tro\virpdyn<av,
much
occupied
3. Isolated
forms,
as:
"iftpis tS/3t, acquainted
with Gen.
iSpt-os
(Inflexion according
to 157
D.)
apprjv (apcnjj/) appfv,
male Gen.
apptv-os
Compounds
of
substantives,
such as
dirdrap,
Neut.
airdrop,
St. . TT a r e
p (Nom. Trarrjp) fatherless ;
8utr/^ijrcop, /ZJJTT/P,
un-
motherJy
;
(pi\6iro\is,
-i,
Gen.
-18-09,
loving
the
city
;
etfeXn-ts
(Gen. evfX7ri8-oy), hopeful.
190. 4. Besides these there is a
large
number of
adjectives
which have
only
one
ending,
because either
their
meaning
or form excludes a Neuter:
apjra^
rapacious,
St. a
p
Tray,
<f>vyds, fugitive,
St.
<j>vya8',
ayvws, unacquainted,
St.
ajvcor',
aTrais, childless,
St.
d TT a i S
;
/j,aKp6^eip,
long-handed
; irevys,
poor,
St. TT e v
f]
r
;
yvfjivij*;, light-armed,
St.
yvpvnr.
Some
adjectives
of
one
ending
follow the
A-Declension,
and are almost
substantives,
as :
eOeXovr^,
Gen.
eOe\ovrov,
voluntary
;
they
occur
only
in the Masc.
191. The
following adjectives
are
irregular
:
/j,eyas,
great;
7ro\v<;, much,
and
Trpao?,
gentle,
the forms of
each
being
derived from different
Stems, viz.,
in
190. Dialects. Horn, has also
many adjectives
in the Fern,
only
Ka\\iyuvaiKa
Ace.
Sing, e.g., Sirdprrjv, abounding
in
beautiful
women
;
ficoridveipa,
e.
g. &6ia,
men
nourishing.
191. Dialects.
In Horn, both
Stems,
TroXu and
n-oXXo,
in
Masc. and
Neut.,
are almost
completely
declined
;
the Fern, is
regularly n-oXX^.
Sing.
N. TTO\VS TrouXvf or TroXXo? N, iro\v irov\v
Q-. TToXXoi) or iroXfos
D.
jroXX4>
A. TTO\VV irov\vv TTO\\OV N. TroXu TrovXv
Plur. N. TToXery
(TToXfts)
TroXXot TroXXa
G. jroXXwi* Or irdXecav
D.
froXc((T(n(v)
7roXcr(rt(i') TroXeVt(i')
or
TroXXots
A. iroXtas TroXXovs
N. TroXXd
Herod, has
scarcely any
forms
except
from the Stem TroXXo
ro\\6v,
iroXXot.
a
82 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.
1*4.
from the Stems
peya
and
fj.eya\o;
in
7ro\v9,
from
and
TroAAo;
in
irpaos,
from
irpao
and
Trpav.
Sing.
Norn.
Gen.
Dot.
Ace.
Foe.
197.
COMPAEISON OF ADJECTIVES. 83
193. The
following points
are to be observed :
l. The Stems in o leave o
unchanged only
when the
preceding syllable
is
long (
74,
&c.),
but
lengthen
it
to to when that is short :
Troi^/jo-repo?,
worse
;
Tri/cpo-
TO/TOV,
most bitter
;
aotjxa-Tepos,
wiser
;
a^ico-Tarr),
most
worthy. Every syllable
with a vowel followed
by
two
consonants or a double consonant is here considered
long
(
76,
77).
194. 2. The o is
always rejected
after at in the
adjective
yepaios,
senex,
sometimes in
nuXatos, antiquus,
and
cr^oXatof,
at leisure :
yepairepos,
TraXairaros.
195. 3. The o or CD is
changed
to at in
pea-os,
medius; icros,
like; euftios,
clear;
jrputios, early; o^ios,
late:
/neerairaroy,
Trpooi'aiTepoi'. rj<rvx<>s, peaceful,
has
fja-v^airtpos,
and
fjcrv^aiTfpos
;
<pi\os,
dear,
besides
{piXeoTepos
-raroj,
also
(piXrepos -raroy,
and
(fxXatrfpos
-Taros
;
TrXrjanaiTepos, TrXj/a-tairaroy, belong
to
irXr/criov, near,
and
TrapmrXijcriaLTfpos,
more
like,
to the same
;
Trpovpyiairepos
to
npovpyov,
from
Trpo epyov, advantageously.
196. 4. The
endings ecrrepo-s, eo-raro-s,
are
inorganically
applied
:
o)
to Stems in ov:
axB^pove'crfpos (St. craxppov,
Nom.
<r<a(j)pa>v,
reasonable), evSat/Aoz/eorepo? (St. fv8aifj.ov,
Nom.
fi/daipcav, for-
tunate), irlorepos
-TO.TOS,
ftOTdiriuVyfat,
and
irfnairepos -raroy,
from
irfTTtav, ripe,
are
exceptional.
b~)
to the Stems of
aKpdros,
unmixed
;
eppafjifvos, strong ;
ao-pfvos,
willing
:
aKparearrfpos, eppupfveo-Tepos.
More seldom to others.
c)
to some Stems
in oo contracted;
evvovvrepos
for
tvvoeo-Tfpos
from
tvvovs, well-disposed.
197. 5.
to-Tfpor,
lo-rarof,
occur with
XaXop, talkative;
Trrw^oy, beggarly
;
o^o(j)dyos, epicure; p.ovo<pdyos, eating alone,
and some
adjectives
of one
ending,
as
KXVr?j-?,
thievish : XaAt-
(rrepos, Trrw^i'oraros, *cXe7rTi'crrcpo?.
Others of one
gender
in
rj-s
follow the rule of those
in o :
v/3pto-ro-
from
vppKTTr)!, haughty.
193. Dialects. The
quantity
of the 0-sound in
poets
is rather
doubtful : Horn.
oYfvpcoraroy,
the most wretched.
Hum. has
IQvvraTa,
from
I6vs, straight; (padvraros,
from
(frafivds,
glittering
;
dxapt'orepoy (for d^apir-repos,
according
to
40),
from
graceless.
84 COMPARISON
OF ADJECTIVES. 198
The
compounds
of
xP
t?
grace, favour,
form their
Comparative
and
Superlative
as if
they
ended in
^aptro-r
:
eVt^aptrwrepot,
more
obliging.
198. The second and rarer termination of the Com-
parative
is t o v
(Nom.
Masc. and Fern, t, &>
v,
Neut
tor),
of the
Superlative,
to- TO
(Nom.
to-ro?, ta-rn,
KTTOV).
The
Stem-vowel
is
rejected
before i. The accent is
placed
as far as
possible
from the end in the
Comp.
and
Superl.
Inflexion of the
Comp.,
170. So is formed from :
Positive. Stem.
Comparative. Superlative.
Tj8vs, agreeable f)8v fjO'itov,
-ov
^Sicrror -ij
-ov
rci^vs, swift ra\v
Qdtro-uv -ov
ra^tcrros -rj
-ov
(from ra^twv, according
to
54, 57)
myas,
large ptya
pdfav
-ov
p.eyi<rros.
(from fjLfyiav, according
to
58)
Obs. The
length
of a in 6ao~o-ov
(comp. /xaXXov, 202),
and the
diphthong
of
pflfav,
is
explained
from the i
passing
into the
preceding syllable,
as in
apdvcav (comp. 55).
Further with
suppression
of
p
:
e'x$po
-s,
hostile
f^diccv
-ov
Superl.
alcrxpo
-s, shameful alcrxlav
-ov
,,
oiKTp6
-f, pitiable ,,
OIKTKTTOS.
and
oiicrp-os
also have the forms in
rtpn-s
and TO.TO-S
199. This
comparison
occurs also in connection
198. Dialects.
The
endings ia>v, IO-TOS,
are more
frequent
in
the
poets
: Horn.
<ptXuoi> (<piXor, dear"); y\vKi<av (y\vt(vs, sweet");
wKioTor
(<uKUf
, swift")
; J3a.6io-Tos
(ftadvs, deep)
; Ppd<rcra>v
=:
^pa^tcoi/
Opa^vy,
short), Sup. poet. ^pa^ioTor,
Horn.
Superl. /3dp8rros
(/3pa8vv,
slow, 59,
D.)
;
Trdcro'uv
=
rra^tcov (yra^iir, thicK)
;
p.d(T(ra>v
=
fidKLOtv (naKpos, long), Sup. firjKioros (Dor. ^aKicrroi) ;
Kv8ia>v
(wSpos, famous}
; p./fwj',
New-Ion, for
ptifav.
199. Dialects. 1. Horn.
Comp. apt
tu>v,
Positive
Kparv-s, Superl.
; Comp. Xtoirtpof
;
New-Ion.
Kpttrmw
=
Kpticrtruiv ; poet,
r, /3t\raTo$,
(peprepos, (pepraros,
or
(pepicrroy,
Tnore
excellent,
most excellent.
2. Horn.
KaKcartpos ;
x^P
7
?^) x
e
P
f
'
i<ov
>X
e
P
ei Tf
P
os
>
x
fl
P^
Tr
P
s
>
New-
Ion. o-<ra>v
=
rjo-o-cov. (Comp. Kpe<T<r<t>v, p-ffav, 198,
*. Horn. vj
199.
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 85
with other
peculiarities
in the
following adjectives,
where the
changes
of sound of 55-58 are often
applied
:
1. For the idea of
good
:
Positive.
Comparative. Superlative.
dyad
6s
[St. dp.fv] dfiflvav, apetvov
[St. apes] [apflw, Horn.]
apioTOS, 77,
ov
[St. jSeXro] j3f\Tia>v, fteXriov /SeXi-tcrror, 17,
ov
[St. Kpai-v] Kpfiffcrav ^Kpflrrutv) KpaTMrros, r),
ov
N.
Kpdcrtrov (jipfirrov)
[St.
X u>
u]
Xcoicuf or Awcof Xwcrros
1
, r],
ov
N. \<i>'iov or Xa>oi/
Obs.
dp,eij/coi>
and
apio-ros
rather
express excellence, capacity;
Kpti<r<r<ovt
KparivTos, strength, preponderance, (Lat. superior')
;
is
opposed
to
Kpfi<r<ra>v.
2. For the idea of lad:
Positive.
Comparative. Superlative.
KdKUS KOKLO>V N, KUKIOV KUKICTTOS
[St. x
e
p] X ^P
U>V
(deterwr)
N.
-^eipov ^eipio-ror
[St. f]K v] rjcr<T<av (inferior')
N.
^cro-oi/
W. PL
ij/ciora,
Zeasi
Q/"
all
3.
/jiiKpos, small,
besides
fjuKporepos (j-iKporaros
jjLf'itov,
smaller N.
p.tlov
4.
oXiyos,
little
o\iyi<TTOS
[St. eXa^u]
fXacraaji/N. eXacrcroj'
eXa^taros
5.
TroXus,
much Tr\fi(oi>
(wXfoi')
TrXetcrroj
^. ir\tov
(also TrXeTi/)
6.
/caXdf, beautiful,
as if from
/caXXof, beauty
KoXAuoi/ A^. xaXXtov KaXXioros
7.
paStoy, easy
[St. pa] p^cov
N.
paoi/ pqo-ros
8.
oXyftvof, painful,
as if from
oXyoy,
^>ain. aXyt'wv
N.
aXytoj/ aXyioros
Dialects. 5. Horn, contracts TrX/ov to
TrXeiJj',
TrXtoi/ej to 7rXev>es
;
Plur.
also, TrXe'e?,
TrXeas,
TrXta.
7. Ion.
prjiSios
;
Horn,
p^irepor, ptj'i<TTos, prjiTaros.
Horn, forms
single degrees
from substantives :
nvvrtpos,
more
doggish (KVO>V,
dog")
;
ptytov, worse,
plyos, cold,
shudder.
Defectives :
eWpTepoi,
also
tragic veprepoi (inferi,
for which
Positive
evepot)
;
Horn.
Trvparos
and
Xolo-^os, Xoi'cr&or, last,
vorartos
=:
vffraros, SeuTaror,
in a like
sense,
7rp&>Trros=:7rpcoTos,
the
first.
86 ADVERBS FROM ADJECTIVES. 200.
200.
Finally
observe further the Defectives :
vvTfpos,
later
voraror,
ultimus
eo-^aror,
extremus
(v/or, new)
viaros,
novissimus
(vwfp, over)
VTTCLTOS,
summus
(irp6, before) irportpos, prior Trpwror, primus,
(irfpav,
on the other
side) irtpairepos.
C. Adverbs
of Adjectives.
201. Adverbs are derived from the
adjective
Stem
by affixing
to it the
syllable
w
9.
The o of the Stem is
entirely dropped
:
$1X09,
adv.
</u\o>9.
The Stems of the
Second
Principal
Declension have the same form as in
the Genitive:
ra^ix;, swift, ra^ew?;
cra<?;9, clear,
(Ta<e&>9,
contr.
<ra^>&>9
;
(raxfrpav,
reasonable,
<raxf)p6v(o<f.
Contraction occurs
only
where the Genitive also has it.
The accent of the adverb is
always
the same as that
of the Genitive Plural of the
corresponding adjective
:
fa, cold,
-^t^p&)9
; Bltcatos,
just,
BiKaiGx;
;
mfc
(St.
7raiT&>9,
every way.
The Neuter
Accusative,
both of the
Singular
and
the
Plural,
is moreover
very
often used as an adverb.
202. An older adverbial form is that in
a,
as:
rd^a
from
ra^u9, quick (meaning,
in Att.
prose, per-
haps)
;
apa,
at the same time
;
/j,d\a, very.
The
Comp.
of
fj,d\a
is
/jia\\ov (potius)
=
pd\iov
( 56)
;
Sup. /iaA-to^a
(potissimum).
ev, well,
as an adverb to
070^09, good,
stands alone.
203. Adverbs in &>
9
are also formed from
Compara-
tives and
Superlatives
:
/3e/3aiorep&>9,
more
firmly
;
KO\-
\i6va)f,
more
beautifully.
But as a rule the
comparative
202. Dialects. The adverbs in a are more numerous in Homer :
2>Ka,
(quickly, UKVS)
;
Xrya, aloud,
\iyvs; Kapra, strongly, very,
to
tcparvs, comp. 59,
D.,
a~d<pa (clearly, <ra(pf]s).
Horn, has for ev or ev the
adjective
e'vr or
TJVS, good.
203,
204. Dialects. Horn.
exaarepcD,
fKaorarci)
(from ticds,
f(i>')',
&(T<TOV
(= ayxiov), dcr<roTepa>
(yx
l
)
near), ny^icrra;
New-Ion.
,
dyxorara.
In addition to this there is the Ilom. r-
i, crowded,
with u instead of o.
205.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 87
lias the Neut. Ace.
Sing.,
the
superlative,
the Neut. Ace
PI. as an adverb :
fieftcuorepov,
/cd\\iov
;
204. Adverbs in
o>,
like
Sva>,
above
; Kara,
"below
; eo-w,
inside
;
eco, outside,
have no s
in
Comp.
and
Superl.
:
dvatrepa,
Karwrtpo),
likewise
dna>Tepa>, further (from OTTO)
;
yyvre'po
(or eyyvrepov), eyyvraro) (or e'yyvrara),
from
eyyvs,
near,
and
some others.
CHAP. VUL. INFLEXION OP PEONOUNS.
205. The Personal Pronouns are :
Singular.
88 PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
206.
206. The Stems of the
Sing,
are:
e>e,
for the
first
person;
<re,
for the
second; e,
for the third.
The
Nominative, however,
is formed
differently
from
them :
eyw,
ov,
and that of the third
person
is
entirely
wanting.
Obs. The a- of the Stem at has arisen from T
( 60,
a) [fc],
which
remains in
many
dialect-forms. The Stem i
goes
back to F
t,
and this to a still older form <r Ft
[Lat.
se for
sve]. (
6.0, i.)
In the form
a-<f>e,
the F is hardened into
<f>.
The Stems of the Dual are: vat
\no-s~], o-^xw, crfyw.
The Dual of the third
person
does not occur in
prose.
The Stems of the Plural are:
17/^6, vpe,
tr<f>e (e
is
generally
contracted with the
ending,
hence the circum-
flex : see
Dialects).
207. When there is no
emphasis
on the Personal
Pronoun,
it becomes enclitic in the forms mentioned
in
92,
2
;
in that case the first
person
has the forms
beginning
with
/A.
But when
emphatic,
as well as
gene-
rally
after
prepositions,
it retains its
accent,
and the
first
person
has the fuller forms : So/cei
yu-ot,
it seems to
me
;
e/zol
ov crol TOVTO
apivicei,
this
pleases
me,
not
you.
The Gen. Dat. and Ace. Plur. of the first and second
persons,
when not
emphatic,
sometimes
have the accent on the first
syllable
:
f)^u>v, vp.iv,
and in this case the final
syllable
of the
Dat. and Ace. is
usually
shortened :
rjfuv, V
af
(Horn.).
When
emphatic
with the final
syllable
shortened
they
are
written
fjfjiiv, vp.iv.
208. The Possessive Pronouns are formed from the
Stems of the Personal Pronouns :
St.
(fif, epos, my
St.
t)fie, T)p.trepos,
our
<rt,
a-os,
thy vp.t, vfifTfpos, your
e, or, his,
her. <r
(p
t
, ffferfpos
,
their.
Obs. The
ending rtpos
is that of the
comparative ( 192).
208. Dialects. Horn, additional forms of the Possessives : rtos
r<uus],
(6s
[SUMS], &fjLos (properly Dor.),
v/*or, <r<$>6s.
From the
Dual Stems
w,
(r(fxa
:
vutlrepos,
nos-ter, <r<po>iTfpos, belonging
to
you
two, afws (also a/xoy)
often means
my,
os sometimes means
own,
without
any
reference to a
particular persou.
311. REFLEXIVE AND OTHEK PKONOUNS. 89
209.
auro-9, afar),
avro,
self,
is declined like a
common
adjective, except
that the Neuter in the Nom.
Ace. Voc.
Sing,
has no v
(comp.
the article
TO).
o auro9
(auTO?),
rj ai/r//
(avrr)},
TO avTO
(ravro
or
TCIVTOV),
the
same,
Lat. idem.
210. The Stems of the Personal
Pronouns,
combined
with
auTo?,
produce
the
Reflexive
Pronouns.
Singular.
Gen. M. N. F. DatM.N. F. Ace. M. F. S.
1st
person efiavrov -rjs e/iavTa) -17 tp-avrov -r\v myself
2d
person
creavroC
-rjs
creavrw
~fj
crfavrov
-rjv thyself
or trauroC
-f/s
cravrw
-fj
cravTov
-i}v
3d
person
eavrou
-fjs eaur<p -fj
eavrov
-r)v
-6
himself,
her-
or avrov
-fjs avr$ -fj
avrov
-r\v
-o
self, itself
In the
plural,
both Stems are declined
together
:
Plural Gen.M. F.N. Dat. M. N. F. Ace. M. F.
1st
person ij/iwj/
avrcov
TJU'W
avrois -als
rjnas
avrovs -as ourselves
2d
person vp.u>v
avriav
vp.lv
avrols -als
vp.as
avrovs -as
yourselves
3d
person (r<f)S>i>
avratv
(r<pi(riv
avrois -ais
cr<pas
avrovs -as themselves
Neut.
<r<pfa
avra,
Yet the 3d
person plural
has also the
compound
form :
eavriav tavTois -ais tavrovs -as -a
or avT&v avrols -als aiirovs -as -a
211.
aXXo-9,
a\\r),
aXXo,
another
(alius),
is de-
clined like
ayro9.
The Stem aXAo combined with itself
produces
the
Reciprocal
Pronoun
a\\-r)\o
(for dXX-aXXo),
oc-
curring only
in the Dual and Plural.
209. Dialects. New-Ion,
wvro's,
WVTJJ,
TOIVTO
;
Horn. <t>vr6s
=
o
airos.
210. Dialects.
The
Epic
dial,
declines both Stems
together
eveu in the
sing.
:
e'/xe
aiiToi'=
epavrov,
ol air<5
^
eavrw,
&c.
New-Ion,
e'/iewvrov,
<rewov.
tavrov,
stand for the forms with av.
IK) DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
212
Dual.
214. RELAT. AND INTEEKOG.
PKONOUNS. 91
TOIV
Toti/S
Dual.
!T&
TO. TO>
ro)8e rdof T( _ _.
TCUTCO ravra TOVTCO
\TOVTOIV
ravraiv TOVTOIV
The adverb of 58e is 3>oV
;
that of OVTOS oirreay or
ovro>,
in this
way.
Like
ouroy are declined :
Too-ovroy
Toa-avTr]
TO<TOVTO or
TOQ-OVTOV,
so
great
(tantus)
TOIOVTOS
ToiavTrj
TOIOVTO or
ToiovTov,
such
(talis)
TTJXlKOVTOS TT]\I.KaVn] TT]\IKOVTO
Or
TT)\lKOVTOVt
SO old
in
which, however,
the T of the forms
beginning
with T is
dropped
:
ravra,
but Toa-aura
;
by affixing
the enclitic 6V we
have the forms TotroySf
,
so
large ;
rotdsSe, of
such
quality
;
njXiKo'y-Sf, of
such an
age,
with a
regular adjective
declension
before the
syllable
8e.
Kelvo-s, cKctvTi, tKflvo, that,
is declined like
avr6s.
A
long
accented t is often affixed to the Demonstrative Pronouns
to
strengthen
the
meaning,
without
affecting
the
declension,
but
the e of 8f is lost :
ovroyr, <58r, fKfivavt,
avrrji,
Tols8f. Com-
pare
the Lat. ce in
his-ce,
has-ce.
213. The Relative Pronoun has the
rough breathing
in all
cases,
as :
Singular.
92
INTERROQ. AND INDEF. PRONOUNS. 215.
guished only by
the accent. The
Interrogative
Pronoun
has the accent
always
on the Stem
syllable
;
the Inde-
finite is enclitic : hence
rk,
who f
rl<j, enclitic,
some one.
217. CORRELATIVE PRONOUNS.
93
216. The
following
are called Correlative Pronouns:
Interrogative.
94
CORRELATIVE ADVERBS. 218.
Interrogative.
Indefinite. Demonstrative.
Relative.
ITOV,
where t
(Wf)
',
wh"nce
(unde
f)
irol,
whither t
(quo .*)
TTOre,
wliat
time f
TTCOf,
how t
( whither ?
( way?
TTodfl
(nli-
\some-
c
uncle)]
where
7J.
) some
iroTe,
sometime
TTIOS,
somehow
~ i some whither
n
^\in someway
(VTtvdfV
(vda
tvravQa.
Tart,
then
TTJVlKa
there
(ibi)
from
there
ov
07TOU
thither
oirodtv
)(
ol
uncle)
TTJVlKaVTU
ravTfl
thither,
in this
way
ijw'/ca
)
oiTTviKa ) time
coy, oTrcor,
as
(whither,
in what
way.
Obs. tvda and
ev6ev,
in their
original
demonstrative
sense,
occur
only
in a few combinations in Attic
prose (i'vda 8fj, just then}
tvQa KOI
fvOa,
here and
there) ;
but
they
are
regularly
used in a
relative sense :
where,
whence.
To the Correlative Adverbs there
belong
also
Hag, quamdiu (Rela-
tive,
as
long)
\ rews,
tamdiu
(Demonstrative,
so
long"),
as well
as the
poetic o0pa (for o(f>pa, 53, c,
Oos.)
used in the same
meaning
as
ay,
and
i-J<pa
as
reu>r.
To the
simple
(Kelvos
(that, 212) correspond among
the Adverbs
of
place fKfi,
there
; fKfWtv,from there; e'/ceTo-e,
thither. The De-
monstrative ws occurs in Attic
prose only
in KOI
&s,
even
thus,
and ovo'
3>s,
not even thus. It is also written 2>s
in these com-
binations.
218. The
conjunctions 8^, S^rore,
and ovv
(meaning ever,
Lat.
cunque),
and the enclitic
irtp, may
be
joined
to
any
relative
pro-
noun or adverb to
give prominence
: Saris
817 Trore, whosoever,
OTTWJ
ovv,
(utcunque), &<rirtp, just
as.
Sometimes
^
is affixed to the
interrog.
TI in the sense of
why
t and
to the
corresponding
indirect
interrogative
o TI :
TITJ, OTLTJ, why
*
219. There are also
negative pronouns
and adverbs to be noticed :
OVTIS, P.TJTIS,
no
one;
ovbtTtpos, fujoirfpos, neither, neuter,
v,
p,T)8ap.ov,
nowhere,
ov8ap,S>s, /x^Sd/^cos
1
,
in no
way.
220. THE NUMERALS. 95
CHAP. IX. THE NUMERALS.
220. The
Cardinal, Ordinal,
and Adverbial
Numerals,
with their value and
signs,
are :
1
96 THE NUMERALS.
221
Obs. The letters of the
alphabet
are used in numbers also in un-
interrupted
succession. In the most
frequent designation,
given above, stigma (g
1
)
is inserted after e for the number 6
;
a to ff are therefore units
;
i is
10,
K 20
;
after IT
(= 80),
Cf (koppa =90)
is
inserted;
and after o>
(=800)"^
(satnpi
=900).
The
alphabet begins again
at
1000,
but here each
letter has the accent under it
;
hence
;3i>i8'=2344,
=1862.
221. The Cardinal Numbers 1 to 4 are declined.
1. Nom.
224.
NUMERALS. 97
222. The numerals 5 to 199 are indeclinable.
We also find
Tpfls, rpla
KOI
8(KU, Ttcro-apts, Tf<rcrapa
KU\
Sena,
for
13 and 14. The units and tens are united
by
*at. in
any
order :
e?Acocri Kai nevre and Trtvrf ical eiKocri
;
or without teat when the
tens are first : e'<o<ri
irevre,
25
;
so also i<arov Se*ca. For
twenty-
first
we have els KOI
flxac-ros,
or
irp&ros
KOI
(IKOO-TOS,
and
tiKocrros
irp<t>ros,
Sec.
The Cardinal numerals from 200
are,
like the
Ordinal,
regular adjectives
of three terminations :
Siafc6<noi, at,
a.
The Ordinal numerals have the
endings
of the
superla-
tive,
except Sevrepos,
which has that of the
comparative
(comp. 192).
223.
By
combination with
<rvv,
the numeral Stems form Distri-
butives:
avi>8vo,
two and
two;
arvvrptis,
three and
three;
Multiplicatives, by
the
syllable
ir\ovs
(from
ir\6os,
Lat.
plex)
:
fnr\ovs,
simple; 8iir\ovs,
Tpnr\ovs,
irfiTcnrXovs,
&c. Observe
also
Sura-os, twofold; rpicra-os, threefold; 8t7r\d<Tios,
twice as
much
;
TpurXda-ios,
&c., TroXXan-Xao-ioj, many
times as much.
Adverbs :
/zoi/a^, simply (povos, alone)
; Bixjj
or
8i'x
n
doubly.
Substantives:
povds (St. /noraS), unity; 8vds, rptay, Ttrpdt,
irffj-Trds,
fds,
t^Sofids, oy8ods, tvvfds,
Sticds, di(ds, (Karovrds,
\i\ids, fjivpids ;
hence
rpels p.vpido'fs
=
30,000.
224. The most
important general Adjectives
of
quantity
are :
eKacrro?,
each
;
eare/309,
either
;
ira?
Tracra,
TTCLV
(St.
Trai/r),
all', TTCOTO?,
OTrotrro?
[quotus]
;
and the adverbs :
TroXXa/ct?,
many
times,
often ;
etcacrTaKt,?,
every
time
; ocra/a?,
as
often
as
; ToaavraKis,
so
often
;
<?,
very often; oXiydfcts,
seldom.
98 THE VERB.
B. INFLEXION OF VERBS.
General Remarks.
225. The Greeks
distinguish
in the Verb
1. Three Numbers :
{Singular,
Dual,
and Plural.
2. Three Voices:
Active:
cXva-a,
I loosed
Middle :
\,v<rdfjt,r)v,
I loosed
for myself
Passive :
e\v6nv,
I ivas loosed.
Verbs which occur
only
in the Middle or Passive are
called
Deponents
:
Sexopcu,
I receive.
Ols.
Only
the Aorist and the Future have
special
forms for the
Passive
;
and
only
the Aorist
special
forms for the Middle : in
all other tenses the Middle forms have also a Passive
meaning.
3. Two classes of Tenses :
A.
Principal,
viz. :
1. Present :
\vw,
I loose
2.
Perfect
:
XeXv/ta,
/ have loosed,
3. Future :
\va-ca,
I shall loose.
15.
Historical,
viz. :
1.
Imperfect
:
e\,vov,
I was
loosing
2.
Pluperfect
:
\e\.vtceiv,
I had loosed
3. Aorist :
e'Xvo-a,
I loosed.
4. Four
Moods,
viz. :
(1.
Indicative: Xvo) I loose
2. 2.
Subjunctive
:
\vw,
I
may
loose
Verb.
]
3.
Optative
:
\voifju,
I would loose
[4. Imperative:
X)e,
loose.
5. Three Verbal
Nouns,
viz. :
1.
Infinitive:
\veiv,
loose
2.
Participle
:
\vcav,
loosing
3. Verbal
Adjective: Xirre'o?,
to be
loosed,
eolvendus.
227. THE PERSONAL ENDINGS TENSE-STEMS. 90
226. The Personal
Endings
had
originally
the
following
forms :
Active.
100
TENSE-STEMS.
228.
2. The
Strong
Aorist
Stem,
from which the Second or
Strong
Aorist Act. and Mid. are formed.
3. The Future
Stem,
from which the Future Act and
Mid. are formed.
4. The Weak Aorist
Stem,
from which the First or
\Vcak Aorist Act. and Mid. are formed.
6. The
Perfect
Stem,
from which the
Perfect,
Plu-
perfect,
and
Future-Perfect are formed.
These five Stems
belong
to the Active and Middle.
There are added to
them,
for the
special
forms of the
Passive :
6. The
Strong
Passive
Stem,
from which the Second
or
Strong
Aorist Passive and Second Future Passive
are formed.
7. The Weak Passive
Stem,
from which the First
or Weak Aorist Passive and First Future Passive are
formed.
The form from which all the Tense-Stems of a verb
may
be derived is called the Verbal Stem.
228. The
Subjunctive
is indicated between the Stem
and the
ending. Long
vowels are
peculiar
to it
:\v-a>-fj,v,
solv-d-mus
; \V-TJ-TC,
solv-d-tis.
The vowel t is characteristic of the
Optative,
which
generally
becomes a
diphthong
with other vowels:
\v-oi-pev,
we would looee. The
Subjunctive
has the
endings
of the
principal
tenses;
the
Optative (except
1
Sing. Act.)
those of the historical tenses.
The
Imperative
has the
following peculiar endings
:
Active. Middle.
Sing.
2. -di -(TO
3. -TO) -<T0O>
Dual 2. -TOV -<T0ov
Plur. 2. -rt -(T0f
3. -VTU>V or -rtocrav ird&v or
$
228. Dialects.
The Horn. dial, often shortens the
long
vowel
of the
Subjunctive
in the Dual and Plural.
^
230. CONJUGATIONS. 101
229. The
general
law for the accentuation of the
verb
is,
that the accent is
placed
as
far
back as
possible
from
the
end,
final at not
being
considered
long, except
in the
optative
:
\va>, \vere,
\vo^ai.
Obs. An
exception
is formed
by
the
Participles,
which in declen-
sion
(chap, vii.),
if
possible ( 79-87),
always keep
the accent
on the same
syllable
as in the Nom.
Sing.
Masc. : Part. Pres.
Act.
jSao-iAeueoi/, regnar.s,
Neut.
ftao-iXevov
(not
jSacriXevoj/
according
to
84),
Part. Fut. Act.
fiao-iXtvo-aiv, reynaturus,
Neut.
fiaariXfvaov.
(The special exceptions,
see
331-333.)
230. We
distinguish
Two
Principal Conjugations
:
1. The First the far more
frequent
connects the
personal endings
with the first two Tense-Stems
by
a
i-onnecting
vowel:
\v-o-p,ev.
The verbs
belonging
to
it are called verbs in o> because the first Pers.
Sing.
Pres. Act. ends in &> : \vw.
2. The Second the less
frequent,
but older affixes
the
personal endings
to the first two Tense-Stems without
a
connecting
vowel:
ea-pev. They
are called verbs in
^
t because the 1
Sing.
Pres. Act.
preserves
the
original
ending
/j,
i :
el-pi.
The forms of the other five Tense-Stems are common
to both
conjugations.
The
Paradigms
of the verbs are
given
first : the for-
mation of each Tense-Stem is then
explained
in order.
LIST OF THE PARADIGMS.
Ei>,
lam Table I.
Synopsis
of
\uo>,
I loose
(exhibiting
the
meanings
of
the
Tenses)
IL
VKUIIS IN Q.
A. Vowel Stems.
1.
Uncontracted,
\vta IIT
2.
Contracted, Tifj.da>,
iroitw,
$ov\6w
IV,
B. Consonant Stems.
1. Guttural
Stems, ir\e/cw, <j>tvyw,
-rda-ffco .
V.
2.
Dental-Stems, $e
8. Labial
Stems, irt/xTrco, \ei7ro>,
Ka\vimt>
4.
Liquid
Stems,
Sfpw, ayye'AAco, o-irefpa)
VERBS IN MI.
First
Class, -rlOyni, 5i5a>jUi, Icrrrj^t
Second
Class, Kfii>u>j.t
.. .. .. .. ..
VI
VII'
VIII]
IX.
X
102 PARADIGMS OF
VEIJBS. TaMe L
PAKADIGMS OF VERBS.
Eif",
7am. Stem is.
Moods.
Table II. PARADIGMS OF VERBS. 10S
104
PARADIGMS OF VERBa VERBS IN fi. Table III.
A. VOWEL
STEMS.
ACTIVE
Tenses.
Table III. PARADIGMS OF VERBS. VERBS IN 12. 105
1. UNCOHTRACTED.
VOICE.
Optative.
106 PARADIGMS OF VERBS. VERBS TN H. Table III.
A. VOWKL STEMS.
MIDDLE AND
Tenses common
Tenses.
continued. PARADIGMS OF VERBS VERBS IN ft. 107
1. UNCONTRACTED.
PASSIVE VOICES.
(
225,
Ols.
2.)
to both Voices.
Optative.
r.VUADlGMS OF VKKl'.S. VKKUS IN H.
Table 111.
A.YIAYKL STKMS.
Mll>I)l.K AND
i-fiijiiir (>
g
'
continued. FATIADIGMS OF VERBS. VERBS IN H.
100
I. UXCOXTRACTED.
PASSIVE YOTCES.
the Middle Voice.
Optative.
no
PARADIGMS OF VKKHS. VERBS IN 1.
Tal-1,- l\.
A. VOWEL S'l'KMS.
'
m/'/
///1/n-rf'
<( Tenws.
Tlp.du>,
I /toituiir
Tabl IV. PARADIGMS OF VERBS. VERBS IN 111
II. CONTKACTED.
Indicative Mood.
PARADIGMS OF VERDS. VERBS IN H.
Table IV.-
A. VOWEL HTKMS.
Present and
Imperfect Tenses,
continued.
PARADIGMS OF VERBS. TEKBS IN fl. 113
II.CONTHAOTEP.
Indicative Mood.
!
PARADIGMS OP VERBS. VERBS IN 11.
Tublo IV.
A. VOWEL STEMS.
(
I '?< contracted
Tenses.
continued.
PARADIGMS OF
VERBS. VERBS IN fi. 115
TL CONTRACTED.
Imperative.
Infinitive.
Participle.
Active Voice.
TtflTJCTflV
TroifjcrdV
SovXoxrftJ'
iroirjaov
SovXaxray
rfrftrjKe
ir*7rt>'iT)Kf
nfdovXtMtc
TfTl/LUJKCOff
Middle and Passive Voices.
r
rifj.rja-0
7)
fTTOJ/JCTO
110 PARADIGMS OF VERBS. VEKBS IN Ii.
l.iUe V.
B. CONSONANT STEMS,
f/ew,
I
plait (class 1); <f>(vya>,
I
flee (class 2)
;
Tenses.
r.iLIe V. PAitADIGMS OF VERBS. VERBS IN H.
117
I. GUTTURAL STEMS.
Tiiffcra,
I
arrange (class 4).
Verbal Stems:
TrXex,
<j>vy, ray.
Optative. Imperative.
Infinitive
Active.
Participle.
rco-erot/u
TrXe/ceii/
(jifvytiv
rdl-tiv
((f)(Wy
7T(()(W(Vai.
rera^coj
Middle and Passive.
racrfroijttnf
Tui-at
evos
frjv
vos
firjv TfTayptvos
rmedtaj
TrXa/ciji/ai
valets
'1.
TrAeKT/os,
0fVKreof,
raKreof.
Conjugation.
opvo-tro),
/
J/V/,
Stem
opvx,
class
4,
a
;
for other
guttural
Stems
(Pres.
-o-o-co
TU
n\('y-iJLa,lhe
wreath
(47)
; ^ Ta|i-r, arrangement; !] upx-f),
the
government
il
rAKADIGMS OF YEllliS. VEKIIS IN O. TalJc VI.
B. CONSONANT STKMS.
^fuSo/xni,
7 lie
(class 1), 7m'0o>,
/
jirrstHitlr (class 2)
;
Tenses.
Table VI. PARADIGMS OF VERBS. VERBS IN
If. DENTAL STEMS.
*o/u'fft>,
I
carry (class
1,
&.).
Verbal Stems:
^evS,
irtd,
119
Optative.
120 PARADIGMS OF VERBS.
Table VII.
B. CONSONANT STEMS.
7r77ro>,
1 send
(class 1)
; X*(V&>,
1 Iraue
(class 2);
Tenses.
Table VIL PARADIGMS OF VERBS. 121
HI. LABIAL STEMS.
KaXvTTTw,
I cover
(class 3).
Verbal Stems:
TTC/XTT, XITT, aXv/3.
Optative. Imperative.
Infinitive.
Participle.
Active.
XetVoi/u
KtiXvirre
TTffjnretv
\eiTTflV
Ka\VTTTflV
XftTTW
XtTTOl/M
X/7 XtTTO)!/
\f\oi XfXotTreVat
Middle and Passive.
nfftnov
\finov
Tffp.Tr6p.fVOS
\UTOlfUJV
XiTroO \irriirdai
s
(rjv
y
fir;!/
vos
fir/v
\e\ft\jso
TrfTTft[J.VOS
\e\fiHfjifvos
Kd\V(f)0T)Tl
2.
TTfJiTTTtOS,
XetTTTtOf,
KoXvTTTfOS.
Conjugation.
(class 2),
as to its
Perf.,
see
279; dairm,
I
fairy (class 3),
Stem ra<
the escort
; Xotjr-o-s, remaining ;
ij caXy/3-i;,
the hut
;
6
Tpw-o-s,
the
122
PARADIGMS OF VERBS.
Vlil.
B. CONSONANT STKMS.
',><*,
1 skin
(class 1)
;
dyyXX,
2 announce
(class
4, c)
;
<rn(ipa>,
I .wr
(class
Tenses.
Table VIII. PARADIGMS OF VERBS. 123
IV. LIQUID
STEMS
(X, /*,
v,
p).
4,
d)
; fiiaiixtt,
I soil
(class
4, d).
Verbal Stems:
8ep, dyyeX, (rirfp, jttan.
Optative.
PARADIGMS OF VERBS. VERBS IN
/LW.
Table IX.
VF.Iins IN
TI-0IJ-HI,
I
pllt
Table IX.
PARADIGMS OF VERBS. VERBS IN
/U.
] 25
FIRST CLASS.
This First Class consists of Verbs which affix their terminations
1'JG PARADIGM- OF VERBS. VERBS IN ill.
Table IX.
VF.r.r.s ix at.
ri-0r]-fj.i,
I
pat
PARADHMS OF VERES. VERBS IN
fzt.
FIRST CLASS.
127
This First Class consists of Verbs which affix their terminations
TJ8 PARADIGMS OF VERBS. VERBS IN
/u.
Table X.
VKKP.S IX
ui. SECOND CLASS.
This Second Class consists of Verbs which form the Present Stem
by adding
w to the Pure Stein.
dci'icw/a,
I shew. Pure
Stem,
&t IK. Present
Stem,
8dK-w.
232.
I.
THE PRESENT-STEM. 129
CHAP.
X. FIRST PRINCIPAL CONJUGATION
or Verbs in <w.
I. THE PRESENT-STEM.
A.
Inflexion of
the
Present-Stem.
231. The Present-Stem is the form
which remains
after
rejecting
o> in the 1
Sing.
Pres. Act.
On the distinction of the Present-Stem from the
Verbal-Stem,
see
245,
&c.
The
following
Table exhibits the
way
in which the
Personal
Endings
are affixed to the Present-Stem
by
means of the
connecting
vowels.
232.
130 I. THE PRESENT-STEM. 232.
PERSONAL ENDINGS. 131
233. Obs. 1. The E-sound
(e, 77, et)
is used as a
connecting
vowel, except
before
nasals,
where the O-sound
(o, ,
ov)
is
used.
2.
In 1
Sing.
Ind. Act. o> is the
connecting
vowel
lengthened,
the
ending p.i being dropped.
In the 2
Sing,
eis is for ecrt.
In the 3
Sing,
ei for ert :
Xv-et-s
for
Xv-e-cri,
Xu-et for \v-e-rt
[comp. solv-i-f].
The ou of the 3 Plur. has arisen out of o
by
compensative lengthening ( 42)
: Xu-ov-o-i from Xv-o-wi for
the
original
and Doric Xv-o-vri
[comp. solv-u-nt].
In the 3
Sing.
Imperf. e(v)
stands for
original
e-r
comp.
solveba-t as T at the
end could not maintain its
ground ( 67).
3. In the 2
Sing.
Ind. Pres. Mid.
rj
or ei arose from
(o-)a
(
61, 38)
:
\vrj
from
Xve(<r)at
;
the
ending'et
is the Old Attic
one
exclusively
used in
otei,
thou
thinkest, /3ouXet,
tJiou wishest
;
T]
is the one later in
general
use.
Comp.
the Fut.
o^et ( 259).
4. The
Subjunctive
has
always <o, 77, 77,
for o
(ov),
e
,
e i
;
the
17
of the 2
Sing.
Mid. is contracted from
17(0-)
at
(comp. 228).
5. In the 2
Sing. Imper.
Act. the termination after the
connecting
vowel is
quite
lost, ou in the 2
Sing. Imperat.
and
Imperf.
Mid. has arisen from
e(o-)o,
eo:
Xuou=Xue(o-)o,
eXvou
=
eXue(o-)o ( 61, 37);
oto in the 2
Sing. Opt.
Mid. arose from
Ol(cr)o.
233. Dialects. 1. The
Epic
dial, sometimes has the
original
ending p.t
of the 1
Sing,
in the
subjunctive
:
e'$X<-/ii, velim;
the
2
Sing. Subj.
and
Opt.
often has the fuller
ending
a- da
(for s):
fdf\r]-crda=fdf\r]s,
<\aioi-ada
=
K\aiois
((cXat'ta,
I
weep);
the 3
Sing.
Subj.
has the old
ending <rt(v)
from rt :
e'$<?X7-o-t(i>)
=
fde\rj.
2. The
long
vowels of the
Subjunctive
are often shortened in
Horn. : Idvvert for
Idvvrjre (I6vva>,
1
put straight} (comp. 228,
D.).
3. The
Epic
dial, often has
p,evai
or
pev
in the Inf. Act. con-
nected with the Stem
by
an accented e :
d/xuv-e'-^ewu,
or
dfj.vv-f-fj.fv
=
dptiveiv,
to
defend.
4. The 2
Sing.
Mid. often remains uncontracted in the Ion. dial. :
XiXai'em,
thou wishest
; Subj. ex
7
?
6"
(habearis),
also
shortened,
/xio-yeai
(miscearis) ; Imperat. e/reo, follow ; Imperf. e'Seveo,
thou wast in
want
of.
eo is also contracted to eu
( 37, D.)
: tntv.
5. The 1 Dual and 1 PL Mid. in
poetry
often has cr 6 for 6:
fiov\6fjifa-dov, -pta-da,
we wish.
6. aro
( 226,
D.)
occurs in the Ion. dialect
regularly
for vro in
3 PI.
Opt.
:
paxoiaro (= paxoivro), tJiey may fight.
In New-Ion.
arcu, aro,
are also sometimes found in other forms where < is the
J 32 I. THE PRESENT-STEM. 234.
B. The
Augment.
234. The
Augment (Augmentum, increase)
is the
sign
of the
past
in the Indicative of all the
historical
tenses
(
225,
3.
B).
It has two
forms,
that
is,
it
ap-
pears
either
a)
As a
Syllabic Augment,
in the
syllable
e
prefixed,
or
b)
As a
Temporal Augment,
in the
lengthening
of the
initial vowel.
All verbs
beginning
with a consonant have the
Syllabic Augment
:
e-\v-o-v,
e-rvTrT-o-^v,
I was struck,
p
is doubled after e :
eppiTrrov,
from
PITTTO),
I hurl.
Obs. The
Syllabic Augment appears
in the
stronger
form of
17
instead of in
fj-fj.f\\-o-v,
I was about
to,
from
/wXXw ;
^-/JovX-
6-firjv,
I
wished,
from
)3ovXo/iai; rj-Swa-^v,
I
could,
from
dvvapai.
235. The
Temporal Augment
is used in all verbs
which
begin
with a
vowel,
whether
aspirated
or not
The
Temporal Augment changes
a to
Tj
:
aya>,
I lead
Imperfect tjy-o-v
t
rj
:
(\avva>,
I drive
rf\avv-o-v
o a) :
6vfi8i<o,
I
reproach
/ei'8t-o-i>
t
,,
t :
'iK(Tfva>,
I beseech
connecting
vowel instead of o :
^8-e-arai
=
Krjb-o-vrai, they care,
j3ovX-e-aro
=
e'/3ovAoro.
7.
Horn., quite peculiarly,
has in the 3 Dual
Imperf.
rov,
a- dor
for
TTJV, <rdrjv: tTfvxfTov,
the two
made;
and Attic writers have
TT)
v for the 2 Dual of an historic tense :
elxf-njv, ye
two
had, (vptr^v,
ye
two
found.
234. Dialects.
In
Horn.,
and also in other
poets,
the
Augment
may
be
entirely
omitted :
rtv-^f,
he
made;
ex
n/
>
^ had-
^> M>
v
> ^
are also sometimes doubled after the
Syllabic Augment
: eAXiWtro
(from
AiWo/i<u,
/
beseech");
d
only
in the Stem dt: e88ei<ra
(2
f
eared, 317,
5).
On the
contrary, p
is sometimes left
single
:
fpa.irrop.fv (paTrrw,
/
sew, spin).
235. Dialect*.
By
the
Temporal Augment
5 becomes 5 in Doric :
2yov.
The
Temp. Aug.
is
very
often
wanting
in Herod,
especially
in the case of
diphthongs.
238. THE AUGMENT. L'6'6
ij to v :
'vfiptfa,
1 insult
Imperfect
'v
cu
,, y
:
atcr&ji'o^at,
I
perceive ri<rQa.v-~Q-\u)V
av
r)v
:
avdva>,
I increase
rjvt-av-o-v
01
,,
(o :
olKTfipco,
1
pity wjcrap-o-i/
Before
vowels,
a becomes
d,
not
7;
:
dico,
I
hear,
'dlov.
The
long
vowels
*), w, I, v,
and
usually
the
diphthongs
i, ev, ov,
remain without
Augment.
fLKafa,
I
conjecture, eiKa^-o-v
(also flKafrv"),
fvpiaj),
I
find, fvpicrn-o-v (seldom
Aorist
rjvpov),
also av and 01
immediately
before a vowel:
avatvw,
I
dry,
avaivov,
otatelfyo,
I
steer, oldta&v,
and other
diphthongs
in isolated instances.
Obs. The
rough breathing precedes
the
augmented
form
when the verb in its
unaugmented form
had it.
236. e becomes e i
(instead
of
77)
in some
verbs,
viz.
in
edco,
I leave
; e#/&>,
I become accustomed
; eXiW&>,
2
roll;
G\KU> or
e\Ki>co,
2
draw; erro/wit,
I
follow; epyd^ofiat,
I work
;
e/JTrw
or
epTrvfya,
I
creep
; ecmda),
I entertain
hospitably
;
e^w,
I have.
Comp.
below the Aorists :
e'ifirjv ( 313),
eTkov
(aipeco,
I
take, 327,
l),
etcra,
2
placed (
269, D.,
and
275).
Obs. These verbs
originally began
with a
consonant,
and there-
fore had the
Syllabic Augment
:
Fepya^-o-pai ( 34,
D.)
f-f(pya-o-pT)v
;
vex- (
327,
6) e'-o-ex-o-i'.
Then the consonant
was
dropped
:
e-epya^-o-^rjv, l-f^-o-v, finally
ee was
regularly
contracted to a.
( 36)
:
flp-ya^-6-fjLtjv, tf^-0-v.
237.
foprdfa,
I
celebrate,
has the
Augment
in the second
vowel
:
ecopra^oi/
for
fjopra^ov (comp.
37,
D.
2).
Verbs which
originally began
with a
digamma (
34,
D.), consequently
with
a
consonant,
have the
Syllabic Augment
in
spite
of their initial
vowel :
avddva),
I
please
;
e-dv&avov
; oipeco,
/ make water
; o>0ea>,
1
push
; wi/o/iat,
J
buy ( 275).
Both
Augments, Syllabic
and
Temporal,
are combined in
6/>ao>,
I
see, eapaov (ewpwp) ; dv-oiy-ta,
2
open, dv-ea>y-o-v.
238. Verbs
compounded
with a
preposition
have tJte
237. Dialects. Horn, forms
eWo^oet
from
oi^o^oeo),
I
pour
out
wine
;
lyvbavov (Herod, idv&avov')
and
rjvdavov
from
&v8dva,
1
phase. Comp. 34,
D. 1 and 4
134 I. THE PRESENT-STEM. 239.
Augment
immediately after
the
preposition:
carry
in,
els-e-fap-o-v
;
Trpos-dy-w,
/ lead
to,
CK,
out
of,
becomes e before the
Augment
:
led out. The true forms of
eV, in,
and
ervi/, with,
altered
by
assimilation
( 51)
in the
Present,
appear again
be-
fore e :
av\-\ey-o),
I
collect,
crvv-e-\ey-o-v ; e/-/3aA,\-o>,
2
invade, eW-/3a\X-o-i/.
The final vowel of a
preposition
is elided :
cnr-e-fap-o-v,
I carried
away,
from
a-rro-^ep-a)
;
only irepL
and
77736
never lose their final vowel
;
but
TT/XJ
is often
contracted
with e :
irpov-Bawov
from
7rpo-e-/3aiv-o-v,
I marched on.
239. EXCEPTIONS. Some
verbs,
which are not
merely
com-
pounded
with
prepositions,
but derived from
already compound
nouns
(Decomposita),
have the
Augment
at the
beginning:
tvavrioofiai (from
ivavrios, against"), r)vavriovfj.r]v (from 00/4171'),
Iwas
against ; poet, rjvapov
from
tvaipto,
1
slay
;
irappr)<riaofj.cn
(from irapprja-ia,
freedom of speech), tTrappna-ia^o^v,
I
spoke
freely;
but the
majority
nevertheless have it in the middle :
tKKXrjo-iafa,
I
assemble,
from
tVcxXqcrui, assembly, (gd&Tja-lafrv ;
VTTOTrrevo),
I
suspect,
from
VTTOTTTOS,
suspicious,
VTratintvov
;
Karrjyopfci),
1
accuse,
Karrjyopovv (from tov). irapavopftn,
I act
contrary
to law
(from Trapd-vopos, contrary
to
law),
has irre-
gularly jrapTjvopovv (foi>).
240.
Many prepositions
have in some
compounds
so far lost
their distinctive
meanings,
that the verbs are treated as
simple
:
Kadfvoo),
I
sleep,
(Kadevoov
yet Kadrjvoov
also
; Kadifa,
I
sit,
(Kadi^ov. Comp.
the verbs
IT^U (a<pir)ni, 313), (i>wp.i (ap.-
(pifvwp.1,
319,
5), rj/iot (Ka^fiat, 315,
2).
Some verbs
also have a double
Augment
:
d^o^iat,
/
endure,
rjveix^v ;
dvopdoa,
I raise
up, TfvapQovv (oov)
;
eVo^Xf'w,
/
encumber,
Tjva>X\ovv (fov)
; napoivea>,
I act as a
drunkard, firaprnvovv
So
also
Stairaw,
1 live
(from 8tatra,
mode
of life), foif/ruv
(aov)
;
fo),
I
serve, f8iTjK.6vovv, (eoi/).
241.
ovs, lad, in,
in
composition
is
preceded by
the
Augment
when the second word
begins
with a consonant or
long
vowel :
&vsrvxfa>
I am
unfortunate, (Bvyrv^ovv (eov) ; ovsomfta,
1
make a sour
face,
(ftvsairovv
(eoi>)
;
but short vowels receive the
Temporal Augment after
8vs :
ovsapf&Tfw,
I
displease, 8vsj;
Ota-row
[ft*)*
Compounds
with tv
generally
have no
Augment:
eirv^ow (eoi/),
/ was
fortunate
;
but short vowels
occasionally
receive the Tern-
243. CONTRACTED VERBS.
135
poral Augment
after e3 :
evrjpyeTovv (eov), together
with tvt
p-
yfrovv,
from
tvepyereo),
/ do
good.
242. All other
compounds
have the
Augment
at the
begin-
ning
:
TjdvfjLovv,
from
adv^ta,
I am without
courage.
C. Contracted Verbs.
243. Verbs whose Present-Stem ends in
a, e,
or
o,
regularly
contract these vowels in all forms of the
Present-Stem with the
connecting
vowel,
and hence
243. Dialects. The Ion. dial,
very often
does not contract
;
but the three kinds of contracted verbs are treated
differently.
A. Horn, inflects the a-Stems in three
ways
:
1. The
syllables regularly
contracted
by
the Attic writers remain
open
and
unchanged
:
doibtd-ei,
he
sings, vaierd-ovo-t,
they dwell,
and
the Fern. Part, vaierdcoo-a for
vaierdovo-a,
with a remarkable
change
of ov to a>.
2. Contraction takes
place
:
opera
=
apera-et,
he
thrives,
from
aprraw ;
irpos-rjvda
=
Trpos-rjvba-e,
from
Trpos-avSaw,
/ address.
Sometimes ae becomes
^ (not a): Trpos-avorjrrjv (3
Dual
Imperf.),
oprjai
also with
regular
accent
-(from 6pa-e<u)
=
Att.
6pa (2 Sing.
Pres. Ind.
Mid.).
3. Extension instead of contraction takes
place
when a vowel of
the same kind is inserted before the
long
one which results from
contraction :
6paw,
J
see,
contracted
6pw,
extended
6p6a>.
a)
This inserted vowel is
usually
short. Hence 6oda> is thus
inflected.
Act. Pr. Ind.
136 L THE PRESENT-STEM. 243.
are called Contracted Verbs. The laws of contraction
given
in
36-38 are observed.
Paradigms
of the three
verbs
TI/J.OO), -rroteoj,
8ov\6o> are
given
on
pp.
110-113.
Obs. As the f i in the Infinitive tiv is not
original, ativ,
o(iv
do not become
/, oiv,
but
av,
ow
(
37,
Obs.").
Dialects.
b)
sometimes
long,
e.
g.
f)j3d-ovcra
Att.
f)ft>cra
Horn,
fjfidxacra
from
>J,3ua>,
/ am
youthful,
so also from
dpdw,
/ do
dpd-ovcri
Att.
dpacri
Horn.
Spcococri
and from
^irao/wi,
I remember
fivd-fcrdai
Att.
fivaa-dat
Horn.
/xv<f
atrdat.
After
Zon^
vowels the one
following
is sometimes shortened :
Hva-6p.(vos
Att.
fj.vd>fJLfvos
Horn,
The metre
chiefly
determines which of the vowels should be
long
or
short. Such
forms,
for
instance,
as
dptrdq (""""), ypouvrfs
(""""),
are inadmissible.
In Herod, the Stems in a often
pass
over into the
conjugation
of
the Stems in e :
6pe
o>
(but opas, o/>), op/o/iev, optovvi, oplovrts.
Instead of to we also find ew :
6piu>vrts.
Horn, also has
rjvrfov
=
Att.
rjvrwv (from d*ra-o>,
/
weef), ^pew/iej'oj=
Att.
^pa)/*ej'oj,
making
use
of.
B. /Stems t e fluctuate between the
open
and contracted forms.
eo is
often monosyllabic by synizesis ( 39)
:
tdpfaov,
I com-
plained;
often also in Ionic contracted to eu : Horn.
vf\>itm
=
Att.
vfopai,
I return home, eov
rarely
becomes <v: vfnuvvt
=
they quarrel,
ft becomes
rj irregularly
in Horn.:
(6/iapr/a),
/ meet
vrith), djretX^TTjv (aTrctXea,
J
iArea<en),
(8opnfo>,
I
sup),
Inf.
(popfot
vat.
=
Att.
(popfiv,
to
carry.
An
utterly
anomalous Infinitive is
(poprjvai.
The second e in the 2
Sing.
Mid. is sometimes
dropped
:
fivdeai
for
fivdftai (Att. fivdrj, pvdfi,
thou
sayest),
troiXeo
=
Att.
eVwXou,
<Aow
hadst intercourse
;
sometimes ee are contracted to et :
/iw^etot.
The
first
way
is usual in Herod. Horn, also
prolongs
e to t.i
without
contraction : peiKcia
=
Att.
veuco>,
ereXct'cro
^
Att. cVeXetro
(reXw,
/
complete').
C. /Sfcms tn o are
mostly
contracted :
yowoG/uu,
J
supplicate.
Some have an extension like those in a :
apooxri^)
=
Att,
), they plough
;
brfiototv
=
Att.
brj'ioltv they
would
destroy
;
=
Att.
imvovirras,
the
sleepers.
In Herod, o sometimes
changes
to
e,
and with o is contracted to
c v : f8i<ai(vv
=
Att.
fO~ucaiovi>,
deemed
right.
245. PRESENT AND VEEBAL-STEMS. 137
244. Obs. 1.
Monosyllabic
Stems in e admit
only
the con-
traction ti. All
syllables which, contracted,
would
produca
another sound remain uncontracted.
Stem jr\e
(Pres. TrXea,
I
sail,
Inf.
irXeTi/)
TrXe'ety TrXeZ? but 7rXeo>
ir\((i TrXet TrXeovcri
8e'o>,
I
bind,
forms an
exception, having
TO 8ovi>
(Seov), 8ot)/*at,
&c.,
to
distinguish
them from forms of
8Vw,
1 am in want
of,
8t
I,
it is
necessary,
TO
o~eov, duty.
2. Some Stems in a have a
preference
for
77,
which
they
admit hi
the
place
of a:
fa-co, Hive, >}?, fj, frjTe, frp; irfivd-a>,
I am
hungry, TTfivrjv ;
8n/m-a>,
I
thirst, StA^v
;
so also
Kvd-a>,
I
scratch
;
o-/ia-&),
I stroke
;
\Jm-w,
I
scrape,
and
xpd-opai,
2 make
use
of.
3.
ptyo-w,
I
freeze,
has <o and w for ov and 01: Inf.
piy&v,
Opt
4.
Xovw,
I
wash, lav-o,
has a
peculiar
contraction
;
that
is,
the
connecting
vowel after ov
disappears
: e-Xov for
e-Xou-e, Xo5-^at
for
Xou-o-/nat,
&c. In like manner
ot-o-p.ai
is often contracted
to
ol-pai,
I
think,
and the
Impf. a-6-p.rjv
to
o>-/wjj/.
D. Distinction
of
the Present-Stem
from
the Verbal-
Stem.
245. We call that
part
of a verb the Verbal-Stem
from the combination of which with the terminations
of
persons,
tenses, moods,
infinitives and
participles.
consistently
with the laws of
euphony,
all the forma
of the verb
may
be
explained:
\v,
Pres.
\vca,
Perf.
\e\v/ca,
Flit, \vcrci)
;
rtytta,
Pres.
rt/iaa),
Perf.
rerifArjica,
Fut.
TL^rja-w.
Obs. From the Verbal-Stem also nouns are formed
by
means of
the nominal suffixes : Xv-tri-
s, loosing ;
Xu-rijp,
looser
;
\v-rpo-v,
redemptionfee
;
Ti'-^-o-t-y,
valuation;
np.r]-TTi-s,
censor.
When the Verbal-Stem cannot be traced further
back,
it is called a Moot:
\v,
and a verb formed from
it,
a Hoot- Verb: \vw. But when the Verbal-Stem is
244. Dialects. 2. For
XP*I
Herod, has
4. Horn. 3
Sing.
Impcrf.
Xde
(for
XoFe, 35, Ofifi.)
=
Xove,
<Xove,
138 I. THE PRESENT-STEM. 246
itself a Nominal-Stem formed
by
means of a nominal
suffix,
it is said to be derived:
rifia
is at once the
Nominal-Stem of
ripi),
honour,
formed
by
the nominal
suffix
p,d
from the root
rt,
and the verb formed from
it is a derivative one :
rifjicuo.
Obs. Roots are almost all of one
syllable
;
derived Stems are of
two or more
syllables.
246. The Verbal-Stem is not
always
like the
Present-Stem,
but the Present-Stem is
frequently
an
extension of the Verbal-Stem: Pres.
XetV-ty,
-Z"
leave,
Present-Stem
XetTr,
Verbal-Stem \ITT
(Aorist ekiirov).
Such additions are called
enlargements of
the Present
;
the Verbal-Stem divested of them is the
pure
Verbal-
Stem.
Obs. Where the Verbal-Stem differs from the
Present-Stem,
nouns are
usually
formed from the
former,
not from the latter :
Verbal-Stem
<f>vy,
Present-Stem
$fuy,
substantive
<pvy-r]
(fug-a), adj. <vy-a(8)-s, fugitive.
247. The relation of the Present-Stem to the
Verbal-Stem
produces
four Classes of verbs with some
subdivisions.
1. FIKST CLASS
(unenlarged).
The Present-Stem is like the Verbal-Stem.
This
comprises
first of all the
pure
verbs,
i.
e.,
verbs
whose Stem ends in a vowel
(with
the
exception
of a
small number in
e&>,
248),
and
many
others
besides:
rifid-ci),
SouXo-G), TraiSev-w,
Ieducate
; \v-a),
I loose
; TI-OJ,
I honour
;
ap%-o>,
I rule
; ay-o>,
I lead
;
\ey-w,
I
say.
248. 2. SECOND CLASS
(lengthened class).
The Stem vowel is
lengthened
in the
Present-Stem.
This
comprises
several verbs whose Stem ends in a
mute,
and which in the Present have a
diphthong
or a
long
vowel,
as :
248. Dialects.
To these
belongs
the Horn,
o-fvw,
I
hurry,
from
the Stem <rv.
249. PRESENT AND VEEBAL-STEMS. 139
>,
I
flee
Pure Stem
<vy ($>vy-r), flight, Lat./w#a)
iTr-co,
Heave
,, ,,
\ITT
TTfi6-a>,
I
persuade
TT 1 6
(irid-avo-s, persuasive')
TT)K-(a,
I melt
,,
TO.K
Tof^-w,
1 rub
Tpt)3
But besides these there are also six verbs in
e<a,
viz. :
ir\fo>,
I sail Pure Stem ir\v
irvea,
I Vim
1
)
, ,
irvv
vfa>,
I sail
pew,
I
flow
6ea>,
I run
vv
ov
6v
\(a>,
I
pour
Obs. The v of these Stems was
lengthened
to
eu,
"but resolved
to (F before vowels
(comp. 35,
D.
2), finally
the f wag
dropped
: TrXu-rrXeuoj-TrXfFw-TrXeo). The
diphthong appears
in
the substantives unresolved :
Trvfv-/j,a, breath, pet)-/xa,
stream.
Comp. 260,
2.
249. 3. THIED CLASS
(T-class).
The Present-Stem
affixes
T to the Verbal-Stem.
This
comprises only
verbs whose Pure Stems end in
Labials,
as
TV7TT-(t>,
I strike Pure Stem TVTT
(TVTTOS, stroke)
/3Xa7JT-ft>,
I
injure /3Xa/3 (/3Xa/3?7, injury)
3a7rr-a>,
/
dip Qafj) (fiaffrri,
a
dip)
and besides
TtKT-w,
J
bring forth
TK
(T(KOS, child)
The final consonant of the Pure Stem is called
here,
as in the verbs of the
following
class,
the character. On
the
changes
of sound see 45.
Other
Examples.
o,
1
cut,
Stem KOTT
rw,
/
steal,
Stem *Xf7r
a,
I
hide,
Stem
Kpvtf)
or
irpv/3
0anTa>,
/
Z>Mr?/,
Stem
ra<p ( 54,
c)
249. Dialects. The Stem
/3Xo/3
in Horn, has a Pres.
Uke class 1.
140 I. THE PRESENT-STEM.
250.
250. 4. FOURTH CLASS
(I-class).
The Present-Stem adds i to tJie
Verbal-Stem
[Lat.
fug-i-o,
Pure Stem
fug].
The i is here
subject
to the
various
changes
and
transpositions
discussed in
55-58,
viz.:
a)
The Crutturals
tc,
y,
%,
form with
i,
the
group
o-o-
(New-Att. TT) (57):
(pv\da-(ra>,
I
guard,
instead of
<iAcwaa>,
Pure Stem
<pvXa* ($tAaK^,
a
guard)
rda-a-o),
I
arrange,
rapdcrvu,
I
confuse,
253.
PEESENT AND VEEBAL-STEMS. 141
/uumfo),
I
whip,
and some others.
KXafco,
1
call,
Stem
icXayy,
icXayy-q,
a call
; TrXafw,
I mislead
; (raXnifa,
I blow a
trumpet
have a Pure Stem in
yy
; vta>,
I
wash,
has
irregularly
the Stem
vt/3.
252.
<?)
\ with i forms XX
( 56):
/SoXXw,
J
ttrow,
for
/3aXt<a,
Pure Stem aX
(/SeX-or,
a
sfatf)
aXXo/iai,
/
Zeap dXto/zat
dX
[saZ-i'-o]
r/XXo),
I
pluck
TiXiw nX
Other
Examples.
6d\\(o,
Ibloom
o-cpaXXa,
Icause to
stagger oreXXco,
I send
n-aXXa),
/wieW
dyyXXeo,
/annownce
^aXXw,
I
play
on the
lyre
253.
d)
v and
p
throw the i into the
preceding
syllable
of the Stem
( 55)
:
reivco,
I
stretch,
for
revia,
Pure Stem rev
(rov-o-s,
a
stretching,
Lat.
tendo")
(})6(ipa),
I
corrupt (frdeptu <J)0ep (<pdop-d, corruption')
<paiva>,
1 show
(pavioi (f)av (d-<pav-f)s, invisible)
Other
Examples.
i,
I
rage a-irfipa,
I sow
eyetpoa,
I awaken
),
I raise
dyei'pco,
I collect
v^talva,
I weave
Obs. If the Stem
syllable
has t or u for its
vowel,
this is
lengthened by
the
retreating
t :
icpfva,
I
sever, judge,
from
Kpiv-iu)
;
<rVpa>,
I
drag,
from
ervp-to).
A
single
Stem in X also follows this
formation,
viz.
o<peX,
Pres.
o</>eiXw,
I
owe,
for
o<eXio>,
to
distinguish
it from
<5<peXXo>,
7
increase,
with the same Stem.
The t unites
immediately
with the final vowels of the Stems' <au
and
xXau,
which then sacrifice their v
(F)
:
/ca-ia,
/
burn,
/cXa-t'o),
/
weep.
Additional forms in Attic are
icda,
KXa'w
( 35,
06s.).
N. B. The other less usual classes of verbs are
given
below.
253. Dialects. Horn,
joins
t
immediately
with Vowel Stems :
8a-ia),
I
burn,
Stem 8 a
;
/wz-t'o/iai,
I
seek,
Stem
/ia ; va-uo,
I
dwell,
Stem i>a
;
and he uses
o<peXXo>
in the sense of the Att.
ocpetXa
;
but,
on the other hand he has
ftXw,
/
press,
from the Stem
X,
for
which one
might expect
XXa>
(Class 4, c).
142 II. THE STRONG OR SECOND AORIST-STEM. 254
JI. THE STRONG OR SECOND AORIST-STEM.
254. The
Strong
or Second Aorist Active and
Middle is formed from the
Strong
Aorist-Stem,
which
is like the Pure
Verbal-Stem,
except
the few castAS
named in 257.
Pres.
Stem
257. II. THE STRONG OB SECOND AOEIST-STEM. 143
255. 1. The
Inflexion
of the
Strong
Aorist-Stem
differs from that of the Present-Stem
(Imperfect
and
Present
tenses) only
in the accent of the
following
forms : the Infin. Act. is
perispome (\nrelv),
the Infin.
Mid.
paroxytone (\t,7readai),
the Part. Act. accents the
O-sound
(TuTTotw, \t7rova-a),
the 2.
Sing. Imper.
Mid. is
perispome (XtTroy).
2. The Aorist Middle has
not,
like the Present
Middle,
the
meaning
also of the Passive: thus
e/Sako/ji'rjv
means
only
I threw
for myself,
but
not,
I was
thrown.
On the
Augment
of the
Indicative,
234-242.
256. The
Strong
Aorist can be formed
only
from such
verbs as have a Present-Stem
different
from the Pure
Verbal-Stem,
therefore not from the verbs of the First
(unenlarged)
Class
( 247).
Also it is not
usually
formed
from
many
verbs of other
classes,
and
scarcely
occurs
at all from
any
but Root- Verbs
( 245).
Ols. On the Aorists of the verbs 8v-a> and
(pu-o> (class 1),
see
316, 16,
17.
257. In a few verbs the
Strong
Aorist Stem is
distinguished
from the Pure Verbal Stem
;
viz. instead of e of the
latter,
the
Strong
Aor. sometimes has
a, by
which
rpeV-w,
I
turn,
though belonging
to the first
class,
has a
Strong
Aor. :
e-rpair-
o-v
(Impf. e-rpeTr-o-i'), e-rpaTr-o'-jujji'.
An isolated formation is
Pres.
rpwy-w,
/
gnaw,
Aor.
e-rpay-o-v. ay-a>,
1
drive,
likewise
belonging
to the first
class, by doubling
the Verbal-Stem forms
the Aorist-Stem
ay-ay,
whence Ind. :
fjy-uy-o-v, Subj. dy-dy-a,
Inf.
ay-ay-flv.
255.
Dialects. 1. All the
peculiarities
enumerated
233,
D.
extend
likewise to the
Strong
Aorist : 2
Sing. Subj. pd\T)a-0a,
3.
Sing.
i,
&c. The Inf. Aor. Act. ends in Horn, also in ita> instead of
fv
2. The
Middle Aorist forms of the Stems KTU
( 316, 4), /3Xif
( 316,
19),
ovra
(316, 20), exceptionally
have a Passive
meaning.
144 III. THE FUTURE-STEM. 258.
III. THE FUTURE-STEM.
258. From the Future-Stem are formed the Fut.
Active and Middle.
First Future
(The
a-
Future).
200. I. THE FUTUKE-STEM.
145
259. l. The Inflexion of the Future-Stem is the
same as that of the
Present-Stem,
i.
e.,
that of the
a- Future is the
ordinary
Inflexion,
that of the con-
tracted future is the Inflexion of the contracted Present
of e Stems
( 231, 232,
and
243).
260. The a- Future forms the Future-Stem
by
adding
cr to the Verbal-Stem:
\v,
Xt/cr. All Stems
ending
in a vowel or a mute have the <r Future. The
a-,
according
to
48,
with
gutturals
makes
f,
with
labials
i/r,
and admits of no dentals before it
( 49)
:
ay-G),
I
drive,
Fut. a-<o
;
<ypd(f)-a),
I
write,
Fut.
ypd^w
;
a8-G),
I
sing,
Fut.
acr-co; <nrvS-ci), libo,
Fut. (nreicr-w
for o-Trei/S-o-oj
( 50).
About
Ope-fro),
Stem
rpe(f>,
dv\lfO),
Stem
ru(/>,
and
others,
see 54.
2. Verbs of the second or extended class
( 248)
retain the extended Stem also in the Future :
XetV-cy,
Xen/r-oj
;
the six verbs in ecu mentioned in 248 show
their
strengthened
form in the
Fut.,
though
it is not
seen in the Present :
uXety,
TrXeuo-o/iat ;
in like manner
tc\ala)
brings
out its Pure Stem K\av in K\avaeo
}
and
Kaia) in Kavcrco
( 253).
About
^ea>,
see 265.
3. Of verbs of the third or T
class,
and of those of
the fourth or I class
(
249,
&c.),
the Pure Stem must be
found in order to form the Future : TVTTTM
(class 4),
Pure
Stem
TUTT,
Fut.
Tvifra)
;
^yXatrcrw,
Pure Stem
^wic,
1
rejoice};
Stem
<j)t8 (class 2), (fxidopat,
Inf. Aor.
fre-0iS-/-a-#ai,
also Fut.
Trt-^iS-ij-o-ojuat.
Isolated Aorists are :
*'-Ke'-K(e)X--ro,
he
called,
from
*ceXo/xat; irt-$v-o-v,
I killed
(Stem
0ei); Te-Tfj.-o-v (/
hit,
Stem
r*/i); re-ray-wi/ (seizing,
Stem
ray,
Lot.
tango), yv-iir-air-o-v (7
scolded,
Pres.
iv'arrwt) along
with
fi>-evi7r-o-v,
and
Tjpvu-oK-o-v (1 kept back,
Pres.
epvKo>)
have the
reduplication
in the middle of the word. The
reduplication
in this
case
everywhere belongs
to the
Tense-Stem, and,
as in the Perfect-
Stem
( 273),
is
preserved
in all the
moods,
in the
Infm.,
and the
Participle.
The Indie,
may
add the
Augment
or omit it before the
reduplication. ( 2,34, D.)
i
259. Dialects. About the
contraction,
see
243,
D.
L
H6
111. THE FUTURE-STEM. 26L
Fut.
<f>v\ii!;(o
;
<f>pd&,
Pure Stem
<f>pa&,
Fut.
Accordingly,
verl's
eliding
in the Present in -cro-o) or
TTG)
generally
make the Fut. in
-<w,
and those
having
the Present in a>
generally
liavc their Future in -crw.
According
to this
rule,
let the Future be formed of
eXt'<T<r&),
I roll
;
KTjpvcrGO),
I
proclaim
;
Trpdcra-eo,
I do
;
o-^t'o>,
I
split
;
Stfcdfo,
I
judge
; oir\i^w,
1
arm;
and
let the Presents be found to the Futures
opugco, (rfyd^w,
Btda'Ofj.ai,
\oytcrofj,ai.
Verbs with a dental character
ending
in the Present
in -ercrto or -TTO>
naturally (
250,
Obs.)
make the Future,
in -au> : TrXdaay
(Pres.
ir\dacra),
I
shape), ap^.oau>
(I
'res.
a/j/xorrd),
I
fit}
;
and,
on the other
hand,
those with tho
character
7,
which have the Present in -o>
(
251,
Obs.)
make their Future in -&> :
arevd^w (Pres.
<nvd&,
2
sigh), o-T/^6) (Pres.
o-rt'^w,
I
prick).
261. Vowel-Stems have their vowels
long
before a
;
a becomes a if
preceded by
e, i,
or
p
(
41),
in all other
cases it becomes
v).
Every
other short vowel is
changed
into the
corresponding long
one :
ea-&>,
/
leave,
eda-w
;
ld.-op.ai,
1
heal, ida--op.ai
;
Spd-w,
I
do,
Spdcr-w
;
but
Tifid-o), ripr](r-a)
', fiod-w,
I
cry
out,
fior](r-o/J.ai ; eyyvd-M,
I hand
over,
e<yyvr)<r-a) ; Trote-tu, vroirjcr-d),
Bov\6a>,
The Stem
xpa (%/jaw,
I
give
an
oracle;
use) exceptionally
has
77
in the Future :
xpv
aa)
,
xpij<rofjuu',
whereas
eucpoaojuu,
I
listen,
has
dtcpodcro/j-ai.
Respecting
the Future with a short
vowel,
see 301.
2G2. The contracted Future forms the Future-Stem
261. Dialects.
The Ion. dial, has
17
even after
e, i,
/>;
irtiprjo-ofjiai,
I shall eiideavour. The
Ep.
dial, sometimes doubles the
<r
when the vowel is short:
mfoWo/wit (uidfo/uu,
I
feel sftame).
The Horn. Futures
dXu7raco,
iroX^i'|a), orvfaXii-at,
and others with
their Presents in -w are
explained
in
251,
D.
2G2. Dialects.
Stem
dtp
has in Horn, the Fut.
dcpo-o/uu,
Prca.
6epop.ai,
1
grow
warm
;
Stem Kt
p (Pros,
cla^s
4, d,
Kflpa,
1
sAcri'i),
Fut.
Ktpo-a;
Stem
<f>vp,
Pres.
<'~p,
/
mix,
Fut.
264. III. THE FUTURE-STEM. 147
by adding
e to the Verbal-Stem:
fydv, <f>av6.
Thia
form of the Future occurs in Stems
ending
in
X,
//,, v,
p
;
and
the Stem vowel is short:
ve/^co,
I
distribute,
Fut.
ve/^w
;
apijva),
I
defend, afjivvw.
Verbs of the seventh
class here show their Pure Stem
(
252,
253)
:
/3aXXo>,
I
throw, /3aX<w
;
fyaLvw, <f>av(t)
; KTelvo),
I
kill,
KTCVCO
;
<j)6t:i'p(i), (f)0epa)
;
dyye\\a>, ayyekw.
According
to this
rule,
let the Future be formed of
<r<f)d\\a),
I cause to
fall
; areXXft),
I send
',
f^atvofiai,
J
rave
;
al'po),
I
lift
;
and the Present
(class 4)
of
7roi/aX<w,
Exceptions.
The Stems *eA
(xtAXco,
class
4, c,
I JtnocJc
against}
and
icvp (upeco,
/
meet)
have the <r form of the Future i
icAfa\
Ki'/;ira).
Obs. The contracted Future is
properly
a
peculiar
form of tti
a-
Future,
for
$afe'-o>
has arisen from <ai>-'-o-&>
(
61, 5),
in
which e is the
connecting
vowel.
2G3. Several Stems in e
(Pres. e&>),
aS
(Pres. &>),
and 18
(Pres. t^o)),
throw out the <r in the Future. Those
in e and aB then contract the vowels e and a with the
connecting
vowel:
reXe-tw,
/
complete,
reXe'cr-co, reXe'w,
1 Plur.
reXe'o/x,ey, Te\ovp,ev (as
in the
Present)
;
,
I
bring, fiifida-a), fiifida), /3t/3w ;
1 Plur.
j3i{3do/jLev, ftifiwfiev.
To these also
belongs
eXaw, e'Xw,
2
Sing.
eXa?,
3
Sing.
eXa,
from the
irregular
Present
eXavi/w,
/ drive
;
comp.
321,
2.
Stems in iS after
dropping
the <r insert
e,
which is
contracted with the
connecting
vowel :
K0yu,i&>,
/
carry,
Fut. Act.
KOfU(T-w, Kopi-e-o), Kopiw,
1 Plur.
/co/ite'o/zez',
Ko/j,iovfjt,ev
;
Fut. Mid.
K0fj,iov/j,ai.
This form of the Future is called the Attic.
264. Some verbs take an e after the a- of the
Future,
which is contracted with the
connecting
vowel :
Trvew,
1
breathe.
Stem
TTVV,
7rvev(rov(Ji>ai
; TrXetu,
I
sail,
Stem
2G3.
Dialects.
The Futures in aw in the Horn. dial, are treated
exactly
like the Presents
(
243 D.
A.},
hence
eXow, eXaay,
eAcfy.
1 48 III. THE FUTURE-STEM. 26i.
ir\evcrovfj.ai along
with
vrXeucro/iai
;
favya),
I
flee,
Stem
<f>vy, <j)ev^ovfiai
and
<euo/iat.
This kind of Future
which occurs
only
in the Middle voice with an Active
meaning
is called the Doric.
205. Few verbs form their Future without
any
tense
sign
:
^eta,
I
pour,
Fut. Act.
^ecu,
Mid.
^opai,
and so also
among
the
irregular
verbs
eSo/icu,
/ shall
eat
(
327,
4),
and
iriopai,
I shall drink
(
321,
4).
2GG. The Future Middle
generally
has a Middle
sense,
but in
many
verbs it has a
1'assive,
and in not
a few an Active
meaning;
the last is the case
espe-
cially
in verbs
denoting
a
bodily activity
:
aSa,
I
sing
;
(iKovw,
I hear
; anramaw,
I meet
; airokavw,
I
enjoy
;
fiaSlfo,
I walk
(/3aSioi)/4ai)
; /3oa&>,
I call out
',
7eXaeo,
I
laugh; oi/ia>&>,
/
bewail;
<riydri)
and
cnwjrda),
I am
silent
;
(nrovSdfo,
I am zealous.
Irregular
verbs
(
320,
Scc.) very frequently
have a Middle Future with Active
meaning:.
265.
Dialects.
The Horn,
fitlopai
or
eojuu,
7 sJiall
Jive,
akin to
/3.<to.
/
live,
is likewise formed without a tense
sigu.
267. IV. THE WEAK OR FIRST AORIST-STEM. 149
IV.
THE
WEAK,
OK FIRST AORIST-STEM.
267.
From the Stem of the Weak or First Aorist are
formed
the Weak
(or
First}
Aorist Active and
Middle.
Pres.
150 IV. THE WEAK OB FIRST AORIST-STEM.
1GS,
208. The characteristic
vowel in the inflexion of
the Weak Aorist is
d,
which in the 3
Sing.
Ind. A<-t.
becomes
e,
but
everywhere
else remains
unchanged
before the
personal
and modal
signs.
In the
Subj.
a is
lengthened
to w and
77,
whereby
the
endings
become the
same as those of the Present. In the
Optat.
Act. the
forms with ei in the 2 and 3
Sing,
and 3 Plur. are more
common than those with at :
Xucreta?,
\vcreie(v),
\vaeiav.
In the 2
Sing. Imperat.
Aft. v is added
by
which the a
is rendered so obscure as to become o : \vcro-v
;
and in
2
Imp.
Mid. i is added which with the a makes at,. In
the 2
Sing.
Ind. Mid. a- is thrown out as in the Pres.
and
Fut.,
so that
~e-Xucra(<r)o
becomes eXucreo
according
to 37.
Ola. 1. Three forms of the Wprxk Aorist are the
same,
the 3
Sing.
Opt
Act.,
the lufin.
Active,
and the 2
Imperat.
Mid.
;
but in
accent
they
differ,
for as the at of the
Optat.
is
regarded
as
long
( 229),
the first of these three forms is
always pnroxytone:
Xucrai, ypti^at (ypd$a>,
/
write"),
Traiff ticrat
(jratSf vu>,
1
educdt>-')
;
the Infinit.
always
has the accent on the
penultimu: Xvtrai,
iratdtOcrai,
ypd-^ai;
the 2
Sin^. Imperat. Mid.,
where
possible,
has the accent on the
antejientiltinia:
iraiStvaai, XOtrai,
ypd^m.
Obs. 2. The 2
Sing. Imperat.
of the Weak Aor. Act. is the same
in form as the Neut. Partic. Fut.
\vcrov,
but in Verbal-Stems oi
more than one
syllable
it differs from it
by
the accent: nai-
v,
but the Neut. Part. Fut. is irai8f vcrov
( 229).
269. The cr form of the Aorist differs from the Stem
268.
Dialects.
In the Ion. dial, the 2
Sing.
Indie. Mid. fre-
quently
leaves the vowels uncon tracted : (\v<rao.
Some Aorists in Horn, take the vowels o and c instead of a : Ioi'
>
I
came, lfs; (^TJ<T(TO (/3awo,
/
walk);
8v<r(ro
(lie
set or went
down,
8ua>)
;
so also the
Imperatives op&to,
arise; <*erf, bring; oicrt,
bring; Ae'eo,
lie
down;
jrf\dcrcr(Tov
==
TreXaaaror,
from
TreXa^w,
1
approach.
2G9. Dialects.
a^va-a-o),
I draw
water,
has in Horn, the Fut.
a(pv<a,
but the Aor.
a^vacra. Irregular
Horn, forms without <r are :
tXtva
for
e^fwro,
from Pres.
\ta>,
1
pour
;
OCTJO,
1 P!jr.
Subj. Krjofur
or
Ktiofifv, Imperat. KTJOV
or
Keloi',
Inf.
icrjai
or
Kflai,
from Pres.
Kaicn,
I
burn;
Stem KO.V
(Att. cxauo-a)
; ecro-eva,
Pres.
<rfvw,
1 drive
270.
IV. THE WEAK OR FIRST A.ORIST-STEM. 151
of the Future
only by
the addition of the a :
\va; \vcra;
rjpx-fr, ^pa-^ra
;
(j>v\a, <f)v\aj;a. Respecting
the
change
of vowels and consonants before
a,
comp.
2GO,
261.
The
irregular ^e'&) ( 205)
has the Aorist
e%ea
for
e^eixra.
Comp.
the
irregularity
in
elira,
I
spoke; ijv^Ka,
I
bore,
327,
12 and 13.
270. The Stems in
\,
p,
v,
p, forming
their Future
without o-
reject
this consonant also in the Weak
Aorist,
which
gives
rise to the
supplementary
form,
for the
vowel of the Stem is
lengthened by compensation
for
the loss of the a.
&
after t and
p
becomes a : Pros,
irepaiva) (class 4, d~),
I
penetrate,
Stem
Trepav,
Fut.
Trepav>,
Aor.
t-vepava (41).
otherwise
ij
: Pres.
<f>aiv<a (class
4, d),
Stem
<pav,
Fut.
(pavo>,
Aor.
(-(prjva.
t
becomes ft : Pres.
dyyeXXco (class 4, c),
/
announce,
Stem
ayyt
X,
Fut.
dyyfXw,
Aor.
^'yyftXa.
Pres.
vfpa> (class 1),
/
distribute,
Fut.
VffiS>,
Aor.
e-vtip,a.
T I: Pres.
icpiva> (class
4,
c?),
/
judge,
Stem
Kpiv,
Fut.
KpivS>,
Aor.
f-Kpiva.
Z v : Prcs.
dp-Cvu
(class
4,
d),
/
defend,
Stem
dfj.vv,
Fut.
dp.vv<i>,
Aor.
rjiivva.
Obs. The Stems
up (aip&>,
I
lift)
and dX
(uXXo/iai,
I
leap)
have
in the Indicat.
?;
because of the
Augment
:
Tjpa, ijXa/ijji/,
but in
the other forms a :
upas, aXdpcvos.
a. instead of
j
occurs in
away;
the Infinitives dXtvaa-dai or
dXecurdai,
to
avoid;
Sarf
from
8ar/o/iiat,
/ distribute.
fla-a,
I
placed,
is a defective
poet. Aorist,
the Horn. Inf. is
Part, (terns and tcrcras
(ai/eVas),
3
Sing.
Mid. eV<r<raro. On the
doubling
of the <r see
2C1,
D. Xo'fo-o-a
(Xof-e-(rcra)
=
eXovcra
(Xovw,
/
was/i),
with f inserted.
(Comp.
35,
06s.)
270. Dialects. 1. Homer makes the Aor. of several Stems in
X, /i, v,
p
with <r : tXo-a from
eiXw,
/
press
;
the defective
diroepaa,
I tore
away.
2. In the Aeol. dial. <r is assimilated to
preceding
X,
p,
v,
p;
an
example
of it in Horn, is
<Z$eXXa
for <3<eX-cra
=
Att.
axpttXa,
Pres.
oc/)XXa>,
/
increase.
3. The
Augment
of the Horn. Aor.
rjfipa,
Pres.
eipa>,
I
join,
is
quite irregular. Comp. 275,
D. 2.
152 IV. THE WEAK OR FIRST AORIST-STEM.
271.
some few verts :
wpSaiVw,
/
gain
;
opyatva>,
I cause
anger
;
crrjumvu,
I indicate
tVq/xui/a
along
with
ta-Tjuyva.
On the
other hand
77
instead of
a,
in
spite
of the
p,
occurs in
Ttrpaiva)
I
bore,
irtTprjva.
271. The Weak Aorist is the usual form in all
verbs
which,
according
to
250,
cannot form the
Strong
Aorist,
that
is,
in all derivative verbs and in verbs of
the first class
;
but radical verbs of other
classes,
espe-
cially
those with Steins in
\,
p,
v,
p,
also have the Weak
Aorist
The Weak Aorist Middle like the
Strong
one has
only
a Middle sense and is
never
Passive
(
477,
&c.).
V. THE PERFECT-STEM.
272. From the Perfect-Stem are formed the Perfeci
and
Pluperfect
Active and
Middle,
and the third Future
(Futurum
exactum)
which occurs
only
in the Middle.
273. The essential characteristic of the Perfect-
Stem is the
reduplication (comp. Tre-Trrjy-a
with Lat.
pe-pig-i),
which
generally
takes the first
place,
but in
verbs
compounded
with
prepositions
is
put,
like the
Augment,
after the
preposition ( 238):
Xe-Xu-/ea,
but
The
reduplication belongs
to the
Perfect-Stem,
and
is
therefore,
unlike the
Augment, preserved
in all the
moods, infinitives,
and
participles (comp.
258
D).
In verbs
beginning
with a consonant it consists in the
initial consonant with e
being placed
before the Stem :
Stem
\v,
Perf.-Stem
XeXu,
1
Sing.
Perf. Ind. Act.
\e-\v-Ka.
273. Dialects.
The
reduplication cannot,
like the
Augment,
be
omitted in the
Epic
dial.
;
bty-ftai
forms an
exception (3
Plur.
St'x-QTcu), though
we also find
df-Sty-pai,
I
expect,
or
receive,
Part.
df-Sey-nevos,
from Pres.
8^-o-/iai (comp. 31G,
34).
Some verbs
beginning
with a
vowel do not
lengthen
it in the Perfect in the
New-Ionic dialect.
v. THE PERFECT-STEM:.
153
I. Active.
154 V. THE PERFECT-STEM. 27-.
II. Middle and Passive.
'275. V. THE PERFECT-STEM. 155
1. An
aspirate, according
to 53
a,
is
represented
by
the
corresponding
tennis :
Stem.
%/?, %&>p<w,
1
retreat,
icz-ywpri-Ka
;
Stem 6
v, Ova),
I
sacrifice,
ri-dv-Ka :
Stem
(f)av, 7re-(f)r]i>-a.
2. When a verb
begins
with two
consonants,
only
the
first
appears
in the
reduplication,
and even this
only
when it is a mute followed
by
X,
//,, v,
or
p
: Stem
<ypa(f),
7pa(/>o>,
I
write,
<ye-ypd<f>-a
;
Stem
7rXa7, TrX^'crcroj,
1
atr
ike,
7re-7r\r)y-a ;
Stem
irvv, jrviw,
I
breathe,
iri-
3. In
every
other case a Stem
beginning
with two
consonants takes
only
e for its
reduplication
: Stem
KTCV, /crelvd),
I
kill, e-KTov-a',
Stem
77 re, ^TW,
I
seek,
4. Stems
beginning
with
p
likewise have
only
e,
after
which the
p
is doubled: Stem
pi<j>, pLirrw,
I
throw,
tp-picfr-a (comp.
62,
234).
EXCEPTION'S. Verbs
beginning
with
yv, yX,
and sometimes those
beginning
with
X,
have a
simple
e for their
reduplication.
Stem
yv(o, e-yvco-Ka,
/ have coma to
know;
Stem
/3Xaa-r
(/3Xa<rr&>,
/
germinate), e'/SXaemj-Ka.
The Stems KTO
(raj/xat,
/
acquire)
and
nva,
on the other
hand,
have
Kf-KTrj-p.ai
and
p.f-p.vr]-fiat,
I
remember,
me-min-i.
Comp. Tre-Trrw-Ka,
/ have
fallen,
and
TTirra-p.ai,
I am
spread out,
319.
3,
327. 15.
Instead of the
reduplication appears
in
i-Xr;0-a,
I have taken
(
322.
25), ei-Xf/x-a,
I have obtained
(
322.
27), ei-Xo^a (from
X/ya>,
/
gather}, 8i-et-Xfy-/iai (from StaX/yo/xat,
1
converse},
(i-prj-Ka,
I have said
(
327.
13),
and in the
aspirated fl-^ap-nn,
it is
fated,
Stem
/if
p.
275. Initial vowels are
lengthened
as in the case of
275. Dialects. 1. The Attic
reduplication
is more
frequent
in
Homer,
as :
ap-rjpo-rai
from
dpoo>,
/
plough ; a\-d\rj-^,at,
from dXd-
0-fi.ai,
1
wander;
np-r/p-a,
I am
joined,
Stem
dp;
oS-wS-a,
I
smell,
o,
comp. od-or; on-unr-a,
I have
seen,
from the Stem
on-;
and
with a v inserted :
ffj.v-Tjfj.v-Ka,
from the Pres.
^/xv-w,
I
droop
the head.
Herod, has
ap-aipy-Ka
from
afpe'to,
/
take.
2. Instead of d-uda Horn, also lias
t-a>da,
which is the
only
form
used
by
Herod. From the Stem ATT
(originally FeXTr)
e-oX;r-a,
1
hupe;
from Stem
epy (Ft py) e-opy-a,
1 have done. From the Stem
'p (Lat. sero),
Pies,
etpw,
3
Sing. Plupcrf.
Mid.
tepro,
Part. Perf.
156 V. TUB PERFECT-STEM. 27(5.
the
Temporal Augment
(
235)
: Stem
op
do,
op6G),
1
raise
up, a>pda)-Ka.
Thi> vrH-s mentioned in 2I3G have
ft here also :
eftUr/uu,
Pros.
e\iWo>,
1. Some Stems
beginning
with
a, ,
or o
exceptionally
take what
is called the Attic
reduplication
instead of the mere
lengthening
of the vowel. This
reduplication
consists in the initial vowel
with its
following
consonant
being related,
and the vowel of
the second
syllabic being lengthened:
Stem
d\i(p (aXftyu,
class 2. 1
anoint), d\-fi\i<p-a ;
Stem
OKO, d/covw,
1
hear,
dic-T)KO-a
(foraKijicoFa, 35.06s.),
but Mid
tjitovo-pai ;
Stem
opv% (upvtro-o),
class
4,
/
diy) op-wpi/^-a
;
Stem
dytp (aytipu>,
class
4, '/,
/ col-
led') dy-T)y(p-Ka;
Stem e'Xa
(I
'res.
t\avva>,
/
drive,
321.
2)
X-r;Xa-*ca,
Mid.
X-ijXa-/iat
;
Stem
(\(yx,
Prcs.
*Xy^a>,
7 /
(class 1),
Perf. Mid.
eX-qXfy/iat (coinp.
286,
Of-s.)
;
f'yp-
f]yop-a,
I am
awake,
from the Stem
tytp,
Prcs.
tyflpo),
I awaken
(class 4,
rf),
is
irregular.
2. The Stems dXo>
(dXto-Ko/zat,
324.
17,
7am made
prisoner},
ay ("lyvvfjii.,
319.
13,
7
break'),
die
(not
used in the
Prcs.,
317.
7),
and uve
(oiy/o/xat,
7
6;/7/)
are likewise
irregular;
but
originally they
had an initial consonant
(
34.
D)
:
e'-JXu-Ka,
t-ay-a,
t-oiK-a,
t-a>vrj-(jun
;
the Stem
dvoty (avoiyw,
I
open")
has
av-iwy-a.
To these
may
be added
ei-o>#-a,
7 am
accustomed,
from the Stem
e'0, originally
Ffd
(comp. 236, 237).
1. TJie
Perfect
Active.
276. The terminations of the
principal
tenses are
appended
to the Perfect-Stem in the Indicative
by
means of the
connecting
vowel a. The first
person
has
no
personal ending
at all
;
in the third a is
changed
into e. The
Subjunctive, Optative,
and the
Imperative
(which rarely occurs)
have the vowels of the Present
;
the Infinitive ends in -evcu
(always paroxytone),
and
the
Participle
in
-o>?, -via, -69,
Gen.
-0x09
(Stem
or,
188).
_
Mid.
ffpfuvos (comp. 270,
D.
3).
The
following
two are defective
Perfects in Horn.
av-i)vo8-t(v),
it
gushesforth, eV-iji/o^-e^),
it
isupon.
Both also occur as
Pluperfects.
276. Dialects.
In the Horn. dial, the Part. Perf. Act. sometimes
has a) instead of o :
TfdmjSiros
=
Att.
TtffvrjKnros
'from
6vi]<TK.a>,
1
die)
;
Ke/cXirywres
for
KtKXijyvrfs, calling
from Pres. /cAa.
-'78. THE PERFECT ACTIVE. 157
05s. The
Subjunctive
and
Optative
are not
unfrerpiently
formed
periphiustically by
the
Participle
with the
corresponding
forms
of
flp.1,
I am.
277. The Perfect Active is formed in two different
ways
:
i. THE STRONG PERFECT
(SECOND PERFECT)
is
formed,
like the
Strong
Aorist,
directly
from the Stem :
Stem
Trpdy,
Pres.
(Class
4,
a) Trpdcra-w,
I
do,
Perf.
rre-Trpdy-a.
The
Strong
Perfect,
like the
Strong
Aorist,
occurs almost
exclusively
in the case of radical verbs
( 24.5),
and is
generally
the older and rarer form.
278. The
following changes
of vowels are to be
observed in its formation :
a after
p
becomes a: Stem
Kptiy,
Pres.
Kpda>,
7
scream,
Perf.
Ke-xpdy-a
a otherwise becomes
17
: Stem
n-Xay,
Pres.
7rX?;cro-a>,
/
strike,
Perf.
Tre-TrX^y-a
Stem
(pav,
Pres.
(paiva>,
I
show,
Perf.
TTf-cprjv-a
t becomes o: Stem
orrpf<p,
Pres.
orp'<pco,
/
turn,
Perf.
e-or-po(p-a
i ot: Stem
XITT,
Pres.
\eiira>,
I
leave,
Perf. X'-Xot7r-a
v tv: Stem
(pvy,
Pres.
<pevyw,
I
flee,
Perf. 7
Comp.
40 to 43.
The
change
of a into to is
quite
isolated: Stem
pay,
Perf.
ep-pcoy-c.,
I am
torn,
Pres.
prjyvv-jjLi (
319,
24),
and
277-280. Dialects.
The Horn. dial, is
partial
to the
Strong
Per-
fect;
the
aspiration
does not occur in it: Stem
KOJT
(KOTTTCO),
K(KOTTO>S.
The Part.
irf-<j)v-6T-(s,
from Stem
(pvy (0ei5yu>)
is
quite
an isolated
Horn. form. Horn, forms the Weak Perfect
only
from
Vowel-Stems,
and even here he has sometimes
strong
secondary
forms : Stem
<pv,
3
Plnr. Perf. Act.
ntcpvao-i
=
Att.
ir((pvKa<n,
from
(piia>,
I
beget ;
Stem
core
(icort'w,
/ am
angry),
Part. Perf.
KeKorrjus, 317,
D. In the
Fern. 1'iirt. Perf.
shortenings
of vowels often occur: Stem
dp,
Masc.
Part. Perf.
dp-rjp-oSf, joined,
Fern,
dp-ap-via;
Stem 6a\
(#<iXXa>,
1
Uoom},
Masc. Part. Perf.
Te-&;X-s,
Fern. rt-6a\-vla. The Perf.
T-rpTj^-a,
1 am
restless,
Prcs.
rapda-a-o),
I
disturb,
Stem
T\_d]pa^,
is
brogular.
if>3 V. TUB PERFECT-STEM. 270.
so also that, of e into &>: Stem
ed,
Pcrf.
el-nd-a,
I am
accustomed
( 27"j).
With tlio Attic
reduplication,
and
in some other cases
also,
there is no
lengthening
of tho
vowel : Stein
opv%, op-capu^-a,
Pros,
opva-aca,
I
dig
;
ye-
7/>a<-a,
from
ypd(p(i>,
I utrite.
279. Some Stems
ending
in the consonants
K,
7,
Tiy/S
change
these into the
corresponding aspirates, generally
without
any lengthening
of the vowels:
Stem
KrjpvK,
Pres.
Krjpvcra-a,
I
proclaim,
Fcrf.
Kf-Krjpvx-a
ay, <"ycj,
/
lead,
fon ("y
1
? *- )
KOTT, ,, KOTirw,
/
hew, ,,
Kf-Ki><p-a
8\aP, /SXuTTrco,
1
hurt,
/3t'-^Xa^)-a
In
spite
of the
aspiration
the vowels are
changed
in
K6-/c\o(})-a,
Stem
Xe7T,
Pres.
/cXeTTTcu,
I
steal;
ire-Tro^-a,
Stem
7re/i7r,
Pres.
Tre/iTrw,
-T
send;
re-Tpo(f>-a,
Stem
rpeTT, rpe-rrw,
1
turn,
which is in form the same as tho
Perf. of the Stem
rpe<f> (Pres. rptyto,
I
nourish)
;
ei-\ox-a
(comp. 274),
Stem
Xe7,
Pres.
\eyu,
I
gather.
Ols. 1. Few verbs have both forms with and without the
aspi-
rate: the Stem
irpay (Pres. irpdo-aru,
1
do)
has both
ni-npfiy-a
(intransitive,
/ have
fared)
and
Trt-irpax-a (transitive,
1 have
done")
;
Stem
dvoiy,
Pres.
dvotya,
I
open,
Perf.
av-itay-a (iutrans.
1 stand
open)
and
dv-ta>\-a (transit.
I have
opened).
2. The
aspirated
form of the
Perfect, contrary
to
277,
occurs
also in a number of derivative verbs:
StemuXXay,
aXXdo-o-w,
1
chamje,
from
aXAo?,
Perf.
^XXa^-a.
280. 2. THE WEAK PERFECT
(FIRST PERFECT)
is formed from the Stem
by
the insertion of K : Stem
\v,
\e-\v-K-a. The Weak Perfect is the more recent
form,
and with all Vowel-Stems it is the
only
one in
use,
while it is the more common with Stems
ending
in
T,
,
6,
and those
in
\,
p.,
v,
p.
Obs. The
only complete Strong
Perfect of a
Vowel-Stem in Attic
prose
is
dcijKoa (
275.
1);
but
comp.
317.
2S1. In
regard
to the vowel the Weak Perfect follows
the a Future
( 260,261):
Stem
Spa, Spda-w, Se-Spd-rca;
283. THE PLUPERFECT ACTIVE. 159
Stem
Tifj-a, TIJJ,TJ<TCI), reri/i^/ca;
Stem
TT\V, TrKevtrw,
TTC-
rrX-evKa;
Stem TriP
(veldo),
I
persuade),
ireiaw,
TreVei/ca.
^e'a>,
I
pour,
Perf.
tce^y/co,,
is an
exception ( 265).
For
other
exceptions
see 301.
Stems in
T, 8, 6,
throw out these consonants before a
without
any
other
change
: Stem
fcopiS, Koptfo,
I
carry,
282. The
monosyllabic
Stems in
X, v, p, having
e in the Stem
syllable, change
this e in the Weak Pcrf. into a: Stem
areX,
cmXXco,
I
send,
Perf.
-o-raX-/ca;
Stem
tf>dcp, (pdtipu,
I
destroy,
Pcrf.
f-tydap-Ka.
Several in v throw out they: Stem
uplv,
Kpivw,
I
judge,
Perf.
Kf-Kpi-Ka ;
Stem
KXii', AcXiVco,
/
incline,
Perf.
Ki-(cXt-Aca
;
Stem
TrXtfj', nrXvPco,
I
wash,
Pcrf.
W-TrXv-Ka;
Stem
re
v, reiVa),
/
stretch,
Perf. rt-ra-Ka. Wherever v is not thrown
out before
K,
it becomes
according
to 51 a nasal
y
: Stem
<f>av, (paiixi),
I
show,
Perf.
ire-(pay-Ka.
Other Stems of this kind and some in
p
admit of metathesis
(
5
1
J):
Stem
aX, j3aXXo>,
/
throw,
Perf.
/3e-/3Xi7-K-a ;
Stem
ca/i, Ka'/u'o),
I
grow tired,
Perf.
Ke-Kprj-K-a (
321.
9).
2. 27^
Pluperfect
Active.
283. The
Pluperfect
takes the
Augment
before the
Perfect-Stem
;
its terminations are those of the his-
torical tenses. Between the Stem and the termination
the
diphthong
et
steps
in,
which in the 3 Plur. is
reduced to e.
05s. The 3
Plur. in
turav is rare and more modern.
The
Temporal Augment
of verbs
beginning
with u
vowel is not
recognisable,
because their Perfect-Stem
282.
Dialects.
The Horn.
pe-pjSXa-Ka
for
/x/-juXco-Ktt,
from the
Stem
/xoX (Aor. e/zoXoj/,
I
went)
is
explained by
metathesis.
Comp.
51, I).,
324,
12.
288.
Dialects.
The Tonic dial, has the
antiquated endings
of the
PliqKTf.
: 1
Sing.
a,
2
Sing, (as,
3
Sing. ff(v),
contracted
tt,
tiv or
9 ;
the 2
Plnr. New-Ion, ta-rt. Horn. (T(-6i
t ir-ta,
1 was astonished
;
3
Sing. ofSfini'fjKfiv,
from
SfwiWo),
/ dine.
t'fMfujK'Ov (Perf. /if'/jrjKu,
1
bleat")
and
rjv&yov along
with
^coyra
(Perl, upcoya,
7
compel')
are formed
quite irregularly according
to the
manner of
imperfects.
1GO
V. THE PERFECT-STI 284
has
already
a
long
vowel : Verbal-Stem a
7, ayca,
I
drive,
Perfect-Stem
TJX, fy-ei-v.
The
Syllabic
An^nu-nt
is
often omitted. The 1 and 3
Sing,
in the older Attic
dialect has
77
instead of ei and
ei-v,
as
-\\v/c-r).
The formation of the
Pluperfect
is
exactly
the same
as that of the
Perfect,
and like it it is either
strong
or
weak,
and has the vowel
long
or short or
unchanged.
281. 3. TJie
Perfect
Middle and Passive
can be formed
only
in one
way,
that
is,
by appending
the
personal endings
of the
principal
tenses of the
Middle,
without
any connecting
vowel,
to the Perfect-
Stem,
i. e. to the
reduplicated
Verbal-Stem : Stem X
v,
Perf. M.
\e-\v-fj-ai.
The Infinitive and the
Participle always
have the
accent on the
pennltima:
\e\va-6ai,
XeXvytieix??;
Stem
TreuSeu, 7reTrat8evcrdai,
from
TratSeuew,
I educate.
285. The vowels are treated in the same
way
as in
the Weak Perfect: Stem
rifj,a, Terif^tjKa, TTi/j,rj/j,ai;
Stem 77
id, TreTreitca,
Tre7rei<r/j,ai ;
Stem
<f>dep, <pdapKa,
tydappai',
Stem
ySaX, y3e/9A.7?a, /3e/3\r)fi,ai.
The verbs
rpe(p(t),
I
nourish,
rpeirw,
I
turn,
and
(rrpecjxo,
I
turn,
also take a instead of e :
Te-dpajj,-/juu
t
re-rpafi-fuit,
286. The final Consonants of consonantal-Stems
change
according
to the
general
laws of sound
(
45-49)
:
284. Dialects.
In the Horn. dial, the o- of the 2
Sing.
Perf. and
Pluperf.
Mid. is sometimes thrown out between two vowels :
fj.tfj.vqai
=
fi*fjt.vT](rai (meministi\
contracted
p.tfj.v>]',
so also in the New-Ionic
the
Imperat. pepvto
for
fj.ffj.vrja-0.
285. Dialects. The Horn.
7r'-7rpci>-rai,
Stem IT
op (Strong
Aor.
firopov,
I
gave)
is
explained by
metathesis. The
following
have a
short vowel :
TtWy/ini,
from
re^co,
1
prepare^
3 Plur. rt
Tfvxarat
;
t>f<j)vyfj.(vos
from
(fxvyco,
J
flee
; I'trerCpiai
from a*
v&>,
/ hasten
/
C
instead of (v :
Trt-nvv-fMi,
from
irvtv,
248.
286. Dialects.
The 6 of the Stem
Kopvd (Kopva-ara,
I
arm)
remains
unchanged
in Horn. :
Kf-Kopvd-fj,evot. al<r\\iv<a
t
1
put
to
shame,
has
fjar\vfj.fj.ui.
THE PERFECT MIDDLE. 161
1. Before all terminations
beginning
with
/u,
every gut
tural becomes
y
: Stem ir\e
K, irXfKu,
I
twist,
irf-ir\ey-fj.ai
dental <r : Stem
irid, irddat,
1
persuade, Tre-TTtia-^f&a
labial
/JL
:
Stemypa(p,ypd<pa>,
I
write,
yf-ypafi-ptvoy.
Obs. When a
guttural
or labial is
preceded by
a
nasal,
the latter
is thrown out before
p:
Stem
Kaprr, Ka/iTrrw,
1
bend,
KfKa/i/nai
;
Stem
f\eyx, eX/y^w,
I
refute, Xi}Xey/ia< (
275.
1).
Somo
Stems in v
by way
of
exception
do not
change
the v before
/*
into
<r,
but into
//,
:
<5u/i/icu,
from
ovva>,
1
sharpen ;
those
which throw out the v in the Perf.
Act.,
do the same here
( 282); Kftpipat (comp. Tre-<pacr-p.ai
from the Stem
(pav);
<nrev8(o,
I
offer
a
libation,
Fut.
orrftVw,
has
ecrTretoyiot.
2. Before
<r
every guttural
becomes
K,
and this with <r becomes : 7r/-7rXeat
labial TT
-f
:
ye-ypajfai
dental is thrown out ire-ireta-ai
3. Before T
every guttural
becomes K : jre-TrXeKrat
;
Stem
Xey,
\t-\cK-Tai
labial TT :
ye-yparr-rai
dent,
(except i)
or : Tre-Tr.<r-Tcu
(Stem <j)av, Tre'-^av-rat)
4. The cr of a-9 after consonants
( 61)
is
dropped,
and then
every guttural
becomes
x
'
Jre-TrXf^-^
01
'
f r Jre-TrXe/c-cr^ov
,,
labial
<p
:
yf-ypa(j)-6f
for
yf-ypa<p-a-de
dent,
(except v)
<r: irf-nela-dai for irf-jretti-adai.
v, X,
and
p
remain
unchanged
before the 6 which
has arisen from <r6 : Stem 6
av,
ire<f>dv6ai
;
Stem
287. The
ending
vrat, of the 3 Plur. is irreconcile-
able with Consonantal-Stems. Sometimes the Ionic
287.
Dialects.
In the Ion. dial, the forms arm and em> for the
3 Plur. are common : Horn, has
/3e-QXj-aTcu (/3dXXa,
/
throw),
itftro-
TrfO.ro
(n-OTao/xat,
/
flatter),
8(8aiarai
(Sato),
/
divide), ep^arat,
(jpxaro (ftpyw,
/ shut
in, 319,
15);
in New-Ion.
napeaKevada-ro
(napa(TK(vaa>,
I
prepare),
K(
Acocr/Atarat ((coer/iew,
/
adorn).
Three
Horn, forms insert S :
e'/jpd-S-arai (paiva,
I
besprinkle"), a<r]\(-b-a-ro
I am
grieved), cXr/Xd-S-aro (Stem
e'Xa, eXavvo,
I
drive);
i from
tpet'So),
/
support,
is
irregular.
H
162 THE PERFECT-STUM. 288.
arai takes its
place (
220,
D),
tafore which
7,
K, y8,
and
TT are
aspirated: ye-ypa^-arai, Te-Ta-^-arai (Stem ray,
rao-0-ft),
/
arrange), re-rp^-arai (Stem rpi/3, rpiftw,
1
rub).
But the common
practice
is to use the
pcrij'hrasis
by
means of the
Participle
with
ei-ai(v)
:
yeypa/j,jj,evot
elo-iv.
Comp.
Lat.
scripti
sunt and
276,
Ob*
The
following paradigms supply examples
of the
above-mentioned
changes.
Perfect Middle and Passive.
291 THE FUTURE PERFECT.
1()3
290. 4. Tlie
Pluperfect
Middle and Passive
differs in
every
verb from the
corresponding
Perfect
only by
the addition of the
Augment
and the
personal
endings
which are those of the historical tenses. Re-
specting
the 3 Plur. in I/TO and
aro,
and their
places
being supplied by periphrasis,
see
287,
which is here
applicable
also.
291. 5. The Future
Perfect
or Futurum Exactum
adds or to the Perfect-Stem with the inflexion of the
Future Middle
;
the a
produces
the same
changes
in
the
preceding
consonants as in the
ordinary
Future
Middle;
ireirpd^erai, (Stem
IT
pay, Trpda-aai,
I
do),
it
will have been
done;
yeypdifreTat,
(Stem
<ypa(>, ypd(J30),
I
ttrite),
it mil have been
written.
There are two isolated Future Perfects with Active
endings
:
ecm/|&> ( 311),
/ shall
stand,
and
(
324.
4.),
/ shall be
dead,
from the Perf.
Tedvrj/ca.
Otherwise its
place
in the Active is
supplied by
the
Part, of the Perf. with the Fut. of
ei/u,
I am
(ecro/itu)
:
XeXwccb?
ecro/iat,
I shall have loosed
(solvsro).
1C4
VI. THE STRONG PASSIVE STEM. 292.
VI. THE STRONG PASSIVE STEM.
202. From the
Strong
Passive Stem are formed the
Strong
or Second
Aorist,
and the
Strong
or Second
Future
Passive.
Present :
<aiV,
Pure
Stem,
0ai>,
Strong
Passive
Stem,
(}>uve.
$
295. VI. THE STRONG PASSIVE STEM. 165
Second
Principal Conjugation ( 302),
to the Stem with-
out a
connecting
vowel,
and the e of the Stem is
length-
ened in the Indicative and
Imperative
to
77.
In the
Subjunctive
the e is contracted with the vowels of the
Subjunctive
:
<f)dve-(a, tydvc!)
;
in the
Optative
the e com-
bined with the modal
sign
irj
becomes
eir)
:
ifxwe-fapv.
The Infinitive
always
has the circumflex on the
peuul-
tima,
and the
Participle
in the Nom.
Sing.
Masc. the
acute on the last.
294. The
Strong
Passive
Stem,
just
like the
Strong
Aorist Active and Middle
( 256),
is formed
very
rarely
from derivative
Stems,
but it occurs in verbs of all
classes,
even the first
( 247),
e
being
added to the Pure
Verbal-Stem : Pres.
pdnn-w
(class
3,
/
sew),
Pure Stem
p
a
<f>, Strong
Passive Stem
pa<f>e,
Aor. Pass.
eppd(fyr)-v
;
a-^drra) (class
4,
I
slaughter),
Pure Stem
tr(f>a% Strong
Passive Stem
a-^aje,
Aor. Pass,
ecrtydyrj-v,
Fut. Pass.
(j-<j)ayr}-o-o/j,ai
;
Pres.
ypd(j)-(o (class 1), Strong
Pass. Stem
ypd<f>e,
Aor. Pass,
eypdtyrj-v.
The
Strong
Passive Aor.
occurs
only
in such verbs as have no
Strong
Active
Aorist. The
only exception
is
r/jeVco,
I
turn,
Aor. Act.
e-rpaTT-o-v,
Pass.
e-rpaTTij-v.
Ols.
By way
of
exception
fj\\dyr]v
is formed from the derivative
Stem
dXXay,
Pres.
aXXd<r<r,
/
change.
295. As in the
Strong
Aorist Active
( 257)
the e
is sometimes
changed
into d:
/cXe7r-r-(u,
I
steal,
e-
are\\(i),
I
send,
e-a'TaX'rjv ;
rpi^-w,
I
nourish,
e-
Tr\K-a),
I
twist,
-7r\eKT}-v
and
e-Trkd/crj-v ;
TfX.rjaa-o),
2
and sometimes to
rj
:
<f)avf)-rj
=
(fravjj.
In the Dual and Plur. the
modal vowel is shortened where this
lengthening
of the e occurs :
Sapd-trf (for SapfTjre,
Att.
Sa/irjre).
In the Infinitive we find the
Horn.
fjLfvai
or
\iev
:
fnyr^Kvai, Safirj^fv,
295.
Dialects. Homer here also
employs
metathesis
( f>9)
as
in the
Strong
Aor. Act. and Mid.
( 257,
D.)
: Pros,
rfpn-at,
1 de-
light,
Aor. Pass,
(-rdpnrj-v, Subj. rpaTre-w,
1 Plur.
Tpairfiofj. ($ratt-
deamus),
Inf.
1GG
VII. THE WEAK PASSIVE STEM.
ftrike,
has
e-TrXrjyij-v, irkrjyrj-a-ofiat,
but in
composition
f^--7r\dyr]-v,
K-Tr\d
i
yy')'(To/j.at
;
the Pure Stem of verbs
of
tho second class here
reappears
:
O-IJTT-G)
(Stem
vcnr,
I
corrupt],
c-craTTrj-v ; r/jK-ta (Stem
7 a
K,
I
melt),
e-rd/crj-v
;
pew (Stem p
v,
I
flow), e-ppwj-v, pv>')-<Tojj,ai.
VII.
THE WEAK PASSIVE STEM.
296. From the Weak Passive Stem are formed the
Weak or First Aorist and the Weak or First Future
Passive.
Prcs.
Xvco,
Stem
Xu,
Weak Passive Stem \v6f.
239. VII. THE WEAK PASSIVE STEM. 107
298. The Weak Passive Stem is formed from the
Verbal-Stem
by appending
the
syllable
6e. Before
this
syllable
the vowels of Vowel-Stems are
lengthened
as in the
Future,
the Weak Aorist
Active,
and the Per-
fect:
rifjia, erifjiijdijv
',
Treipa,
eireipddrjv,
2 tried. As
to the
exceptions
see 301. As in the Perfect
Middle,
a- is inserted before
6,
especially
after short
vowels,
but often also after
long
ones :
e-reki-a-d^v
from
reXeo),
I
complete
; -rce\.ev-(T-6r)V,
from
KeXevco,
I
order;
and
this is the case in the verbs mentioned in
288,
and
especially
in
<ye\da),
I
laugh, eyeXdcrdrjv
;
Bpda,
I
do,
iiv; "Trava),
I cause to
cease,
ejrawr&qv,
but also
v. The Aor. Passive of
o-coiw,
I
save,
on the
other
hand,
is formed from the shorter Stem cr&> without
the a :
Iffadfyv.
As in the Weak Perfect Active and the Perfect
Middle,
the e before
X, v,
p
is sometimes
changed
into
a: Stem rev
(reivm,
I
stretch),
e-rdOrj-v
(comp. 282).
The
changes
of the consonants before are
explained
by
the laws of sound
( 45):
Stem
Trpdy, irpdacrw,
I
do,
l-Trpd^-Orj-v
',
Stem
tyevS, ^ev8<o,
I
deceive,
e.--^revcr-6i]-v
',
Stem
7rep.ir, 7re/u/7r&>,
I
send,
e-Tre/Juft-drj-v.
Respecting edpefflrjv (Pres. rpe^xy), eOd^O^v (Pres.
#tt7TT<u)
see
54, Obs.,
and
respecting
eredrjv,
ervOijv
(Stems
6e,
0y),
see 53 b.
299. The Weak Aorist Passive and the Weak Future
Passive
are,
on the
whole,
more common than the
Strong,
and in the case of derivative
verbs,
as of
nearly
all
Vowel-Stems,
they
are
the.
only customary
forms of
the Aorist and Future Passive.
There are some
primitive
verbs of which both Passive
Stems are in use : Stem
/?Xa/3,
Pres.
ySXaTrrco,
I
hurt,
Aor. Pass.
e/3\dfiijv
and
efi
IGfc- VERBAL ADJECTIVES. 300.
VERBAL ADJECTIVES.
300. The Verbal
Adjectives
are a kind of Passive
Participles.
Pres.
\va),
Stem
Xv,
1.
Xu-ro9,
rj,
ov, loosed,
capable
of being
loosed,
2.
Xv-reo-9,
a,
ov,
to be
loosened,
solvendu-s, a,
urn.
The First Verbal
Adjective
is formed
by
means of
the
syllable
TO
(Nom.
ro-9, TV, ro-v]
from the Verbal-
Stem,
and has the
meaning
either of a
Participle
Per-
fect Passives
Xv-ro-9
=solu-tu-s,
or of
possibility, capable
of being
loosened.
The Second Verbal
Adjective
is formed
by
means of
the
syllable
reo
(Nom.
reo-9, rea,
reo-v),
which is never
contracted,
from the
Verbal-Stem,
and has the
meaning
of
necessity,
like the Latin
gerundive
:
Xf-reo-9,
one who
is to be
loosened,
\vreov
eVr/,
loosening
must take
place,
solvendum est.
The vowels
preceding
the T are in
general
treated
exactly
in the same manner as in the Weak Passive
Aorist
;
cr is inserted in the same cases as in the Aor.
Pass. :
TeXe-cr-T09,
Ke\ev-cr-Teov. The consonants before
T are treated in accordance with the laws of sound :
(Stem Trpdy,
Pres.
7jy>ac-<r&>),
ypair-To-?
(Stem KopiS, />/u&>,
I
carry.)
Verbs wltich leave their Stem Vowel short in the
formation
of
their tenses.
301. The Vowel remains short
throughout
in :
300. Dialects.
8pa-r6-s
is derived
by
metathesis
( 59)
from
the Stem
Sep (8/pa,
I
flay).
301. Dialects.
The Horn. dial,
e'paw,
T
love,
Aor. Mid.
jjpao-a-
\it\v
; apKt'co,
1 ward
off, fjpKra
;
K.opta>,
I
satisfy, tKopt
era
; Korta,
]
grudge,
KOTtvaaro
;
tpvu,
I
draw,
tlpuaa.
On the usual
doubling
of the <r after short vowels
(ipavaa., tpvtraaro)
see
2G1,
D.
301. VERBS WITH A SHOKT VOWEL.
109
yeXaw,
/
laugh,
ff\da>,
1
squeeze,
/
breaJc,
I
draw,
/ slacken
I
dread,
I
heal,
I
grind,
1
satisfy,
I
vomit,
1
seethe,
I
scrape,
I
finish,
/
plough,
a,)i.'a>,
J
draw,
addit.
form
c\Kvu
t
J
draw,
(iX/co,
dp/ce'w,
/G>,
Fut.
yeXao-o/wu,
Aor. Act.
tye'Xttfra,
Aor. Pass.
Fut. Pass.
Fut.
$Xacra>,
Aor. Act. 10
\ara,
Verb.
Adj.
e\a<rros
Fut.
K\ao-a>,
Aor. Pass.
eK\do-6r)t>
Perf. Mid.
Fut.
(T7racra>,
Aor. Act.
Aor. Pass.
(o-jrd<r&T)v,
Perf. Act. o
Perf. Mid.
eWaoviai,
Verb.
Adj.
,
Fut.
xaXaa-co,
Aor. Pass,
e'^n)
Fut.
aiSetropai,
Aor. Pass.
yStaoyv
(328),
Perf.
^ecr/*o
Fut.
uKecrofj.at,
Aor.
TjxecrdiJiTjv.
Fut. dXeVtt)
(w),
Perf. Act.
dX^Xera,
Perf. Mid.
dX^)
Fut.
dpKeVo),
Aor. Act.
f)pKra.
Aor. Act.
r/p.t(ra.
Fut.
fVo),
Aor. Act.
((o-a,
Verb.
Adj.
Fut.
ro>,
Verb.
Adj. _
Fut. reX/cro)
(w),
Aor. Act.
eYe'Xeo-a,
Aor. Pass. eV
Verb.
Adj.
Perf. Act.
Ter<=Xf*ca,
Perf. Mid. Tfrt^e rrit.
Fut.
dpJcrw,
Aor. Act.
^pocra,
Aor. Pass.
rjp60r)t>.
Fut.
dpiJcrci),
Aor. Act.
fjpv(ra.
Aor. Act. 6?XcSo
p
a,
Fut. Pass.
t\KV<r8r)<roiJLai,
Perf. Act.
iX*cu:a,
Perf, Mid.
etXcu(r/iut.
Aor. Act.
(nTvcra,
Verb.
Adj.
2. 27w ww^Z w
^ow^r
in tlie Weak Aor.
Act.,
and
short
in the
Perf.,
the Aor.
Pass.,
and the Verbal
Adjective
in :
Jt'a, Hind,
Fut.
S^o-w,
Aor. Act.
<8jcra,
Perf. Act.
8'8eAca,
Aor. Pass,
fdtdrjv,
Verb.
Adj. Sere's,
Perf. Mid.
t,
3 Fut.
Se8/;cro^cu.
170 VI:RBS WITH A SHORT VOWEL.
302.
tfi'w,
7
o. ,
Fut.
doa-a,
Aor. Act.
tdva-a,
Perf. Act.
ridvKa,
Aor. Pass.
M&rpt
Perf. Mid. Tt6vu.ni.
Xi'o>,
7
/oos,
Fut.
XCcrw,
Aor. Act.
tXfo-a,
Perf. Act.
X/Xfoa,
Aor. Pass.
Ai^v,
Verb.
Adj. Xi/ror,
Perf. Mid. At'
XT/iai.
3. Tta iwW is 7wr in the Future and "Weak Aorist
Active and
Middle,
but
long
in the
Perfect,
Aorist
Passive,
and Verbal
Adjective
of
Ka\ea),
I
call, /caXecreu,
KK\r)Ka, K\i]6r)v, K\r)To$ ; alvea),
I
praise,
has
alvicrw,
yveita, yveflyv,
atVero?,
but Perf. ]\lid.
r)vr]p.ai.
4.
Trodea),
I
long for
; Troveca,
I toil
;
and
Suw,
I
sink,
fluctuate between the short and
long
vowels :
7ro0eo-o/icu,
and
Trodrjcrw
', iroveaw, eTrovrjadfiijv
; 8i7cra>,
Aor. Pass.
CU.VP. XI. SECOND PRINCIPAL CONJUGATION
or Verbs in
/u.
PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS.
302. The Second
Principal Conjugation
differs
from the First
only
in the inflexion of the Present and
Strong
Aorist-Stems,
and in the case of a few verbs also
in the Perfect and
Pluperfect
Active.
The
special
terminations of this
conjugation
are :
1. The 1
Sing.
Pros. Ind. Act. retains the ancient
pi
:
fa-pi,
7n/(22G).
2. 3
<TI(V) (for
n)
:
0ij(rt'00 ( 226).
3.
,
3 Pliir. inserts the vowel a before the
302.
Dialects.
The Horn, dialect often has the
ending
v6a in
the 2
Sing.
Ind. Act. :
ridrj-ada,
thou
putted ;
f-(>r)-o-6a,
aiid
ptvat
or
ptv
instead of vat in the Inf. :
<f>d-pevai, (frd-pev
;
and a short j>
instead of the crav of the 3 Plur. of the Preterite :
e-05-i/.
The Horn, dialect sometimes
lengthens
the Stem-vowel in the
Subj.
and shortens the Modal-vowel as in the Aor. Pass.
( 298)
:
(eamus).
304. SECOND PRINCIPAL CONJUGATION.
J71
termination <n
(for ITI) (
226,
comp. Dial.),
and this a is
lengthened
by compensation (t-acri(v),
they go,
from the Stem
t),
and unites
with the a of the Stem :
<$>a<rl(y).
4. In the
Optative ITJ (te, t),
the
Modal-sign
attaches itself
directly
to the Stem:
<f)a-ir)-v; comp.
293.
5. The 2
Sing. Imperat.
has the
ending
61 :
<f)d-0t
| g nqo
6. The Infinit. has the
ending
vai :
$d-j/ai
J
7.
The 3 Plur. of the Preterite has <rav :
f-(f)"-a-av (3
Plur.
Imperf.)
All terminations of these two tenses are
appended
to
the Stem without
a
connecting
vowel:
<f>a-pev (comp.
Tipd-o-pev), (f>d-ra) (cornp. ripa-e-ra>)
;
in the
Participle
also vr attaches itself
directly
to the Stem:
(fca-vr,
of
which the Nom. is formed
by
the addition of a- :
<?
;
Stem
So,
Sou?
(comp.
147,
l).
In the
Subjunctive
alone the final vowels of the Stems are contracted with
the
long connecting
vowels as in the
ordinary
contracted
A
r
erbs
( 243): </>a-&>, <}[><u;
Ti-6e-a>, n-6a),
303. In the Vowel-Stems of this
conjugation
a
change
of
quantity
takes
place
in such a manner that
vowels in themselves short are
lengthened
in the Sin-
gular
Indicative
Active,
a and e
becoming
77,
o
w,
and v v :
(f>r]-fiL,
I
say,
Plur.
^a-^ev, e-(f>r)-v,
Dual,
e-^a-rov \e-6rf-v,
I
placed]
;
Plur.
e-6e-/j,ev; 8e//ci>y-/u,
I
show,
Plur. Seifcvv-
uev.
Ols. Those forms which
always
have the vowel
long
are
specially
noticed below.
304. All verbs in
pi
are divided into 2 classes :
1. Those which in the Present
join
their terminations
directly
to the Stem :
fa-pi
;
2. Those which form the Present-Stem
by adding
w
to the Pure Stem :
SetWy-/u,
/
show,
Pure
Stem,
8 i
AT,
Present-Stem,
172 FIRST CLASS OF VERBS IN
/U.
30*.
I. FIRST CLASS OF VERBS IN
/z<.
305 and 30G. The
Paradigms
of this Class of Vi-rl*
are inserted on
p.
124,
fol.
307. Some few forms of the Verbs in
fu
are formed
305,
3()0. Dialects. The
following
are Ionic
secondary forma,
those enclosed in brackets
being
the New-Ionic.
Active.
2.
Sing.
Pros. Inl.
rt-ffrj-a-da
8i-8ol-a0a also
8/1
"
fi &
"
,,
,, ,,
Tl-Otl Ol-OOt
3. Plur.
ri-6(~i<Ti(v)
also
(Trpo)6tov(Ti(v)
2.
Sing.
Pres.
Imperat.
Inf. Pres.
ri-6r]fjL(-i>ai.
Imperf.
1
Sing. [f-ri-Bf-a]
o r
* '
A
i
Middle.
3. PI. Pres. . Ind.
[ri-6i-arai
dt-86-arai
M
Im^rf.
Pres. Part.
2. Aor. Ind. 3 PL
[t-OTOJ
[i-OT-a<rt(r)]
[i-ora]
Active.
Subj.
1
Sing.
6tla>
[df'co]
2
^etT/p
or
^ij^r
> >i
3
^</i/
2D.
1 PL
0a>n(v
or
f
3
8a>o-l(v)
OF
fOT&V
eoracrax
(rrt'jrjt
( 302,
D.)
6(fJi(i>ai, Ofjifv boptvai. 86p.(v
ln
Ind.
(dec,
fdtv
(
37,
D.
1)
[Herod.
Subj. |
Imper. 6to,
308. FIRST CLASS OF VERBS IN
yn.
173
after the First
Principal Conjugation,
as
e.g.,
the 2
Sing.
Imperf.
eVi#9,
the 3
Sing,
frfflet,
as if from the Stem
ride. In the
Imperf.
the forms
eSlSovv, eSt'Sow,
eSi'Soy
are the
only
ones in use from the Stem SiSo
;
they
are
formed in the same manner as those of contracted verbs
( 243).
Other similar forms will be noticed in
treating
of the
separate
verbs.
In the 3 Plur. Pres. Ind. contraction is sometimes
employed
:
rtdelcn,
BiSovcri.
In the 2
Sing. Imperat.
Pres. Act. the real
ending
A
is
dropped,
and the Stem-vowel is
lengthened
to com-
pensate
for it : SISov for 818061.
In the same
person
of the Aorist after a short vowel
i
only
is
dropped,
and the
remaining
0,
according
to
67,
is
changed
to
5
:
8o-0t, 809,
but
crn}-0,
which
only
in
compounds
sometimes
appears
as
crra,
e.
g.
KardcrTcL
In the 2
Sing.
Mid. of the Present and
Imperfect
the
or between the two vowels is
preserved
:
rlde-a-ai,
ride-cro,
eride-ao
;
only
the 2
Sing,
of the
Subj.
is treated
entirely
like the contracted verbs of the First
Principal Conjuga-
tion. In the 2
Sing.
Mid. of the
Strong
Aorist,
on the
other
hand,
the a- is thrown
out,
which
gives
rise to a
contraction :
Z-de-ao, e-de-o,
e-6ov
;
Imper.
6k-<ro, Be-o,
0ov.
Obs. The forms of the 2
Sing. Imperat.
Mid.
compounded
with
monosyllabic prepositions,
after contraction throw the accent
as a circumflex
upon
the last
syllable
:
npo-6ov
;
but Homer lias
<rvv-6eo and
Trfpi-dov.
308. The three verbs
conjugated
above
(p. 124)
dis-
tinguish
the Present-Stem from the Pure Stem
by
re-
duplication,
that
is,
the initial consonant with t is
prefixed
before the Stem :
So,
SiSo
; 0e,
ride
( 536)
;
l-a-ra for
a-i-ara
according
to (JO b.
(comp.
Lat.
si-sto).
In like
manner the Stem
xpa
in the Pres. becomes
Kt-%pa
(tc^prj-fu,
I
lend);
ir\a and
irpa,
with the insertioi*
of a
nasal,
become
7Ti-/x-7rA,a,
iri-
171: FIRST CLASS OF VERBS IN
fit,.
309,
1
Jill
;
Tri'fnrptjfii,
I
burn}
;
but
crv/j,-Tri-7r'\.r)-fj,i,, e/i-Trt-
ir\r)-fj,i;
tlie Stem e becomes
i-rj-fit,
I send
; and,
with
the
reduplication
within the Stem
itself,
ova becomes
o-vi-vrj-fii,
I
benefit.
309. The
Deponents tovvapai,
I
can;
cViora/iat,
/
Kpefjiapai,
I
hany ;
together with the Aorists
tTtpia^v,
I
Imif/ht ;
wvf]^r]v,
I
benrfiti'tl,
withdraw the
accent,
even in the
Subjunc-
tive and
Optative,
as far as
possible
from the end:
fivvwpu,
(iricrraivTo
(comp. la~ru>p.ai, tcrraliro).
Other
peculiarities
of verbs of this class are :
310. The three Stems 6e
(TI%M),
So
(oYSa>/u),
and
e
(irj/jLt)
form an
irregular
Weak Aorist in tea :
edrj/ca,
eScotca,
fjica,
but in the Middle we find
only fj/cdfivv.
In
the
Sing,
of the Indicative the Active forms are custo-
mary
instead of those of the
Strong
Aorist,
but in the
Dual and Plural of the Indicative
they
are rare. The
other moods and the
Participles
have the
strong
forms
exclusively.
The
really customary
forms of the
Aorist, therefore,
are these :
Ind.
Subj.
6St Mid.
tdt^v
(6ijKO Opt. 6fir]v Subj. Bupai
(drjKas Imp.
6ts &c.
(dr)K((v)
Inf. Bfivai
edfrov Part. 6(ts
edfp.fi> (seldom e'$^Aea/ifi>)
tBtcrav
( fdrjKav).
311. 2. The
rough breathing
instead of the cr of the
Stem o-ra is also used in the Perf.
(
60
b)
:
e-ar^-tca
for
cre-crTT)-Ka.
On the shorter forms :
ecrra/iev,
&c.,
see
317,
4.
ecrr^o),
I shall
stand,
is a, Third Future Active.
The Perfects of Oe and e are
TeQeitca,
elxa;
the same
vowel also remains in the Perf. Mid.
redeifuii, el/j-ai.
The
Stems
So and a-ra leave their vowel short in the Perf.
310. Dialects. From the Stem So llom. has sometimes Fut.
instead oi 3waw.
312. FIRST CLASS OF VEEBS IN
ft..
175
Mid. and Aor.
Pass.,
and de in'the Aor. Pass. :
eSodqv, effTaOifjv, ereOyv, T0rja-o/j,ai,.
On the
meaning
of
the different forms of
m7/u
see
329,
1.
312. To the First Class of the Verbs
in
p,t,
there
also
belong
:
A)
Verbs whose Stem ends in a
(comp. to-n^i)
:
1.
T}-IU (comp.
Lat.
a-io),
I
say, only
in the
Impf.
r,v,
3
Sing. r}
(comp.
213,
Obs.).
2.
o-vl-vrj-fju (Stem
6v
a,
308),
I
benefit,
Mid.
ovlvafuii
( 309),
Z Aave
advantage, Strong
Aor. Mid.
oavrifiijv,
K>vr)(To, wvrjTo ;
Opt.
ovai^v, Imperat.
ovrjao,
Inf. ova-
cdai,
Fut.
ovrjcrci), ovrj<rofj,at
;
Aor. Pass.
&vr}Qr[v.
3.
7rt-/i-7rX^-/ii (Stem
?rXa,
308).
Additional
form,
7r>.?/0o>,
J
,/Ki [Lat. ple-o],
Fut.
irkqa-a),
Perf. Mid.
TreTrXrja-fjiai,
Aor. Pass.
eTrX^cr^y.
4.
7ri-/jL-7rpr)-fj,t, (Stem Trpa),
additional
form,
7rp?]0u)
(quite
like
3).
5.
$f]-n,i (Stem <f)a),
I
say,
2
Sing. Impf. efaa-da
(enclitic
in Pres. Ind.
except
2
Sing.,
coin
p.
92,
3).
Imperat. fyddi,
or
$aQi
;
comp. <j)dcrKa),
32-i,
8.
6.
'xprj (Stem %pa, XP
e
)
one mus
^
Subj. xpy, Opt.
Xpet
77,
Inf.
xprjvai,
Part.
%/3c6i/ (only
Neut. from
Xpdov, according
to 37
D.). Impf. e%/37}y
or
Fut.
xptfcrei,
;
a TT
6^/377,
t'i
suffices,
also 3 Plur.
%pc0a-i(v),
&c.,
as above
airo-^pdw.
7.
Ki-'xp'q-^i (Stem %pa, 308),
I
lend,
Inf.
vat,
Fut.
xprjao),
Aor.
e^p^cra.
Further the
8.
aya-pat
(Stem
'ay a),
I
admire,
Fut.
dyaaopat,
Aor.
Pass,
r/yda-drjv,
Verb.
Adj.
ayacrTOS.
9.
8vva-pai
(Stem Sui/a)
/
caw,
2
Sing.
Ind.
Svz/?7
is
rare
( 309), Impf.
e&vvdfAyv,
2
Sing.
eSiW,
Fut.
312. Dialects. 3. Horn, has the Aor.
TrXrjro,
it was
filed,
3. Plur.
nXrjvro, Opt. 7rX?;/iji',
or
TrXft'/^v,
Imper.
6. Herod.
aTr/xpa.
8. Horn,
aydo/^at, dyatojuat.
173 FIRST CLASS OF VERBS IN
/u.
i,
Aor.
eSvvijdriv,
seldom
eSwda-Or/v.
The.
Aug-
ment is
frequently
rj
(
234,
Obs.),
Perf.
Se&vvrjjj,ai,
Verb.
Adj.
Swciros,
capable, possible.
10.
e7ri<rra-fj.ai (Stem
emen
a)
I
understand,
2
Sing.
tVioTYwat,
Impcrf.
?}7TicrT/i?;y, ^Trlcrra),
Fut.
eVior?;-
cro/mi,
Aor.
r)Tn<rrr)6r]v^
Verb.
Adj.
eTrieTirros.
11.
epa-ficu (Stem e'pa), poetic,
/ fove
(commonly
epd(i>),
Aor. Pass.
i}pdadtjv.
12.
tcpe/Mi-fuii (Stem /cpefia),
I
hang ( 300).
Fut,
tcpqufaofuu,
Aor.
bcpffuur&rjv.
Additional
forms, 319,
2.
O&s. The
following may
serve as
examples
of the formation of
words : TO
df-fia,
tlie
position
;
6
So-Tijp,
the
giver ;
ij arci-trt-r,
the
rise; ij oj^-a-i-r,
the
benefit,
from the Pure
Verbal-Stem,
differing
from the Present-Stem
; 17 (f)r)-fjLr),fd-ma,
talk
;
f]
ovva-
pi-s, power; ^ enta~rr]-p.rj, knowledge,
from the
Verbal-Stem,
which is the same as that of the Present.
Dialects.
13. Horn,
aptvai, satiate,
Stem,
a, Subj.
c
14. Stem
^a,
Part,
ftifias, stepping.
14. 6. Stem 8f
a,
3
Sing. Imperf. 8<aro, seemed,
Aor. 8oa-<r<raro.
15. Stem
*Xa, IXao-Aco/iai, JXao/iai,
I am
gracious,
Horn.
Imperat.
16. Stem it?
pa (comp. Mpawvpi.,
1
mix),
Horn. 3 Plur.
Snl'j.
Mid.
Kfpuvrai.
To these
belong also,
in
regard
to the inflexion of
the
Present-Stem,
those Horn,
verbs,
which either are used
only
in
the
Present-Stem,
or form the Present-Stem from the Verbal Stem
by affixing
the
syllable
-va :
a) Sdp.-VTj-p.i (also Sa/i-fd-w),
1
tame,
Mid.
8d/i-ia-/iat,
Fut.
doftota, da/xda;,
Weak Aor. Inf.
8ap.d(rai, 8apacracr6ai,
Pcrf.
pcu,
Aor. Pass.
fOfj.fjdrjv, 5apd<rdr]v,
and
Strong
Aor. Pass,
(Subj. bafieiv).
6) Kipvrifj.1 (also Kepdwv/u,
319,
1),
I
mix,
Part.
Kipvds,
3
Sin^.
Imj^erf. tuipva, comp.
319,
1.
c) Kprjp.vaiJ.ai, poetic
additional form of
tc.ptp.a-^ai (12), comp.
Also
319,
2.
<i) papvap.ai,
I
contend,
2
Sing. Tmperf. e/
e) irfpvrim,
I
sell,
Part,
irtpi'ds, 7T(pvap.(vos.
f) iri\vap.ai,
I
aj>proach,
Stem
TreX,
Aor. 3
Sing.
e-Tr
g) iriTvnp.1,
1
spread,
Part.
TTITVUS,
Imperf. niTvavro, conip.
319,
3.
A)
o-ntltvrjpi,
1
scatter, o-Kiovarat,
comp. 319,
1.
313. FIRST CLASS OF VERBS IN
fit.
377
313.
B)
Verbs whose Stem ends in e
(oomp.
1.
i-r)-/j,t (Stem
e,
Pres.-Stern
t-e,
i.
e.,
t-e
according
to
308),
I send.
Act. Pres. 3 Plur. Ind.
ia<n,(v), Opt.
leirjv
(secondary-
forms
totftt,
3 Plur.
totev).
Imperf.
"r\-v
(secondary
forms
[Tow],
let?,
i),
Plur.
i-fiev,
3 Plur.
'ie-(Tav,
a<j>lei
and
r)<j>ici
(a<f)ir]fii,
I send
away}. Comp.
240.
Aor.
rf-K-a, fj/cas, r)Ke(y),
elrov,
einqv, elfiev,
etre,
ela-av.
Subj.
w,
Opt.
etV,
Imperat.
e?,
Inf.
elvai,
Part
el?
(Stem vr).
On this Aor.
comp.
310.
Fut.
T/O-&),
Perf. el-K-a.
Mid. Pres.
'L-e-pai,
I
hasten, strive,
Subj. iw/iat, ifj,
&c.,
Opt.
lelfirjv
(additional
form,
loifMfv)) Imperat.
ie<ro,
or
tov,
Imperf. t-e^v.
Aor.
ei/Mjv,
elcro, elro,
Subj. wpai,
Opt. i/A^y
(additional
form,
Q'I^V).
Cos. The et of the Iiid.
fi-iajv,
is caused
by
the
Augment ( 236),
that of the
Opt. by
the
Mood-sign (
302,
4).
313. Dialects.
1. Horn. '2 and 3
Sing.
Pres.
iy,
Jet
;
3 Plur.
iI<ri(i')
;
1
^i"!-v Impf.
Itiv, tety,
t
;
3 Plur.
tej/,
3
Sing. Subj.
i7)<rt(v')
;
Inf.
/nei>at
;
Aor. Act.
erjKa ;
3 Plur. eyav
;
Subj.
etw
;
Aor.
LI id. 3 Plur. I>TO.
2. Flit.
fj<r<a
and
(dv)/o-<<) [Herod. p.tp(Tifi*vos
as a Part. Perf. of
(jLfTLT)iu=iif6irip.i, 52, D.,
as if from
peria
with
irregular reduplica-
tion].
Moreover :
3. Stem
a(f)f,
Pros.
>7/u,
J
5?ow,
2 Dual
uyrov,
3
Sing. Impf. 07
and (if
i,
Inf.
d^i/ot
and
drjfifvai,
Part. Aor. Nom. Plur.
dWer,
Mid.
4. Stem 8
it, (eV) S/eo-ai', <7ie?/
frightened, Sicvrai, they flee, Opt.
it'otro.
5. Stem
8t>, St'fr/^ai,
additional
form, 8/fw,
I
seek,
2
Sing. Sifaat,
Inf.
8irj<r{)ai,
Fut.
$i,f]<rop.ai'
6. 1'rcs.
K/x'/F
1
(comp. 322, 18)
7
obtain,
Subj. Ktx'u
Opt.
Kixctqi'i
Inf.
xi^jjj/at,
Part.
<ct^f('r,
Mid.
Imj)f.
2
Sing. eVci^ctj,
3 Dual
XI^IJTTJI/
N
178
FIRST CLASS OF VERBS IN
/.
314.
Fut.
"j-o-opai,
Perf.
el-pai,
Plup.
e't-fjLijv.
Aor. Pass.
e'tOrjv,
Subj.
e0w. Fut.
eOijffopat.
Verb.
Adj.
eros, ereo?.
2.
Bi-^rj-fjit (Stein
8
e),
/
bind,
a rare additional form
of8e-o>(244, 1).
314.
C)
Verbs whose Stem ends in i :
1.
*?-/u (Stem t,
Lat.
t'-re),
7#o.
Pres. Ind.
ei-/u I-^fv Subj.
?-
T-^y
c(c.
et I-TOV t-rc
Opt. t-o.'ijj>
i-oiy etc.
tl-<rt(v)
1-rov
i-ao'i(i') Imfx;rat.
i-^t i-rco etc.
3 Plur. t-d^rwi' or l-Toxrav
In l-f-vai Part,
t-wv, i-oCera,
t-oV
(Geu.
r-dvr-of
t conip.
Lat.
e-unt-is)
Impf. gft"
or
ija
/
f
'M
f *' or
S/
1*''
rffty TJfurda fjtiTov, yrov, fjfire grt
get fifiv gctnp, tJTTjv fjfvav
Verbal
Adj.
tVo9,
tre'o?
(additional
form
ITTJTCOV,
it is
necessary
to
go).
06s. The
Present, especially
in the
Indicative,
has a Future
meaning;
the
Imperfect
has the
endings
of a
Pluperfect, ;
is
produced by
the
Augment preceding
e i.
2.
tcel-fiat (Stem /cet),
/
lie,
has the inflexion of a
Perfect. 2
Sing,
icei-vat,
3 Plur.
Keivrai,
Subj.
3
Sing.
i,
Opt.
Keotro,
Imperat.
tcelcro,
Inf.
Kelcrdat,
Part.
;
the
compound 7rapdicetjj,ai,
Inf.
TrapaKeta&at.
(Comp.
rffJMi,
315,
2).
314.
Dialects. 1. Stem
i,
2
Sing.
Pres. Ind.
do-fa,
Subj.
17
iijo-iv,
1 Plur.
'toptv, 'iofj.ev,
and
'tco/xo>, Opt.
Jo,
tetij
or
tirj,
Impf. ifia
and
ijToi/,
3
Sing. ffi((v)
or
te(/),
1 Plur.
jro/xez*,
3
Plur.
ijiov, rjltrav,
with
ITTJI', i/i*>',
itraj'.
yut.
ftcrofjiai,
Aor.
tlcrdprjv
and
ftHrafjujv.
2. Stem ic
ft,
3 Plur.
KfiWai, utarat, Kwirai, Tmpf. Ktlaro,
Ktaro
[K(fTai=KflTai],
Part, Fut.
KtW, cubiturus,
Inf.
Kdiynv.
ovo is an Horn. Stem in
o,
Pres.
oi/ooai,
/
vituperate, ovovcu,
3
Sing. Opt.
OI/OITO
( 309),
Fut.
OPOOXTO/MU,
Aor.
wvocraprjv,
and
from the Stem o
r, iavdprjv.
pv
or
tpi?
is an Horn. Stem in
v,
3 Plur.
tlp-iarai, ih>-y rescue,
protect,
Inf.
puadai,
tpvaQai,
(IpVptvos, Impf.
2
Sing, tpvcro,
3 Plur
pvaro, tpvaro, (Ipvvro ; moreover,
Inf. Act.
tlpvpfvak,
to
draw,
Aor.
Mid.
ftixraro,
he
rescued, tpvaaaro,
he
drew.
315. FIRST CLASS OF VERBS IN
/.
179
QOSf \Vhen
compounded
with
prepositions, xt'ipai
is almost
identical
in
meaning
with the Perf. Pass, of the
corresponding
compounds
of
ridrjp.i
:
\nroridr)fu
}
I
lay
as a
foundation,
viroKftTai,
it is laid as a
foundation.
315.
D)
Verbs whose Stem ends in a consonant
(cr)
:
1.
tipi (Stem
e j Lat.
es-se"),
I am
Pres. Ind.
d-pi (for toyu) tcr-p-ev
fi
(for eV-cri)
tcr-rov ecr-re
(es-fo's)
eo-Tt'(j') (Lat. es-t")
eV-rdv
fl-(ri(v)
Subj.
o>
Z>p.(v Opt. f"r)v f'rjfjLev
OT
eijuep
fjs rfrov rjre f?r]s {"TJTOV
or flrov
f'irjTf
or (LTt
rj TJTOV o>cri(i/) flrj flr)TT)v
or
flTTjv tlrjuav
or ftev
Imperat.
Icrdi (o-rov eore Inf. dvai
fo-rui ((TTa>v fcrraxTdv Part, coc ov(ra ov
(Stem OVT)
(Lat. esto)
ecrrcoi',
ovrcav
Impf. %v
or
T) yptv
fi<r6a TJCTTOV
or
r/rov Tjre
or
rjare
rfv rjcrTT]v
or
^TTJV rjcrav
Impf.
Mid.
rjpr)v (rare)
Fut.
ecro^ai
3
Sing,
farai
V.
Adj.
etrrtov.
Obs. 1. The loss of the cr of the Stem is
compensated
for
by
the
vowel
being lengthened
in the 1
Sing. ( 42)
:
tlfit
for
c'cr/xi,
in
the 2
Sing,
e? for
eVi,
which has arisen from the eVcn'
preserved
in
Homer
(comp.
49, 61, 6).
In the 3
Sing,
the
original
ending
TI is retained:
e'cm'(i>),
the 3 Plur. has
eicrt'(v)
from
t'o-JTi.
The
Subj.
2> stands for ew
(Horn.)
from e'crco
;
the
Opt.
315. Dialects.
Ionic additional
forms
: 2
Sing.
eV-tri
or
*?,
1 Plur.
dfjiiv,
3 Plur.
eatrt(v) ;
eWi' is also
enclitic,
but not
icrt(i').
Sulij.
1
Sing.
<oj, eico,
2
Sing, ^y,
3
Sing,
ft/on^), ija-i(v), ?/,
3 Plur.
ea)crt(i')
Opt.
also
eoty, eot,
2
Sing. Imperat.
Mid.
!Wo,
3 Act.
eorw,
3 Plur. tvrutv
Inf.
(p.p.tvai (for i<r-fJLtvai), ffj.p.fv, tpfvat, fptv
Part,
twi/,
tovcra,
(6v
(Stem iovr)
Imperf.
1
Sing, ^a, ?a,
oi/
;
2
Sing, frjvffa [tat],
3
Sing, ^fv, (TJV,
T)rjv,
!"2 Plur.
?aT],
3 Plur.
fo-av;
3 Plur. Mid.fiaro
^vro")
Fut.
fcrtro^iai,
3
Sing, tcrerai, ecro-frat,
ecrcrfIrat
( 264)
2. 3. Plur.
tarai, tlarai, Imperf. taro,
fiaro
3. Inf.
(butvai,
to
eat,
Pres.
t<r6u>, eV^iw,
8a)
[Lat.
cs-tis
= edith
J
Comp. 327,
4.
4. 2. Plur.
Imperf. <f'pre= <'/>, Jrtn^ [Lat./erfe].
180 FIRST CLASS OF VKIiUS IN
yU4.
tlrjv
for
fcr-irjv,
as the Inf. tivai for iv-vai
;
iv fur fwy
(Horn.)
from eV-wi/. la the
Impf.
the Dual has most
fully
presemtl
the <r.
CMs. 2.
?/u
is enclitic in the Pros. Ind.
except
the 2
King,
ft
(comp.
92,
3);
<m is
paroxytone
when it denotes existence
or means the same as CT-TI
"
it is
jwssillc"
as well as at the
beginning
of a sentence and after the
particles ou, ^17, , &>r,
icai: tort
tffo'y,
tliere is a
God,
oi*
tern,
it is not
pc-
When
merely
external causes
prevent
it from
being
enclitic
( 93, c), e'oriX")
is
oxytone
:
<fri\os
icrr\v
tpov,
he is
myfriend.
Obs. 3. In the
compounds
of
efy
the accent remains on the
Stem-syllable; e.g.
in the
Impcrf. Trapiji/,
in the
Subj.
and
Opt.
ana, airtlfv,
in the Inf. and Part,
atrf'wat, irapuv,
in the 3
Sing.
Fut.
irapf<rrai.
2.
77/iat
(Stem 179),
I
sit, has,
like
Kclaai,
the in-
flexion of a Perfect.
Pres.
fjfuii fjfiedov f)fj,e0a
Imperat.
^cro.
rjcrcu rjcrdov fjcrde r\aQw
t
&c.
ffcrrai, *]cr6ov fjtrrai,
Inf.
fjcrdai
Part.
ripevos
Inipf.
77/ZTji/, T^CTO,
&c.
In Attic
prose
we find almost
exclusively
the com-
pound
tcddrjfjiaL,
of which 3
Sing.
Kad^rat,
Subj. KaOw/j-ai,
Opt.
Kadoi/J.r)v,
3 Plur.
icadolvro,
Imperat.
Ka6r]ao
or
icdOov
(from
Kade<rd),
Inf.
Kadij(rdai,
Part.
Kadr)ii,evos,
Imperf. &caffq/Mjv ( 240)
or
KaBijprjv,
3
Sing.
ercdOrjTo
or
Kadfja-To,
3 Plur.
e/cddyvro
or
Kadijvro.
316. The
following /Strong
Aorists formed without a
connecting
vowel from verbs whose Present-Stem
mostly
follows the First
Principal Conjugation,
likewise
belong
to the First Class of Verbs in
/u,
t :
/Stews m a.
1.
e-ftrj-v
(Stem /3a),
Pres.
/3aiW,
J#0, Imperat.
yS^t,
in
compounds
also
fid
(tcardfid),
Inf.
fiijvai,
Part.
/3a?.
316. Dialects.!.
3 Plur.
e/Sav, Subj.
u,
/3^,or jSei'j;,
[Iler. fttafifv],
Inf.
.'.t(5. FIICST CLASS OF VEEBS IN
/U.
181
2.
yrjpa-vai
(Stem yrjpa),
Inf. to the Pres.
<yr)pd-<TKo>,
I
grow
old, 324,
1.
3.
e-Spd-v (Stem Spa),
Pres.
Si-Spd-atco),
324, 2,
Z
rwn,
Inf.
Spa-vat,
Part.
Spa?.
4. e-Krd-v
(Stem
KTO),
Pres.
/crewo),
I
kill,
Part,
/cra-9,
Part. Mid.
Kra-fj-evos
(killed}.
5.
e-Trrrj-v
(Stem
Trra,
Trre),
Pres.
Trero/iat,
/
/ZJy,
Part.
TTTa?,
Mid.
TrrdfAevos,
Inf. Trrea-dai.
6.
e-r\r)-v
(Stem r\a),
/
endured,
Subj.
rXco,
Opt.
T\air)v,
Imperat.
r\TJ0i,
Inf.
rX^yat,
Fut.
rX^o-oyucw,
Perf.
TerX^/ca (
317, D.,
10).
7.
e-(f>dr}-v (Stem <#a),
Pres.
<f>0dvci),
I
anticipate,
Inf.
8.
e-Trpid-fjiTji' (Stem Trpia),
2
bought, Imperat.
Stems in e.
9.
e-<r/3rj-v
(Stem crfte),
Pres.
a-^evvvfii,
I
quench,
319, 7,
Inf.
10.
-a-K\tj-v
(Stem cr/cXe),
Pres.
ovce'XXtw,
I
dry,
Inf.
11.
Imperat o-^e-?,
from
cr^e-di (Stem o-^e),
Pres.
w, 327, 6,
1
Sing.
Ind.
e-a-^-o-v.
Stems in to.
12. -aXo>-i>
(Stem aX<u),
/?ra
caught,
Pres. aXtWo-
(
324,
17), Opt.
a\oiT]v,
Inf.
aXwi/ai,
Part.
aXou?.
13.
e-f3Ua-v
(Stem /9ta)),
Pres.
/3toa),
J
?/yg,
Opt.
qjrjv,
Inf.
PLWVCII,
Part.
Dialects. 2. Part,
yrjpds.
3.
[Her. tfyjqi/].
4. 3
Sing. Ta,'
3 Plur.
tKrav,
SuVij. KTfa>p.(v,
Inf.
KTapfvai,
Hkl.
fVraro
(/<e
was
kitted, 255,
D.
2),
Pass.
Aor.,
3 Plur. (KTaStv.
5. Mid.
rTaro,
Sabj. Trr^rai,
l)or. 1
Sing.
Act. t-mav.
*-.. 3
Plur. frXay.
7.
Subj.
3
Sing.
<j>df)rj,
or
^d^a-t^), (irapa)^air](ri(v),
1 Plur.
12.
ijXwi', Subj., dXa>w, Opt.
3
Sing. cSAofy,
Inf. dXw
182 FIliST CLASS OF VERBS IN
fit.
31.
14.
e-yvto-v (Stem yva))
t
Pres.
yi-yvw-a-tca),
I come to
know
(
324, 14), Opt. yvoirjv, Jinpcrat yvwOi,
Inf.
^vwvtn,
Part.
<yvov<;.
Stems in i.
15.
Imperat.
irl-Ot,
(Stem TTI),
Pres.
irivu),
I
drink,
1
Sing.
Aor. Ind. CTTIOV
(
321,
4).
Stems in v.
16. e-Sv-v
(Stem Bv),
Pres.
Bvw,
I
dive,
Imperat.
Svdi,
Inf.
&vvat,
Part.
809.
As to its
meaning
see
329,
4.
17.
e-<f>v-v (Stem 0u),
I
became,
Pres.
</>uo>,
I
produce,
Inf.
<f>vvai.
Dialects-
14.
Subj. yvaxa,
Inf.
15.
Imperat.
r'e.
16. 3 Plur.
8v-i/, Subj. 8i/'a>, 8vV,
3
Sing. Opt. Sifi; (from
Inf.
of/iff.
17. 3 Plur.
0i;^.
Besides these the
following
are
peculiar
to the
Ep.
Dial. :
18. Part,
anovpas,
Pres.
anavpdo>,
I take
aicay.
19.
Stem
ISA?;,
Pres.
/SuXXw,
/
</irou>,
3
Dual,
vn&\fav (met
together*),
Fut.
|v/x^Xij(ro/iat,
Mid.
tfi\i)To (was hit,
'J
.",;">,
]).
Subj. p\fj-{-rait
2
Sing. Opt.
#AeIo,
Inf.
/3Xr;o-^at,
Part.
20. Stem
ovra,
Pres.
ouraco,
I
wound,
3
Sing, ovra,
Inf.
ovTafit-
itii,
Part. Mid.
ovrdptvos (wounded),
Verb.
Adj.
ovraro?.
21. Stem
TITO,
Pres.
Trrrjo-o-a),
/
stoop,
2
Dual,
e-nrfi-rrjv,
Part.
Perf.
TTfTmjwf.
22. Stem
TrXa,
Pres.
n-eXafw,
I
approach,
Aor. Mid.
TrXijTO.
23. Stem
/3/>w,
Pres.
i-pd>-(TKci>,
7 ea<
(
324,
13),
Aor.
f,3p<ov.
24. Stem ir\
a>,
Pres.
TrXaxo,
/
sa7,
2
Sing.
Aor.
en-Xw?,
Part. TrXco-?.
25. Stem
KTI,
Pres.
KT/^W, I/uund,
Part. Aor. Mid.
(v-Kri-fjitvos
(well-founded).
26. Stem
00t,
Pree.
<j)6ivo>,
I waste
away, Subj.
Aor. Mid. <0iV-
rai, Opt. <f>0ffjir]v, <f>6iTo,
Inf.
<f>di<r6ai,
Part,
(frdiptvos.
27.
Stem <eX
v,
Pres.
*Xva>,
/
taar,
Imperat.
Aor. :Xi)^i or
KfK\v0i,
cXtTf Or K(K\VT(.
28. Stem X
v,
Pres.
Xvo>,
7
loose,
Aor. Mid.
Xi'/i^v,
Xvro or XCro.
29. Stem
wi/y,
Pres.
nWo>,
/
breathe,
Aor. Mid.
ap-nviJTo (he
re-
covered
breath).
30. Stem
<rv,
Pres.
<reuo>,
I
scare,
Aor. Mid.
(ruro,
Part,
31.
Stem
x>
Tres.
x
e
'
w
>
^
P
our
(
248
),
Aor. Mid. t
Part,
317.
FIRST CLASS OF VERBS IN
/u.
183
317. Several
Perfects
also have some forms without
a
connecting
vowel :
A)
Vowel-Steins.
A number of Vowel-Stems form the
Sing.
Perf. Ind.
Act.
regularly,
but in the Dual and Plural of the
Perfect and
Pluperfect
Ind.,
in the other
moods,
and in
the Infinitive and
Participle, may
connect the
endings
immediately
with the Perfect-Stem.
1. Stem
j3a,
Pres.
/Saivu,
I
go (
321,
l).
Perf. Ind.
fiefirjK-a
/3e/3a-/xei/
?
ftefta-rov /3e/3a-re
3 PI.
Subj. e/3w<n(i/),
Part.
/3e/3e6?, /3e/3eS<ra,
Gen.
2. Stem
7
a
(for 7
e
v),
Pres.
yfyvopai,
I
become,
Perf.
ye-yov-a,
PJur. also
76-7
a-
p,ev (
327,
14),
Part.
7670)9,
Gen.
Dialects.
32. Stem d\
(aXXo/i<u,
1
spring),
Aor. Mid.
aXo-o, 0X7-0,
Subj. aXfrat,
Part.
aXptvos.
33. Stem
yev, only
in
y/rro,
7te iooA.
34. Stem
8e^ (Pres. 8e'xo/wu,
/
accept),
Aor.
e'S/ypji/,
3
Sing.
S//CTO, Imperat. 8^o,
Inf.
S*\5ai (comp.
273,
D.).
35. Stem X e
y (Xt'yco,
1
collect),
Aor. Mid. X
KTO,
Ae counted.
36. Stem
Xe^ (
no
Pres.),
Aor. Mid. X/KTO
(/ie
ZaW
himself),
Tmperat. Xe^o,
Inf.
\txdai,
Part.
(KaTa)Xey/ij/o?,
Aor. Act.
Xe^,
Mid.
<X|aro,
Fut.
Xe^ofiat.
37. Stem
/ity,
Pres.
^ta-yw,
I
mix,
Aor. Mid.
f/xiicro, pitcro.
38. Stem
op, opwpi,
I
excite,
Aor. Mid.
&pro,
Imperat. op<ro
or
optreo (opo-cv),
Inf.
opdai,
Part,
opptvos.
39. Stem
Tray (nrj-yvvpi,
I
fix),
Aor. Mid.
(TT^KTO,
it was
fixed.
40. Stem TT a X
(n-aXXw,
7
wield),
Aor. Mid. TraXro.
41. Stem
irtpQ (ntpda,
1
destroy),
Inf. Aor. Mid.
irepdai
(to
le
destroyed).
To these are to be added the
Participles
which have become
Adjectives, u<rp.(vos, ylad
(Stem
dS, di/Savw,
/
please), iKpevos,
favourable
(Stem
IK
licviofuu,
I
come).
317.
Dialects.!. Horn. 3 Plur.
/3e^aao-i(i/),
Part.
/3f/3aci?,
Dual
2. Horn. 3 Plur.
yfyaao-i(v),
Part,
yf-yaas, ytyama,
Gen.
3 Dual
Plup.
(fV)yfyaT7Jl/.
184 FIRST CLASS OF VEIIIJS IX
/u.
U7.
3. Stem
Ova,
Pros,
dv^-a-fcco,
I
die,
Perf.
re-Ovy-ica,
Plur.
re-dva-ftev,
&e.,
Inf.
reOvdvai,
Part.
Tftfrno?,
rtOveaxra, reOveos,
Plupf.
3 Plur. eredvacrav
(
321, 4).
4. Stein
o-ra,
Pres.
i-crrr)-fj,i,
Perf.
e-a-rrj-xa
I
stf/ml,
Plur.
e-a~Ta.-fj.ev, Subj. ecrrwfiev, e<7T<wcri(V), Opt.
earairjv,
Iinperat.
<rTa6
1, ecrrdru), eararov,
ear
are,
Inf. ear
aval,
I'art.
e<TTo>9, effrSxra,
e<rro9,
Gen.
ecrraJTO?,
3 Plur.
Plupf.
eo-rao-aj/
(
306
&c.).
5. Stem
St,
Perf. Se-St-a or
8e-&oi-rta,
I
fear,
Plur.
2>eSc-fj,v,
SeSLacn(v), Subj.
SeSt'a>,
Opt.
BeBieltjv,
Impcrat.
&e8i0i,
Inf.
SeStevat,
Part.
SeSto)9,
Plupf.
ebeSieiv,
3 Dual
t8eBtri)v,
3 Plur.
e5e'8i<raj;,
also Aor.
eBeicra,
Fut. 8ei-
cro/^ai.
Obs. The
regular
and
irregular
forms are
mostly
both in use.
B)
Consonant-Stems.
In these the
peculiar changes
of the vowels
( 303)
and consonants
(
45-49)
must be observed.
6. Stem 28
(Aor.
lSw I
saw, 327, 8).
Perf. Ind.
oiS-a,
1 know
"iir-pcv Subj.
8
oi-ffda tcr-rov Itr-re
ciS^r ftS^TDv
o?S-f(i/)i<r-Tov 7<r-ao-i(i') tlbf) tl&rjrov
Opt. tlStiTjv, Imp.
?cr-$4 to--ro' ?<r-T Inf. tlbevat
?<T-TW Icr-rwi' Icr-T&crav Part.
etSwr,
etSvia
tfioj,
Gen. f8or-
Plup. fjSetv
or
^8r; (7 knew) flB
j/8et<r0a ,, fldrja-Ba rf
8 f t r o or
fjcrrov ybtire
Fut.
etcro^at,
Verb.
Adj.
lartov.
Dialects. 3.
Imperat.
Tf'6va&i,
Inf.
re^a/it^ai),
Gen. Part.
rt^j^wTor,
Ttft^wror, Ttdvfitaros,
Tf&vr)6ros, Tc6vtioTos,
Fem.
T(6vr)v'ta.
4. 2 Plur. Ind. also
eorrjrf,
Part.
i<rra<as,
Gen. toraoVoj
[Her.
fflTfwr,
etrrewtra].
5.
8*i'8ta,
8ei'8t/xfv, Imperat. deiStdi,
1
Sing.
Pert also
8t'8otKo,
Aor. 88to-a
(comp. 77, D.).
6. 1 Plur.
18-fji(v [Her.
and sometimes also in Att. -writers
o*8a/uj<,
3 Plur.
oi8aa-i] Subj.
ddtce or
I8eo>,
Plur.
ftSo/xej/,
etStre,
Inf.
j5/tv(at),
Fem. Part.
tSuia, Plup. [fibfa] rjfi8t]f, fi8( e(v)
or
^i'8; [2
Plur.
jySeare],
3 Plur.
l<rav,
Fut.
318. SECOND CLASS OF VERBS IN
pi.
185
Obs. Besides ol<r0a we
rarely
have
o?Say,
more
frequently iJSeiy,
ffirjs, together
with
fibfia-Qa,
and
#e^fv, fJSere
instead of
j/Set/iev
fjdfirf.
7. Stem
IK,
only
in the Perf. eoiKa I
resemble,
appear,
1 Plur.
poet, eoiypev,
3 Plur.
quite irregularly etf
d-
a-i(v) (comp. tcracrt),
Inf. el/cevat
(poet,
with
eoi/cevai)
1'art.
ei/eo>9
(with eoiKa><i),
elKvta, et/co?,
Plup.
ewiteiv.
8. Stem
Kpay,
Pres.
tcpdfo,
I
cry,
Perf.
Ketcpdya,
Im-
perat.
II. SECOND CLASS OF VERBS IN
/u.
318. 1. The Second Class of the Verbs in
/*t belongs
to this
conjugation only
in
regard
to the inflexion of
Dialects.
7.
Impf.
ciKt
[Her. o?a, OIKWJ],
Dual
t'iicrov,
3 Dual
1'lup. fi<TT)v,
3
Sing. Plup.
Mid.
jfi'/cro
or e'tKro.
I'esides :
9. Stem
f*a,
2 Dual Perf.
p.ef*aTot>, strive, pefiafjiev, /Lte'/iare, /xe/iaao-i,
Iinperat. /ite/xarw,
Part,
/ue^iaciy, via, oy,
Gen.
wros,
3 Plur.
Plup.
10. Stem
rXa,
Perf.
reVX^Ka,
/ am
patient,
1 Plur.
Opt. r(T\ati]v, Imperat. TVXa^,
Inf.
TtrXa^te^at),
Part.
TTX>j&>s,
jvla,
Gen.
rerX^oroy.
11. Stem
dj/wy,
Perf.
ava>ya,
I
command,
1 Plur.
avoynev,
Imperat. avtax^t,
3
Sing, di/wx^
2 Plur.
avw^^c, Plup. ^yea.
12. Stem
fyf p,
Perf.
typ-riyop-a,
I am
awake,
2 Plur.
Imperat.
typffyopBt,
3 1'lur. Ind.
(ypr)y6p6acri.(v)
13. Stem
t\v6,
Perf.
ei'XijXov$a,
I have
come,
1 Phir.
jXr}Xot>-
dfXfl'.
14. Stem
Trej/^,
Perf. vtTrov&a
(Pres. 7ra(rx,
-?
suffer, 327, 0>
2 Plur. TrtVoer^e
(for 7rf7roi/^-T<),
Fern. Part, irrtra&vla.
15. Stem TT 1
6,
Perf. 7rroi0a
(Pres. Trd&v,
I
persuade),
1 Plur.
Plup. (itfiriGpfv, Imperat.
TTfVeio-^i.
Further the
Participles
:
1C. Stem
/3pt>, (/3i/3po>o-/a, /ea#, 324,
13),
Part. Perf.
/9/9pwr,
Gen.
ptfipuTos.
17. Stem
TTTf,
TTTW
(irtTrrta,
I
fall, 327,
15),
Perf.
WTT<BKCI,
Part. Gen.
7r<7rrea)TOr,
Nom. TTfTrrwy.
318. Dialects. Ion. 3 Plur. Pres. Ind. Act.
-v<ri(v) togetlier
with
-\>do-t(v).
Horn. 2
Sing. Imperat.
-v and -v^t
(Sai'w, o/xi/ytfi),
Inf. Horn,
-v/ifj/at, v/ncv
(euyw/iej>).
Horn, forms from
Salvv^ii,
I
feast,
the
Opt. Sati/Cro,
for Sati/u-t-ro. Similar cases see
below,
ISC SECOND CLASS OF VETIBS IN
/it.
319.
the Present-Stem. The Tivspnt-Stcm of this Second Class
is formed
by adding
the
syllable
vv to the Pure Stem.
2. The
quantity
of the v is determined
by
the rules
in
303,
hence
Seticvvfju.,
but
cBeUvvfiev.
3. Vowel-Stems double v in the Present-Stem: Stem
tcepa, Kepd-vi"vfj,t,
I mix.
4. Here also numerous additional forms are in use
according
to the First
Principal Conjugation (8et/ci>ua>),
especially
in the 3 Plur. Pres. Ind. :
&IKVVOV<TI(V),
and
these forms are
exclusively
used in the Pres.
Subj.
and
Opt.
5. Most of the verbs of this class hare the Weak
Aorist
;
only
o-fiewvpt
I
quench (Stem <r/3e),
forms the
2 Aorist
ea-ftrjv,
Inf.
<r/3f)vai,
comp.
316, 9; 319,
7.
The
Paradigms
of this Class of Verbs are inserted on
p.
128.
319. The
following
verbs
belong
to the Second
Class of Verbs in
p.
i :
Stems in a.
1.
Kfpdvvvfii (Stem xepa, Kpd"),
I mix
Aor.
(Kfpag-a
Perf. Act.
KtKpaKa
.
p
(ficpddqv
Mid.
Kftcpaptu '\(Kfpd<r0j)v
2.
Kpffj.di>vvfjLi (Stem upt^a),
I
hang,
trans. Mid.
KOffutfiai,
1
hang.
intr.
(312, 12)
Fut.
KptfiS) ( 263)
Aor.
eicpffjui(ra
3.
nfTawvpi (Stem Trera),
I
spread
irero)
( 2G3)
eVtVaa-a
7r/7r(f)ra/i.at [pate-o]
4.
(rK(8dvvvfjii (Stem o-xeJa),
I
scatter,
additional form ovc/i
VIHU (
312,
D.
16,
A.
a/ceSco
( 263) fo~Kft)d(r6r}v
319,
32. In the New-Ion. D. the t of the Stem 8 f IK is lost in
&',
(8(a,
8e'8ey/iat, c'Se'x^i'
5
Horn. Pf.
(6etSey/iat,
/
salute)
3 Plur.
319. Dialects.!.
Comp.
312,
D.
16,
and
312,
D.
16,
b.
Other forms :
K(pdu>, Ktpaita,
Aor.
2. Fut
gpf/idco, Kpffidat (
243
D).
$319.
SECOND CLASS OF VERBS IN
/u.
187
Stems in e.
Obs, Several of these Stems
originally
ended in
s.
5.
fvvvp.i (Stem originally Fes, comp.
Lat.
ves-tis)
I
clothe,
(only
a/j.<pi-fvwiJ.i
is in
use)
a>pi-o ( 263)
Fut. Mid.
ap(pi-Vo/zat ^(piecr/zat
Aor.
t)(j.(p{-((Ta ( 240)
Inf. Aor. Mid. Vt(rao-^at
6.
Kopewvp-t (Stem xope)
I
satisfy
(Koptcra
7.
(rj3fvvvpi (Stem o-jSf),
7
quench
,
* transitive
(crptcra
)
f&tSrjv to-fit]
Ka
( 316,
9)
intransitive
( 329, 5)
Fut.
(rfli](rofj.ai
8.
ffToptvvvfii (Stem
or
ope) (comp.
11 and
25),
/
spread,
(comp.
Lat,
ster-n-o)
OTOpa> ( 263) eVropftr/iat
eoropfcra.
Stems in co.
9.
ftovi/v/ii (Stem f),
I
gird
e(/ocra (Mid.) f^uHrdfujv
10.
ptovvvfju (Stem pco),
I
strengthen
puxra) fppa>fj.at (7
am
strong")
11.
orpdn/j/vp-t (Stem o-rpw), comp.
No. 8.
orpwirco <rrpco/xai
(<rrpu>cra
12.
XP<*
VVV
P-
1
(Stem XP^X
I colour
13.
*iyvvp.i (Stem ay
orig.
Pay
34,
D.),
7 Jrea/5;
&>
cdya (7
am
broken)
fd
(275,2)
Dialects. 5.
Impf.
t'wov for tv-wov
[Inf.
Pres.
etwcrQat],
Fut.
i\p.(pi((T(t), tcrtrcD,
Aor.
ecrcra,
Mid.
ettrcraro,
Perf. Mid.
6i/iai, fovaif
Part,
lifting,
2
Sing. Plup. to-o-o,
3
Sing. CO-TO,
fftrro,
3 PI. eiaro.
6. Aor. Mid.
KoptVo-aro,
Part. Pcrf. Act.
KeKopjjwr,
satiated,
Mid.
KtKoprjpnt.
13.
^a
with
a|a [Her.
Perf.
f?y].
188 SECOND CLASS OF VERDS IN
fll.
318.
14.
f>(iKwp.i,
see 318.
15.
dpywp.1. (Stciu
t
Ipy),
1 shut in
(addit
form
f"pyo>)
*(pto
ipa
Part.
tpas cTpyp.at
16.
ftvyi'v/it (Stem (vy),
<Jft'a t(vyp.ai
17.
KTtvvvpi (Stem Krei/),
1
kill,
with rmVco
(
18.
piywpt. (Stem /*ty),
-?
mix,
with
/niVyw (
327, 7)
19.
oiyvv/zi (Stem oy),
I
open (with otyw)
oi^a)
'<?X
a an(^
yy
a
( 27i))
eco^a ( 237) faiynai
20.
oXXv/zt (Stem
oX and
oXf),
for
oXw/ii,
I
destroy
o\S>
( 262)
oX(iXa
( 275, 1)
Fut. Mid. 3Xov
M
a 5Xa)Xa
}intrans.
to\OfJir]l>
21.
op.vvft.1 (Stem o/i, o/xo),
I swear
op.ovp.ai (Act.) OM&)fioKO (
275,
1) a>p.6adi)V
w^oo-a
g ginfr perf_ Mid
|o
M
a>
M
orat Verb.
Adj. (av^/
'
'
o/itb/iocrrat
22.
o/iopyvu/ii (Stem o^topy),
I
wipe
out
u>(iopa (Mid.)
23.
TT^yi/v/^i (Stem Tray), 7^x [comp.
Lat.
tTTTjgu irtirrjya (/
am
fixed)
'
ftrayrjv
24.
pfjyvvpi (Stem pay),
7 fear
eppr/^a (Mid.) tpp<aya (
I am
torn) (ppdyrjv
( 278) payrja-ofiai
25.
trropvu/ii (Stem orop),
with
<rropfvwp.i (8)
and
(rrpu>v
win (11)
26.
(ppayi/u/xi (Stem <f>pay\
also
<pdpywp.i,
and ace. to
Class
4, a, (ppdcrtrw,
I shut
in,
Jock in
Dialects. 15.
Impf. ttpyvv
with
eVpyw [epyw],
3 Plur. Perf. Mid.
^arat,
Pi
up. ep^aro (
287)
Part. Perf.
(tpypivot,
Aor. Pass>.
XjBtls,
with
Impf. tpyadov.
18. Aor.
Mid., 316,
37.
19.
<ula,
a5a
[avot^a], Imperf. aiiyvvvTO.
20. oX/a-<r&)
[oXea>],
Part. Aor.
ovXo/xcvor (destructive),
with oXtVai
21.
utpocrva
or
o/iocrera.
To these also
belong
:
27.
aTw^tat, diroaivvfiai,
1 take
away,
used
only
in the Pres.
320. IRREGULAR VERBS.
05s. Nouns are formed from the Pure
Verbal-Stems,
as
77 Set^i-s-,
the
announcement;
6
Kpa-rr/p,
the
mixing bowl;
TO
el-pa,
the
clothing
for
fecr-pa
;
77 o>-z/7,
the
girdle
;
fj pa>-p.r],
the
strength ;
TO
arrpS)-p.a,
the
carpet
;
TO
vy-6-v,
the
yoke
;
6
oXe-6po-s,
the
ruin
;
6
(rvi'-eo/xo-'nj-y,
the
conspirator
;
6
jrdy-o-s,
the
frost,
hoar-
frost.
CHAP. XII. IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE FIRST
PRINCIPAL CONJUGATION.
320. The
irregularities
of the Greek Verb
chiefly
consist in the Present-Stem
differing
from the Verbal-
Stem,
in a
way
different from that which has been
pointed
out
above, 215,
&c. To the
four
classes tfiere
enumerated the
following four
classes are to be added.
Obs. In these as well as in the
following lists,
the
principal
forms
only
are
given
from which the rest are
easily
formed.
Dialects.
28.
"iwpi (and dvvca'),
I
complete, only Imperf.
Mid.
TJVVTO.
29.
apwp.ai,
I
acquire,
Aor.
fjponrjv,
Inf.
apeaQai,
1 Aor. 2
Sing.
o,
3
Sing, fjpa-ro.
30.
axwaai,
I
grieve,
Aor.
ana^uvro (
257,
D.),
Perf.
a/ca^/wit
(
275,
1),
3 Plur.
aKjx8arai ( 287,
D.),
3 Plur.
Plup.
dKa
X
fiaTo,
1'art.
aKa^TjiJifvos
and
eaai^ifitvos.
Moreover the Active
aKaxifa
(7 grieve"),
Aor.
fjicaxov
and
aKa^o-a (comp. 326).
31.
yum/Adi,
I
rejoice,
Fut.
yavvo-crerai.
32.
8atW/ii,
I
entertain, Opt.
Pres. Mid. 3
Sing.
Saii/Cro
(
318,
D.),
3 Plur.
Saivvar,
Fut. fiai'a-o)
(Mid.),
Aor. eSara
(Mid.)
33.
Kaivvpai (Stem Ka8),
/
surpass,
Perf.
Ksmayuu (7
am dis-
tinguished).
34.
Kiw/Mai,
I
move,
additional form of
Kivf<a,
Preterite e-Ki-o-v.
1
went, Subj.
KI'-CJ, Opt. *ci-ot-/it,
Part. Ki-av.
35.
TiVv/u, rivvfiat,
additional form of
rim, 321,
D. 5.
36.
optywp.1,
additional form of
6ofya>,
I stretch
out,
3 PI. Perf.
Mid.
o^copt'xfmu ( 287).
37.
opi>vp.i (Stem op),
I
excite,
Fut.
op<r<a,
Aor.
&popa(
257, D.),
Perf.
optapa (
275,
1),
1 have arisen
[Lat. or-ior],
Aor. Mid. 3
Sing,
WPTO,
arose
(
316,
38),
Perf. Mid. 3
Sing.
Ind.
opuo-c-rai, Subj.
opu)OTjrat,
with
Imperf.
Mid.
uptomo.
38.
Taiaiftai
with
Tavvu,
TetVw,
/
extend,
stretch.
1DO FIFTH OB NASAL CLASS. 321.
(Mid.)
added to a tense denotes that in addition to the
Active,
tlic
corresponding
Middle form is also in
use,
e.
g.
in addition
to tritra
(No. 5), trio-ap.^
also is used.
Fifth
or Nasal Class.
321. The Verbal-Stem is
strengthened by
tho
addition of v or of a
syllable containing
v to form the
Present-Stem.
a)
v
alone,
often united with
lengthening
of the
vowel,
is added to the
following
Stems :
1. Stem
/3a,
Pres.
fialvo,
I
go
Aor. Act. Fut. Perf. Pass.
f-&1-v ( 316, 1) pfjo-ofMt Ptfrjica ( 317,
1)
t&n-va
jSqo-w ( 329, 2)
Verb.
Adj. Parts
2. Stem
e'Xa,
Pres.
e\awa>,
1 drive
fj\a-(ra
tXa>
( 263) <XqXa*a (
275, 1) fi\u6ijv
t\i')\afjuu
Verb
Adj.
cXarcoi
3. Stem
<f)6 a,
Prcs.
$>6ava>,
1
anticipate
t(-(()8r)-v ( 316, 7) <f)6f)<rofjiai tydaica
4. Stem 77
1,
Pres.
irfva,
I drink
(additional
Stem
jro) comp,
327,
10
f-jri-o-v
(
316,
15)
TriVat ( 265)
5. Stem
Tt,
Pres.
rtva,
I
pay penalty
e-ri-cra
(Mid.)
ri'cra> Ttroca
fricrBrjv
TtTKTpai
6. Stem
$0i,
Pres.
<j>Qivu>,
1
perish,
waste
away
t-<f>di-(ra
<j)0i<rofjiai
7. Stem
8w,
Pres. Suvw
(with
8ua> Cl.
1),
I
immerge
(-bv-v
(
316, 16)
fiucrco
(dv(ra,
I
dipped
8. Stem 8 a
<,
Pres.
&aKva,
I bite
t-ban-o-v oneouat
321. Dialects. 1. Aor. Mid.
torero,
268,
D.
2. Pres.
eXato,
Fut.
cXo'aj, tXaar, 243, D.,
Aor.
fXacnra,
MkL
ijXao-d/iJjv.
3.
Plup.
Mid.
*X;Xd8aro (287, D.) \ji\au6rjv].
3.
Ep. (frQdvv,
Part. Aor. Mid.
(frQdpcvos.
5.
Ep.
Tfyw
with r/-w and
rivvfju,
319,
D. 35.
6.
Ep. <t>&ivu, <f>6iu,
Aor.
tydiprjv, tyffiTo,
316,
D. 26
;
with
Pros,
(frdivvdta.
7. Aor. Mid.
(Bva-fro, 268,
D.
[Pres. ivbvviw,
I
put
on.
Comp.
323].
322. FIFTH OB NASAL CLASS. 191
9. Stem
Ka/i,
Tres.
Kappa,
I
weary
(-Kafi.-o-v Kap.ovft.ai. KfKurjKa ( 282)
10. Stem
rf/i,
Pres.
rtpva,
I cut
f-refj.-0-v (erafioj/) repa reT/j.rjKa ( 282) fT/jif)0T]v
322.
b)
The
syllable
dv is added to the
following
Stems :
11. Stem
altrd,
Pres.
ai<r$-dj>-o-/iat,
I
perceive
12. Stem
d/iapr,
Pres.
afiapr-dv-m,
I
err,
sin
v
ttyiapr-Tj-cro/iai f]pdpT-r]-K.a
13. Stem
av,
Pres. ai-aj/-a> and
ai/,
I increase
[aug-eo"]
(Passive)
14. Stem
/SXao-r,
Pres.
/SXao-raixu,
I bud
j3\a<rT-o-v
/3Xacrr-7j-cra) e'^Xa<rr>jKa (
274
CXC.)
15. Stem
Sap
6,
Pres. 8 a
p
6 d v
a>,
I
sleep
ftapd-o-v 8apd-r]-crop.ai SfddpdrjKO.
16. Stem e
^5,
Pres.
(dTr^x^"" ^
01
'?
-^"ot hated
17. Stem
if,
Pres.
t^dvco
and
tfco,
7sea<
mysdf
18. Stem
KXI
Pres.
Ktxaj/a),
I meet
(comp.
313 D.
6)
f-Kl\-O-V KlX
19. Stem
otS,
Pres. ol8dva> and
oiSeco,
1 swell
20. Stem
oXio-0,
Pros.
oXto-^di/w,
1
slip
Hr8o-v
6\icrd-r]-(T<t>
21. Stem
oo-0p,
Pres.
oo-^pai'i/o/xat,
I smell
$>p-o-p.r)v o(T(^>p-j-(ro/z(H
22. Stem
o^>X,
Pres. o
^>
X-to-Ac-di'-w
(comp. 324)
and o
6(f>\-r]-cra>
Dialects. 9. Part. Perf.
KfKp/w?,
Gen.
10. with
Tfjifiya),
Aor. Pass. 3 Plur.
(Tpayev,
with Pres.
r//tiet.
Peculiar to the Horn, dialect are : Aor.
<pd-f(v~)
,illuxit,
Fut.
jrt-^rj-
a-opai,
from Stem
$a,
Pres.
<^aiVa> (<^aeiVci>),
/
sAme, sAew,
Aor.
Pass.
(padvGrjv.
322. Dialects. 12. Aor.
rj^porov
for
nuparov
( 257, D., comp.
{ 51,
D.).
13.
a(FXf.
15. Aor.
tSpa^ov ( 257,
D.).
18.
Kp. Kl^tTfO).
21.
[Herod, ocrtppd^v,
1
Aor.J
l.
Q
2
FIFTH OR NASAL CLASS.
23.
StcmdS,
Pros.
i\i>8dvw,
24. Stem
diy,
Pres.
diyydvm,
I touch
t-ffiy-o-v 6iopat
'Jf>.
StemXud,
Pros,
\appdva,
I take
f-Xa/9
o-y
XIJ^O/MU ("\q(pa
( 274)
(i\T][j.[j.(il (seldom \t\rjfjLpat)
26. Stem X a
5,
Pres. X a i/ a x
,
/am
hidden,
with
XT/&B (Cl. 3),
Mid.
Iforytl
f-\<id-o-v
\f]cra> \t\rjda
Mid.
(\a66(i.rjv
Xqiro/xat XtX^cr/xat
27. Stem
Xtx,
Pres.
Xay^tli/w,
7 aWarn
a
( 274)
X
28. Stem
/*u#,
Pres.
/xai/daca,
I learn
29. Stem
TTV^,
Pres.
irvvQavopat,
I
learn,
with TT
v#o/iai,
Cl. 2
f-irvd-o-firjv Trevero^ai TTtTrvcr^ai
30. Stem
TI/X,
Pres.
ruy^aj/,
J
mee<,
\vitli
Teux<<>>
-^
jwe/wre,
Cl.
2,
f-rvx"
""
rtv^ofuu re-rvx-iJ-Ka
seldom
rtTfv\a
31. Stem
^>vy,
Pres.
0vyyai/<a, //ce,
with
favyw (Cl. 2).
05s. 1. The verbs in 23
31,
whose Stem forms a short
syllable,
insert another nasal in addition to the affix av. In
ftaivta
(1)
and
wrffrpalvofiai (21)
t has
crept
in
($ 253),
as well as in
Ktp-
8aiva>,
1
gain,
which forms
only
the Perf.
/ceK/pSij/ca
from the
Stem
K(p8a;
all the other forms are
regular according
to
Class 4. A
large part
of the verbs
(No. 1116,
18 L
and
30)
form either some or all the
tenses, except
those of the
Present-Stem,
from a Stem in e
(comp. below, 326).
Obs. 2. The
following may
serve as
examples
of the formation of
nouns : TO
j3f}-/ia,
the
step
; fj (frfii-o-i-s,
the
consumption
;
6
Kup.-
aro-f,
the
exhaustion;
TO
X^-/xa,
the
assumption, f] \fj6-rj,
the
Dialects. 23.
Imperf.
237, D.,
Aor.
[caSov]
evaSoi/
( 237),
[aSfjcrtai]
taSa.
25.
[Her.
Fut.
Xa/x^o/juii,
Perf.
\t\dpijK.a,
Aor. Pass.
XfXa^i/zat,
Verb.
Adj.
Horn. Inf. Aor. Mid.
XeXa^eV^at
(
257,
D.).
26. Pres. with
(K\rj6dva>,
cause to
forget,
Aor.
eX^o-a
and \f\u6o*
(
257, D.), \(\a66nnv (Iforgot),
Perf. Mid.
XAacr/xat.
27. Aor.
X/Xa;(oi>,
/ shared with
[Fut. Xaopzt],
Perf.
XeXoy^a.
29. Aor.
Opt.
TTfirv6oiTo
(
257,
D.).
30. Also
T(VX<I>,
Aor.
TtruKtlv,
Mid.
TCTVKOVTO,
Perf.
TtTvypai,
3
Plur.
TfTfvxarai,
Aor.
(Tv^d^v,
with the Pres.
rirvo-Ko/xat (
324
D.
37)
J aim
at,
Aor.
tVvx>7<ra,
I met
( 326).
324.
SIXTH CLASS OB INCHOATIVE
VERBS. 193
forgetting; 17 TVX~^
*he
chanoe, accident,
and from Steins
which are
lengthened by
t :
17
aiad-ifvi-s,
the
sensation
;
TO
the error
;
6
pad-q-TTi-s,
the
scholar.
323.
c)
The
syllable
i/e is added to the
following
Stems :
32. Stem
ft v,
Pres.
j3vvS>,
I
stop up
?-j3v-cra jSvcrw
Mid.
ftefivtrpai
33. Stem
IK,
Pres.
iKvovfj-ai,
I
come,
with
iitdvu,
according
to 322
34. Stem
nv,
Pres.
Kweca,
I kiss
35. Stem
TTCT,
Pres.
irirvea),
I
fall
(comp.
TrtTrro)
$ 327, 15).
f-irtar-o-v
(for f-irfT-o-v) together
with
f-Tnrv-o-v
36. Stem
uTrf^,
Pres.
uTrto-^vov/iat,
I
promise (comp. e^w,
327, 6)
so likewise
d/iTTKr^rov/iat
/ wear
(also d/iTre'^o/iat),
Aor.
Inf.
324. $c^ CTass or Inchoative Verbs.
The Verbal-Stem
is
enlarged by affixing
<r to form
the Present-Stem. This cr/c is added to Vowel-Stems
(exc. 21)
at
once,
but to
Consonant-Stems after the
insertion of the
connecting
vowel i. Several of the
verbs
belonging
to this class
(Nos.
2, 6, 7, 13, 14, 16,
20)
further
strengthen
the
Present-Stem
by
means of
a
reduplication
with the vowel i :
yi-yvw-a-K-a
[Lat
(jf)-no-se-d].
323. Dialects.
32.
[Herod. /3ww].
33.
IKCO,
Aor. ioi>
(
268
D.),
Part.
iKfievos, favourable (
316
D).
34. Kuoxra.
Moreover,
(to
a
c)
the Verbs :
37.
StemdXtT,
Pres.
dXtrai'i/o),
I
sin,
Aor.
yXirov,
Mid.
aXirovro,
Part. Perf.
dXtTTj/ievor, sinful.
38. Stem
dX0,
Pres.
a\<f>dva>,
1
acquire,
Aor.
rj\<j>ov.
39.
dy/'<u, only
in
Pres.,
/
lead,
with
ayw.
40.
tpvyydvG),
I
roar,
Aor.
rjpvyov,
Pres. also
tptvyofiai.
41. Stem
^38,
Pres.
x
a
"&ii'co,
/
embrace,
Aor.
t^aSov,
Fut.
,
Perf.
Ke^avba.
O
SIXTH CLASS OR INCHOATIVE VERBS. 324.
As
many
of these verbs denote a
beginning
or
coming
into
being,
all of them are
usually
called
Inchoatives.
Stems in
a.
1. Stem
y
17 pa,
Pres.
ytypo-
r
*-<>,
1
grov)
old
(seldom yqpd-c)
comp.
sene-sc-0
t-yqpa-0-a yijpd-aouat yt-yr].ya-<ca
Inf.
yrjpa-vai (
316, 2)
2. Stem
8pa,
Pres.
3i-8/>d-o-,
i nw
(used only
in com-
pounds)
"-8pa-v ipd-crouat &(-9pa-Ka (
316,
3)
3. Stem
ij/3a,
Pres.
ij/3d-o-/c-,
J 6ecom
marriageable (comp.
pube-sc-o)
rjj3t)-<ra
4. Stem ^va
(from 6av),
Pres.
Sv^-vic-a,
I
die, (usually
CLTro6vf
t-6av-o>
Oav-ovpat
Tf-6vr)-Ka (
317,
3)
Fnt.
3, Tfdrfjfa
291
SI^-T
5. Stem IX
a,
Pres.
!Ad-cn<-o/u,
1 conciliate
Mid. Xa-o
r
a-/*)7> JXd-o--o-/iat fXd-tr^-p
6. Stem
p
va,
Pres.
/ii-^v^-o-K-w,
7 remember
p.VT]-arc f-fJtvf]-cr6r)-v
[memini]
7. Stem TT
pa,
Pres.
irt-irpd-ffic-a,
I sell
(for
the Aor. and Fut.
dnfbonrjv, ire-npa-Ka
f-irpd-fjMi irpa-6fj(ro^tti
8. Stem
^>a,
Pres.
<d-o-K-, /sajr, comp. (py-pi,
312,5
9. Stem
xa
and
xav,
Pres.
^d-o-c-,
I
open
the mouth
Stem in e.
10. Stem
ape,
Pres.
ape'-ovc-**,
J
please
ijpf-aa apt-era) ijpe'-er$>ji.
ft).
11.
Stem/3t,
Pres.
(dv^^tw-o'K-o/iaj,
I revive
(d
v
)<-fria>-v ( 316, 13)
(di)fpta>(rdp.T]i>,
1
revived, comp.
329
324.
SIXTH CLASS OR INCHOATIVE VERBS. 105
12. Stem
/3Xco
(from p.oX, 51,
D.),
Pres.
/3Xa>-0-K-co,
7
go
t-p.o\-ov fj.o\-ovfj.ai
13.
Stem^pco,
Pres.
/3i-/3pco-crK-
co,
1 consume
8e-Pp<o-Ka (Part. j3e/3po>p,
317,
D.
16)
/3/-/3pco-/iat
14. Stem
y
v
co,
Pres.
yi-yi/w-o-K-co,
/
recognise
[Lat. (</)no-sc-oJ
e-yi/w-j/ ( 316, 14) yj/co-cro/xai f-yva>-Ka f-yvu>-(r6r)v
e-yva> -<r-fj.ai
15. Stem
#pa> (from $op),
Pres. 6
p
-
<r K-
a>,
2
leap
f-dop-ov
16. Stem
rpco,
Pres.
rt-Tpco-o-K-co,
I wound
<-rpco-<ra Tpco-tra> re-rpco-/iat e-jpat-drfp
17. Stem d\ and
dXco,
Pres.
dX-i-erK-o/*eu,
Jam fe^eTi
( e'-(fXo)-i>
dXco-aopat
e-aXco-Ka or
fjXat-Ka
UJXcoi/ ( 316, 12) (comp. 237)
18. Stem
dp.jB\
and
d/z/3Xo>,
Pres.
d/i/3X-i'-<rc-co,
I
miscarry
19. Stem di'aX and
di/aXco,
Pres.
dj/dX-i'-o-K-co,
I
expend
ayaXoo-cra or
av^Xaxra
ai/dXco-trco
j
ai'aXco-Ka (
avaXa>-6r]V
also
^i/aXco-cra lai'ijXco-Ka \dvjjXco-^ijj'.
m t.
20. Stem
TTI,
Pres.
iri-iri-o-K-a,
I
give
to
drink, comp.
TTI-I^CB
321,
4
Trt-cra 7r(-<rto
m y.
21. Stem
*cv,
Pres.
KV-I-<TK-O>,
I
fructify
22. Stem
p.e#u,
Pres.
/xe^v-o-K-w,
JT maie
drunk,
Mid. 7 lecome
drunk
t-fj.(0v-<ra
(
Consonant-Stems.
23. Stem
aun-XaK,
Pres.
d/iTrXafc-i'-crK-co, 7/ai'Z
24. Stem
(eV)atip,
Pros.
(eV)avp-i'-crK-o^ai,
I
enjoy
324. Dialects. 12. Perf.
/ie-/i-/3-Aco-Ka (comp.
51,
D. and
282,
D).
13. Aor.
-j3pw-v (
316,
D.
23),
with the Pres.
/3f)3pa>0co.
15. 3. Plur. Fut.
Qoptovrai [with 6c,p-w-p,cu,
according
to
319],
16. With
Tpco-w.
24. Aor.
(TTtjiipov
Inf.
nravpelv.
JL
(
.)D SIXTH CLASS OR INCHOATIVE VEKliS.
j
<-*.
25. Stem
dp,
Prcs.
cvp-t'-o-K-w,
I
find
tip-ov (Mid.) (vp-rj-o-a (vp-rj-K-a tvp-t-dt]V
26. Stem
<TT/>,
Prcs.
o-Tep-t'-o-K-w,
/
deprive (with
Mid.
orcpo/uu,
I am
deprived)
(TTip-T)-<ra <rrep-;-cr f-or/p-ij-Ka
f-O-Ttp-TJ-fJMl
27. Stem
dXv*c,
Prcs.
dXu-o-K-co,
2 shun
US. Stem
SiSux,
Pres.
5i6d-o-/c-a>,
I teach
29. Stem
XOK,
Prcs.
Xd-o-K-w,
I
utter,
speak
\ax-ov
Xac-^-(ro/xat (X-Xj;K-a
-X(i*:-^-cra
iXe'-Xtuc-a.
06s. 1. The last three Stems
suppress
a Guttural before trie.
Several
of the Stems
quoted
form a
part
of the tenses
by
affix-
ing
e to the Stem
(comp.
322, Obs.,
and
326), especially
Nos.
23, 25, 26,
29.
Obs. 2. The
following may
serve as
examples
of the formation
of nouns : 6
dav-a-ro-s,
death
;
TO
/iiT7-/mo-v,
tJie memorial
;
6
auTO-/ioX-o-s,
the
deserter;
f] yvd>-^rj,
the
opinion;
r
aXw-ui-s,
tJie
capture;
6 8i8daK-a\o-s
(from
the Present-
Stem),
the
teacher;
TJ SiSa^-iy (from
the
Verbal-Stem),
the
instruction,
and
from Stems which are
enlarged by
e : TO
tvp-rj-ua,
the
discovery
;
f] <rTfp-r]-(n-s,
the
deprivation.
Dialects. 26. Aor.
orepeVai,
Part. Pass. Aor.
28.
[oioaa-Krjo-ai]
a
secondary
Stem is 8
a,
Aor.
otoaov,
1
tauylit
( 326,
D.
40).
29. Ion. form
Xij'w ( 325),
Fern. Part. Perf. XeXa/<uia.
And the
Special
Verbs :
30. Stem
uXSa,
Pres.
a\of)crKa>,
I become
great,
Aor.
fjX&avov,
1
made
great.
31. Si/em
K\C,
Prcs.
KiK\r)<TKa>,
with
xaX/o>,
I call.
32. Stem
<pav,
Pres.
[0av-a-K-co] 7n-(/>av-<r/c-o.>,
7 s/iOJW.
33. Stem
dira(p (from a^),
Pies.
dir-a(p-i-<rK-w,
I
deceive,
Aor.
^7ra0oj/, Subj. dird<pct.
34. Stem
dp,
Pres.
dp-ap-t-o-K-w, /y?^,
Aor.
fjpapov, IJitted,Ter{.
aprjpa,
I
suit,
Fern. Part,
dpapvla,
Part. Mid.
app.ei>os, suitable,
"Weak Aor.
^po-a,
I
fitted,
Aor. Pass.
apOrjv.
35. Stem
JAC,
Pres.
t-i-oTc-w,
I make
equal, (comp. 317,
B
7).
36.
Impf. lvit((y),
he
spoke.
37. Stem
TV\ (cornp. 322, 30),
Pres.
TITWKOP.UI,
I aim at.
325. SEVENTH OB E-CLASS. 1
97
325. Seventh or E-class.
A short Stem alternates with one
enlarged by
e.
A)
The
enlarged
Stem in e is the
Present-Stem,
the
shorter serves to form the other tenses.
1. Stem
yap.,
Pres.
yape-a, Imarry (A.cLuxoremduco^liA.nulo')
e-yrjp-a ydp-S) (Mid.) ye-ydp-r)-Ka
ye-ydp-r]-pai
2. Stem
yr)Q,
Free.
yr)6e-a,
I
rejoice
ye-yrjO-a,
J am
rejoiced
3. Stem 8
OK,
Pres. So
<(?-,
I seem
e-8oa 86a> Mid.
oVSoy/irtt
4. Stem K v
p,
Pres. K v
p
<r'-a>,
and
nvpu,
I meet
e-Kvp-aa, Kvpcrut
5. Stem
paprvp,
Pres.
paprvpt-o),
1 am witness
Mid.
fj.apTVpofj.ai,
I call to witness
6. Stem
gvp,
Pres.
Rupees,
1 shave Mid.
|if
1. Stem
TTO.T,
Pres.
n-ore-o/iat,
t-na.(rdp.r]v
8. Stem
pt<,
Pres.
pnrr-e-o>,
and
ptVr-o) (according
to
249),
pfya) eppi(J)a
eppip.fj.ai
9. Stem
&>$,
Pres.
eo^e'-w,
I
push
xra
( 237)
<u<ro>
(w^ijaci) Mid.)
f-
325. Dialects.
1 Fut.
yap,-(a>,
3
Sing.
Fut. Mid.
she will
marry.
3.
[SoK^aea, e'8oK7j(ra].
8. 3
Sing. Plup.
Mid.
(ptpinro.
Besides :
a)
Stem
yeyav,
Pres.
y(ya>v(-a>,
I
call,
Perf.
ytycova,
Fut.
6)
Stem
Sar,
Pres.
Sare'-o/iat,
7
distribute,
Fut.
8dcro/icu,
Aor.
6cr<raTo,
Perf. 8/Saarat.
c)
Stem
SOUTT,
Pres.
Sowe'-aj,
I make a
sound,
Aor.
f'(y)S^T';'
a
'
n
Perf. fic-SovTr-a.
d)
Stem
etX, e'X,
Pres.
fi-Xe'-w,
7
press, Impf.
eei\(ov
( 237),
Aor. 3 Plur.
Xo-aj,
Perf.
Mid,
X/*at,
Aor. Pass.
dXi;i ( 295),
3 Plur.
<i\ev,
Inf.
nX^fvat.
c)
Stem
KfXaS,
Pres.
KeXafie-a,
I
resound,
Part. KeXo-c?i>.
/)
Stem Kf
IT,
Prx
1
?.
wire'-co,
I
sting,
Aor. Inf. KtV
103 SEVENTH OU IX .".2v.
Obi. In some vcrba the Stem with t extends even further than
the Present-Stein.
Examples
of the formation of nouns:
6
yd/i-o-r,
the
wedding
;
17
S6a,
the
appearance
;
TO
fi.apTvp-t.o-v,
the
testimony ;
fj
i-tri-j or
wtfij-o-tr, pushing.
326.
B)
The shorter Stem is the
Present-Stem,
the
enlarged
one in e serves to form the other tenses.
10. Stem
at8(),
Prcs. a" 8-0
ft
at and
mSt-o/xat,
I am ashamed
11. Stem
dXf(e),
Prcs.
dX-a>,
I ward
off
r]\f-dp.T)v dX-ij-<rofMU
ll'. Stem
GX$(),
Pres.
a
^ $-0/1
at,
7am vexed
13. Stem
/3oo-K(0>
Pres.
&6o-K.-a>,
I
pasture
/Soa-K^-o-a) ;
from the Stem
/3o
the Verb.
Adj. fio-ros
14. Stem
/3ouX(e),
Pres.
|3ovX-o/xat,
1 icill
(Angm0Qt
234) ftov\T)-crop.ai /3e-$ovX7-/xat (-pov\f]-0j)V
15. Stem
8(e),
Pres.
Se'-w,
/ need
(Set,
it is
necessary),
Mid.
8eo/iat,
/
require
-S'jj-(ro Sfij-trco 8f-8'r;-(ca e-bfrj-dqv (
3-8, li)
1G. Stem
>(0,
Pres. not usual
( 327,
13)
fip-6p.T]v,
1 asked
tp^-o-o/iat,
Inf.
(ptcrdai
17. Stem
e'p/j(f),
i>res -
Pp->
1
go away
fjpprj-a-a (pprj-cr<i>
Dialects.
<?)
Stem
KTVTT,
Pres.
Krv7re'-a>,
I
ring,
Aor.
A)
Pres. 7ri'a> and
rrtf^e-w,
I
press,
Aor. eVi'eera.
t)
Stem
pty,
Pres.
ptye-w,
I
shudder,
Perf.
Zpplya.
A-)
Stem
orvy,
Pres.
arvyf-a),
I
hate, shun,
Aor.
corvyoi/
and
o-rvyJjcrai,
eo"rva,
I made
dreadful.
I)
Stem
(/uX,
Pres.
$iXo,
I
love,
Aor.
(-<f>T\-d-p.r)v.
m)
Pres.
^paio-/xe<o,
7
/je(p,
Aor.
e^pat<r/iO/.
Three Verbs in a<a with a moveable a are here to be noticed:
n)
Stem
yo,
Pres.
yoti-w,
I
wail,
Impf. c-yo-oi/.
o)
Stem
/xa/t,
Pres.
fujKa-o-pai,
I
low,
Perf.
ftt-prjK-a,
Aor
r'/iaK-ov.
^>)
Stem
/xiiK,
Pres.
fivKa-o-pai,
1
roar,
Perf.
/ic'/ivx-a,
Aor.
326. Dialects. 10.
fiotvaTo, Imperat. atJfo-o-ai,
Fut.
ai5t-ao/ip.,
Aor. Pass. 3 Plur. aiSeo-^ej/.
11. aXaXicoi/
( 257).
14. Pres.
oX<, Impf.
e
jSoXovro,
Perf.
j3//3ovXa.
15. Aor.
eSfvrjcra,
once
fiijo-a,
/ tt'as tn u;a<
of,
also Pres.
16. Pres.
fi(jo(j.ai,
Fut.
et^ij
^o.
SEVENTH OE E-CLASS.
18. Stem
eZi5(e),
Pres.
e8o>,
I
sleep (generally
Augm.
240
(Ka^)euSij-(ra)
19. Stem
e^(e)>
Pres.
CA/^<O,
.Z coo&
Verb.
Adj.
20. Stem
0eX(r),
or
etfeX(e),
Pres.
0eX-,
ytfeXq-aa (f')^eXij-cr(a fj6eXi)-Ka
21. Stem
i(XO>
Pure Stem
8,
Pres.
io/*at,
Js/Mtf
myself,
also
fai/,
Class
5,
comp. top.ai
fKadtcranrjv ( 240) Kadi^a-opai
and
KatieSovfjiai ( 263)
22. Stem xXav and
xXatc,
Pres. xXa/ca
(xXaw),
I
weep, comp.
253
(K\av-<ra
K\atr](r<o
with
*cXavcro/xat
23. Stem
/xax(e),
Pres.
p.dxofj.ai,
I
fight
t'-^a^f-o-a/njv ii.axovfi.ai ( 263) /ie-/xd^j;-jM.at
24. Stem
/*eX(c),
Pres.
/xeXet /*ot,
z< is a care fo
me,
Mid.
/teXo/iat,
I care
for,
take care
of
25. Stem
/iXX(e),
Pres.
/xe'XX-,
^ am o the
point,
hesitate
( 234, 06s.)
26. Stem
p.(v(f'),
Pres.
/xev-w,
I remain
[mane-o, T/iowi-si],
Verb.
Adj.
f-p.(iva (ifv-S) [Lf-p.fi>r)-Ka
27. Stem
/*u(e),
Pres.
juv^a),
I suck
28. Stem
vt/x(e),
Pres.
ve^-a,
I
assign
iKifjia vtp.-) v(-v(fj,r)-Ka, (Mid.)
e'-
29. Stem
ot()>
Pure Stem
oS,
Pres.
of-,
I smell
focra o(rj-<r<a
oS-a>S-a
( 275, D.) [Lat. ocZ-or]
30. Stem
ot(e),
Pres.
ot-o^at,
/ think
(comp. 244)
31. Stem
ot^CO'
'
re8'
oiX"/*
at
>
I am
off
Dialects. 19.
[Imperf. fy.]
23.
fj.axf-op.ai,
Part,
/xa^eto/xevot
or
paxfov/Jievos,
Fut.
find
/xa^eVo/jiai.
24. Perf.
p.fpr]\f, Plup. /ie/xjjXtt,
Perf. Mid.
/ie'-//-/3-X-rai (Plup.
-TO), 51,
D.
26. Perf.
ptpova,
1 am
disposed,
strive.
30. Pres.
oi-op-ai,
oi-w,
Aor. Mid.
OIO-UTO,
Aor. Pass,
uttrdrjv.
31. Perf.
oix>j<ca (oixjjuat),
with the Pres.
oi^-W-w, ac<rding
to
328.
200 SEVENTH OK E-CLASS. 326.
(o'x-aK-n,
with
irreg. Reduplication [ 275]
for
olx-a>x~
a
> comp.
35, o)
32. Stem
6(pd\((),
Pure Stem
o/>fX,
Pros.
o<peiX,
I owt
( 253, 06s.)
&<pt\-ov
[titinam]
oc
33. Stem
7rep8(),
Pres.
irtp8<a
f-Trapb-ov
irap8fi-crop.at
34. Stem
7r(f)r(0,
Pres.
TT/T-O/XCU,
t-7r(f)r-o-/ijv 7r(f)rq-(ro/*t
(
61
c)
35. Stem
pv(0,
Pres.
p/a>,
1
flow ( 248)
r/yeu-cra (rare,
2GO, 2) pirfj-o-ofiai eppvrj-Ka
(with pciHrofiai)
36. Stem
o-Ti/3(e),
Pres.
a-reifi-a,
I tread
37. Stem
rvn-rf,
Pure Stem TVTT
( 249),
Pres.
TVTTTW,
I strike
(-TVJT-OV
TvirTr}-(ra>,
Mid.
Tf-rvp.-pai
f-rinr-rff
38. Stem
^cupe,
Pure Stem
^ap,
Pres.
xa/p Irejoice (253)
K-xdpr)-Ka
'
06s. The e sometimes
appears
in all the tenses
except
the
Present,
sometimes
only
in some of them
;
sometimes it is added to the
pure,
sometimes to the
strengthened
Stem:
ptv-t,
a-rip-t,
ie, off,
TvnTf. The formation of nouna shows the same
varieties:
al8r]-p.<av, shame-faced; fj /SouXrj-o-t-s,
voluntas;
Dialects. 38. Part. Perf.
Kf^apijus,
Fut.
Kf^ap^o-a),
Aor.
e'^
and 3 Plur.
Kfxdpovro, 257,
D.
Besides :
39. Stem
aX0(),
Pres.
5\&-op.ai,
I become
well,
Fut. ci
40. Stem
So,
Aor. 8e'8ao/
(
257,
D.),
/
taught,
Aor. Mid. Inf.
6e8da<r$ai
(to get
to
know'),
Aor. Pass,
i&arjv (1 learned),
besides
Fut.
Saijo-o/iat,
Perf.
MdrjKa,
Part. Perf. 8(8a<bs.
41. Stem
:;&(),
Pres.
KTjS-w,
I
grieve,
Fut.
KTjSjj-o-w,
Perf. <c-
KT)8-a (7
am
concerned),
Fut.
AcaSijo-o/xat.
42. Stem
/*e8(e)>
Pres.
pt'S-u,
7
rule,
Mid. 7
re/ecf,
Fut.
43. Stem
n-ttf,
Pres.
Trdda,
I
persuade,
Fut. also
7rt$ijo-a>,
Part.
Aor.
iri6f)o-as.
44. Stem
r.op(e),
Aor.
e-rop-ov
and
e'-rop^-cra,
7 tored
through,
45. Stem
pi8,
Pres.
<pd8onai,
I
ipare,
Aor. Mid.
257,
D.),
Fat
327. EIGHTH OR MIXED CLASS. 201
v, voluntary ;
6
p-a^-rrj-s,
the
warrior;
q
cri-r,
the
delay; p,6v-iuo-s, remaining;
6
vo^-o-s,
the law
;
% 68-p.fj,
the smell
; 17 x
a
p~>
^ie
3y-
327.
Eighth
or J!fzm& C7asa.
Several
essentially
different Stems unite to form one
verb :
1. Present
alpt-a,
I
take;
Mid. I
choose;
Stems
alpf
and eX.
(I\-ov
( 236) alpr]-<7<ii TfpT]-Ka ypf-Orjv
Inf. (Xe'iv
2. Pres.
epx-op-at,
I
go, come;
Stems
epx
an<^
^(v)^
iyX[V]<?-oj' f\fv-crofiai (\-rj\vd-a ( 275)
Imperat.
A(9
( 333, 12)
Inf. f\6tlv. The
place
of the Fut. is
generally supplied by et^u.
3. Pres.
p8-co
and
p(-a>,
I
do;
Stems
e'pS, e/jy, pey
06s. The
original
Verbal-Stem is ff
py,
hence TO
Fepy-o-v (
34,
D.)
Attic
tpy-o-v,
work
;
from
(f)epy, by
the addition of the en-
largement
of the Present t
(cl. 4),
arose
(f)ff>y-i-o>,
and from
this
epS-a.
But
by metathesis, fepy
became
fpey,
and \\ith
loss of the
F, pey,
whence the
regular
Present
according
to
d.
4,
is
pt-co,
i.
e.,
pcy-t-w ( 251).
4. Pres.
evdi-ca,
I
eat,
Stem
e'o-0i,
5(e) [crf-ro]
and
^>ay
t-(pfiy-oi>
Fut.
?8-o/iai
fd-TjOOKa ( 275) T)8(-(r6r)t>
( 265)
tS-r)8crp.ai
5. Pres. err
-op.
a
i,
I
follow, (Impf. ('nfo^v,
236)
Stems c'w
and
<r()7r
i-cnr-6p.T)V e^o/zai
Sub}. oTra-fuu
Inf. vsreaBcu
Obs.
The
original
Stem is o-f
T,
from which 'TT has arisen
by
weakening
<r to the
rough breathing (
60
6).
In the Aor. Ind.
the
rough breathing
is not
organic,
e
being
properly only
the
Augment.
Besides this there is a
syncope (
61
c).
327. Dialects. 1.
[dpat'pr/Ko, Apatfnjfuu,
275.]
2. Aor.
JjXvdov,
Perf.
XijXov0a (
317,
D.
13),
Part.
3.
[Pres. epS-w]
Perf.
eopya ( 275,
D.
2), Plup. e'eopyetr,
Aor.
epa
and
tpea.
4. Pres. <T0<
and
eSo>,
Inf.
e8-p.evai,
Perf.
tS-^S-a,
Mid.
e^i/dorai.
5. Pres. Act.
ra>,
-/ am
occupied,
Aor.
e-cnr-oj',
Inf.
(nrfiv,
Part.
Fut.
\^<u, Subj.
Aor. Mid,
Sxnrwpai, ImtoifUJVi
ifrnta&w^
202 F.KillTII OR MIXED CLASS. 327.
6. Pros, f
x
~
*>
I
have,
hold
(Impf. tixov 236),
Stems
{%
and
<rx(f)
e-o'x-oi',
I seized 1.
(Mid.)
Subj. (rx^, Opt. vxoiriv
Inf.
trx<'
/
.
Tart.
<r\tov
2.
tr\i]-<Tu> f-vxij-Ka f-<rxf-0r)i>
Imperat. &x*~
s
(
^16, ^) c-o-xq-^at
tWoy
acre's
Mid.
(-<rx~M
v
>
^X^t
iat
'>
c^c-
Inf.
<rx"o^a*
06s. The
original
Stem is
<rx
from which
x
has arisen
by
weakening
<r to the
rough breathing (
60
b).
From
<rx by
syncope
came
t-<r\-o-v, by
metathesis
o-x*
from which
erx-f,
(-axn-
Ka- From
e'x
came the Future
|w,
and the Verbal
Adj.
tK-To-s,
whilst in the Present-Stem the
rough breathing
was
changed
into the soft
breathing,
because of the
aspirate
in the
following syllable (
53
b, 06s.)
:
?x~
w f r e
'X"
w'
Comp.
also
viriarxvfopa.i
and
d/ijn<rx'
/
f'o/i<u, 323,
36. All the Stem forms
also
appear
in the formation of nouns : TO
o-x^-^a,
the
form;
f) fi-s,
the
bearing; tx-vpo-s, firm,
tenable.
7. Pres.
fu'cry-w,
/
mix, mt'sc-eo,
Stems
pt<ry
and
/tty,
additional
form, myvvfjn (
319,
18).
8. Pres.
6pd-u>,
I
see,
Stems
6pa,
18,
6ir
fl&-ov
(Mid.) oxjro/icu
f-*>pa-K.a <pdr)v
OTT-OtTT-a
( 275)
Imperat.
J8 Mid. t'SoC
(
333, 12)
Inf. tS-eii
ftopa-fjuii oparos
UlfJ.-fJL(li
OTTTOS
Obs. On the
irregular Augment
of the Stem 6
pa (Impf. 'o>pcoi>)
237. The Stem 18 was
originally
Ft 8
(
34
D.). Comp.
vid-e-o;
theAor. Ind.
therefore, f-h8-ov,
with
Syllabic Augment,
contracted
to
eiS-o-v,
but
Subj. tS-,
Opt. t8-oi-/u.
The Perf. of
this Stem is
otSo,
/ know
( 317,
6).
All three Stems
appear
also in the formation of Nouns : TO
opa-pa,
the
spectacle ;
TO
i8-of,
the
form, appearance ; y 5^i-s,
the
sight;
ro
o/i-/ia,
the
eye,
look.
9. Pres.
-ira<T\-ia,
I
suffer,
Stem
jrno-x, 7ra^(f),
irevd
TTfi'-ao/iat
ire-novd-a
iradrj-ros
(foY 7>(V0-(TOp.CU, 50)
Dialects.
6. Pert
ox-c-a (
326,
31),
Perf. Mid.
&y/xac,
3 Plur.
PI
Up. 6>XUTO.
8. Aor.
c8ov,
Weak Aor. Mid. cturaTo and
ettraTo,
Part.
ittodptMH
to the Pres.
etdo/zat,
/
appear,
resemble
(comp.
34,
D.
4).
As a
shorter additional
form of the Stem 6
pa
we find in Homer the
Stem
op (fop),
thence 3 Plur. Pres. eVl
op-o-vrai, they
overlook.
9. 2 Plur. jrW0f
(
3J
7,
D.
14),
Part.
327.
EIGHTH OK MIXED CLASS. 203
05s. From the shorter Stems we have the nouns : TO
ird6-os,
the
suffering
;
TO
ire'v6-os,
the
mourning.
10.
TriV-o), Idrink,
Stems
TTIV, TTI,
iro
[Lat.^o-tusjcomp. 321,4.
f-7ri-ov
Fut.
Tri-opju ( 265)
7re-7T<B-(ca
e-no-drjv
Imperat.
Trl-di
316,
15
Tre-n-o-p-at
JTO-TOS
Obs. From the Stem TTO we have the nouns : 6
TTO'-TJJ-?, po-tor;
T) 7ro-crt-y, po-tio;
TO
no-Trjpio-v, po-culu-m.
11. Pres.
Tpe^-a),
I
run,
Stems
Tptx
and 8
pep
I'-fipu/x-ov Spa/noC/t-ai Se-Spap-ij-Ka dpeKTeov
0p'op,cu (
54
c)
05s. Nouns from both Stems : 6
rpo^-o-f,
the
wheel;
6
Spop.-ev-s,
the runner.
12. Pres.
(pe'p-w,
I
carry [fero],
Stems
(pep, e'j/e(y)K,
01
fjvfyic-ov
ot-<r<u
fv-f)vox~a ( 275)
ol-
ol-v-Tos
rjvyK-a ( 269)
t)V
T]i>fyK-d-fj.T]v
otcro/iat ev-ffvey-pat
eV
Obs. From the Stern
(pep
we have the nouns : TO
<p<fp-e-Tpo-i',
<Ae
6i'er;
6
<pdp-o-r,
f/ie
contribution, tax;
6
^op-To-s,
<A-
13. Aorist t
tjroi',
T
spoke,
Stems
eiTr,
ep
and
pc
i7T-a
( 269) 'p-a> fi-prj-Ka (
274, O&S.) fpprjdrjv
Imperat.
etV-e Inf. dir-flv
et-p?j-/iat p/-^ijo-op.at
(333,12)
tl-pr)-<r-op.ai pr)-TO-s
06s. The Stem etrr
has arisen
by
contraction from
e'-frr,
and
-f7T from
Fe-Fcrr,
the
reduplicated
Aorist-Stem of the Verbal-
Stem Far
(en-or,
ivord, 34,
D.
1).
This is the reason
why
the
diphthong
ei bclonss not to the Indicative alone
( 257, D.).
The Stem
ep (Fut. pw),
to which the Mid.
tpfadai,
to ask
( 326,
16) belongs,
has likewise lost
F,
it
being originally ftp
(comp.
Lat.
ver-bu-m).
From
fep, by
Metathesis
( 59)
arose
Dialects. 11.
edpega [8pap.eop.ai], 8e8pop.a.
1-. 2
Plur.
Imperat.
Pres.
(pep-Te [Lat.
ferte~\,
Aor.
fjtxi,Ka,
3
Sing. Opt.
eveiKai
(tVet'/coi) [Perf. eV^i/eiy/im],
Imperat.
Aor.
oto-,
Inf.
oier>ewu ( 268,
D.)
13. Pres.
eipco (Cl.
4.
d),
Aor. eo-ir-ov
(Stem
O-CTT, comp. 5)
7
'/? TmriPrnf ^rr^r^c-rf T*rf>a fttfTr-r.\ TmnAmf. ZtntfVTf (Si (\^j T) I
spoke, Imperat. ttnv-fTt,
Pres.
fv-fn-u), Imperat.
eweTre
(
62
D.),
Aor.
fvia-irov, Subj. eviarna>,
Opt.
2
Sing.
eVt'orroi f
, Imperat.
tvurrr*
and
evia-irfs,
Fut.
fvfyw
and eV
20
I
EIGHTH OR MIXED CLASS.
328.
fix,
after the loss of the
f, pt,
hence
t'-prj-Kn
for
Ft-Fprj-Ka,
(ppf]-6i)-v
for
f-Fpr)-0T)-p, pij-T6-s
for
Fprj-ro-s.
As Present
0?/ii, Xt'-yw,
and, especially
in
compounds, wyopfveo
HIM
y
lie
used,
e.
g.
dirayopcuo),
I
forbid ;
Aor.
(fTrftflw,
Fut.
dn(p<o,
Pert".
dnfiprjKa.
Nouns from the Stems tV and
pf
:
fj o\^,
Me
voice;
TO
pfj-p-n,
the word
;
6
pf)-ra>p,
the orator.
In addition to these there are three verbs which re-
duplicate
the Stem in the Present:
14. Present
yi-yi>-op.ai (also
yiv-op.ai),
I become
Stem
y
i
-
y (
t
)
v and
y
e v
(
e
) (Lat. gi-g(e)n-ot
Perf.
gren-ui)
/xai ye-yov-a
Obs. From the Stem
yfvvre
ha\? TO
ytv-os,
the
race, genus;
ol
yov-tis,
the
parents;
from
ytvt,
rj
ytve-tri-s,
the
orvjin.
15. Pres. JTI-TTT-O)
(from
Trt
-Trer-w),
1
fall,
Stem
TrtTrr,
7r*r,
7TT 03
(-TTtcr-ov from e-TTfr-ov
(
60
a), irr~ovp.ai, ( 204)
ire'-irru-Ka
(comp. 323,
35).
OZ>s. From the Stem TTT<B :
17
Trrco-crt-f,
TO
TfTu>-p.a,
the
full.
16. Prcs.
Tt-Tpd-o),
7
fore,
Stems
nrpa
and
rpa
f-rprj-ira rpi]-<ra>
(
270, OZ/s.).
IEREGULAEITIES OF MEANING.
328. The most
important irregularities
of
meaning
consist in the fluctuation between the
Active, Middle,
and
Passive,
as well
as,
on the other
hand,
between the
transitive and intransitive
meaning.
A)
Active, Middle,
and Passive
Meaning
1.
Very many
Active verbs have a Middle Future
with Active
meaning ( 266).
This is the case with
most verbs of classes 5 to 8.
2. The
Deponent
verbs are to be
regarded
as
Middle,
Dialects. 14. Perf. 1 Plur.
yt-ya-pev, 317,
D.
2, comp. 329,
8.
15. Perf. Part.
;rMrre-a>?, 317,
D. 17
besides :
17.
i-aua,
Stem
av, af,
I
sleep (I
as
Reduplication, comp. 308)
Aor. ("c<ra.
329.
IRREGULARITIES
OF MEANING. 205
and also make most of their tenses in the Middle form.
Those are called Passive
Deponents,
whose Aorist has a
Passive form :
e.g., /3ou\o/iat,
I
wish, eftov^dtjv,
Iwished.
The most
important
Passive
Deponents
are the
following,
of which those marked
*
have a Passive
Future,
which
is used
along
with the Middle :
iiydfjLai,
I admire
(
312,
8) et/Xa/3/o/iat,
I am on
my guard
*ai8o/xai,
/ dread
( 301, 1) *fjop.ai,
I
rejoice
dXaojMu,
/ ramble *ev }
fi
(I take to heart
d/uXXao/Liai,
/
rival
irpo
/
V
M
O
/
WU
\J am inclined
*apv0fj.ai,
I
deny
*eVi
]
II am anxiout
*<iY0ouat,
1 am
indignant \ \
^op.ai
J
(5326,12)
/
J*H
[I
repent
(
326,
12)
/3ovXo/xai,
2 wish
(
3l^6,
14)
dno
8<V
nt
>
I need
(
326
>
I
despair
1
reflect
, ,
I
ponder
I
anticipate
7-77
'
fVOfOWU
1 look ev
*SiaXe'yo/xat,
/ converse
irpo
Sui/a/xat,
I can
(
312,
9) *olop.ai,
I am
of opinion ( 326, 30)
eVuirioo/iai,
/ am
opposed o-e/3o/iat,
I reverence
eVurra/zai,
1 know
(
312,
10) <tXon/ie'o/zat,
/ am ambitious
Obs. Several of these verbs have the Middle Aorist as well as
the Passive.
8. The Passive Aorists of several Active verbs have a
Middle
meaning: evfypaivw,
I
rejoice,
ev^pdvO^v,
1
rejoiced;
cnpe^xa,
I cause to
turn,
ea-Tpaffrr/v,
I turned
myself
;
<palva),
I
show,
tydvrjv,
I
appeared,
&c.
4. The Passive forms of several
Deponents
have also
a Passive
meaning
:
tao/iat,
I
heal,
Iddrjv,
I was healed
;
8^o/jLat,
I
receive,
eBe^drjv,
I was
received;
in some
even the Middle forms have both Active and Passive
meaning
:
/j,i/j,eo/j.ai,
I
imitate,
/ie/uyu^/icw,
I have imi-
tated,
or have been imitated.
329.
B)
Transitive and Intransitive
Meaning.
When the
meaning
of a verb fluctuates
between
329.
Dialects. The
Strong
Aor.
erpafov (rp/<<a,
/
nourish)
in
Horn, has an intransitive
meaning,
I
grew up.
In Herod,
dvsyvwv
(avayiyva>(rKu>)
means /
read,
dviyvwcra,
I
persuaded ;
Horn,
fjpurov,
1
fell,
Aor. to
epeiVo) (cl. 2),
1 throw down
;
fvatraa,
I caused to
dwell,
Aor. to
rat'w,
/
dwell.
206
IKUEGULARITIES OF MEANING. 3'29.
Transitive and
Intransitive,
tlio
Strong
Aoriat has the
intransitive and the Weak Aorist and Future Active the
transitive
meaning;
when there are two Perl'. ds tin-
Strong
likewise has the intransitive ami Ilie ~}\'>:alc the
transitive
meaning;
if there is
only
one
JVrfret,
it is
intransitive. The most
important
cases of this kind are :
1. Stem
crra,
Pres.
fonj/u,
I
place,
Weak Anr.
<rrno-a,
I
placed,
Fut.
arrjo-a),
I shall
place,
Pres. 31 id.
JVra/iat,
1
place
myself, Strong
Aor.
earnv,
I
placed
myself
stood,
Perf.
ecrr^/ca,
I have
placed myself,
or
stand
(
503), Plup.
ea-riJKeiv,
I
stood,
Fut.
ka-rrfev)
( 291),
I shall stand.
Obs. This same
important
distinction
appears
in the numerous
compounds
:
dtpl(rrt)p,i,
I cause to
revolt,
to
separate,
dne
(TTTJV,
I revolted
separated, dtyfcmjKa,
I have
revolted; <f)l(rrrjp.i,
I
put
over, firtoTT]v,
I
put myself over, ((frfarrjKa,
I am
put over;
Kadi<m)iii.,
I
put
down, KaTecrrrjv,
I
put myselfforward,
na6^-
arrjita,
I stand there or
forward.
The Aor. Mid. has a
specially
Middle
meaning,
e.
</., Karforqcraro,
he determined for himself
(comp. 479).
2. Stem
/3a,
Pres.
/3aiW,
I
go,
is
commonly
intransi-
tive with the Fut.
fiija-ofiai ;
but iu the
poets,
I cause
to
go,
also in the Weak Aor.
eftvaa,
Fut.
fiijaa) ;
but
intransitive in the
Strong
Aor.
e/3r/v,
I
went,
have
advanced,
stand
firm (/3e/3a-to-9, frni).
3. Stem
(j)v,
Pres.
tyvw,
I
beget,
Weak Aor.
<f)V(Ta)
;
but the
Strong
Aor.
<!d>vv,
1 was
begotten,
Tretyv/ca,
I am
by
nature,
to which the Pres. is
(pvopai.
4. Stem
Sv,
Pres.
Bvco,
I
sink, hide,
often transitive:
KaraBvco,
I cause to
sink,
also
eSvcra,
Bvaco
;
but
e&vv,
I
sunk
myself,
I
dived; eveSuv,
I
put
on;
e^e&vv,
I
put off.
5. Stem
o-pe(s),
Pres.
o-Bevvvpi,
I
quench,
Weak Aor.
e-er/3e-cra,
I
quenched,
Strong
Aor.
co-fit)
v,
Iwas
quenched,
Za-ftrjica,
I am
quenched.
The Pres. to it is
a-j3evvvfjiai.
6. Stem
<TKe\,
Pres.
crtceXXa),
I
dry,
but Aor.
I
gr,
'W
dry,
with the Pres.
cr/ceXXo/iai.
331.
ACCENTUATION OF VERBAL FORMS. 207
7. Stem TT
i,
Aor.
GTTIOV,
I
dranJc,
eirlcra
(Trima-tcco),
J
caused to drink.
8. Stem
<yev,
Pres.
yelvopai
(comp.
327,
14),
I am
born,
Aor.
<yeivd/j,r)v,
I
begat.
9. Stem
o\,
Pres.
oXX^/ti,
I
ruin,
Strong
Perf.
b\(o\a,
I am
ruined,
peril,
Weak Perf.
o\c6\ea,
I have
ruined,
perdidi.
330. In a number of verbs' the
Strong Perfect
alone
has
only
an intransitive
meaning,
as :
1.
ayvvui,
I
break,
Pf.
edya,
I am broken
(
275,
2).
2.
eye/|0&>,
/ awake
eyp^jopa,IamawaJce(^275,l}.
3.
ireiOw,
I
persuade
TreTroida,
I trust
(TreiQopai,
2
follow, obey].
4.
Tnjyvvfj.i,
I
fasten TreTrrjja,
I sticJc
fast.
5.
pijyvvfti,
I tear
eppwya,
I am torn
( 278).
6.
cr^TTft),
Icause to rot
crecnjTra,
I am rotten.
7.
rrjKO),
Imelt
rerrj/ca,
I am
melted.
8.
(f)atvci3,
I show
(rarely shine),
Pf.
vrefava,
I have
appeared ((f)alvofj.ai,
I
appear).
On the distinction between
aveyya
and
ai/ew%a,
and
between
Treirpdya
and
irirrpd^a,
see 279.
331. GENERAL VIEW OF THE ACCENTUATION
OF VERBAL FORMS.
The
general
rule
given
229,
that in the verb the
accent is removed as
far
back as
possible from
the
end,
is
subject
to the
following exceptions
:
For all contracted
syllables
the accentuation is seen
from 87. Hence
So/ceo,
e'Xw//.ey (
263), Trecroy/xat
(TTITTTCD,
327,
15), ri6<t>fj,at,
( 302), \v6b),
\v0fjs
( 296). Comp.
however
307,
Obs.
330.
Dialects. 9. Horn.
8at'o>,
/ set
fire to,
Pf.
fcdrjct,
I have
caught fire.
10. Horn.
(X-n-at,
I
give hope,
Pf.
to\ira,
I
hope.
11.
(f)0eipa>,
I
destroy (Si)f<0opa,
7 am
destroyed.
ACCENTUATION OF VERBAL FORMS.
i
3:
J
C
332.
Compound
Verbal forms follow the
general
rule laid down in
85,
with the
following
limit-
ations :
1. The accent never
goes
back
beyond
the
syllable
on which the first word had it before the
composition
:
7r6So<r,
give
back
(airo),
not
0770809
;
eVt'cr^e?,
hold in
(err/),
not
emo^e?.
2. In double
compounds
the accent never
goes
back
beyond
the first :
crui>e/e8o<?,
give
out with
;
irapevdes,
put
in besides.
3. The accent never
passes beyond
the
Augment
or
Reduplication
:
a7nj\6e,
he went
away
;
aty/crai,
he has
arrived. This is the case even when the
Augment
or
Reduplication
is not
expressed
:
irrreltcov,
I
gave way
;
dvevpe,
he
found again;
avvotSa,
I know
along
with,
from
olSa,
I
know,
forms an
exception.
333. The other
exceptions
are :
1. All Infinitives in vat have the accent on the
penultima
:
TiBevai, Oeivat, \e\vtcevai,
\v6rjvai.
2. the Infinitive of the
Strong
Aorist Active of verbs
in <u is
perispome
:
\a/3eiv.
3. the came form in the Middle is
paroxytone:
\aftecr6ai.
4. the Infinitive of the Weak Aorist Active has the
accent on the
penultima
:
TratSeOcrat,
eVaii/ecrat
(
2(i8,
Obs.
1).
5. so likewise the Infinitive of the Perfect Middle :
6. the
Participle
of the
Strong
Aorist Active of verbs
in at is
oxytone
:
\a/3(av.
7. the
Participle
of the Present and of the
Strong
Aorist Active of verbs in
ji
i is
oxytone
:
riOek,
airo-
8. so likewise the
Participle
of the Perfect Active :
A.eXi//co>5
(via,
65,
Gen.
OTO?),
and
9. that of both Aorists Passive :
\v0ek,
337.
FORMS OF VERBS IN THE IONIC DIALECT. 209
10. the
Participle
of the Perfect Middle is
paroxy-
tone :
\e\vftevos.
11. the contracted 2
Sing. Imperat.
of the
Strong
Aorist Middle is
perispome:
\aj3ov.
Only
the com-
pounds
of
monosyllabic
forms with
dissyllabic preposi-
tions form an
exception: irepLdov (TT^MT#%U), comp.
307,
Obs.
12. The 2
Sing. Imperat.
of the
Strong
Aorist Active
in the
following
verbs is
oxytone
:
eiVe,
speak
; e\6e,
come
;
evpe,
find
; I8e,
see
; \a/3e,
take. But
aTrenre, &c.,
according
to 85.
On the accentuation of the three
equal
forms of the
\Veiik
Aorist,
see
268,
Obs. 1.
PECULIAR FOKMS OF VERBS IN THE IONIC DIALECT.
334.
Dialects.
The Iterative form
denoting
the
repetition
of
an act is
frequent
in Homer and
Herodotus, though foreign
to Attic
prose.
Its characteristic
sign
is the letters <TK affixed to the histo-
rical
person-endings
in the Active as well as in the Middle
by
means of the
connecting
vowels o and t
;
hence 1
Sing.
Act. a-
KOI/,
Mid.
0-Kop.rjv.
The
Augment
is
generally wanting,
in Herod,
nhvays.
The inflexion is
quite
the same as that of the
Imperfect.
335. Dialects. The Iterative a- K
may
be affixed to the Present
as well as to both the
Strong
and Weak Aorist-Stems
;
hence we
distinguish
Iterative
Imperfects,
as:
ex-f-o-Ko-v,
1 used to
have,
and
Iterative
Aon'sts,
as :
18-e-a-K-o-v,
I used to
see, f\u<ra-<rK-(-v,
he
*
drive;
the former denote the
repetition
of
continuance,
the
latter the
repetition
of the occurrence of an action
( 492).
336. Dialects. In verbs of the First
Principal Conjugation
is the constant
connecting
vowel for the Iterative
Imperfects
and
the Iteratives of the
Strong
Aorist:
fjLv--<TKov (p.fv<o,
I
remain"),
tiixTK-(-<TKovTO
(/Soovco),
1
pasture"), (frvy-e-o-Kf (favyco,
I
flee) ;
a occurs
rarely
in its stead :
pinr-a-anov
(pi7rra>,
/
hurl"), Kpvirr-a-crKov
(Kpinrru,
I
hide").
Contracted verbs in the Iteratives either leave the
two vowels uucon tractcd : Ko\fa-Kov
(/caXo>,
I
call"),
or
reject
one
of them : u>6TKov
(a>$eco,
I
push),
etatr/coj/
(<aw,
/
leave") ;
the Stems
in a sometimes
change
at to aa : vaifraaa-Kov
(vaifrdia,
I
inhabit),
comp.
raifTua, 243,
D.
337.
Dialects. In verbs of the Second
Principal Conjugation
ox is affixed
immediately
to the Stem :
t-^a-a-Kov (Stem
<a,
(/>r/ju/.,
P
210 FORMS OF VERBS IX THE IOXIC DIALECT. 338.
1
sat/),
ara-a-Kov
(f<rn)v,
I
placed mysrf/'),
tanov instead of (O-VKOV
(Stem
ts,
ft/it,
1
m),
K'-O-/TO
(Stem
Kt
i,
Ktipai,
I
lie"),
ri-6(-(TK.ov
(ridif/it,
J
put), pf)yw-(TKov (prrywfj.1,
1
totr").
For tho Stem
dX,
as
in other formations
(wXco-a, oXtcrw),
c is the
connecting
vowel :
oX--<rrfTO.
ox is further
appended directly
to the Weak Aorist-
(prjTii<Ta-<TKf (eprjrvw,
1
p<u'\fy), /^rd-<7ccTO (/ii/do/uu,
/
remember').
338.
Dialects.
Many
Stems of the Present and
Strong
Aoriist
in
poetry (seldom
in Attic
prose)
have 6 added without
any
cular modification
of
meaning.
The Preterite is the most
frequent
of the Stems thus
strengthened.
The 6 is connected with the
Sterne sometimes
by a,
sometimes
by
e. The most
important
forma
of this kind are :
3icoKo>,
additional form
fitoxcdfta,
1
pursue
fiKaQw,
I
yield
T)p.vi>adov,
1 warded
off
epyadov (ttpyaQov),
I
separated,
chut
<ff
(Kiadov,
I went
, they
hover
ro, they
ivere assembled
Aor. Inf. to hold.
tipyw
K
:
U>
ayfpu
340. SIMPLE DERIVATION". 21 1
III. DERIVATION.
CHAT. XIII.
339. A word is either
simple,
i. e.
sprung
from a
single
Stem :
\6y-os,
speech (Stem ^67), 7pac/>-a>,
I write
(Stem
<ypa<f)),
or
compound,
i. e. formed from two or
more Stems :
\ojo-y
pd(f>o-<f, speech-writer.
A)
SIMPLE DERIVATION.
Simple
words are either
primitive ( Verbalia],
i. e.
are formed
directly
from a Verbal-Stem
( 245)
:
a/o%-?;',
beginning,
from the Verbal-Stem
dp% (ap%w,
I
begin)
;
or derived
(Denominativa),
i. e. formed from a Nominal-
Stem
( 100):
dp^a-to-9,
incipient,
ancient,
from the
Nominal-Stem
dp%a,
Norn,
dp^ij,
beginning.
340. Nouns are
usually
formed whether from a
Verbal or from a Nominal-Stem
by
means of a ter-
mination. This
termination,
added to the
Stem,
is
called a
derivative-ending
or
suffix.
Thus
\6jo-f
is
formed
by
means of the suffix o from the Verbal-Stem
A.
7,
dp^a-io-? by
means of the suffix to from the
Nominal-Stem
ap%a.
The suffixes serve more
clearly
to define the idea of the
noun,
or to mark the different
relations in which the
general
idea of the Stem is to be
conceived: Verbal-Stem TTOLG
(TTOLM,
I
produce,
com-
pose),
'Troiw-Tij-s,
compos-er
;
TTOIV-CTI-S,
coinposi-taow
;
Trotij-/j.a(r), cornposifo'ow, poem;
Verb.-Stem
<ypa(f>
(ypdtyo),
I
write), 7/oa<-eu-<?,
writer;
<ypa(f>-i-s, writing
instrument
;
<ypd^-p,a, writing
;
rypajn-prj,
a line
;
Norn.--
Stem Si ic a
(8i/crj, right),
St/ca-io-?,
right, just;
7vvT],
righteousnm
;
Nom.-Stem
ftatnXe
king], /3aa-l\e-id,
queen; /3acrtXe-i'a,
kingdom;
t/co-9,
kingly.
Obs. 1.
Only
few
primitive
iiouns are formed without a suffix :
(v>.n, guard,
Nominal and Verbal-Stem
<^vXa:
SUFFIXES FOR FORMING SUBSTANTIVES. o41.
cl.
4, a,
/
guard); 8^,
voice,
Stem
OTT,
York-Stem tit
(flVflv).
2. The Consonnnt-Stems
undergo
the
necessary changes
re suffixes
beginning
with a consonant
( 44,
&c.)
:
ypa<f>,
ypdp.-pM, Xey,
Xt'tr, word;
Gixab
(Siicdfa), oiKaa--rf)f.jit<.f<je.
Vowel-Stems
readily lengthen
the vowel and sometimes insert
<r before several
suflixes,
as in the Perf. Mid.
( 288),
and in the
Weak Passive-Stem
( 298): iroirj-pa (comp. irt-Trolrj-p.ai'),
<m-<r-/io-r,
sltaking (comp. o-t-trei-tr-pai).
Obs. 3. In
many primitive
words the Stem undtT.'oes a
change
in its
vowel,
which
generally
is like that of the
Strong
Perfect
( 278):
Stem
Xa$, \fjd-r}, forgetful
ness,
comp. Xt-A^-a
;
Stem
7rf/i7r, 7ro[jLTr-f],
escort, comp. rr-7ro/i(p-a
;
Stem
\tir,
Xot7rd-y, remaining, comp.
Xf'-Xowr-a. The most
frequent
vowel-change
is that of f to o : Stem nt
fin (irtfmm,
I
a
irofMTT-fi,
escort;
Stem
<f>\ty (^>Xc'yo>,
I
burn), <^)Xo^, flame;
Stem
rpfTT (rpeVco,
/
turn), Tp&rr-os, turning,
manner.
Obs. 4. A
general
rule for the accent of nouns
is,
that the
Neuters are almost all
barytone ( 19):
TO
ytv-os,
the
race;
8S>-po-i>, ijift;
Xctywo-p,
remains;
irvtv-pa,
breath.
341. I. The most
important Suffixes for forming
Substantives.
A)
Substantives
denoting
an
agent
are called nomma
agsntis.
The
person
acting
or
occupied
in and
belonging
to
something
is indicated
by
the
following
suffixes :
1.
tv,
Nom. ev-s
(always oxytone),
Masc.
( 137).
Examples
of Primitive words are :
ypa<f>-(v-s,
writ-UK,
Verb.-Stem
ypa(p,
Pres.
ypd<pa> (cl. 1)
yov-tv-s,
begett-EB,
ytv ytyvop.ni (cl. 8)
Kovp-fv-s,
barb-EH
*tp Ktipa> (cl. 4, d).
An
example
of the not
very
numerous Denomina-
tives is:
,
Nom.-Stem
irop6no,
Nom.
tropdpos, passage.
Obs. Several Masculines in
cv-s have Feminines in eia
(pro-
paroxytones)
:
f3ao-i\evs, king
; acrt\f
ta, queen.
2.
TTJP
Nom.
njp
I
retpa
Nom.
Tftpa\
Top TwplMnsc., rpta rpia
I
.
TU
rrj-s) Tpi8 Tpt-s
|
Tl8 Tt-S
^
343. SUFFIXES FOR FORMING SUBSTANTIVES. 213
Examples
of Primitive nouns are :
Stem and Nom.
o-w-r^p,
deliver-EK,
Masc.- Verb.-Stem trw
(<r&>io)
,,0-w-retoa Fern./ (298)
p ;
-
T o
p f>n-
ra>
Pi ora-TOR,
Verb.-Stem
p
e,
Fut.
lp ( 327, 13)
Kpt-ra Kpi-rij-y, judge apt,
Pres.
Kpiva>
(
253, O&s.)
,, 7roiJj-ra iroir]-TT]-s, poet \ ,, Troie,
Pres. Trote'o)
Stem and
Nom.
Troiij-rpta, poetess) (cl. 1)
atiXrj-ra ,, av\rjTr]-s,flute-2>lay-'E%,
Masc.l Yerb.-Stem
aiXe,
,,
aiX^-rpiS,, aiiXrjrpi-s
fern.
)
Pres. avXta)
(cl. 1)
Examples
of Derived words are :
Stem
TToXt-ra,
Norn,
irokirrj-s, citizen,
Nom.-Stem
rroXt,
Nom.
oiKf-ra
oiK(Tr)-s, domestic,
Masc.l Stem
OIKO,
Nom.
,,
oiKf-rib
,,
oiKfTi-s
,,
Fern.
>
OIKO-S
342.
B)
Substantives
expressing
an action are
called nomina actionis
;
the
following
suffixes are the
most common for them :
1 .
T
i,
Nom. TI-S \
TI
,, o-i-y,
from
TI-S, according
to 60a I
Feminine,
[comp.
Lat.
tio]
[
Barytones.
(Tiu
,,
crta J
All nouns of this kind are
Primitives,
as :
Trur-ri-y, faith,
Yerb.-Stem
Trid,
Pres. Mid.
irfidopai (cl. 2)
fj-iprj-a-i-s,
imitation
p,tp,e,
Pres.
(Dep.) ^i/x'op.at (cl. 1)
(rKetyi-s, contemplation CTKCTT, ,, ,,
cnc/Trroyuai (cl. 3)
Trpa^i-?,
action IT
pay,
Pres. Act.
Trpcfo-crco (cl. 4, a)
yivf-a-i-s, origin yei'(e),
Pres. Mid.
yiyvofun
( 327, 14)
8oKip.a-a-l.-a,
examination
,, 8oKtp,a8,
Pres.
SoKf/idfw (cl. 4, b)
2.
/*o,
Nom.
p-o-s (always oxytone),
Masc.
<7-7ra-o--p,o-9, cramp,
Verb.-Stem
(rrra,
Pres. o-Traa)
(cl. 1),
I draw
}f-<r-n6-f,
bond Se 6o> Hind
)up-p.6-s, wailing
68vp oovpopai (cl. 4, d, OJs.)
Ots. From verbs in tva> substantives in fta are
derived,
which
denote the
action,
and are all
paroxytone
:
TrcuSevw,
I
educate,
irntSfia,
education
;
/3a<riXevo>,
/ am
kiny, /3ao-iXei'a, king's
rule.
Comp. 341,
1 06s.
343.
C)
The result of an action is indicated
by
:
'Jll :
FJXLS FOR 1-O11MING
SUBSTANTIVES.
344.
1.
MT,
Num.
p.a,
Neuter
(accent,
340,
Ols.
4).
7Tpiiy-p.a[T],
the
thing done,
Verb.-Stem
irpay,
Pres.
irpiio-oca (el.
4, a)
(almost
the same as TO
irtirpaypfvov,
Lat./oc<um)
OJ}-/I[T], tford,
Verb.-Stem
pt,
Fut.
jpw (
327, 13)
(cotnp.
TO
tlpTjfjLf'vov,
Lat.
dictum)
TfjL^-na[r],
cut,
Verb.-Stem
r</i,
Prcs.
T//ZI/O>
( 321, 10)
(comp.
TO
rtrp.Tjp.fvov,
the
piece
cut
off).
2. f
r,
Norn,
or,
Neuter
(accent,
340,
Ols.
4).
Stem
\ax~t s,
Nom.
\d\is,
?o,
Verb.-Stem
Xa^;,
Pres.
\ayxavu
(
321'.
L'7)
td-fs
f^os,
custom i
6,
Perf. duda
( 'J75)
,,
Tf/c-fj
,, T('KOS,
child
TfK,
Pres. rt*cro>
(cl. 3>
OZ*. The same suffix in derived words denotes a
quality
:
/Sapor, weight, Adjective-Stem /3apv,
Nom.
/3apv-f
fiatfor, ciep<A
/3a0u )3a^-f
pijitos, length /xa^po p.aicp6-s
344.
D)
The Instrument or means for an action is
expressed by
:
Tpo,
Nom.
Tpo-v [Lat. rw-m] (accent
340,
05s.
4)
apo-rpo-i/, plough,
Verb.-Stem
apo,
Pres.
apoa> (cl. 1) [ara-
trit-irt]
\v-rpo-v, redemption money
\v Xvco
(cl. 1)
BiSaK-rpo-v,
a teacher's
fee 3iSa^
n
Si8ao-Ko
( 324,
28).
05s. The
meaning
of the kindred feminine suffix
Tpa
is less
fixed :
|u-o--rpa (va>,
I
scrape), scraper,
instrument
for rubbing;
opxfi-fr-rpa (opxo/iai,
/
dance), dancing place; 7raXai'-o--rpa
i'w,
/
wrestle), wrestling
school.
345.
E)
Place is indicated
by
:
1.
rrjpio,
Nom.
Trjpio-v
Neuter
proparoxytone
axpoa-Trjpio-v,
audi-toriu-m, Verb.-Stem, d*poa,
Pres.
d/cpodo/iat
(cl. 1)
o'iKa(T-rr)pio-v, judgment
hall StjcaS
SiKiifa
rcl.4
b)
2.
eto,
Nom.
tio-r,
Neuter
properispome
Xoy-elo-f, speaking place,
from the Nom.-Stem
Xoyo,
Nom.
Xoyo-r
Kovp-tio-v,
barber's
shop Kovptv icovptv-s
Mov<r-elo-v,
seat
of
the Muses
Mouaa
,,
Movera
3.
a>i/,
Nom.
uv,
Masc.
oxytone,
denotes a
place
where
anything
is in abundance :
d/reXr,
vine-
yard
;
dj/Spwp,
men's room
;
olvwv,
wine vault.
348. SUFFIXES FOR FORMING
SUBSTANTIVES. 215
346.
F)
Substantives of
quality
are derived from
Adjective-Stems by
means of the
following
suffixes :
1.
TTJT,
Nom.
rifs,
Fern.
[Lat. tat, tut,
Nona,
tas,
tus]
Stem
iraxv-rrjr,
Nom.
iraxvrys, thickness, Adj.
-Stem
ira^v,
Nom.
7ra^v-$
Z/fO-TTJT V(OTT]S, yOUth
V( o
Nom. i/eo-s
ICTO-TIJT
,, to-o'njy, equality
tcro
Nom. MTO-*
2.
O-UKO,
Nom.
a-vvT],
Fern,
paroxytone.
8iKato-o- v v
rj, justice, Adj.-Stem 8t*cuo,
Nom. 8wcaio-y
ffbxppo-a'vvT],
soberness
,,
<ru>fypov (ro<ppa>v
3.
ta,
Nom.
10,
Fern,
paroxytone
<ro(f>-ia,
wisdom, Adj.-Stem o-o0o,
Nom.
cro^o-s
tv8aifjLov-ia,
bliss
eiSai/iov fv8aip.a>v,
The suffix ta with the vowel e of the
Adjective-
Stems in
-e?,
Nom.
-779
becomes
et,a;
and when the
final o of an
Adjective-Stem
is
preceded by
another
o,
it becomes
oia,
oia
(proparoxytone).
aXrjdf-ia, truth,
Adj.-Stem
dX?;5e[y],
Nom.
a\r)6f]s ( 165)
tCvo-ia,
benevolence evvoo
,,
evvov-s
4.
et,
Nom.
oy, Neuter, 343,
2.
347.
G)
Diminutives are formed from Nominal-
Stems
by
the suffixes :
1.
to,
Nom. 10-
v,
Neuter
irmS-io-v,
little
boy,
Nom.-Stem
iraiS,
Nom. nai-s
KrjTT-io-v,
little
garden KTJTTO
KtjTro-s.
Obs. Other forms of to are t8to
(Nom. t8to-i>), apio (Nom.
apio-v~), vSpio (Nom. vS/>to-i>),
vXXto
(Nom.
vXXto-v)
:
olKidio-v,
a little house
(0^0-5);
TrcuSd
p
i
o-v,
a little
boy
(7ra!-s)
; /j.e\v
8
p
i
o-v,
a little
song
(/le'Xoy)
; eldv\\io-v,
a little
picture (etSoy).
2. Masc.
ICTKO,
Fern.
IO-KU,
Nom.
tovco-f,
taxy, paroxytoue
vtav-io-Ko-s,
adolescent
ulus,
Nom.-Stem
veavia,
Nom. veai-ia-s
nai8-ia-Krj,girl
irai8
irai-s
(TTpav-i
(r K
o-s
,
a little
garland
ort^avo,, or/^aro-y.
348.
II) Patronymics
or substantives which denote
descent from a father
(or ancestor)
more
rarely
the
descent from a mother are most
frequently
formed
by
the suffix 8 a
(Nom. 817-9)
for the
Masculine,
and
only
5
216 SUFFIXES FOB FOHMING SUBSTANTIVES. 310.
(Nora.
-5)
for the Feminine. The Masculines arc
]>ar-
oxytone,
the Feminines
oxytone.
This snllix is added
to Stems in a without
any
connecting
vowel :
M:i>c.
Bopja-Sq-r,
Fein.
Bopja-f,
Nom.-Stcm
Bop
fa,
Nom.
Bopta-r
AlVetu-fiq-f
A.ii>(ta Aivdd-s.
The same is affixed to Consonant-Slcms
by
means of
the vowel t :
Muse.
K.(KpoTT-i-brj-s,
Fern.
K.(Kpoir-t-s,
Nom.-F>tcm
KtKpoTr,
Stems in euand o of the Second
Principal
Declension
also
adopt
the
connecting
vowel
t,
before which the v of
ev is
dropped
:
Hrj\t-i-8i)-s
from the Nom.-Stem
n^Xew,
Tfom.
n^Xev-r
Homeric additional form
Ur]\i/1d8t]-s (comp. 1C1,
I).)
SLrjTo-i-Srj-s
from the Nom.-Stem
AJJTO,
Norn.
AIJTCO,
son
of
Leto.
The Stems of the O-Declension substitute i for o :
Masc.
TamzX-f-8)j-j,
Fern.
TavraX-t-s,
Nom.-Stern
TavraXo,
Nom.
TdvraXo-s
K.pov-i-8 rj-s Kpovo,
Nom.
Kpoi'o-s.
Only
those in to
(Nom. to-?) change
these letters
to ta:
Masc.
Qeand-bi)-!,
Fern.
9eorid-s,
Nom.-Stem
Gta-rio,
Nom.
6(<TTlO-f
)t
fAfvotnd-8
r)
-
s
Mej/otrto,
Noui.
05s. A more rare suffix for
Patronymics
is iov or
tutv,
Ncm.
twv :
Kpovt&v,
son
of Kp6vo-s.
The Poets take
many
liberties
with
regard
to the metre.
349.
I)
Gentile names or substantives
describing
persons
as natives of certain towns or countries have
the suffixes :
1.
(v,
Nom. fvs
(comp. 341) oxytone
Meyap-ev-y,
Nom.-Stem
Meyapo,
Nom. rcL
M/yapa
Eperpi-ev-s
,,
'Eperpio 'Eperpia.
2.
TO,
Nom.
TTJ-S, paroxytone
(Teyea), hlyivrf-rrj-y (AiyiV?;), 'HTTfipw-rrj-j ("H7reipo-s)j
(2t/ce
)
ta).
351.
SUFFIXES FOR FORMING ADJECTIVES. 217
Ols. The feminine
gentile
names end in 8
(Xom. -r)
:
Me-ya/xS,
Num.
Meyapis
;
TeyeanS,
Norn.
Tryearts
; St/ceXicoriS,
Norn. StKeXiamy.
350. II. The most
important Suffixes for forming
Adjectives.
1.
to,
Nom.
to-9
(proparoxytone)
expresses
the most
general
relation to tlie idea of tlie
substantive from which the
adjective
is formed :
ovpdv-
10-9,
heaven-?^ (ovpavos)
;
ecnrep-io-s, belonging
to
evening (e<nrepa).
The t sometimes combines with
the final vowels of Vowel-Stems to
diphthongs,
which
then
frequently
receive the circumflex:
ayopa-io-s,
forensis
(dyopa)
; aioVto-9, modest,
from the Stem at So
(Nora.
atco9)
;
but
6Y/ai-to-9
just,
from the Stem BIKU
(Xom. Siicr), justice)
;
so also after
rejecting
the
9
we
have from the Stem
6epe<s (TO 6epo$,
summer)
6epe-io-<s,
summer-like.
By
the suffix
to,
adjectives
are also formed
from
Adjective-Stems
:
e\ei>0ep-to-9,
liber-a&s
(e\ev0po-$,
liber)
and
gentile adjectives ( 3-19)
from names of
places,
which, however,
are also used
substantively
:
MtX.^'o--to-9
(for
MtX77T-to-9,
from
Mt'\?7To-9,
according
to
60),
351. 2.
KO,
Nom.
/co-9
(always oxytone)
is
mostly
affixed to the Stem
by
the
connecting
vowel
t, and,
in words derived from
Verbal-Stems,
denotes
fitness:
ap%-i-K6-s,
suited for
governing; rypa^iKos,
suited
for
writing
or
painting (picturesque). Many
Verbal-
Stems insert the
syllable
rt before the suffix K.O
( 342):
atcr#>7-Tt-:o-9,
capable of perceiving; Trpa-
/crt-/co-9,
suited
for acting.
From Nominal-Stems the
suflix
KO,
Nom.
/co-9,
forms
adjectives denoting
what is
peculiar,
belonging
or referable to the
thing expressed
by
the noun :
/3ao-t\t/co9,
kingly
; <ucrt/co9,
natural
;
7roXe/it/fo9,
warlike.
06s.
By
means of this suffix are formed the names of
many
arts
and
sciences,
the Feminine
being
used
substantively, originally
with the addition of
TI\VT],
art,
science:
r/ /XOVCT-I-K^, music,
218 SUFFIXES FOR FORMING ADJECTIVES.
352.
17
ypufjiftaT-i-Kr],
from TU
y/xi/x/AaTa,
litterac, grammar,
the
writing', f) TUKT-I-KIJ,
tactics. The
corresponding
Masculine
denotes one who is
experienced
in such art or science : 6
pov-
fftK6-s,
iMtsician
;
6
ypafift,ariK6-f, grammarian /
6
raxriKu-y,
tactician.
352. 3.
tvo,
Nom.
ti/o-9,
proparoxytone,
and
4.
eo,
Nom.
eo-9
[Lat. eu-s], proparoxytone (ou<?
perispome, 183),
denote the material of which
any-
thing
consists: \id-i
1/0-9, of
stone
(Xt'0o-9)
; uX-ti>o-9,
wood-en
(j;v\o-v)', '^pva-eo-s, %pu(7o09, gold-en [aur-eu-s]
05s.
ti/o,
Nom.
ivd-f, oxytone,
forms
adjectives
of time:
x&f-
ti/of, yesterday's,
from
x^*'*> yesterday; taptvos, remits;
with
enlarged
suffix:
vv/cr-ep-ti/o'-f,
noct-ur-nu-s.
5.
evr,
Nora. Masc.
et-9,
Fern,
ecro-a,
Neut
ey,
denotes abundance :
^api-ei-9, grace-/w? (^dpi-?}
;
yA^-e t-9,
wood-^ (uX?;)
;
^a^o-e t-9,
sand-y (a/ia^o-9). Comp.
Lat
osu-s:
gr&tiosus,
silvosus,
arenosws.
0.
/u,oy,
Nom. Masc.
/AWV,
Neut.
jwv,
denotes the bent or inclination to
something: pvtj-fjLwv,
in
indful
;
T\r)-p,
(a
v,
patient
; eiriXr)<T-(ji
ca
v,
forgetful.
Obs.
Adjective
suffixes of less defined
meanings
are :
vo,
Nom.
vo-s, oxytone, mostly passive
:
8ti-v6-s, terrible;
o-t/x-vo'-i
(cre'j3-o-/iai-),
venerable
Xo
Xo-r, mostly oxytone
and active:
Set-X<$-r, fearful;
aTranf-Xo-j, deceitful
po /io-t
,
proparoxytone, partly
active
; pax-i-po-?,
warlike
;
and
partly passive: aoi'St-/* o-s, capable of ICIIKJ
sung ;
akin to it is
irifjio crt/xo-s, proparoxytone
:
^p^o-t/iio-y, vstful
;
(^v^i/jio-s,
capable of being fledfrom,
avoidable
s
rjs,
Neut. (s
:
^ev8-fjs, false,
almost
exclusively
in com-
pound
words
( 355).
353. III. Derived Verbs
are formed in various
ways
from Nominal-Stems. The
most
important endings
of derived
verbs,
differing
little
from one another in
meaning,
are the
following, arranged
according
to their forms of the Present :
2 :.3 6. DERIVED VERBS ADVERBS. 219
1. o-o) :
fjucrGo-ca,
I hire
(fucrdo-s, hire)
Xpv<ro-<i>,
I
gild (^pucrd-y, gold)
fjj/iid-o),
I
punish (frfjLia, punishment)
2. a-o) :
rt/id-o),
/ honour
(jt-M, honour)
aLTia.-op.ai,
1 blame
(atria,
Name)
yoa-ca,
I wail
(yoo-y, wailing")
3. e-co :
apidfie-a),
I number
(dpidpo-s, number")
fvrvxe-o),
I am
fortunate (firths, fortunate)
ioTopf-a),
I search
(i<rra>p, searcher)
4. fv-u) :
jSatriXfv-a>,
I am
king (/3acriXev-?, king)
j3ovXev-co,
7 advise
(/SovXq, advice)
o. i-&> :
ATTI^-CO,
/
^ope (fXiri-s, hope)
f\\Tjvi-<o,
I
speak
Greek
(biXunriC-o),
I am inclined
\
to
Philip
I
G. a-a> :
8iKa-a>,
I
judge (Mi<l, justice)
epydf-o/iat,
/ work
(?pyo-v, work;
jStd^-o/iai,
1 use violence
03t'a, violence)
7. aiv-u> :
a-r]fiaiv-o),
I
sign (o"^a, sign)
\fvKaiv-<o,
I whiten
(XeuKo-j, white)
XaXf7ratV-<a,
I am
indignant (^aXeTro-s,
severe,
in-
dignant)
8. vv-<i> :
fi8vv-a>,
I sweeten
(^Su-y, sweet)
\afjnrpvv-a>,
I
brighten
(Xa/iTrpd-s, bright).
Obs. 1. From a few Nominal-Stems verbs are derived with
different
endings
and with different
meanings;
thus from
SovXo,
Norn.
SoOXo-?,
slave:
SovXd-<o,
I
enslave,
am a
slave;
from
TroXf/io,
Nom.
ij-o\fp.o-s,
war,
and
7roXf/ii'f-<a,
/ make
war, 7roXe/id-co,
/ make hostile.
Obs. 2. A desiderative
meaning belongs
to verbs in
<ra>,
as
well as to several in a<a and iaa> :
yeXatrdat,
1 am inclined to
laugh; dpacrtica,
I desire to
do;
(poi/dco,
I want to
murder;
K\av(ndco,
I ivant to
weep.
The verbs of the last two termina-
tions
frequently
indicate a
bodily
weakness or illness :
o>xpido>,
/ am
pale
;
ocp$aX/ud&>,
/
suffer
in the
eyes.
IV. Adverbs.
3535. On the Adverbs formed from
Adjectives,
comp.
201-204.
From Verbal and Substanti ve
-
Stems adverbs are
formed
by
the suffixes :
2'JO
FORM OF COMPOSITION.
"54.
ftuv, oxj'tone
:
ava-ffrav-ftov,
openly; ayf\rj-$6v,
f/rf(j<i(im
&TJV (a
8
77 /),
paroxy
tone :
xpvfi-8 rj v,
dam
;
o-vXX^/3-8 TJ
r.
briefly (Stem Xa/9); (nrop-aS 17 v,
scatteredly
(Stem
<77Tf
p), (TTTfi'pW,
7 SOW
rf, oxytone
:
ovo/zacr-r i,
fo/
name
(ovo/xufw)
; XXijw<r-T t, graece
13)
COMPOSITION.
354. I. .Form
o/ Composition.
A
n0ww,
standing /rsi
in a
compound, appears
in tlio
form of its Stem :
aarv-yeiTwv, neighbour
to the
city
;
^opo-SiSacr/caXo-?,
teacher
of
the chorus
; cra/ce^-TraXo?,
sfiaker
of
the shield
(TO cra/co?).
Consonant-Stems are
usually
united to the second
part
by
the
connecting-vowel
o :
av&piavr-o-Troio-s (6 avSpia-?),
maker
of
statues,
statuary ;
irarp-o-KTovo-s,
murderer
of
a
father.
This
o, further,
is
frequently
inserted after
weak vowels :
(j)ua-i-o-\6yo-<;, acquainted
with nature
;
ixdv-o-cfxiyo-s,
Jish-eating,
and
regularly
stands in
place
of a in the Stem :
^/ie^o-Spo/io-?,
a runner
by day
;
X<w/3o-7pa<o-9,
describer
of
a
country.
The o is
dropped
before vowels:
%o/3-7/7o-5,
leader
of
the
chorus;
Trarp-
a8e\<o-5,
a
fathers
brother;
it
remains, however,
where
the word
originally began
with
digamma (
34,
D.)
:
Horn.
77/1,606/376-9,
Att.
8rj/jnovp'y6<f,
artisan.
Obs.
Exceptions
to these rules are
frequent.
Thus Stems in a-
often
appear
in an abbreviated form in
compounds
:
i(f)o-KT6i>os,
killing
with the sword
(Stem t<fs); Tft^o-/inx
i
'
a
>
content
at the wall
(Stem i-ei^er);
the final vowel of A-Stems is
sometimes
preserved
as d or
77
:
aptTa-Xoyo?,
a
speaker
uliont
virtue;
xoi-fyop *)
bearer
of funeral offerings.
A cas<-
Beldom occurs instead of the Stem-form:
vtais-oiKos,
shed
for
ships; opf<ro-i-j3dTT]s, wandering
on the hills.
355. The
ending
of a word is often somewhat
altered in
composition, especially
when the
compound
word is an
adjective
:
rtyu,?;,
<pi\6-Tifj.o-s,
ambitious
;
7rpay/jLa, 7ro\v-7rpdyfj.a)v,
much
occupied.
The
ending
3I>8. FORM OF COMPOSITION. 221
T)
9
Masculine and
Feminine,
e
9
Neuter,
deserves
special
notice
;
this
ending
occurs :
a)
in
many adjectives
formed
directly
from Verbal-
Stems :
a-/?Xa/3-7/?, uninjured
(/3\a/3,
Pres.
/SXaTrro))
;
avTapK-rjs,
self-sufficient (ai/ro-9
and
dp/ceco).
b)
in
adjectives,
whose second
part
comes from a
substantive in e
9
(Nom. 09)
:
befca-errj?,
ten
years
old
(6x09)
; KaKo-rjdws, of
a bad nature
(^09).
06s. Observe also the
compound
adverbs in fi or
t, oxytone:
ai/To-xfip-i,
with one's own
hand;
d-p.i<rd-t,
without
pay;
7rai>-8i7/x-ei,
with the whole
people.
356. A verb without
changing
its nature can
only
be
compounded
with a
preposition.
The looseness
of the connection in such
compounds
is the reason for
the
position
of the
Augment
mentioned in 238:
diroj3d\\w,
I throw
away
; diri^akov,
I threw
away.
For the same reason
prepositions
are
frequently sepa-
^ated from their verbs in the
poets
and in
Herodotus,
and in some cases even in Attic
prose (comp. 446).
This
separation
is called tmesis.
When
any
other word is to be
compounded
with a
Verbal-Stem,
a noun is first formed of the
two,
e.
g.
from
7u'0o-9
and Stem
/3a\, \ido-/3o\o-<t,
throwing
stones,
and thence
Xt0o/3oA,e'-&>,
I throw stones
;
so likewise from
vav-s
and
/nd^ofiat
comes first
vav-^d-^o-^,
fighting
at
sea,
and thence
vavpaykw
;
from ev and Stern
epy, 6^6/3767779,
benefactor, evepyerea),
I do
good.
357. A substantive of an abstract
meaning
can
only
be
compounded
with a
preposition
without
changing
its
termination :
Trpo
and
fiov\r]
make
7r/3o/3ou\r/, previous
consultation. In
every
other
compound
the abstract
substantive must take a derivative
ending:
Xt'#o9
and
/3oX?;
make
\ido/3o\ia,
throwing
stones
;
vav$
and
/J-d-^rj,
i-avp-a^ia, sea-jigJtt
;
ev and
7rpa|t9, evirpa^ia,
well
being.
358.
Compounds having
the first
part
formed
222 MEANING OF COMPOUNDS.
3J.9
directly
from a Verbal-Stem are
rarely
met
with,
except
in the
poets. They
are formed in two
ways,
viz. :
1. the Verbal or the Present-Stem is
joined directly
to Stems
beginning
with a
vowel,
and to th>
uing
with a consonant
by
means of the
connecting-
vowels
e, i,
or o:
8a/e-e-#tyto-9 (Pros.
BUKV-CO,
d. "'!.
heart-gnawing
;
7rei#-a/ry;o-9,
obedient to order
(-jreiOop-ai,
and
ap"xfj)
;
ap%-i-reKTa>v,
master-builder
;
p,ia--Q-
r
yvi'o-s,
hater
of
women
(yu-io-eto).
2. A form
strengthened by
<r and
resembling
the
Weak Aorist-Stem is
joined
in the same
way
to the
second
part
of the word:
XCW-Troi/o-?,
freeing from
trouble;
TTX^-ITTTTO-?
(TrX^acra),
cl.
4,
a), whipping
horses
;
arpe^-i-SiKO-s (cr-rptyo),
cl.
1), perverter of right.
359. II.
Meaning of Compounds.
In
regard
to their
meaning compound Adjectives
and
Substantives are divided into three
principal
classes :
1. Determinative
compounds.
In them the second
word is the
principal,
which,
without in
any
way
altering
its
meaning,
is
merely
defined
by
the iir-t.
These
compounds may
be
paraphrased by changing
the first
part
either into an
Adjective
or an Adverb :
oXi-9,
Idgh
town, castle,
i. e.
a/fpa
TroXt?
(Horn.
dicpn)
;
ftea^rj/jiftpfa,
mid-day,
i. e.
fiea-r)
,
i. e.
i/reuS?)? ^rjpv^, false herald;
?,
fellow-slave,
i. e.
O/JLOV
Sov\eva>v
;
grand, properly, appearing
as
great; 6-^l-yovo^, late-bom,
i. e.
fafre
yevofievos.
This class is the least numerous.
2. Attributive
compounds.
In them the second word
is indeed also defined
by
the
first,
yet
so,
that the latter
alters its
meaning
and
together
with the first forms a
new
idea,
which is attributed as a
quality
to another
word. These
compounds
can
generally
be
paraphrased
by employing
the
Participle
of
e^ea
or a verb akin to it
in
meaning,
and
adding
to this the second word as an
a-
.",59. MEANING OF COMPOUNDS. 223
object,
the first
becoming
an attribute to the
object
fj.aicpo-'xeip,
longi-manus,
long-handed,
i. e.
/ia/cpa? %et/3a<?
e'x&w (not
the
long
hand
itself)
;
dpyvpo-rogo-s, provided
with a silver
bow,
i. e.
apjvpovv
ro^ov
<j>epcov;
o/*o-
T/907ro-9,
of
the same
kind,
i. e.
O/AOIOV rpoTrov
ry\avK-a)7ri-s,
bright-eyed,
i. e.
<y\.av/cov<;
o^
eyovcra ;
Tn/cpo^a/io-?,
having
a bitter
wedding
;
icovfya
vou-9,
frivolous, trifling
;
a-w-fypaw, of
sound
sense,
sober
;
Se/ca-eT??'?,
ten
years
old,
i. e.
having
or
lasting
ten
years
;
avr6"xeip,
maldng
use
of
ones own hands.
QlSf Xo these
belong
the numerous
adjectives
in
-atSrjs
and
ofiorjs
:
yvvatKG>OT]s=yvi>aiKO-fi8r)s
(eiSoy),
womanfo'&e,
womanish.
3.
Objective compounds,
or those of
dependency.
In
them either the first word is
grammatically governed
by
the second or the second
by
the
first,
so that in the
paraphrase
one of the two must be
put
in an
oblique
case:
^i-o^o-9=Ta
rjvla
e-^wv,
guiding
the
reins,
driver
;
\oyo-y
pd(f)o-<>,
speech-writer,
i. e.
\6yov<}
<ypd(pa)i>
; d%io-
Xo7o-9,
worth
speaking,
i. e.
^0701;
ato<?
; <tXo-yu.ou<jo-9,
loving
the
Muses,
i. e.
$>i\.a>v
ra9 Moi/cra9
;
fearing
the
gods,
i. e.
SeSt&>9 roi9
Sal/Jtovas
;
made
by
hand,
i. e.
%epo"t
7rot^T09 ; ^eo/8Xa/37j9, injured
by
God,
i. e. VTTO 6eov
/3ey3Xa/i/ie^o9
; olfcoyevij?,
born in
the
house,
i. e. eV ol'/cw
yevo/Aevos.
Ols. 1.
Prepositions may
be
joined
with substantives in
any
of
the three
principal
classes
(1)
Determinative :
a^i-Qtarpov,
a
round
theatre,
i. e. a theatre
extending
itself round in a circle
;
dir-(\fvdepos,
one who has been freed
by another,
not
by himself,
i. e. a
freedman (6
diro TWOS
eXtvQfpos 3>v) ; (2)
Attributive :
Zv-6(os,
\. e. iv f'auro) 6tbv
fx<^", carrying
a
god
in
himself,
god-inspired; dp.(f)iKia>v,
viz.
i/eeos,
i. e. Kiovas
a/x0'
tavrov
f\
uv
'
a
temple encompassed
around with
pillars
;
(3) Objective
:
e'y^co-
ptos,
i. e. eV
Ty X'-^PQ ^">
a^ h me
>
(fpiifjnos,
i. e.
e'^>'
mira
<ai>,
being
on a
horse, belonging
to a horse.
Obs. 2.
Against
the
general
rule
( 85), according
to which
compound
words draw back the accent as far as
possible
from
the
end,
those
compounds
in -o-s
in the Nominative whose
second
part
comes
directly
from a Verbal-Stem
( 356), usually
accent this Stem if it has an active
meaning They
are
paroxy-
2'Jl M KAN IN'd OF COMPOUNDS.
3Cc.
tone when the last
syllable
but one is
short, oxytmic
\\licr. u
is
long
:
Xoyo-yp0o-r, speech-writer
;
^rp-o-KTovas,
mother*
murderer;
7rai8-aya>yo-?, boy-leader; fif\o-irows,
songs.
"\Vhon the
meaning
is
passive,
the second word runains
ui,(icrentcd :
av-ro-ypafyo-s,
written
by
one's
self; /^rp-o'-Kroj/o-r,
murdered
by
the mother
;
Svcr-dyuyos,
hard to
guide.
360. The
prefix
ai>
[comp.
avev, without,
Lat.
///-,
Engl. un-~\
before consonants a
[comp.
Lat i- in
i-<jna-ru-s\,
called
alpha privative
on account of its
meaning,
is found in a
very large
number of
compounds,
which
belong
to the determinative class if the second
part
lias arisen from a verb or an
adjective,
but
chiefly
to the attributive if from a substantive :
a-ypafas,
un-
written,
i. e. ov
yeypafipevos
;
av-e\ev0epo<;,
unfree,
i. e.
ovtc
eXevOepos
; av-a,i$r]s,
shameless,
i. e. al8w OVK
e^tov
;
a7rat-9, childless,
i. e.
TratSa?
OVK
e%(ov.
Determinatives
with av
(a)
from substantives are rare and
poetic:
d/AiJTwp,
an
unmotherly
mother,
i. e.
ovaa.
Obs. Words
originally beginning
with
digamma ( 34, D.)
have a not av:
d-e'/ccoi/,
contracted
UKU>V, unwilling; d-fuc-rjs,
contracted
aiK-fjs, reproachful (Stem
e I
K, lotKa)
;
d-epyo-f,
con-
tracted
npyo-s,
inactive
(tpyo-v, work).
The
prefix
Sv?
corresponds
to the
English
mis, and,
as the
opposite
to
ev,
denotes
something
unfortunate,
awkward,
difficult:
Svsdpeo-Tos (
324,
10), displeased;
Su?/3oiAo9, ill-advised,
i. e.
a/ca9
/SoiAa?
e%cwy
(attribu-
tive)
; Su?a?uuT09,
hard to
capture (
324,
17).
Here,
too,
determinative
compounds
from substantives are
rave : Horn.
At^vrapi?, unfortunate
Paris.
PART SECOND.
SYNTAX.
fc\ERC!SES UPON THE SYNTAX
OF THIS WORK ARE GIVEN IN
INITIA
GR^CA,
PART III
Preliminary
Remarks
361. 1.
Syntax (avvrafys, arrangement]
teaches the
use of the forms discussed in the first
part
of the
grammar,
and the
way
in which words are
arranged
into
sentences,
and sentences are combined
together.
2. A sentence is either
simple
or
compound. Every
sentence is
simple
in which the
necessary parts
of a
sentence occur
only
once.
3. The
necessary parts
of a sentence are :
a)
the
Subject,
i.
e.,
the
person
or
thing
about which
something
is
stated,
b)
the
Predicate,
i.
e.,
that which is stated.
Obs. 1.
Every
form of the finite verb
(
225, 4)
contains a
complete
sentence in
itself,
in which the
personal ending
contains
the
Subject,
and the Verbal-Stem the Predicate :
</?/*,
I
say
;
f<j>apfv,
we said.
Obs. 2. In
many
cases the
Subject
remains
undefined
:
0a<ri,
they say, people say
;
or it is not
defined,
because
readily
under-
stood
by
the Greeks :
v,
Tie
rains,
i.
e., Zeus,
for he alone can
cause rain
;
eVaA7riyf,
he blew the
trumpet, i.e.,
the
trumpeter
for it is his business. The
Subject
of the
impersonal
verbs
8ft,
xp*]>
M *s
necessary,
is also undefined.
4. The Predicate is either Verbal or
Nominal;
it is
Verbal when
expressed
in the form of a
finite
verb :
Kvpos
efiacrtXeva-e,
Cyrus
ruled
;
it is Nominal when
expressed
in the form of a noun
(substantive
or
adjec-
tive)
:
Kupo?
/3a<nXeu<? rp>, Cyrus
was
king.
5. The Predicate must
agree
with the
Subject,
viz.,
the Verbal Predicate in
number,
the Nominal in number
uDd
case,
and when it is an
adjective,
in
gender
alst :
Q
22C PRELIMINARY REMABFS. 301.
ol
TToXe/uot evltrrjcrav,
the enemies
conquered; f)
fid^ij
neydXij ?)v,
the battle was
great.
Exceptions,
3C2-366.
6. In
many
cases this
agreement
alone is sufficient to
express
the relation of a Nominal Predicate to the
Subject
: 6
fieyas
0X^09
ov
fiovifio^, great
prosperity
is
not
lasting
;
Aeptoi
tcaicoi,
the Lerians
(inhabitants
of the
island of
Leros)
are bad. But
mostly
the Nominal Pre-
dicate is more
clearly
connected with its
Subject by
the verb to be
(substantive verb)
: 6
p,eya<$ oX/3o?
ov
Hovip-os
ecrTiv,
Aepioi
Kaicoi elatv. This
verb,
thus
is called the
Copula.
7. The intransitive and
passive
verbs,
which denote
to
become,
be
made,
appear,
be
named,
designated,
chosen
and the
like,
in order to
produce
a
complete
sentence,
often
require
a Nominal Predicate
along
with tho
Verbal one. In this case also the Nominal Predicate
must
agree
with the
Subject
: K
0/309 eyevero
/9acrtXei/9,
Cyrus
became
king, Cyrus rexfactus
est,
comp.
392.
8. The Greek
language expresses many
definitions of
time, order,
and
kind,
less
frequently
of
place, by
adjec-
tives,
which are
expressed
in
English by
adverbs or
prepositions
with substantives. These
adjectives,
which
must
agree
with the
Subject,
are to be considered as
supplementary
Predicates:
rptTaloi
aTrrj\6ov,
they
went
away
on the third
day
;
AaKeSatfiovioi, varepoi a<f)iKovTO,
the Lacedaemonians arrived
later,
posteriores
advenerunt
;
opKio<t
croi
Xeyw,
I tell
you
on oath.
On the similar use of the
participle
as a
supplementary Predicate,
see
589,
&c.
9. A
simple
sentence is
enlarged by
an
Object
being
added to the verb. The
Object
is that to which the
action of the verb extends : ol
'AOrjvalot
cnreKreii'av TOV
the Athenians killed Socrates.
On the different kinds of
Objects
and the manner in which
they
are
indicated,
see 395402.
3d. PRELIMINARY REMARKS. 227
10. Tlie Active
verbs,
which
correspond
in
meaning
to the Intransitive and Passive ones mentioned in
7,
i.e.
the verbs which denote to
make, name,
designate,
choose
and the
like,
frequently
also
require
a Nominal Pre-
dicate. But as this
belongs
to the
Object,
it must
agree
with it : ol
Tlepa-cu
rov
Kvpov
e'C\ovro
ftacriXea,
the
Persians chose
Cyrus king
[Persae
Cyrum regem elege-
runt\. Comp.
404. This kind of Predicate is called
a
Dependent
Predicate. As the
Dependent
Predicate
here
appears
in the
Accusative,
so it
may
in other cases
appear
in the Genitive or Dative.
Comp.
438
;
Obs.
589,
&c.
11. Another
enlargement
of the sentence is the Attri-
bute,
i.
e.,
any
nominal definition added to a substantive
as
essentially belonging
to it and
forming
with it one
idea :
/caXo?
ITTTTOS,
a
fine
horse
;
6
Trapcav /caipos,
the
present
time
(the present).
05s. The Greek
language
in
many
cases adds an Attribute to
the
designation
of a
person, expressive
of a
generic
idea : Horn.
rjptofs bavaoi, ye
heroes Danai
(ye warring Danai) ;
Mpey
SiKaa-rai, ye judges, judices.
12. Different from the Attribute is the
Apposition.
Apposition
is such a subordinate definition added to a
substantive as does not
exactly
form one idea with
it,
but is
superadded
rather for
describing
or
illustrating
it,
and hence
might generally
be
expressed
in the form
of a
descriptive
clause :
Tiapv<rari<t,
rj
rov
Kvpov
fMjnjp,
rovrov
/ia\Aoz>
<j>i\ei, rj
rov
'
Apra^epfyv, Parysatis,
the-
mother
of Cyrus
who was
Cyrus'
mother loved him
more than Artaxerxes
;
evrevOev
Kf)po9
e^eXavvei
Siek
(
l>pvyias
et?
KoXocrcrou?,
TTO\LV
ol/covf^evrjv, evSal/Aova
/ecu
peyaXtjv, from
there
Cyrus
marches
through Phrygia
to
Colossi,
a
populous, prosperous,
and
large city (which
was a ....
city).
The Attribute and
Apposition
must
agree
with the
substantive to which
they belong,
in the same
way
as
the Predicate
(5, 7).
228 NCMBER AND GENDER. 362.
CHAP. XIV. NUMBER AND GENDER.
3G2. The
Singular
sometimes has a collective
sense,
denoting
a
plurality
: e a-
9
9,
clothing,
clothes
;
TT \ I v 9 o
9,
bricks
; r/ LTTTTO^,
cavalry
; 17
<l
0-71-19,
the
heavy-armed.
Sometimes a Predicate or
Apposition
in the Plural
refers to collective substantives in the
Singular
:
'Adv-
vaiwv TO
77X7}
$09
oiovrat
"iTnrap^ov rvpavvov
ovra
aTToOavelv,
the mass
of
the Athenians believe
Il/'pparchus
died as
ruler;
TO
arpdrevf^a eTropi^ero
crlrov KO-
TTTovres TOU9
flovs
teal
avows,
the
army
obtained
food by
killing
the oxen and asses.
A Plural is formed in Greek from
many
words,
espe-
cially
abstracts,
which have no
plural
in
English
;
especially
when the
repetition
of an idea is to be ex-
pressed
: at
7Ti(f)dveiai
Kal
XafiTrporijre^
IK TWV
dycovtov ytyveadat
(j>t\ov(7iv, celebrity
and
glory usually
arise
from
the
contests;
e/iot
at tral
/j,eyd\at
evrv^iai
OVK
dpecTKova-iv, your (repeated) great
success does not
please
me;
Horn,
iravres
Odvarot
cm/yepo/,
all Jcinds
of
death are
hateful.
Obs. 1. Poets
frequently
use the Plural in a
generic
sense wltcre
we
employ
the
singular
with the indefinite article : OVK av
yvvaiKuv
rj&crovfs Kah.oiii.tff
av,
1 should not like to be called
inferior
to a woman
; (i\ot,
a
friend.
Obs. 2. The
speaker
often uses the first
person
Plural of himself
[cornp.
Lat.
nos].
In this case the Masculine is used even
when a woman is the
speaker.
Thus Electra
says, Treo-ovpeff,
tl
XP*I> iraTpi rifjiapoviJifvoi,
I will
fall, if
it must
be,
as
my
father's avenger.
Obs. 3. In Homer there are
many
Plurals of abstract
ideas,
which
we
express
in the
Singular ;
the
Plural, however,
properly
denotes the various manifestations of such ideas:
iTnroa-^vrjs
KKcurro, by horsemanship
he was
distinguished;
dtypabiyo-i
vooio,
in the
foolishness (the
foolish
thoughts) of
his mind.
363. The Neuter Plural comes
very
near in its
meaning
to the
Singular.
This
explains
the
peculiar
Greek
custom,
that ttte Neuter Plural has the verb in
36S,
NUMBER AND GENDER.
229
the
Singular:
TTW? raina
irtivcrerai',
how is this to
end ? rd
Trpdyf^ara
ravra Seivd
ecrnv,
these
things
are
terrible.
Ols. 1. Some Plural
Neuters,
which denote a
plurality
of
persons,
sometimes have the verb in the
Plural,
as : ra
Tt\rj,
in the sense of the authorities
;
ra
(dvr),
the
peoples.
Obs. 2. The Homeric and the Common Greek Dialects
(Intro-
duction,
4), generally
allow the Plural Verb with the Neuter
Plural : Horn.
oTrdpra XeXuvrat,
the
ropes
are
loosed.
364. With an indefinite Neuter
Subject (in English,
it)
the
Adjective
Predicate is
frequently
in the Plural :
dSvvard eorti/
aTrcxfrvyeiv,
it is
impossible
to
escape;
this is the case
especially
with the Verbal
Adjective
in
reo-9
:
eTri^eiptjrea
rjv,
it was to be
attempted.
365. When two
persons
or
things
are
spoken
of,
the
Plural is
always
admissible as well as the
Dual,
and
both numbers
may
be used in
referring
to the same
thing: eyeXacrdr^v a/i^xw,
/3Xe
/
^ai>Te9
et?
dXX.?/-
Xou9,
they
both
laughed after looking
at one
another;
Sore
TrapdSeiyfjia,
&
Aa^?
re KOI
Nt/aa,
give
an
example,
Laches and Nicias
;
&
Aa^9
re teal
Nt/aa,
dira-rov
Laches and Nicias
say.
366. The Neuter of an
adjective
in the
Singular
as
well as in the Plural
easily
becomes a substantive : eV
(Ueo-ft),
in
medio,
in the
midst;
ev rc3
Trapovn,
at the
present
moment,
for
the
present
;
e'/c
TroXXoO,
for
a
long
time
; Setvd,
terrible
things.
Hence a Neuter
Adjective
often stands as Predicate to
one or more Masculine or Feminine substantives to
express
a class or
genus
in
general:
Horn. OVK
dyadoi
7ro\vKoipavir),
the
government of many
is not a
good thing
;
opObv a\r)QeC del,
truth is
always
the
right thing;
Seivbv ol
TToXXoi,
Ka/covpyovs
orav
e^cocn Trpocrrdras,
a bad
thing
is the
many
when
they
have base leaders
;
rapa-^al
KOI
crrdcreis
6\eOpia
rctfc ir6\(riv,
disturbance
and discord are ruinous to states.
230
TIIR ARTICLE.
367
307. The demonstrative
pronoun,
instead of
being
in the Neuter as in
English, frequently agrees
in
gender
and number with the Predicate to which it
refers,
just
as
in Latin: ovroL eio-iv
avSpes,
those are
men;
ovro?
opos
ecrrl
Bifaiocrvvrj<f d\rjdr)
re
\eyeiv
teal a av
\d/3r]
ri<f
d7roBiB6i>ai,
this is the idea
of justice,
to
speak
the truth
and to
give
lack what we have received
[haec
notio
justitiae
<].
The relative
pronoun
also often
agrees
in Gender and
Number,
not with the
preceding
substantive to which it
refers,
but with the substantive
following,
which is added
as a Predicate:
<f>i\ov,
o
p-eyicrrov dyadov
eariv,
ov
fypovrifyva-iv,
they
do not care
for
a
friend,
which is the
greatest good.
CHAP. XV. THE ARTICLE.
3G8. The Article
6,
77,
TO is
originally
a demonstra-
tive
pronoun,
and still
employed
as such in
Homer,
both
in a substantive and
adjective
sense,
and
frequently
also
in the
language
of the other
poets
: Horn, r
T)
v
eya>
ov
\vcrco,
HER I will not
give up
;
poet,
rov,
& Zev
irdrep,
<f>0i<rov,
HIM,
father
Zeus,
destroy;
Horn.
<f>0i<rei
o-e TO
crov
[Jievos,
this
thy courage
will be
thy
ruin.
369. The Article in this demonstrative sense is
also
employed
in the
following
cases in Attic
prose
:
1. In connection with
/*
and e : o
pev,
the one
;
6
Be,
the other.
Obs. Used
adverbially,
T
(ru) piv
TO
(TO)
',
mean
partly
partly.
2. Sometimes also with icai and Be
;
KO\ TOV
e\eOcrat,
and that he
ordered;
rov real
rov,
the one and tJte other.
3. In
irpo
rov,
before
that,
formerly.
370. The real Article
generally corresponds
to the
English definite
article. It serves to set forth an
object,
374. THE ARTICLE. 231
either as a
single
one
(the
individualising
article)
or as
a class
(the generic article).
Obf.
6, rj,
TO in Homer almost
always
has a demonstrative
power.
Yet in
many
cases com
p. especially
379 the use of these
forms
approaches very
near to that of the Attic Article. The
Article, however,
in Homer is
scarcely
ever
necessary,
and is
frequently
omitted also in the
Tragic
writers.
371. 1. The
Individualising
Article sets forth a
single object
above others of the same
kind,
and that :
a)
as known or
having
been
pointed
out before
;
Herod.
XaX/aSee<?
r a
9
eV
'
Apref^ia-la)
eiKocri
vrjas
Trapei-
'Xpvro,
the Chalcideans
furnished
the
(before mentioned)
twenty ships
at
Artemision;
Hep^? dyeipas rrjv
ava-
ptdfArjTov (rrpariav
rjXdev
Trl
rrjv
'EXXaSa,
after having
collected the
(well-known)
innumerable
army,
Xerxes
marched
against
Greece.
Ols. In this sense
proper
names
also,
which in
general
do not
need
it, may
take the Article : 6
Sawcpan/r,
Socrates,
whom
you
know,
or who was mentioned before.
372.
b)
A
thing
as
distinguished
from others
by
the
addition of
distinguishing
circumstances : 6 TWV
'
Affnvatcw
8>7/i09,
the Athenian
people (no other)
;
fj
vroXt?
r\v
TTO-
\LopKovfjiev,
the
city
which we are
besieging (just this).
373. The
distinguishing
circumstance
expressed by
the Article is often indicated in
English by
the
posses-
sive
pronoun
:
e/cacrro?
rant
Srj/juovpywv
rqv
rejgitfV
Ka\S><;
egeipyd^eTo,
each
of
the artisans
practised
his art well.
374. In connexion with numerals the Article some-
times denotes that the number to which it is added
stands in a defined relation to another number : ra Svo
/J*epij,
two-thirds
;
TWV
rpiypuv Tpia/coa-lcov
ovcrwv TWV
7raa-(t)v r a
5 8taocrta9
1}
TroXt?
Trapea-^ero,
of
the
triremes,
of
which there were three hundred in
all,
the
city furnished
two hundred. The Article has a similar effect with
quantitative adjectives
of a more
general
kind :
TroXXo^
many
ol
TroXXot, most; 7;Xeoi>e<>,
more ol
77Xeoi/e9,
tlt&
THE ARTICLE. STS
greater part
;
oXXot,
alii ol oXXot.
caeteri; 0X1704,
a
feu?
ol
o\ljoi,
the
oligarchs.
375. 2. The Generic Article indicates a whole class
of
homogeneous objects
: ot
TroXtrat,
all the citizens
;
o
prj-rwp,
tJie orator
(by profession)
;
Bel rbv
(rrpaTiayrrjv
TOV
ap%ovra
fjia\\ov rf
TOIN?
TroXe/A/ou? (f)o/3elcr6ai,
the
soldier must
fear
his
superior
rather than the
enemy.
Obs. Hence the Article
may
also be used with
proper
names in
the
plural
when a whole class is to be described : o J
Aq/io-
aGfvtis,
orators like Demosthenes
(a Demosthenes, comp. 302,
Obs.
1).
376. The Article is not used when a substantive
only expresses
an idea in
general
:
avQparjrov ^nr^rj
TOV
Oeiov
/tere^a,
man's soul
partakes of
the divine
;
so
0eo<?
denotes the
deity;
6
0eo?,
a
particular god
;
so like-
wise,
in
many
other current
expressions,
the more
ancient method of not
using
the Article has been
pre-
served :
VVKTOS,
by night
;
^epa?,
by day
;
eVt
Oa\d<ro-r},
at
sea;
Trpo?
a<rrv,
to
town;
Kar
dypov,
in the
country
;
tcaia
7?}?,
under the
earth;
eV
Be%ia,
on the
right
;
e^atpu
\oyou,
I
exempt.
377. The Article is omitted with a number of sub-
stantives,
which
by
custom have almost
acquired
tho
force of
proper
names :
/3ao-tXeu?,
the
king (of
the
Persians)
;
irpvrdvet,^,
the
presidents (as officials)
;
e'i>
aKpoTToXet,
in the
Acropolis (Athens).
378. The Predicate
(
361, 3,
10) generally
has no
Article:
Kvpo?
eyevero /3a<rtXeus
TOJV
T[ep<rwv, Cyrus
became
king of
tJte
Persians; 73-01/09 evickeias
irarijp,
labour is
father of fame;
ol
'AOr/vaioi
HepiK\ea
et\ovro
trrparriyov,
the Athenian* chose Pericles
general (comp.
387, 392, 403,
and
438,
Obs.).
379.
By
means of the
Article,
any adjective, par-
ticiple,
or
adverb,
as well as the
infinitive,
may
be made
a
substantive : Horn. 6
yepwv,
the old man
;
ol
TrXovo-ioi,
the rich
;
6
\eytav,
the
speaker
;
6
7reXa9,
the
neighbour
;
385.
TTIE
ARTICLE.
233
ol
Trapovres,
those
present
;
TO
Kara),
the under
(part)
;
01
TrdXai,
the ancients
;
TO
/ucrea/, hating
or hatred.
Obs. With the Neuter Article
any word,
or even a whole sen-
tence,
may
be
represented
as one
object
: TO
avrjp,
the word
dvfjp
or the idea
"man;"
TO !>&
o-eavToV,
the
saying
or rule
"
Know
thyself."
380. The Generic Article
( 375) generalises
the
idea of a
participle,
which then is to be translated
by
a
relative
phrase
: Trotemo TOUTO o
/3ouXo/u,ei'09,
do
that,
who will
;
prj ^rjrelre
TOV ravra
\iovra,
seek not
(one)
who will
say
this
(comp. 500).
381.
By
the Article
many
adverbs
placed
between it and a sub-
stantive become attributive
adjectives:
ol rore
uvQpviroi,
the
people
of
that
time;
rj
jrapavrtKa ySovrj,
the
momentary pleasure;
a I
fvddoe
yvva'iKfs,
the women
of
this
place; f)
ayav tXtudtpia,
the
excessive
freedom.
382. In the same
way
a
genitive
or a
preposition
with a sub-
stantive,
placed
between the Article and another
substantive,
becomes
an attributive clause : rn r(av
'
Adrjvai&v
Trpay/xaTa,
the
affairs of
the
Athenians]
ol ev
rfj
TroXei
avdpanroi,
the
people
in the
city
;
f/
Kad'
rj/j.pav rpo<pf],
the
daily
nourishment;
at uvtv \virS>v
rjbovat,
the
painless pleasures.
383. The Article often stands
alone,
sometimes
with the Genitive of a substantive
(comp.
409,
410),
sometimes with a
preposition
followed
by
a substan-
tive;
in such a construction the Article has the force
of a substantive
( 379)
: ra ruv
'ABijvalaw,
the
affairs
(possessions, interests) of
the Athenians
;
ol ev
rfj
TroXet,
the
(people)
in tlie
city
;
ra
peTa
ravra,
what
follows,
the
later
(events).
384. When a substantive with an attributive
(
361 .
ll) adjective
has the
Article,
the
adjective
stands between
the substantive and the article : 6
aryados avrjp,
the
good
man.
385. If the substantive alone is to be
prominent,
and the
adjective
to be added as
apposition (
361,
12),
the substantive stands
first,
and the
adjective
with, the
article
follows,
thus :
234 THE
ARTICLE.
386.
a)
The substantive without
Article,
when the case is
such that the
substantive,
if
put
alone,
would have no
article,
TI
&ia<f>epei, avQpwiros
dfcpaTrjs drjpiov
TOV
aKpaTfcrTciTov
;
in what does an
ungovernable
man
differfrom
the most
ungovernable
beast f for if
drjplov
stood
alone it would be without
Article,
Orjpiov, from
a beast.
b)
The substantive has the
Article,
when
by
itself,
even
without an
adjective,
it must have the Article : ol Xiot
TO
ret^o? 7repiel\ov
TO
tcaivov,
the Chians
pulled
down
(their)
wall the new one
(which they
themselves had
built)
;
for even without the
adjective
it would have to
be TO
Tet^o? TrepcetXov ( 373).
386. The same rule holds
good
with
regard
to the
position
of the attributive additions mentioned in 381
and 382 : 6
'AQijvaiwv STJ/J-OS,
the Athenian
people
;
6
77/409,
o TWV
'A^T/z/atW,
the
people,
that
is,
the Athenian
;
6
/LteTa
Tairra
*xpbvo<;,
the
after
time
;
6
%p6vo<>
6
pera
Tavra,
the time which
folloioed
this.
387. An
adjective
which without the Article either
precedes
or follows a substantive
having
the
Article,
is
predicative,
i. e. the character is
assigned
to the substan-
tive
only by
this word
(
361, 4, 8,
and
10)
:
ayados
6
or 6
avrjp aryaOos
(viz. e<niv),
the man is
good;
e%o/j,ev
TO
<r<w/ia OVIJTOV,
we all have a
body
(which is)
mortal. The translation
may
often be effected
by
a relative clause : ol
'A6r)valoi yyovvro avrovofjLwv
TO
jrpStTov (rvfifjuL'xwv,
the Athenians Jiad tfie lead
of
allies
(who)
at
first
(were) independent
;
(j>aivo/j,ai
fieyaXas
TO?
vTToo-xea-eis
Troiovftevos,
I seem to make
promises
which
are
great. Comp.
378.
06s. With
proper
names the use of the Article is
very
uncer-
tain,
when the class is added to which
they belong:
6
Ei>0pan;s
rrora/zoj
or 6 Troraaoj 6
Ev(f>f>aTT]v,
the river
Euphrates
; rj AITT/J
TO
opos
,
Mount Etna
;
2iX{'a
17 vrjo-os,
the island
of Sicily
;
f}
TroXtr ol
Tapcrot,
tJie
city of
Tarsi.
388. The
possessive pronoun
is
preceded by
the
Article when a
single
definite
object
is referred to :
391. THE ARTICLE.
235
6
e/zo9 eratpo?, my (particular) friend
; e/io?
e
a
friend of
mine.
389. ayTO
9,
as a
predicate, put
before or after a
substantive with the
Article,
means
self
:
auro?
6
Tranjp
or 6
Trarr/p
airnfc,
A<?
father himself, ipse pater
;
but aA
an attribute it is
put
between the Article and the
substantive and means same : 6
avrb?
avrjp,
the same
man,
idem vir.
With the demonstrative
pronouns
ovros, 6'Se, e/ce>o9,
a
substantive,
not
being
a
predicate,
has
regularly
the
Article :
0^x09
6
avrjp
or 6
dvr/p
ouro9,
this man
;
eiceivo
TO
Swpov,
that
gift.
But when the substantive is a
pre-
dicate the Article is
wanting
: eV
Hepa-at? vopos
earlv
o5ro9,
among
the Persians this is law.
Comp.
367.
390.
?ra9
without the Article before a substantive
without the Article means in the
Singular
every
: iracra
jro7U9,
every city.
The Article before
7ra9
gives
it the
meaning
of whole:
rj
iracra
vroX^,
the whole
city
;
Toi/9
iravra^
oTrXira?,
tJie whole
of
the
heavy-armed.
Most
generally
iras
as well as
0X09
without the Article
pre-
cedes or follows a substantive
provided
with the Article :
Trda-av
vpZv rrjv a\r/6eiav
epo),
I will tell
you
the whole
truth
;
rbv
apiOfibv
iravra
Bfya
St,e\d/3ofj.ev,
we divided
the whole number into two
parts
;
Tr/9 ^yu,epa9
0X779 Sirj\0ov
ov 7f\eov TrevTe /cat eiKocri
aTaSia)v,
during
the whole
day
they proceeded
no more than
twenty-jive
stadia.
Obs. iras
with the Article added to a numeral
may
often be
translated
by
"
altogether
"
or
"
in all :
"
Aapelo? /3ao-tXevo-t
TO iravra
eg
KOI
rpiaKovra frrj,
Darius ruled
altogether tlrirty-six
years.
391.
Expressions
for measures are to be understood
differently,
according
to the
position
of the Article :
fo-xarov
TO
opos,
the extreme
end
of
the mountain
;
TO ?
O-^UTOJ; opos,
the
farthest
mountain
(in
contrast to other
mountains)
;
17 d-yopa /* crrj,
the middle
(of the)
market-place
;
rj ^eaTj
ayopa,
the middle
market,
that
placed
in the
middle of several
others.
In
Latin/orttm
medium means both.
2''G THE NOMINATIVE.
CHAP. XVI. USE OF TUE CASES.
A)
TJie Nominative.
392. The Nominative is the case of the
subject
and
of the
predicate belonging
to the
subject (
30], 3,
4).
Hence,
as in Latin with
Jio,
dicor, videor, creor, &<.,
so in Greek with verbs of the same
meaning
the
predi-
cative noun
referring
to the
subject
is in the Nomina-
tive: Kadia-Tarai
fta<ri\v<;,
he is
appointed king;
'
AXegavSpos
#609
tavopAfyro,
Alexander deus
appella-
batur.
Comp.
361, 7, 378,
403.
06s.
dicova>,
1
hear,
in the sense of 1 am called
[Lat. audio],
also
belongs
to these verbs : of iv
'A.6f]vats (friXnnrifrvTfs
Ko\aKs KOI dfois
e'x^pol TJKOVOV,
the
Pltilipjrizers
in Athens
were called
flatterers
and
objects of
the
gods'
hatred.
393. The Nominative is
frequently
used instead of the Voca-
tive in
addressing
a
person, especially
in connection with ovrot'
6
"ATroXAo&wpoj
OVTOS,
ou
irfpifJLfvds ;
You I
Apollodorus,
won't
you
stop
and also in exclamations :
VTJTTIOS,
the
fool
I
B)
The Vocative.
394. The
person
or
thing
addressed is in the Voca-
tive. In Attic
prose
& is
generally put
before
it,
except
sometimes in animated discourse :
prj
dopv^eire,
Si
ai'Spe9
'AOrjvaloi,
don't make a
disturbance,
Athenians
;
/couet9
A.i<r%ivrj
;
do
you
hear,
Aeschines f
Obs. The
Vocative,
like
interjections,
does not
belong
to the
structure of a
sentence,
whence a word in the Vocative is
inclosed
by
commas.
C)
The Accusative.
395. The
Accusative, Genitive,
and Dative mark
an
object
as
dependent,
whence
they
are called cases of
dependence
(casus obliqui, oblique cases).
The Accusative is the case of the
Object,
and therefore
denotes
generally
the
person
or
thing
to which an action
is directed.
308. THE EXTERNAL OBJECS. 237
The
Object
is either external to the action
by
which
it is affected: TUTTTO) rov
SovXov,
I strike the
slave,
or
internal,
i. e,
already
contained in the action itself :
iTvrr]KovTa Tr\r/yd<;,
I strike
fifty
blows.
Obs. The Accusative therefore in the
great majority
of cases is
dependent
on a verb.
Only
in a
very
few cases does it
happen
that a substantive after the manner of a verb is followed
by
an
Accusative: ot
crvp.iJ.axoi.
rtdvacri. T<O 8e'et rous TOIOVTOVS
aTrooTo'Xovy,
the allies are dead
(beside themselves)
from fear
of
such ambassadors.
396. l. The External
Object
is
expressed by
the Accusative with transitive verbs as
in other
languages.
Several
verbs, however,
are treated
in Greek as transitive which in other
languages
are in-
transitive. Such verbs are :
a)
Those which
signify
to
benefit
or
injure,
whether it
be
by
act or
speech:
ev or
dya0ov irotea),
I
benefit (rot's evepryeTrjaawras, my
benefactors)
;
wlv
fc)0eA,e<w,
I am
useful
;
/ca/c<w?
or tcaicov
Troiew, KCUCQW,
1
do ill
;
dSifcea),
I do
wrong
;
vftpityo,
I insult
;
I
hurt,
&c.
;
also
Ko\aKevco,
I
flatter,
and
I
avenge myself (rov fydpov,
on
my enemy)
;
6
ovSeva TWV 7ro\iTa)v
^BiKijcrev,
Socrates acted
unjustly
to
none
of
his
fellow-citizens.
397. Not
unfrequently
the verb of a
principal
clause takes as
its
object
what should
properly
be the
subject
of a subordinate
clause : KOI
poi
TOV vibv
fine,
ptpdOrjict TTJI/ T/^WJI/,
more animated
than Kai
pot flirt,
el o vibs
fJ.fp.ddr)Kf rfjt>
rf%vr]v,
and tell me about
my son,
whether he has learnt his
trade.
Comp. 519, 5,
Obs. 2.
398.
b)
The Accusative of the external
Object
is
used with the verbs :
favya) (comp. fugio), aTroSiSpdaKw,
I run
away from
;
^ddvw,
I
get before
;
G^pdw, 0r/peva),
I hunt
after
;
yu,t/ie'o/zai
(comp. imitor), ^rjKow,
I
rival;
,
I
repay,
I
respond
to
;
\av6dvw
(comp. lateo),
(comp. deficw)
;
e/cXetVet
fie rj
eX.7rt9,
spes
me
deficit.
238 THE INTERNAL OBJECT. 399.
399.
c)
This Accusative is further used with verbs
of emotion :
at'Seo/z.at,
altr^vvofuu,
I am ashamed
(rov
Trarepa, before my father)
;
^uXarro/iat, euXay3eo/iat,
2
am on
my guard against; Oappeco,
I have
confidence
(ri]v io"xvi>,
in
my strength)
;
e/CTrX^TTO/iat,
KaTair\i]r-
rofiai,
I am amazed at
;
similarly
with
opvvui,
I swear
by (7-01/9
Oeovs,
the
gods).
Obs. As with
op.wfj.1,
so in
exclamations,
the Accusative is used
even without a
governing
verb: val
p.a
rbv
Ai'a, Yes, by
Zeus!
( G43, 1G).
3995. The
Space
and Time over which an action
extends are often
expressed by
the Accusative :
tcotvrjv
6Sbv
ri\jBop,ev,
we came
by
a common road
;
Horn.
Kklpaica
ir^r]\^v
KcneftrjGero,
she came down the
high
ladder;
jr\elv
6d\a<T(rav,
to
navigate
the
sea;
evravOa
KOpo?
e/ieti/e ^/iepa?
TreVre,
there
Cyrus
remained
five dayt-
Comp.
405.
On the Accusative of the
aim,
see 406.
400. 2. The Internal
Object
is
expressed by
the Accusative not
only
with
transitive,
but also with intransitive and
passive
verbs.
The internal
Object
is :
a)
a word of
cognate
origin
with the verb: Horn.
a/VXot 8"
afj,<f>
a\\r]cn
p,d'%riv ep^d^ovro irvXycnv,
alii
circa alias
portas pugnam pugnabant
;
re
t%o9 Tei^i-
ovrai,
they
watt
(build)
a
wall;
irofiiri]v irefiTreiv,
to
send an
escort,
make a solemn
procession;
KaKLcrrrjv
8ov\eiav
ebovXeva-ev,
he served the worst service
(endured
the worst
slavery)
;
Horn. T&> 7rei<reai,
09
Kev
apicrrriv
f3ov\r)i> /3ov\,ev<rr),
you
will
obey
him who advises
(gives)
the best
advice; rijv
evamiav vocrov
vocrovfj-ev,
we
suffer
(sicken) from
the
opposite
sickness
;
fieyd\T]v
riva
/cplcrtv
Kpiverai,
he is
judged
(tried)
in a
great
trial;
b)
or a word akin to the verb in
meaning
;
fiapuraTnv,
he is struck a
very
severe
blow;
402. DOUBLE OBJECT. 239
j/otrou?
icdfAvei,
he
suffers from
all diseases
;
poet.
o
<yoacr@ai,
to moan lamentations
',
TroXe/ioy
earpdreva'av
rbv
iepbv
Ka\ovp,evov, they
marched out to the so-called
holy
war
;
ypat^rjv
Siwiceiv,
to
pursue
with a writ
(comp.
c)
or a substantive
defining
the verb :
'O\v/j,7ria
vircav,
to
conquer
in the
Olympic games
;
ydpovs ecmdv,
to
give
a
marriage-feast
;
Horn. VO&TOV
bSvpopevot, weeping for
the return
; iievea,
irveiovre^
'A^ato/,
the
courage-breathing
Achaeans
;
dyye\ir]v
eXdetv,
to
go
a
message
;
irvp 6<f>0a\-
poicri
SeSopfca)?,
looking fire
with the
eyes
(flashing fiery
looks)
;
d)
or the result of the action
expressed by
the verb :
IX/co?
ovrdcrat,,
to strike a wound
(produce by blows)
;
op/cia rdfjiveiv, foedus ferire,
i. e.
foedus
hostiam
feriendo
efficere
/
poet.
r^Se (77 dvap^ia) rpoTrds Karapprfyvvo'i,
it
(anarchy)
breaks
flight,
i. e.
produces flight by breaking
through
the ranks.
401.
Often,
especially
in the
poets,
a neuter
adjec-
tive or
pronoun
in the Accusative is added to a verb as
a
special qualification,
almost like an adverb
(
400,
c)
:
o\l<yov
aTrelvat,
to be a little
way off
,
/ze^ya
^euSercu,
he tells a
great
lie
(comp.
//,eya ty
e v B o
5
"^rev^erai)
;
TOVTO
%aipa),
at this 1
rejoice /
TI
xpijcrofAai rovrq),
wJiat use shall I make
of
this? iravra
Treiaof^ai,
I will
obey
in all
things.
402. 3. Double
Object
Many
verbs have a double
object, consequently
a
double Accusative
;
the
following,
which most
frequently
occur with this construction
may
serve as
examples:
BiSdcrKco
(eSi'Sa^ay
TOV TratSa
rrjv
fjt,ovcnKijv,
docuerunt
puerum musicam)
;
Kpinr-rw,
I hide
;
epcorda),
I ask
;
atVe'to,
I demand
;
Trparro/iat,
J
exact
(dpyvpiov
TOU?
irapbvTas,
money from
those who are
present)
;
Kaicbv
210 DOUBLE OBJECT.
403.
Xeyw
Tou?
e'x#/3ou<?,
I
speak
ill
of my
enemies;
d<f>cu-
peofjiai,
aTroa-repeiD,
I
deprive of; avap.ip.vi](TKw,
I remind
of
; evSvo),
afjufrievvvfjii,
I
put
on
(riva
%iTwva,a
tunic on
some
one)
;
Tre/atySuXXo/mi,
7 encircle
(rei-^rj
rr/v
TTO\IV,
the
city
with
walls).
Horn. :
rj
Be
neyav
la-rov
vfaivei'
&i7r\aKa,
she wove a double
garment
at the loom
(
399,
b).
Obs. 1. In the
passive
construction the
thing
remains in the
Accusative :
8tOiia-Kop.ai rf)v /iou<ricijt/ ;
a<pgpr)p.ai
rov
ITTTTOI/,
I am robbed
of
the horse.
Obs. 2.
Many
other verbs besides these have a double Accusa-
tive, by
an external
object being
added to the internal one :
Horn. t>v Ztvs
(pi\(i -rravToir]v
(f>i\oTT]Ta,
whom Zeus loved with
multiform love,
i. e. to whom Zeus manifested love in various
ways (
400,
a)
;
AtcrxtVjjs Kr^o-t^wiTa ypa<pr)t> Trapavoptov
(diatKev,
Aeschines
prosecuted Ktesiphon
with a
charge of
vio-
lating
the law
( 400, 5); poet.
TroXXa <jf
obvp^ara
Kart'ioov
TTJV
'H.paK\(iov
to8ov
yo(a[j.evrjv
t many waitings
I saw
you give
vent
to about the
departure of
Heracles
( 400,
c)
;
Horn, t Xjcor o
p(
/Sporof
ovTcurev
avfjp,
the wound which a mortal man struck me
( 400,
d).
403. 4. The Accusative as a Predicate.
A
dependent
Predicate
relating
to an
Object
is in the
Accusative. Hence the verbs mentioned in
361, 10,
and
392,
which
signify naming, deeming, making, appoint-
i:ig, choosing, representing,
and the
like,
have a double
Accusative in the
Active,
one of the external
Object,
and one of the Predicate : ol
KoXa/ee?
'A\egavSpov
6eov
Qadfiatflv,
the
flatterers
used to call Alexander a
god
;
alpelcrOai
Tiva
crTpaTrjyov,
eligere aliquem
ducem;
ov
r o v
5
7r\elara
e%ovras
eySat/iovecrr
a r o v
9
vofjiifo,
I do
not deem those
possessing
most the
happiest;
Trapezia
epavrov
eirrreiO
r),
I sTiow
myself
obedient
; e\a/3e
TOVTO
Siopov,
he received this
(as)
a
gift.
Obs. The want of the Article often of itself
distinguishes
the
predicative
accusative from the
objective ( 378).
In the
pas-
sive construction both Accusatives must become Nominatives
according
to 392.
404 5. In a
freer way
the Accusative is
joined
U
405. DOUBLE OBJECT. 211
verbs and
adjectives,
to
point
out to what the idea oi
these words
refers,
in
reference
to what
they
are to be
understood
:
/m/w/o>
rrjv Ke(j)a\^v,
I
suffer
in the head
(comp.
400,
b)
;
aSi/cos
Trda-av
aSixiav, unjust
in
every (kind
of)
injustice
(in every way, comp.
400,
a)
;
etVt TO
yevos, they
are Greeks in
race;
ev
TO, & u>
p
ar
a,
we are well in
body;
Hom.
o/iyu-ara
teal
K(f>a\r)v
ftfe\o<?
Au
repTri/cepavixn,
in
eyes
and head
like
thunder-loving
Zeus;
Trapdevos
Ka\rj
TO
el8os,
a
maiden
beautiful
in
form,
or
of
beautiful form
(facie
pulchra)
;
ouSel?
avdpcojros
avTos
irdvra
croc^o?,
no man
is
himself
wise in
everything
;
o
Mapa-vas Trora/io?
el'/cocrt
Kal Trevre 7roSa9
et%e
TO
et>/909,
the river
Marsyas
was
twenty-jive feet
in breadth. This Accusative is called
the Accusative
of reference.
Obs. Hence a
great
number of
independent,
almost
adverbial,
Accusatives : TO
oj/o/ta,
in
name, by
name
;
TO
irXrjdos,
in
number
;
rov
rpoirov,
in character
;
rovrov TOV
rpoTrov,
in
this
way; T^V (f>vo-iv,
by
nature
;
irpo<pa<riv,
on the
pretext,
osten-
sibly
;
SI'KJJI/,
like
;
\apiv, for
the sake
of (gratia)
;
TO
rtuv,
altogether,
on the whole
; iro\v,
by
far ; ri, quid,
what f
why
f
TI (eXai'eif
; why weepest
thou f avra ravra
rJK<o, for
this
vc*y
reason I am
come.
405. In
regard
to the ideas of
space
and
time,
the Accusative
expresses
extension
(comp.
399,
b)
:
Hom. irav
rj/j,ap cf>ep6fJL
/
r]v,
a whole
day
I was borne
along,
totum diem
ferebar
; /3aa-i,\ev<; Kal"E\\r]v<;
aTret^ov
a\\ij\d)v
rpid/covTa
a-rdSia,
the
king
and the Hel-
lenes were
thirty
stadia distant
from
each other
; Horn.,
Xe/TTCTo
Sot/po? epwrjv,
he remained a
spear's
throw
behind',
TOV
f*,ev
ev iraOovra Set
fAefAvijcrQai,
TOV Travrot
Xpovov,
rov Se
TTOttfa-avTa
evOv?
e7rt\e\.-r)(T0ai,
he who
has received
kindnesses
ought
to remember them
throughout
all
time,
but lie who has done them
immediately
to
forget
tJiem.
Obs. 1. An Accusative used with ordinal
numerals,
in
regard
to
time,
is to be translated
by
since
before
or
ago
:
K
212
THE GENITIVE. 406.
f]
QvyuTijp
avrto
fT(T(\tVTT)K(i,
his
daughter
had died
seven
days before.
Obs. 2. Freer
Accusatives,
referriblo
chiefly
to
time,
arc: rovrov
rbv
\povov,
at this time
;
ri>
\onr6v, for
the
future, henceforth
;
Te'Xor,
at
hist;
irporfpov, formerly ;
apx^v, up
to the
beginning,
hence
entirely ; TTJV ra^i'm;'
)
supply 6SoV,
the
quickest (wny);
paKpdr,far,
distant.
406. In the
poets
the Accusatire
joined
to verbs of
motion also denotes the
place
towards which an action
is directed:
Horn.,
rov Be
AfXeo?
ovpavov
't/cet,
his
fame
readies
up
to
heaven;
TTW?
fjXdes
"Apyos
;
quomodo Argbs
venisti f On the absolute Accusative of
participles
see
586.
D)
The Genitive.
407. The Genitive
generally
denotes a
tiling
belonging
to another.
Obs. Hence the Genitive is most
commonly dependent
on a
noun,
and even where it is
governed by
a
verb,
its use resembles
that with a noun.
408. 1. The Genitive with Substantives.
One Substantive
may
be
joined
to another in various
ways
;
the most common are :
1.
^,a)Kpdrr]<j
6
2*(i)<l>povi<TKov
vio9,
Socrates son
of
Sophroniscus
:
Origin.
2.
97
oitcia rov Trar
p
6
<;,
the
fathers
house: Possession.
3.
z/o/cuoyxa apyvplov,
a silver coin : Material.
Horn. Serra?
oivov,
a
cup of
wine: Contents.
4. ol TrXetcrroi TWV
'EXX?^&>z>,
most
of
the Hellenes:
Partitive
Genitive.
5. o
</>o/3o9
TWV
TToXe/uW,
metus
hostium,
i.
e.,
either
a)
the
fear of
the
enemy,
i.
e.,
the fear which the
enemy
feels
(Subjective Genitive),
or,
i)
the
fear
about the
enemy,
i.
e.,
the fear of which
the
enemy
is the
object (Objective Genitive).
6. SoOXo?
Trevre
pvuv,
a slave worth
Jive
minae : Value,
7.
7pa(/>?)
#Xo7r>79,
an accusation
of theft
: Cause
B TroXlrov
apery,
a citizens virtue :
Qualit)'
412. THE OENITIVE. 213
9. Horn.
Tpofo
TTTdXieOpov,
the
city of (called) Troy
:
Designation.
"Which
of the two substantives
in
any particular
case
has to be
expressed
by
the
Genitive,
is
generally quite
as clear from their
meaning
as in
English.
But the
following special peculiarities
in the use
of the different kinds of Genitives deserve to be
noticed :
409.
a)
The Genitive denotes descent from a
father,
even without the addition of a Substantive :
^wKpaT^
6
"Zaxfipovia-Kov,
Socrates the son
of Sophroniscus
;
MtX-
naS?;? Kifjuovos,
Miltiades son
of
Kimon;
poet.,
Ato?
"A/jTe/it?,
Artemis,
daughter of
Zeus.
41 0.
b)
The Neuter of the Article Avith a Genitive
has
very
different
meanings (comp. 383)
: ra rwv
'E\.\ijva>v,
the
affairs,
interests,
possessions of
the Hellenes
(comp.
TO,
'JL\\vvtKa)
;
TO
TT;? oXiyap^/a
<?,
the nature
of
the
oligarchy;
on the other
hand,
TO rov
<T0evovs,
the
saying of
Demosthenes;
TO, rwv
KOivd,
the
property
offriends
is common.
411.
c)
The idea of abode is to be
supplied
in the
expressions
:
et?
StSacr/eaXo v
<f)oiTav,
to
go
to the master's
(house),
i.
e.,
to
go
to
school;
eV or
etV'AtSou
(Homer,
eiV 'Ai'Sao
So/ioi?,
in Hades'
dwelling, dominion),
in or into
tJie lower world.
412.
d)
The Partitive Genitive
(4), denoting
a
whole to be
divided,
is most common with numerals
and
superlatives:
TroXXot ra>v
^
h.Qt]vaiwv,
multi Athe-
niensium
;
TroTepo?
ru>v
aSeXcicoy;
which
of
the two
brothers? iravrav
apia-ros,
omnium
optimus
;
but also
with various
adjectives:
ol a-jrovSalot T&V
TrdXirwv,
the assiduous
among
the citizens.
So,
more
freely
in the
Homeric
poems:
Sla
Qedwv,
the divine one
amonggodde&ses
;
avrjp,
a man
of
the
people
;
and
similarly,
avr/fl
'too
,
a man
from
the number
of
the orators.
2 1 1 TUP. GENITIVE.
413.
The Partitive Genitive with names of
places
denotes
Ihe whole
territory: Qfjfiai rrj<;
Botom'a?,
Thebes in
Boeotia
;
with Neuter
pronouns
it sometimes denotes a
whole which is attained
by degrees
.
et? TOVTO
dvoias
jj\6ov,
eo
usque
insaniae
progressi
sunt.
Obs.
Adjectives
which have a Partitive Genitive sometimes
follow the
gender
of the Genitive
dependent ti|>on
them: 6
rjfjiiarvs
TOV
xpovov,
the
half of
the time
(instead
of TO
rjfjiurv
r<*\>
Xp6vov)
;
fj ir\fl<mj rrjs X^P
af
}
mos^
f
the land.
413.
e)
The
Objective
Genitive
(5, b) may
be trans-
lated
by
various
prepositions:
evvota rwv
<pi\a)v,
bene-
volence towards
friends
;
airopia
(TITO
v,
want
of food
;
Horn.,
e/309
e&rjTvo
9
qBe TTOT^TO 9,
eagerness for food
and
drink;
-fja-v^ia ^Opwv, peace from
enemies;
dywves
Xoyw
v,
contests in
speeches
;
dfap/jLrj epya)
v,
stimulus to
deeds
;
airocrraa-i^
r<av
'
AOrjvaiuv, defection from
the
Athenians;
\v<ns
davdrov,
deliverance
from
death;
ftiq
TTo\iTa)v,
with violence
against
the
citizens,
in
spite of
tJic.
citizens.
2. G-mitive with
Adjectives
and Adverbs.
414. The Genitive is
joined
to
many
relative
adjec-
tives and their
adverbs,
i.
e.,
to such
adjectives
and
adverbs as are conceivable
only
in
reference
to
something,
and
points
out the
person
or
thing they
refer to. The
most
important adjectives
of this kind are :
1.
KOIVOS, common; I&LOS, otei09, own,
peculiar,
and
others which
imply property
or
belonging
to,
as :
z/ao9
/'e/309
TOV
'A7roXX<yz;o9,
a
temple
sacred to
Apollo (pos-
session,
comp.
408,
2).
2.
Adjectives denoting plenty
and want
(contents,
408,
3),
as:
/A(TT69, e//.7r\e&>9,
TT\rjpi)S,
full;
7rXoucr/o9,
rich;
IvSefc, Trevrjf, necessitous; further,
the adverb
aXt9,
enough
: jrama
ev(j>poa-vvr)<;
TrXea
rjv,
all was
full
of joy.
3. Those
signifying acquainted
or
unacquainted
with :
l/i7ret/309, peritus
;
aireipo^, imperitus
;
eTriarijfjicov,
skilled
U16. TUE GENITIVE. 245
(rexvys,
in an
art); uvqjMov,
apvqjuov, mindful
and
unmindful.
4.
ato9,
worthy
;
avafyos, unworthy
: ir\ela-rov
agiov,
worth
most,
the ivorthiest
thing (
408,
6).
5.
Adjectives implying participation (
408,
4),
whether
it be
positive
or
negative
:
/ie-ro^o?
rov
irovov,
particeps
laboris
;
apoipos,
without a share
; curios, author,
guilty,
reus.
Obs. To these
belong many adjectives compounded
with av
(d,
3GO) privative, which, especially
in
poets,
are
joined
with the
genitive
:
poet,
atobj/ KOKUV
ayevoroy,
a
life
which has not tasted
of misfortunes
;
<$>i\a>v
axXavroy, unwept byfriends.
6.
Adjectives
in
-tico?
( 351) denoting capability
or
fitness for (comp. 3) something:
SiSaa-Ka\iKo<;
/jLariKTjs, capable of teaching grammar
;
rwv
et?
TOV
7roXe/ioi>,
skilled in
obtaining
the necessaries
for
war.
415.
Many
Adverbs
of
Place are
joined
with a
Genitive,
which is
mostly
of a Partitive nature
(comp.
412)
: 7roO
7779 ;
where on earth? so with
ej/ro9,
within
;
, inside; eVro?, without;
e%w,
outside;
aj^t,
yyv9,
near
;
Trpba-w
or
Troppo),forivards; irepa,
beyond;
evdu,
straight
towards;
irpocrdev, euTrpoadev,
in
front;
oTTierdev,
behind
;
a^orepwdev,
on both sides
; avw,
upwards (Trorafjiwv, up-stream)
;
and
corresponding
with
these also some adverbs of time and manner : Trnvifca
rr?9 T^e'/ja?;
at what time
of
the
day?
7rw9
e%9
TT}?
jvu)fj,rj<;
;
what do
you
think ?
\d6pa
rwv
yovewv, secretly
from
the
parents.
416. The
Comparative may
have the
object
Avith
which
anything
is
compared
in the Genitive
(as
in the
Ablative in
Latin)
:
/j,ela)v
rov
a8e\(j>ov, major f
rat
re,
i.
e., rj
6
ttSeX</>o9,
than the
brother;
ov
Trposrftcei,
rov
ap-)(ovra
r&v
ap%ofj.eva)v Trovrjporepov
elvat,
i.
e.,
TJ
rovs
ap-xppAvovs,
it is not
becoming
that the
governor
should lm
worse than the
governed.
Ols. 1. This Genitive is used most
frequently
where it
repre-
1M6 THE GENITIVE.
417.
Bents r" with the Nominative or Accusative
; yet
it
may
alsc
more
freely represent >J
with the Dative:
joet.
7r\tiwv
xpovos,
tv 8(1
n' dpf'cTKdv
rois Kara rStv tvQdbt
(^
roif
eV$afie), longer
it,
the time that I must
please
those lelow than that I must
please
those here.
Obs. 2. Like the
Comparative,
the
Superlative
is sometimes
joined
with the Genitive of the
things
with which
anything
is
compared: poet., <pdos
KoXXtcrrov T>V
irporf'p&v,
a
liyht
most
beautiful
in
comparison
with the
former ones,
where we
might
have
expected (pdos
KoXXtoi' rotv
Trporipuv,
lux
prioribus
pulchrior,
or
(pdos
fcoXXioroi'
irdvruv,
omnium
pulcherrima.
Obs. 3. All
adjectives expressive
of a
comparison
follow the rule
of
Comparatives
:
8nr\da-ios, doubly (as great as)
;
bevrtpos (ov-
8(
fo's),
second
(to
none)
; vorepos,
later than
;
ertpos,
another
than.
3. The Genitive with Verbs.
Very many
verbs are
joined
with the Genitive on the
general principles
mentioned in 408.
417. l. The Genitive
represents
a Predicate
(
361,
7 and
10)
with verbs which denote
being, becoming,
making, deeming,
in order to
predicate something
of a
substantive,
as
originating
from,
possessing, consisting
of,
or in
any
other
way qualifying
it,
408 :
Sw/epar?;?
2^.
<f>povi<TKov
fy,
Socrates was
Sophroniscm
's son
(
408,
l)
;
7;
oiKia TOV
Trarpo?
eyei/ero,
the house became the
father's
property (
408,
2)
;
TO
rel^o?
\iQov
TreTroirjrai,
the wall
lias been made
of
stone
(
408,
3)
;
ol ecrcraXot TOJV
'Ei\\i)vwv rjaav,
the Thessalians
belonged
to the Hellene*
(
408, 4)
;
TTO\ITOV
ayadov vopfljercu
TO
6appeiv,
to "be
courageous
is deemed a
good
citizen's
quality (
408,
8).
06s. The Genitive often occurs with verbs of
perception
and
observation in such a
way
that it is
properly dependent
on a
noun or
pronoun:
TOVTO
v/io>j> /laAiora 8avpdop.(v,
this we moat
adn. re in
you (properly
: this of
you
we most
admire).
418. 2. The Genitive of Material
( 408,
3)
is also
used with verbs of
plenty
and want
(comp.
414,
2):
-TrXr/poa),
I
fill
;
7r\jjda), ye/i&>,
I am
full
;
(Bel fioi],
I need
;
ra faro,
eve7r\r/crav BfUftoVMi
, they filled
the ears with wondrous wisdom
;
o
U9. THE UENITIVE. 24
rrapcov Katpb?
7ro\\fjs
(ppovriSos
Kal
ySoiA?}? Beirut,
tJt
present
time is in need
of
much
reflection
and advice.
419. 3. The Partitive Genitive
(
408,
4)
is used
with
many
verbs which
only partially
affect the
object
of the action :
a)
With all verbs which contain the idea of
sharing
:
f-iere^a)
(^erecrrt pot),
I have a share in
;
^era\afjb
I take a share
in;
fieraStSwfu,
I
give
a share
(r?}9
of
the
booty)
; Kotvwvea),
I share
(comp.
414,
5)
;
Horn.
alrov 8'
alSoiij raf^ir)
Trapi6r}Ke ^apt^of^evij TrapeovTtov,
the modest stewardess
brought
bread
supplying from
the
store.
Obs.
o,
I
smell,
also
belongs
to these :
pvpav
o,
he smells
of
myrrh.
b)
With verbs which denote
touching, laying
hold
of,
seizing
:
aTno^ai, -fyavco,
I touch
;
e^p^ai,
I hold
by,
border
(rivo<;}
on
something
;
avTe^ofjiai,
evriXa/i/Sai/o/iat,
/
lay
hold
of; \a/j,(3dva)
riva
rr}?
^eipos,
2 seize one
by
the.
hand;
ap-^o/jiat,
I
begin (T^?
Trai&eia?,
with the
education)
;
poet,
davovrwv ovSev
01X709
airrerai,
no
pain
touches the dead.
c)
With verbs which denote
striving, aiming
at : OTO-
^a^b/zat
roG
(TKOTTOV,
I aim at the
goal;
strive
;
bityda),
I thirst
;
rvy-^dvw,
I
hit,
attain
rwv
dd\wv,
he won the
prizes); efafcvov/Aat,
I
reach,
attain;
ij/ca),
I have attained
(Herod.
Swa/iio?, power).
d)
Witli verbs which denote
enjoying
:
eV#ia>,
I eat
;
TTIVCI),
I
drink;
yew,
I
give
a
taste; ea-rtdo),
Ientertain
;
uTro\av(i>,
I
enjoy (pe^/la-Tcov
cvyaOwv,
the
greatest
bless-
ings)',
ei/o?
dv&pos
eu
fypovrjvavros
TroXXot av d
r
rro\av-
cretav,
many
would
enjoy
a man who has
thought sensibly.
e)
With verbs
denoting
the
opposites
of the ideas
enumerated under a
d,
that
is,
the exclusion from a
share in
something
:
dire-^o^at,
I
refrain (<TITOV,
abstineo
cibo); 'xwpttjo,
I
separate
;
zi.pyw,
I
keep off
;
a-repia-tca),
I
deprive
; Travofiat,
I cease
; efcet),
irapa^wpiw,
I
yield
;
248
THE GENITIVE.
420.
Xi5o>,
I loose
;
eXev#epo&>,
/
free
;
^etSo/MU,
I
spare
;
afj-aprdvd), aTrorvy^dvo},
I miss
',
^evSo/iCU, cr<pd\\of*,ai,
/ am deceived
(rrjs
eX
77-4809,
in
my hope).
Qlsf
Many
of these verbs are also
joined
with an Accusative
when an
object
is to be
expressed
as
wholly encompassed by
the action : ifktltrrov
fitpos
rtvos
furt^ttv,
to have the
greatest
part
in
anything
;
irivta
olvov,
1 drink wine
; olvov,
some wine
;
\a.yx<*vu>
rt,,
I attain
something} nvus,
a sluire in
something.
420. 4. The Genitive is
joined
with
many
verbs
denoting
a sensuous or moral
perception
or emotion
(comp.
414,
3),
as :
cucova),
dtcpodo/j.ai,
I hear
;
alaQa-
vopai,
I
perceive
;
fufwqo-icofjuu,
Iremember
(rov <}>i\ov,
memini
amici)
;
Tn\avddvop,a^
I
forget
;
/zeXet /iot
TIVOS,
eVi/ieXeo/zai,
/ am concerned about
something,
I
care
;
evrpeTro^ai,
Horn.
a\.eya), aXeylfya,
I concern
my-
self; a/ieXew,
/
neglect; ciXiyupew,
I care little
about;
I
paw,
I love
(
419,
c)
;
brnQvpew,
I
desire;
jrwOfoopai
TI
TWOS,
I learn
something
about one.
Obs. The Accusative also is admissible with several of these
verbs : with OKOVW if the
object
is
directly
audible :
(frQayyov,
a
sound,
but roi)
SiSao-xaXov,
the teacher.
421. 5. With verbs of
estimating, buying, selling,
&c.,
the Genitive denotes the value or
price (comp.
408, 6,
and
417)
: 6
SoOXo?
irevre
fj,vwv Tifj,arai,
the slave is valued at
Jive
minae
;
TroXXov
wveicrdai,
magni
emere;
raXdvrov
aTroSoadai,
to sell
for
a talent.
422. 6. With verbs of
judicial proceedings
the Geni-
tive denotes the cause
(
408, 7,
414,
5): K\OTT^
ypd(pecrdai, ala"xpov,
furti
accusari
turpe
est
;
<povov
8ia>-
ceiv,
to
prosecute for
murder
;
favyei, irapavo^wv,
he is
charged
with
violating
the
law;
d^Trecpvye Ka/crjjopias,
he. ivas
acquitted of
libel;
ed\axrav
irpoSoo-iaSy proditionu
condemnati sunt.
Obs. AVith verbs of emotion the Genitive likewise
expresses
the
cause,
as :
Qavpafa
ere
rJjr O-OX^POOT/W;?
,
/ admire the.e
for thy
moderation
;
Horn,
^wo/ievor yvvatKos, angry
about tJte woman.
4:5. THE GENITIVE. 2 19
423. 7. The Genitive is also
joined
with verbs
which
imply
the
meaning
of a
Comparative ( 416),
as :
fcparea) (icpeLTTCov elfjtlj, ap^co (Kpo?cro9
AuSow
rjp-^ev,
Croesus ruled over the
Lydians)
; /Sao-tXeuco,
I
rule;
Trepieifjii, Trepiyiyvo/Aai,
I am
superior
',
r]TT(iofj,ai (r)TTwv
et/u),
I am
inferior
;
XeiVo/iat, varepew,
I am
behind;
8ia<f>epa>
rivos,
differo
ab
aliquo
;
fiapftdpcov
f
'EXX79m9
ap-^etv
et/co9,
it is reasonable that Hellenes should rule
over barbarians.
424. 8. The Genitive is
joined
with verbs com-
pounded
with
prepositions,
which either
always,
or
in the sense which
they
have in the
compound
verb,
require
the Genitive
(comp. Chap. XVII.)
:
e/c/3ttXX
Tiva
T///.779,
I
eject
some one
from office
;
TrpocrTarevei, TTJS
7roXe&>9,
he
presides
over the state
;
Icr^yv
rov Sitcaiov
TrporiOrfGiv,
he
prefers might before right
;
Karafypovelv
nvos,
to
despise any
one
;
Kartf^opeiv
ri
TWOS,
to accuse
one
of
a
thing
;
Trdrpiov
fy rfj 'A.0rjvauov
TroXet
Trpoecrrd-
vai T<t>v
'R\\ijva>v,
it was a
hereditary
custom
for
the
city
of
the Athenians to be at the head
of
the Hellenes.
4. Freer use
of
the Genitive.
425. The
Genitive,
without immediate connexion
with a noun or verb
expresses
:
l. Place
(local
Genitive),
almost
exclusively
in the
language
of
poetry,
and that either the
place from
which
something
is removed : "araade
/3d0pa>v, get up
from
the
steps
;
vtrd^eiv Tip
6Bov,
to
go
out
of
the
ivay
(comp.
419,
e)
;
or the
space
unthin which
something
takes
place (comp.
412,
415):
-7779
'IwvtW
TOUTO
alcr^pov
vevofjitcrTai,
within Ionia that is considered dis-
graceful
;
Horn.
ve^>09
ov
(ftalvero
Trdcrr)*? 70/7^9,
no cloud
appeared
within the
compass of
the whole earth
;
ep^ovrai
TreSuuo,
they go through
or within the
plain (comp.
the
German ich
gehe
des
Weges).
On another local
Genitive,
see 412.
2f>0 THE DATIVE,
42G.
42G. 2. Time,
(temporal Genitive),
in which case it
is a Partitive Genitive
expressing
the whole
of
a
space
of
time
( 412),
within which
something
takes
plu<v
:
rpi<;
TOV
eviavTov,
thrice in the
year; rjfxepas,
by day;
VVKTOS,
by night
;
TOV avrov
^et/u.aii/o?,
in the same
winter
;
TOV
XOITTOV,
for
the
future
;
%povov o-v^vov,
for
some time
;
eicdcnov
CTOVS,
each
year.
427. 3. Cause
(causal
Genitive,
comp.
408, 7,
422),
in exclamations:
ofytoc TT}?
TV^TJ<;,
alas!
for
my fortune (comp.
the German des
Leides)
;
and in
Infinitives with the Genitive of the Article
(in
order
to).
574, 3,
Ob*.
428. 4.
Occasion, time, circumstances, &c.,
as an
absolute
Genitive,
in connexion with
participles, just
like
the absolute Ablative in Latin :
Kvpov
(3aa-fn.evoino<>,
Cyro regnante,
584
(comp.
the German: stehenden
Fusses).
Obs. The absolute Genitive
very rarely occurs,
like the absolute
Ablative of the
Latins,
without a
participle;
when the verb
to be occurs in the clause the
participle
a>v is to be used :
te
puero,
<rov naibos ovros.
E)
The Dative.
429. The Dative
denotes,
in
general,
the
person
or
thing
more
remotely
connected with an action.
Obs. The
Dative, therefore,
depends just
as often on verbs as on
adjectives (adverbs),
but
very rarely
on a
substantive.
430. 1. Dative of the
person
concerned.
As in Latin and
English,
so in
Greek,
the
person
more
remotely
affected
by something
is in the
Dative,
and:
a)
with transitive verbs it is the so-called indirect
object
: Horn, eirra Se ol Swaco
evvat6/j,eva TrroXte^a,
and I will
give
him seven
flourishing
cities.
b)
with intransitive verbs it
expresses
the
person
or
a
thing
conceived as a
person
to which the action
435. THE DATIVE. 251
refers :
-rrpeTrct,
fioi
rt,
a
thing
becomes me
;
Set
/zoj
Tti>o<>,
f
need
something
;
e'/xol
ovrco Soicet
e%eiv,
it seems
to me to be so
; ftoT)6)
rot?
<rvfj,fj,dxois,
succurro sociis
;
vreidov Tot9
i/o/zoi?, obey
the, laws
;
ev^ec-de
rot?
Oeois,
pray
to the
gods; yu.e/4<o//,<u
rot?
padwrals,
I
reproach
the scholars.
Obs. Substantives derived from such verbs are sometimes followed
by
the Dative :
fj
tv TO>
7roXe'/z<
roit
o-v/x/m^otf porjdeia,
the
help
to the allies in the
war.
c)
with
Adjectives
: o
aya6bs
TO>
dyaOq) /ioi/09 </>/Xo5,
the
good
alone is dear to the
good.
431. 2. Dative of interest.
The Dative denotes the
person for
whom for whose
interest
something
is or takes
place
;
hence
a)
the
person benefited
or
injured
(dat. commodi,
in-
commodi)
:
vra9
dvrjp
aura)
Travel,
every
man toils
for
Jtimself
;
<j)Q6vos
j^eyta-rov
Kafcbv
rot?
e%ovcrtv
ai/rov, envy
is the
greatest
evil to them that have it.
432.
b)
the
possessor
with
elpi, ylyvo/jiai,
and similar
verbs : TroXXot
/iot <f)i\oi
elcrlv,
I have
many friends.
Obs. The
possessive
Dative is
sometimes,
like the
Genitive, joined
with a Substantive
; Herod.,
01
<r0i o,
their
oxen.
433.
c)
the
sympathising person (ethical Dative)
:
poet.
o>
re/cvov, r} (Beftw/cev rjfiiv
6
^e^o?,
child,
has the
stranger left
us ? rl
yap jrar^p poi
Trpeafivs
ev
So/AOKn
Spa, for
what is
my aged father doing
in the house ?
434.
d)
the
acting person
with
passive
verbs
(com-
monly
VTTO with the
Genitive),
which is then to be
viewed as one interested in the action : Horn.
?roXee9
%d/jiev "E/cropt
Si'w,
many
were overcome
by godlike
Hector
;
TI
TreTrpa/crat
rot? aXXot?
;
what has been done
by
the rest f This Dative is
regularly joined
with the
Verbal
Adj.
in
-reo?
:
e'/iot TroXe/i^reoi'
eVra/,
mihi
pvg-
nandum est.
135.
e)
the
person remotely
connected with an
252
TIIE DATIVE.
''
action :
riOvrj-^
vp.1v
vroXat,
Tie died to
you long ajo
;
Hom. Tracriv Kev
Tpweo-at
/cvSo?
apoio,
thou
might
thee
fame
u'ith all
Trojans
;
Hom. rolcriv
dvecrrrj, among
them
arose;
v-7ro\ajn,3dviv
Bel TO> TOIOVTM on
eu?/#7;<?
eVrtV,
in
regard
to such a one we must
suppose
him
simple.
Obs. In this manner
participles
are most
frequently
used,
pr.rtly
with,
partly
without,
an
accompanying
noun : Horn.
Tjfj.lv
tlva-
T(k OTI
TrepirpoTTfdiv
fviavTos fvQubf
pifjLv6i>T(cr<Tii>,
it is the ninth
yearfor
us
lingering
here
; rj StajSciirt
TOV
irarap&v irpbs
eairipav
686s,
the road westward when
you
have crossed the river
;
yiyverai
TI
f(jioi /SouXofieVa),
something happens
to me as I wish
;
avvt-
\6vri or wj vwtkuvTi
finely,
to
speak briefly.
436. 3. Dative of
community.
With
verbs,
adjectives,
and
adverbs,
which denote
community, agreement, friendly
or hostile
meeting,
the
person
or
thing
with which such a
community,
agree-
ment,
or such a
meeting
takes
place,
is in the Dative.
a)
Verbs of this kind are :
Koatoveot,
I share
(rtvl
TWOS,
something
with
one)
;
av^wvkw^
6f4o\oyea), a-vvaSa),
ofAovoeo),
I
agree
;
6fioi6o/j,ai,
I resemble
;
o/uXea>,
I asso-
ciate mth
;
SiaXeyofiaL,
2 converse
;
Siatyepopai,
I
differ
;
pdxo/j,at,
I
fight
;
e/3/&>,
/
dispute
: ra
epya
ov
av^wvel
TO:?
Xo7ot9,
the deeds do not harmonise with the
words;
poet.
KaKolffiv
fjirj
7rpo90/ziX.ei avSpda-tv,
aXX' alel TWV
cvyaO&v
e^eo,
with bad men do not
associate,
but
always
hold to the
good.
b)
Adjectives: i<ro<;,like; 0/40409, TrapaTrX^crto?,
similar
,
6
avro<f,
the same
; oltcelos, iBios,
peculiar
; KOIVOS,
common
(comp.
414,
l)
;
o/icoyy/xo?, of
like name
;
avvwvvfjLo^,
of
like
meaning
;
Sidfopos, different;
eVaim'o?,
opposite:
oDTrkca-aevoi,
f)<rav
rot? aurot?
Kvpw
oTrXot?,
they
were
armed
with tfte same
weapons
as
Cyrus.
c)
Adverbs : besides those derived from the
adjectives
just
mentioned,
especially
ap,a,
at the same time
; o/^oO,
together
:
apa
TOJ
kraipw,
at the same time with his
friend.
437. The Dative is used with
many
verbs
which,
-UC THE DATIVE. 253
compounded
with
prepositions,
denote a contact or
union,
especially
with such as are
compounded
with
ev, (rvv, eVt,
yet
also with those
compounded
with
77/365,
Trapd, Trepi,
UTTO,
as :
eTricmj/Ji'rjv e/ivroteii/ TTJ
^f^j?,
to
bring knowledge
into the
soul;
em/celo-flal
TIVI,
to
press
upon,
to
urge,
one
;
eiririfjiav
rtvi
ri,
to
reproach
one with
something
;
Trposievcu
T&>
S^/za),
to come
before
the
people
;
TrapicrTaa-Qai, Trapeival
TIVI,
to
support
one
;
TrepiTriTrreiv
rivi,
to meet one.
438. 4. The Instrumental
Dative,
answering
to the
Latin
Ablative,
denotes that
by
or
by
means
of
which
an action is
brought
about,
hence
a)
the means or instrument
(comp.
Bid,
458)
:
Horn, rbv
pev
Kara
CTT^O? ftd\e
Sovpi,
the one he struck
on the breast with the
spear
;
opwpev
rot?
o<#aX/io??,
we
see with the
eyes
$
ouSei? eTraivov
r)Sovai<; efcr^craro,
no
one
gained praise by pleasures
;
fyjAiovv
riva
Oavdry,
to
punish
one with
death;
Horn. Tia-etav Aaraot
e/ia
Sdicpva
aoicri
ySeXecrcrti/, may
the, Danai
pay for my
tears
by thy
darts.
Ols. Hence the Dative is used with
xPW^
al
t
t make use
of;
as
the Ablative with uti in Latin. A second
predicative
Dative is
often added
(
361,
10)
: TOVTUV rtcrt
<fyv\a$-iv e'^pr/ro,
some
of
them he used as
guards.
439.
b]
the
operating power
or cause from which an
action
proceeds
:
avOpwiros <f)vaei
TroXirucov,
man
(is)
by
nature
fated for
the State
;
TroXXa/a?
djvola a/jiap-
,
we
often
err
from ignorance
;
</>6/3w, from fear.
Obs. "With verbs of emotion the Dative
expresses
the
ground
or
occasion of the emotion :
rj8ofiai, \aipa> TTJ ^ovcriKrj,
I
deliyht
in
music
;
\vm>vp.ai,
I am
grieved
;
^aXfTratVo),
/ am
angry ;
OTtpyv, dymroa,
I am
satisfied (with something) ;
alcrxvvofun,
I am ashamed
(about something).
440.
c)
the
measure,
by
which a
thing
is
measured.
by
which, one
thing surpasses
another,
by
which it is
distinguished
: TO,
/u&Xwra
xpfooftev
rot?
2.")i THK DATIVE.
4-11.
the
future
ice
judge of by
the
past
;
Sera erecrt
Trpo
rf/?
eV
^.aXafilvi
fuix
r
)
<
*
'
1
'Aft/voJbt
eV
'MlapaOtavt evUrjaav,
ten
years before
the battle
of
Salamis the Athenians con-
quered
at
Marathon;
TroXXw
fiel&v,
multo
major
(
TroXy,
404.
Obs.)
;
Sia<j>epeiv
rivus
<f>povi)<rei,
to
differ
from any
one in
insiyht.
441. 5. Tha
freer
use of the Dative
expresses
:
a)
the
way
and
manner,
or an
accompanying
cir-
cumstance : roj/Tft) T(3
rpoTTta,
in this
way
; (3ia,
by
force
;
cnrovfi,
with zeal
;
0-47^,
in silence
;
epyy,
in
fact;
TO>
ovrt,
in
truth; i&ia,
prioatim; Sr)/j,ocria,
publice;
Horn.
vrjTrierja-t,,
in his
folly (
362,
Obs.).
06s. The Dative with
avros should be
particularly
noticed :
6 ^iXtTnror TTfvraKocriovs Imrfas
(\aflfv
avrois rols
on\ois, Philip
took
jive
hundred horse
together
with their armour.
(Comp.
the
Dative of
community, 436.)
442.
b)
The
place
where
something happens
is
expressed by
the Dative more
rarely
in
prose
than in
poetry
:
Mapadcovt,
at Marathon
;
Horn. 'EXXaSi olxia
volant,
inhabiting
his house in Hellas
;
Horn. ro'
wpoicriv
e^&jj/,
having
the bow on his shoulders
;
poet.
68049,
on the
way.
443.
c)
Time is
expressed by
the Dative as defi-
nitely
limited in answer to the
question
when :
rfjSe T/;
VVKTI,
hac nocte
;
rfj vcrrepaia,
on the
folloiving day
;
rerdpra)
eret,
in the
fourth year; 'OXu/iTrtW,
at tin.
Olympic games
;
poet,
xei/j-epiw
VOTM,
in a
stormy
south
wind.
Obs. Notice the difference between the Accusative
( 405)
and
the Genitive
( 4L'6),
in their
application
to relations of
time.
447 THE PBEPOSITIONS. 255
CHAP. XVII. THE
PREPOSITIONS.
444.
Prepositions
have a double use. Either
they
are combined with a
verb,
to define the direction which
the action of the verb
takes,
or
they
are used inde-
pendently,
and
serve,
in connexion with different
cases,
to
point
out the relation of
single
words in a sentence
to one another more
distinctly
than could be done
by
the cases alone.
445. Obs. 1. As the name
praepositio (irpoQecns) points
to the
first of these
uses,
those
prepositions
which are not combined with
verbs,
such as :
avtv,
without
(poet. S/^a, x^P'O
5
"XP
l
M*XP'
till;
p.(ragv,
between; ZvfKa,
on account
of; n-Aiji/, besides,
are
called
spurious. They
are all used with the Genitive
(comp. 415),
except a>s, to,
which has the Accusative.
446. 06s. 2. All
Prepositions
were
originally
adverbs
; many
of them are still used as such in
poetry,
and a few even in
prose
: iff
pi,
beyond, very; p.era,
later;
wpos,
in addition. On account of this
origin,
their
position
in Homer is
very
free
; they may
be
separated
from their
verb,
as well as from their substantive : Horn, ev S' avros
fSvo-fTo
vupoira ^aX/toi/,
and lie
himself put
on the
glittering
"brass
;
dft<f)\
fie
Barren &fj.ois
dicrarovrai,
and the manes wave around tl/e
thouldcrs. On the
anastrophe
in
placing
the
Prepositions behind,
see 90. In
prose only irepi
is sometimes thus used.
447. With
regard
to the cases
joined
with
Preposi-
tions,
the
following general
rules are to be noticed :
1. The Accusative with
Prepositions expresses
the
object upon
which,
over
which,
toivards which an action
extends
(
395,
405),
and with
many Prepositions
the
goal
of an action itself
( 406).
2. The Genitive
frequently
denotes the
place from
which an action
proceeds ( 425),
often also a moral
relation
(
408,
etc.),
whilst it
depends
on other Pre-
positions
in the same
way
as on the adverbs mentioned
in 415.
3. The Dative denotes a more external connexion
(
435,
442).
2 JlJ PREPOSITIONS WITH Till;
ACCrsATIYK.
$
!>.
r;
KXERAL VlEW OF THE PREPOSITIONS.
448. I.
Prepositions
which can have
only
ont
one:
A)
the Accusative:
et?,
&><?.
B)
the Genitive :
dtrri, O.TTO,
IK
(t ), 77/30
avf
v,
o^pt, /ie%pt, fjiera^v,
evexa,
irXrjv.
C)
the Dative :
eV,
<rw/
(w).
1 1.
Prepositions
which can have wo cases :
A)
the Genitive and Accusative :
Sid, /card,
vrrep.
B)
the Dative and Accusative : dvd.
ril.
Prepositions
which can have all the <$r0
oblique
cases :
ap^i,
eVt,
/xera, irapd, irepi, irpos,
VTTO.
I. PREPOSITIONS WHICH CAN HAVE ONLY ONE CASE.
449.
A) Prepositions
with the Accusative
1.
ei9
or
e?
(Lat.
in,
c,
Accus.,
and
inter),
to, into,
points
out the
goal
towards which the action is directed.
The
opposite
is
e,
out.
et?
is used :
a) of place
: ol
AaKeSaipovioi
eise/3a\ov
ei?
rrjv
'A-r-
riKijv,
the Lacedaemonians invaded Attica
;
et?
SiKao-rijpiov
elsievai,
to come into court
; \eyeiv
et?
TO
TfkfjQos,
to
speak
to the
multitude;
els
avSpas eyypdfaiv,
to enroll
among
men.
Comp.
eV, 456,
a.
b) of
time :
ei?
TTJV
vcrrepaiav,
in diem
proximum, for
the next
day
;
et?
ecnrtpav,
towards
evening
;
poet,
eros
ei? ero9,
year by year
;
et?
/caipov,
for
the
right
time.
c) of
measure and number: et'<
Sia/coo-iou?,
up
to two
hundred;
et?
Svvapiv, up
to one's
power,
as much as is in
one's
power.
d) of purpose
:
ypr\aiiLov
et<?
rov
TroXe/ioi/, useful for
the war
;
efc
roSe
jjico/j,ev, for
that we have come.
In
compounds
it is to be translated
by
into, in,
to.
\
450. 2.
o>v
(comp.
b'31),
to,
only
of
persona:
453. PREPOSITIONS WTTH THE GENITIVE. 257
Horn, alel rov
opotov dyei
0eo9 o>9
rov
op.oiov,
God
jdways brings
like to like.
451.
B) Prepositions
with the Genitive.
1. ami
(comp.
Horn,
aura,
avrrjv,
dvrifcpv), originally
opposite
to
(coinp. ev-avrl-os),
then instead
of, for:
Horn, dvrl
fcatnyviJTOv gelvos
&
//cerT/s
re
reVv/crat,
a
stranger
and a
suppliant
is instead
of
a brother
(like
a
Vrother)
;
dvrl
di^rov crcofiaTOS
dOdvarov 86j*av
d\\d^a-
rOai,
to
exchange
a mortal
body for
immortal
glory.
In
compounds
it
signifies against.
452. 2. d-jro
(Lat.
ab, a,
Engl. off), from,
in the
sense of
separation,
severance,
and
origin
:
a) of place
: Horn.
d<f)
'LTTTT^V aXro
^apa^e,
he
sprang
off
the chariot to the
ground.
b) of
time :
from,
since : air
etceivrjs T???
?;/iepa9, from
that
day.
c) of
cause :
by, from, through
:
avrovofw^
UTTO
TT}?
<-ip-qvr}<i, independent through
the
peace.
Phrases : diro
CTKOTTOV,
far from
the
goal
;
diro
7i/w/i,r;?,
contrary
to
expectation
;
airo
c-ro/iaro? \eyeiv,
to
speak
from memory;
ol atro
crtcrjvrjc;,
those
of
tfte
stage,
the
actors.
In
compounds
it
signifies from, off, away.
453. 3.
e'/c,
before vowels e'
(Lat.
ex,
e),
out
of
(opposed
to
a'?),
denotes removal from within or from
amongst
:
a) of place
: etc
^Trdprr]^ ^ei/yet,
he ts banished out
of
Sparta.
b) of
time : e/c
TralScDv,
from boyhood
(a pueris).
c) of origin:
e/c
Trarpo? 'Xpwa-Tov eyevero,
Jte
sprang
from
a brave
father;
seldom with a Passive verb:
tL^aaOai
e/c
TWOS,
to be honoured
by any
one.
d)
close connection and
conformity
with :
after,
secundum :
\oyov
e'/c
\6yov Xeyew,
to deliver
speech after
8
2.38
PREPOSITIONS WITH THE DATIVE. 454.
gpeech
;
etc r&v
ouoXoyovpevwv, according
to tJie
agree-
ment
(Lftt. secundum).
Phrases: e'/c
Seta9,
on the
right;
e
i<rov,
equally;
&i)(rat, rcpefjAcrat,
T* etc
rwo9,
to
fasten,
to
Jtang
one
thing
o another
(Lat. pendere
ex,
ab
aliqua re).
In
compounds
:
out,
away.
454. 4.
Trpo (Lat. pro}, for, before,
instead.
a) of place, before
:
Trpb Qvp&v,
before
the door
b) of
time :
Trpb
rf)s
fJM^r^,
before
the battle.
c) of preference: Trpb
TOVTUV reBvdvat
fj,a\\ov
av
eXoiro,
lie would choose death
before
this,
i.
e.,
rather than
this.
d) for,
a rare use :
Trpo
Tra&wv
/ia^ecr&u,
to
fyht
for
the children.
Phrase :
Trpb
TTO\\OV Troielo-Oai
(c),
to
prefer greatly.
In
compounds
:
before, forth, beforehand, forwards.
455. The
quasi-Prepositions
:
5.
avev,
without
(poet. %&>/H9, S/^a, arep).
6.
a^pt, /ie^pi,
until.
7.
/lera^u,
between.
8.
eve/ca,
also
eveKev,
e'iveica
(poet. ovveKa), for
tJie
gake
of
an
object
to be attained
(Lat. causa)
:
TT}?
tryie/a?
ei/e/ca
^caf^eda rq> larpw,
we
employ
a
physician
for
the sake
of
health.
(Comp.
Sta with Ace.
458,
B.)
9.
Tr\i]v,
besides
(praeter).
Obs.
TT\TIV
is often used
quite adverbially
without
governing
a
case :
poet,
owe
2p' 'A^aioly ai>8pts
da\
ir\rjv
oftf
;
have then the
Achaeans no men but this t It
might
be
n\i]v roCSe,
besidct
tftisf
456.
C) Prepositions
with tJie
Dative.
1. eV
(Horn,
cvl, ev,
Lat.
in,
c. Ablat. and
inter),
in,
answers to the
question
where ?
a) of place:
ev
'A0/;i;ai<?,
in
Athens;
also
among
(inter)
: ev
rourot?,
among
them
;
ev
^nfj^iy
\eyeiv,
to
efore
tlie
people (coinp.
44
(
J,
a).
453. PHEPOSITIONS
WITH THE GEN. AND ACC. 259
b) of
time : eV TOVTW ra>
eret,
in that
year.
c)
a moral relation
: with : ev TK>
6eq>
TO
TT}?
^ta-^7/?
Te'\o9,
the result
of
the battle rests with God.
Phrases :
t]
eV
MapaOwvt fta%^,
the battle at Mara-
thon
;
eV Tot9
7r/3<yT09, first by far
;
ev
icatpaj,
at the
right
time
;
ev
Trpo^Otj/c^ /jiepet,
in addition
;
ev
x P
a^
utfeWt,
to
put
into the hands
(comp.
Lat. in mensa
ponere).
In
compounds:
in, into,
on. The accented Vi=evea-Ti
signifies,
it is
in,
it
exists,
it is
possible.
457. 2. crvv or
fuv
(Lat. cuni),
with,
denotes com-
panionship (opposed
to
dvev,
comp. /iera
with Gen.
464,
B.)
: avv
'Adrjvy
eviK^ev,
he
conquered
with
(the
help of]
Athene
;
arvv
VO/JLO),
in accordance with the law
(opposed
to
irapa
with Ace.
465, C,
b}.
In
compounds
:
with,
together.
II. PREPOSITIONS WHICH CAN HAVE TWO CASES.
The Genitive and Accusative.
Obs.
Here,
as
everywhere
in what
follows,
that use of a
Prepo-
sition is
placed
first in which its
original meaning
is most
manifest.
458. 1. Sid
(akin
to
Suo,
as between is to two
[twain]),
originally
between,
then
through.
A)
with the Genitive :
a) of space
: most
frequently through
(Lat. per)
:
Horn. Bia
p.tv
ao"7rt'So9
rj\.0e
(fraewris o/3pi/j,ov
through
the
glittering
shield
pierced
the
mighty
lance.
b)
instrumental:
by
or with: Sea TWV
o(f>da\fj,a)v
opwpev, by (by
means
of)
the
eyes
we see
(comp.
438).
c) of space
and time :
among (inter), during,
in : Bca
fteipwv x
eiv
'>
t have in hand
;
Sta
VVKTOS, during
night
;
Bta
0tXia9
levai,
to be on
friendly
terms.
Phrases : Bia
a-Topcnos
e^etj/,
to have in t/ie
mouth,
to
260 PREPOSITIONS WITH THE GEN. AND
ACC. 45t>.
be
talking
about;
Bi
ovSo/o?
Troieurdai,
to deem a%
nothing
;
Sia
paicpov, after
a
long interval,
interruption.
B)
with the Accusative :
a) of space
and time almost
exclusively
in the
poets
:
through, during
: Horn. Sta
Sahara, through
the roorr*s
;
Sia
vvicra,
during night.
b) usually
causal: on account
of
(the operating
cause)
(romp.
HvsKa, 455,
8)
: 8ia
TTJV
vocrov
xpca/jieBa
rra
iarpw,
we
employ
the
physician
on account
of
the illness.
Phrases :
auro<?
Si
kavrov,
by himself
;
Sid ri
;
why
?
In
compounds
Sid is
through,
or denotes
separatum
like Lat. dis- :
&ia<f>epa)=diff'erre,
Siatpeo),
Isever.
459. 2. Kara
(comp.
Adv.
Kara,
down), originally
downwards,
down
(the opposite
to
avd).
A)
with the Genitive :
a) of space:
down
from:
Horn.
/3rj
8e tear"
QvXvfjLTriio
>capr)v(i)v,
he came down
from
the
heights of Olympus
;
It-low
(sub)
: TO, Kara,
7^9, things
belotv the earth.
b) tropically
:
about,
against
:
Xeyeti;
Kara
TWOS,
to
speak
about,
against
one.
Phrases: TTO\LV /car'
aitpas
ekelv,
to
capture
a
city
completely
;
Kara
vwrov,
behind.
B)
with the Accusative it denotes in its most
general
sense extension
over,
relation
to,
direction towards some-
thing
:
a) of place
: Kara
poov,
down a stream
;
Kara
^rt
v
Kal
6d\a<r<rav,
by
land and
sea;
Hoin.
Zeu?
e/3^
Kara
Balra,
Zeus went to the
feast.
b) of
time : Kar eKelvov rov
yjpovov,
at that time
;
01 naff
ij/^a?,
our
contemporaries.
c) of
other relations : Kara rovrov rov
rpbrrov,
in
this
way;
Kara
Trdvra,
in
every respect;
Kara
&vva/j.iv,
according
to
ability,
as much as
possible;
Kara rovs
voftovs,
in accordance with the laws
;
Kar
e'/ie,
as
regards
me;
Kara
Hiv&apov aptcrrov vSwp, according
to Pindar
water is best.
461.
PREPOSITIONS WITH THE DAT. AND AGO. 2G1
d)
distributive in divisions : Horn. Kara
<f>v\a, by
tribes
l
Kara
rpet?,
by
threes
;
icaO*
r/fjuepav, daily.
In
compounds:
down, downwards,
against,
towards,
very
often untranslateable.
4GO. 3.
V7rep,
Horn, also
vireip (Lat. super),
radical
meaning
over.
A)
with the G-enitive :
a) of space
: 6
ijXios vrcep r/u&v
Tropeverai,
the sun
passes
over us.
b)
tropically, for
:
fid^ecrdat virep
TWOS,
to
fight for
any
one
(originally
over,
e.
g.
over a
corpse)
: o
vrrep
rfjs
rrarplSos
KivSvvos,
the
danger for
one's
country
;
instead
of
:
670) vjrep
croO
diroKpivov/jiat,,
I will answer instead
of you.
B)
with the Accusative :
oi'i'r,
beyond
of
space
and measure: Horn,
inrep
OV^M
,
he went over or
beyond
the
threshold;
vrrep
,
beyond (his) poiver.
In
compounds
:
over,
away
over, excessively, for.
With the Dative and Accusative.
461. 4. avd
(comp.
adv.
avw,
above), originally upon,
up (opposed
to
Kara).
A)
with the Dative
only poet,
on the
top of, upon
:
Horn,
xpvcrey
dva
aK.r\rrrpw,
on the,
top of
a
golden staff.
B)
with the Accusative avd denotes the direction
upwards, up
towards
something,
then
spreading
out
over
something (comp. Kara).
a) of space
: dva
poov, up
the stream
;
ova rracrav
rrjv
ytjv,
over the whole
earth,
over the whole
country.
b) of
time : dva rraaav
rrjv
rjftepav, per
totum diem.
c) tropically
: dva
\6yov,
in accordance with.
d)
distributive: dva
rerrapas,
by fours (four
men
deep, comp.
Kara, 459,
d).
Phrase : dva
crro/j-a
e^etv,
to have in the
mouth,
to be
talking
about
(comp. Sid).
In
compounds
:
up, upwards, again,
back.
2<"'2 PREPOSITIONS WHICH CAN HAVE THREE CASES. -162.
III. PREPOSITIONS WHICH CAN HAVE THREE CASES.
OZw. The
original meaning
is
usually
moat manifest in connexion
with the Dative.
462. 1.
ap$i (Lat.
ami-,
German
urn,
akin to
>, both),
radical
meaning
around
(i.
e. on both
sidrs,
comp. Trept).
A)
with the Dative :
only poet.
: Horn.
ISpoMrei reXa/icoj/
d/j,<f>l
crr/;0eo-cri,
th?.
belt around the breast will sweat
;
d/i</>i (j>o(3y, from fear.
B)
with the Genitive:
Horn,
dfjifii (f>i\oTr)To<;
deiSeiv,
to
sing
about love.
C)
with the Accusative :
of place,
time, measure,
occupation: d/j,(f)l
ra
opia,
about
the boundaries
;
a/x</>l
TOVTOV TOV
yjpovov,
about this time
;
dfj,<f>l
TO,
e^jJKovra,
circiter
sexaginta
;
d/i<l
StlTrvov
Troveiv,
to be
occupied
about a meal.
Phrase: ol
apfyl
nva,
any
one with his
attendants;
hence even : ol
d/x<!
TlXdrwva,
Plato and his
followers.
In
compounds
:
about, around,
on two
sides,
doubly.
463. 2.
eVt,
radical
meaning, upon,
on,
on tlie
surface, by.
A)
with the Dative :
a) of space:
Horn. eVt
^Oovl
alrov
ISoi/re?, eating
bread on earth
;
eVi
rfj 6a\dcra">j
olKeiv,
to dwell
by
the sea.
b) of
time : eVt
rourot?,
thereupon.
c) of
an ethical relation : eVt rot?
Trpdy^aa-Lv
elvai,
te>
preside
over the business
;
ejrl
rot?
TroXeyatot?
elvat,
to be
in the
power of
the
enemy
;
eVt TIVI
^aipetv,
to
rejoice
at
a
thing
;
especially
also of
purpose
: eVt ?raiSe/a rovro
e/ia^e?, you
learnt this
for
education
;
and of condition :
eTrl ro/cot?
Savei^eiv,
to lend on
interest;
eVt
roury,
on
this condition.
B)
with the Genitive :
a) of space,
in answer to the
question
where :
-!uo.
rilErOSITlONS WHICH CAN HAVE THREE CASES. 263
vpov(paivTo
e<'
apparos, Cyrus appeared
on a chariot
;
and to the
question
tvhither : eVt
"ZdjAov
ir\elv,
to sail to
/Samos.
(Comp.
419,
c.)
b) of
time: eVt
Kpoia-ov
ap^ovro^,
in the
reign of
Croesus
;
also in
many
connections :
near,
by.
C)
with the Accusative :
on,
on-to:
avaftaiveiv
e$>
"TTTTOV,
to mount
(on-to)
a
horse
;
errl
Sefyd,
on the
right.
Phrases:
to?
eVt TO
iro\v,
for
the most
part;
TO eV
efie, for my part.
In
compounds
:
on, at,
by,
in
addition, be-,
very
often
untranslateable.
464. 3.
/jLerd (German mit),
radical
meaning,
in the
midst.
A)
with the Dative :
in
poet, only
:
amidst,
among (inter)
: Horn.
"E/cropa,
o<?
#eo?
(TK
per
dvBpda-i,
Hector,
who was a
god among
men.
B)
with the Genitive :
with,
in the sense of
participation
with
(comp.
<rvv,
457)
:
fiera
rtov
^vim.aywv
tcivSvvevetv,
to
fight
with
(in
alliance
with)
the allies
;
^era
SaKpvwv,
with tears.
C)
with the Accusative :
a)
into the
midst,
among
:
poet.
: Horn, low
ytiera
edvos
eratpwv, going among
the crowd
of companions.
b) usually after:
Horn,
ot^oi/rat
//.era
SCITTVOV,
they
go after (for)
a
meal;
pera.
TOV
Tro\ep,ov, after
the
Peloponnesian
war.
c)
seldom in
(as
with the
Dative)
:
fiera
to have in hand
(comp. Sta)
;
ped' rj/j,epav,
interdiu.
In
compounds
:
with,
after,
trans-
(jAeraTidevai,,
tram-
pose).
465. 4.
jrapd (Horn. Trap, irapai\
radical
meaning,
beside,
near.
A)
with the Dative :
at or near: Horn,
irapa
vrjval
Kopwvttn
^n^vd^eiv,
to
264 PREPOSITIONS WIIIC1I CAN HAVE THREE CASES. 406.
linger
near tJie curved
ships
;
real
Trap
1
e/W
-u<?
tWiV,
/ also have some
experience (with
me also
is,
B)
with the Genitive :
a) from,
with verbs of
motion,
and such as denote
receiving
either
bodily
or
mentally:
Horn, a-jrovoa-relv
irapa
vijSiv,
to return
from
the
ships
;
\a/j,/3dvei,v,
vciv
jrapd
TWOS,
to
receive,
learn
from
some one.
b) by, very
rare,
and
only poet.
: vaieT&v
Trap
'
vov
peidptav, dwelling by
the waters
of
the Ismenw.
C)
with the Accusative :
a)
to: Horn. ro> S'
aim?
ITIJV
irapa
vr/as, they
went
again
to the
ships.
b) along,
near
by
:
of place
: Horn,
Trapa
Qlva
0a\d(rcrv)<;, along
the sea
beach.
of
time:
during
:
Trap*
o\ov TOV
@lov,per
totam
vitam,
during
the whole
of life
;
compared
with : Set
TO?
7rpd^et<f Trap
aXX^Xa?
rtdevat,
you
must
put
the acts
by
the side
of (or compare with)
one
another;
with the
comparative,
^el^ov
TI
Trapa
TOVTO,
something greater
than this
;
on account
of (conip. propter,
near,
and on account
of)
:
irapa
rrjv
r)fj,Tepav dfteXeiav
4>/Xt7r7ro5
av^erai,
on
account
of
our
neglect Philip
becomes
great.
Taken
negatively
: besides :
e^o^iv
TI
Trapa
Tavra
a\\o
\eyeiv,
we have
something
else to
say
besides this
;
contrary
to
(opposed
to /cara with the
Ace.)
:
Trapa
TOV
vofiov, contrary
to the
law,
properly past
the
law,
by
evading
the law.
Phrases :
Trapa fjiiicpov,
nearly
;
Trap
ovBev
TroieiaOai,
to deem as
nothing.
In
compounds
:
near, at,
past, beyond,
over
(rrapa-
,
overstep).
466. 5.
irepi (Horn.
adv.
irepl, very
=
Lat.
per
in
per-magnus),
radical
meaning
around
(from above),
comp.
4C7. PREPOSITIONS
WHICH CAN HAVE THREE OASES. 26*5
A)
with the Dative :
round, around, near,
for:
Horn,
Trepl ^icaif/ai TrvXyo-i,
round the Skaean
gate; Trepl
rot?
(piX-rdroi^
Kv(3eveiv,
to
gamble for
what is dearest.
Horn.
Trepl /cfipi,
at heart
;
Trepl <po{3(p, from fear.
B)
with the Genitive :
a) mostly
iii a
figurative
sense, about,
Lat. de: riva
o%av e^et? Trepl
rovrwv
;
what
opinion
have
you
about
this ?
j3ov\evovrai irepl
rov
Tro\,efj,ov, they
consult about
the war.
b)
in Horn,
over,
above:
Trepl
Trdvrayv
e^evat
a\\a>v,
to be above all
others;
hence the
prose phrases: Trepl
TTO\\OV
TToieurdai,
to
place
above
much,
i. e. estimate
highly; Trepl
ovSevbs
TroielcrOai,
place
above
nothing,
i.e.
estimate at
nothing
at all.
C)
with the Accusative :
almost the same as
ap,$L ( 462)
:
Trepl Kfyvmov
(around,
i. e.
everywhere,
in
Egypt),
about the
country
of
Egypt
;
figuratively
: in
regard to, about,
concern-
ing
:
Trepl <f>i\o(To<j)iav
a-Trov&dfav,
to be zealous about
philosophy.
In
compounds (with adjectives
=
Lat.
per-)
:
round,
round
about, besides,
over.
467. 6.
Trpo? (Horn, irpori,
TTOT/),
akin to
trpo,
radical
meaning
at,
to
(towards
the
front), comp. Trapd.
A)
with the Dative :
a)
at,
near: 6
K0po9
fy
Trpo?
Ba/3iAom, Cyrus
wan
near
Babylon.
b)
on,
to : Horn. TTOTI Se
cr/c^Trrpoi/
ySaXe 701177,
he
threw the
staff"
on the
ground;
TOV vovv
Trpose^eTe irpo\
Toi/rct),
give your
mind to this.
c)
besides,
in addition to:
Trpo?
TOVTOIS,
besides
this;
7rpo<?
rot?
aXXot?,
besides the rest.
B)
with the Genitive :
a)
with,
in the sense of
community
: Horn,
vrpo? yap
A
to?
elcntf
aTravre?
%eivoi
re
TTTfo^oi
re,
with
(protected
2GC PREPOSITIONS
-WHICH
CAN HAVE THREE
CASES.
4G8.
by)
Zeus are all
strangers
and tJie
poor; 77/369
elvai,
to be with
(on
the side
of) any
one;
77/369 larpov
ecrrtv,
it is with
(belongs to)
a
physician,
medici
est;
717369
Tti/09
\eyeiv,
to
speak for (in
behalf
of) any
one;
7T/3o<?
Oeojv,
with
(in presence
of,
by)
tJie
gods, per
decs,
form of an oath.
b)
towards
(versus)
:
777309
fj&oyfjtfiptas,
towards tJte
South,
cornp. 77/369
with Ace.
c) from, by (comp. irapd
with
Gen.)
:
6'X/3o9
77/369
Otwv,
blessing from
the
gods;
sometimes with Passive
verbs :
77/369
Ttw>9
<J)i\ia6ai,
to be loved
by
some one.
C)
with the Accusative :
a)
to :
ep%ovrai
777309
i?/xa9
7rpecry9et9,
ambassadors
come to us
;
777309
rov
Srjfj,ov
dyopeveiv,
to
speaJc
to the
people.
b)
towards,
against (versus,
adversus,
ergo)
:
77/369
Roppav,
towards the North
(comp. 77/369
with
Gen.)
;
SiKa^crdat
77/369
nva,
to
Center
an action
against any
one
;
77to-rw9
Siaiceia-dat,
77/369
rtva,
to be
faithfully
dis-
vosed towards some
one;
77/309
/SacrtXea
cnrovBas 770tei-
adat,
to make a
treaty
towards
(with)
the
king.
c)
in
regard
to,
according
to :
Stafapeiv
77/309
to
differ
in
regard
to
virtue;
77/309
TO,
icaXXta-ra
inra^xovrwv
Set rn. XoJTra
vrpdrrew,
we
ought
to
arrange
the
futurt according
to the best
of
tJie
present
means
;
77/369
ravra,
according
to this.
Phrases:
77/309
ffiovrjv, according
to
pleasure;
77/309
'Xapiv,
in
favour of
;
77/309
ftLav,
by force;
ovSev
77/30?
e/ite, nothing
to me.
In
compounds
:
to,
in
addition, near,
together
with.
468. 7. U77o
(Horn,
also
u77cu,
Lat.
sub),
radical
meaning
under,
below.
A)
with the Dative :
under: Horn. TWI/ 770 7700-0-1
/iteya
cneva-^L^ero
<yaui,
under their
feet
the earth
loudly groaned
;
VTT
'Adnvaiois
emu,
to be under
(subject to)
the
Athenians;
poet.
470. THE PRONOUNS.
267
Xeprlv v</>' r)fj,Teprja-iv
aXoucra,
(Troy) conquered
under
(by)
our hands.
B)
with the Genitive :
a)
under,
in
space
: VTTO
7779,
under the earth
;
in the
sense of
dependency
: VTT
avk^rwv
xppevew,
to dance
under
(the guidance of) flute-players
;
hence
b) by,
with Passives and verbs of Passive
meaning:
TroXi?
eaX&j VTTO TWV
'lX\,rfva>v,
the
city
teas taken
by
Jie Hellenes
;
vroXXot cnridavov VTTO TWV
ftapftdpwv, many
were killed
by
the barbarians.
c) from,
because
of:
VTTO
jijpox;
a<?6evr]<s ?]v,
he was
weak
from
old
age.
C)
with the Accusative :
a)
under: Horn,
w?
elirwv VTTO TTOVTOV l&vcreTo
Kvpai-
vovra,
having
thus
spoken,
he dived under the
billowy
sea;
VTTO TO
opos
wvXi^ovro, they spent
the
night
under
(at
the foot
of)
the mountain.
b) of
time : towards
(Lat. sub)
: VTTO
VVKTO,,
towards
night;
virb
TTJV
vv/cra,
during
the
night.
In
compounds
:
under,
down
under,
gradually, secretly,
often untranslateable.
CHAP. XVIII. THE PRONOUNS.
469. 1. The Nominative of the Personal Pronouns
is
used,
as in
Latin,
only
when the
person
is to be mep
tioned with
special emphasis:
/col av
6-^ret
avrov,
tu
quoque
eum
videbis,
i. e. ov
JAOVOV l<ya)
(not
merely I).
470. 2. The
place
of the Possessive Pronoun is
frequently supplied by
the article
( 373).
On the
article with the Possessive
Pronoun,
388.
a)
Instead of the Possessive Pronoun the Greek likes
to use the Genitive of 'the
corresponding
Personal Pro-
noun. Such a
Genitive,
when the substantive to which
it
belongs
has the
article,
usually
stands either
before
2GS TIIE REFLEXIVE PRONOUN. 471.
the article or
after
the substantive : o-oO 6
mo?
or
o
vlo<j
crov,
thy
son,
not 6 aov
vio<;.
b)
As the Possessive Pronoun
approaches very
near
to a
possessive
Genitive
(
408,
2),
it
may
be
qualified
by
a Genitive
:
rap.a Svo-rrfvov icafcd,
my
ills,
the
unfortu-
nate one's
\rnea
miseri
mala].
471. 3. The
Reflexive
Pronoun refers either to the
subject
of the clause in which it occurs : w
ayade, ^
ajvoei
creavrov,
good friend,
be not
ignorant of thyself
;
or,
in
dependent
clauses,
it refers back to the
subject
of the
leading
clause :
eisievat
e/ceXevaev,
el
/ie'XXot?
<ruv eain-w
eWXeiv,
he bade
you enter,
if you
were
going
to sail
away
with him
(secum).
Obs.
a)
Instead of the Reflexive Pronoun the usual Personal
Pronouns also
may
be
employed
: &OKU>
p.oi
OVK
dnapda-Ktvos
eirat,
/ think
myself
not to be
unprepared.
Obs.
b)
The
simple
Pronoun of the third
person,
ov,
ol, ?, &c.,
is
commonly
used
reflexively by
the Attic
writers,
but in
Horn, it
is
exactly
like the
English,
of
him,
to
him, him,
&c.
(like
the
Attic
CLVTOV, avT<5, avrov, &C.,
according
to
474)
:
X/ytrai
'ATTo'XXcoi'
eK.8(1pai Mapcrvav (piovrd
ol
ncpl acxpias,
dicitur
Apollo Marsyae
cutem detraxisse de arte secum certanti
;
Horn,
avro/iaroy
fit ot
^X^e Mtve'Xaov,
sponte
sua ad eum venit
Menelaus.
Obs.
c)
The Reflexive of the third
person
sometimes
supplies
the
place
of that of the first and second : 5i
rjpus dt>fpt<r6ai
(avrovs,
we must ask ourselves
;
in like manner the Possessive
or
sometimes stands for the Possessive of the first two
persons
:
Horn, ov
yap eywye
r/s yairjs 8wa/j.at yXvKfpurfpov
aXXo
iSe'a^at,
for
I can see
nothing
sweeter than
my
own
country.
472. The
following
are used as Possessives
of
the
Reflexive
Pronouns :
a)
the Genitives of the Reflexive
Pronouns,
especially
in the
Singular
:
efj-avrov,
creavrov,
eavrov. When the
substantive to which
they
are
joined
has the
article,
the
Genitives stand between the article and the substan-
tive :
Zei>?
rrjv 'A6r)vdv
fyvcrev
e/c
rfjs
eavrov
K(j)a\f}<;,
Zeus
produced
Athene out
of
his own head.
b)
the Possessives of the Personal
Pronouns,
espe-
I
475.
DEMONSTRATIVE AND JNTERROG.
PRONOUNS. 209
cially
in the
plural
:
exclusively
Reflexive.
c)
the Possess! ves in connexion with the Genitives of
auro9
:
77/ierepo9
avrwv,
&C.
473. The
Reflexive
Pronoun in the Plural is also
used instead of the
Reciprocal
Pronoun
a\\ij\cav
:
SieXeyofieOa r]p2v
avTols,
we conversed with one
another
(among ourselves).
474. On
auT09,
self,
and 6
avros,
the
same,
see
389.
auro?
in the
oblique
cases,
like the Lat.
is, ea, id,
is
used as a Personal Pronoun
referring
to some
person
or
thing
mentioned before : eSeovro avrov
TrapajAeivai,
they
wanted him to remain.
The Genitive
avrov,
779,
wv,
like the Lat.
ejus, eorum,
is the
Engl.
his, her, their,
when it does not refer to the
subject.
Its
position
is that
pointed
out in
470,
a :
o
f/09
avrov or avrov o
vi6?,JUiu8 ejus.
Still the Geni-
tive of
atrro9
often
supplies
the
place
of the
Reflexive of
the third
person.
475. Of the Demonstrative
Pronouns,
OVTOS
points
more to what
precedes
and is
already
known;
oSe to
what follows and has not
yet
been named
;
so likewise
are
distinguished
roiovros,
of
such
quality; rocrovros,
so
great;
rr)\tKovro<;,
so old from
rotate, rocrosSe,
Tr)\i>c6sSe.
On the article with these
Pronouns,
389.
On the demonstrative
uses of
09, 213,
Obs.
4756. The
Interrogative
Pronouns mentioned in
216 :
T/9,
7r6re/jo9,
TTOIOS, &c.,
are used
exclusively
in direct
questions.
In indirect ones the
compound
Relatives
oo-m,
oTrorepos,
0770109, &c.,
are
employed.
The
former, however,
are often used in indirect
ques-
tions,
though
the latter never in a direct one :
rt9
el
;
who are
you
% dire
pot,
ocm9
el or
rt9
et,
tell me who
you
are.
On the
Attraction with Relative
Pronouns,
597-G03
270 TIIE ACTIVE VOICE. 470.
CIIAP. XIX. THE VOICES OF THE
VERB,
476. i. The Active Voice.
1. The Active voice not
unfrequently
has an intnm
sitive as well as a transitive
meaning.
Thus eXavvetv
means to drive and to ride
;
e-^eiv,
to
have, hold,
and to be
in a condition
(/caXw?
e^et,
bene se
habet)
;
trpdrreLv,
to
do,
and to be
(ev
irpdrrw,
I am
doing well)
; BrjXovv,
to make
and to become manifest.
In some verbs different tenses are
assigned
to the different mean-
ings
: see
above, 329,
330.
2.
Simple
verbs which are transitive often become
intransitive when
compounded:
J3d\\eiv,
to throw
fjt,ra^d\\iv,
to
change;
es/3d\\iv
and
efj,(3d\\eiv,
to
fall
into,
issue
(of rivers)
; Si&ovai,
to
give
evStbovai,
to
give
in
; eTTiStbovai,
to
grow
; KOTTTCIV,
to cut
;
Trpo/coTrretv,
proficere,
make
progress; $>epeiv,
to
bear;
8ia<f>epeiv,
differre,
to
differ
or be
distinguished.
3. The Active often denotes an action which the
subject accomplishes
not
immediately
bat
mediately,
that
is,
causes or allows to be done
by
others: 6
KO/ao?
KareKavae TO,
^aai\eia,
Cyrus
had the
royal
castle burnt
doivn. This is called the Causative use.
477. 2. The Middle Voice.
Its
primary meaning
is
reflexive,
i. e. the action of the
verb in the Middle refers back to the
subject
from
which it issues.
The
Middle,
in the first
place, may
be either transitive
or
intransitive;
it is transitive when it can have an
object
in the Accusative :
TrpdrTo^iat
^p?;/xara,
I
gain
for myself money
;
intransitive when it is
incapable
of
having
such an
object
:
a-Tre^o/iat,
/ restrain
myself.
The
Middle,
further,
can
vary
much in its mode of
referring
back to the
subject.
We
distinguish
:
480. THE MIDDLE VOICE. 271
478. l. The Direct
Middle,
in which the
subject
is at the same time the direct
object
of the verb:
\ovofj,ai,
I wash
myself; rpeTrofjiai,
I turn
myself
; ein^eiKvvfji.ai,
I show
myself
;
tcrra/Mii,
I
place
myself
; KaXv-Trroftai,
I hide
myself.
This kind of Middle
is the rarest. The Active with the reflexive
pronoun
in the Accusative is more
generally
used to
express
direct Reflexion.
Obs.
Through,
the direct Middle several middle verts have
become intransitive or
passive
:
irava>,
I cause to
stop
;
iravop.cu,
I
stop myself,
cease
; <cu'i/a>,
I shew
;
<atz>o/zai,
/ shew
myself,
appear
;
MJ/U,
I send
;
tepu,
I send
myself, hurry.
479. 2. The
Indirect,
or Dative-like Middle
(431),
in which the
subject
is but
indirectly
affected
by
the
action. Here the action takes
place for
or in the
interest of the
subject,
so that in other
languages
the
Dative
may generally
be used to denote the reflex
influence:
-jroplfo,
I
provide
;
77-0/3
tfo/uu,
I
provide for
myself,
e.
g. ^p^/iara,
money
;
dyofiai yvvaiKa,
I take a
wife
to
myself
;
piadovpai a-rpcmdnas,
Ihire soldiers
for
myself (but
fjLicrdovv,
hire
out, p^iadovv
eavrov,
to hire
one's
self out)
; ^eraTre/zTro/iiai
nva,
2 send
for
some one
;
Horn, ai/ro?
e'c^eX/cerat avbpa crt'S^po?,
the iron
itself
draws a man to it. Hence the Athenian
says
:
6
0TTj<; ridden vbjjiovs,
the
lawgiver gives
laws,
but o
Tide-rat
i/6/ioi;9,
tJie
people gives
laws to
itself.
Q1)S- The interest of the
subject
sometimes consists in an
object
being
removed
from
its reach :
ap.vvo[j.ai
nivSwov,
I ward
off
danger from
me
;
Trpoitfial
riva,
I send some one
away from
me
;
urro&oa-Qai vavv
(to give away for
one's
interest),
to Sftt a
ship. (Comp. 324, 7).
480. 3. The
Subjective
or ethical Middle.
This denotes that an action
originates
not
only
exter-
nally,
but also
internally
from the
subject,
i. e. from ita
means,
power,
or
disposition: Trape-^etv,
to
furnish;
Trape%eadai,
to
furnish from
one's own
means;
272
THE MIDDLE VOICE. 481.
elprjvrjv,
to make
peace;
-jroieleOai
elpqvrjv,
to strive to
make
peace
;
\a^dveiv
n,
to take
something
;
\a/j,ftd-
vea-dal
TU-O?,
to
lay
hold
of something; a-KOTreiv,
to
look at
;
atco-ireta-dat,
to
reflect.
Obs. The
subjective
Miildle is formed also from intransitive
verbs
;
it then
expresses
a state more
intensively
than the
active :
iroXirfixtv,
to be a citizen
;
irdXiTfvftrdat,
to act as u
citizen
; fiovXtvfiv,
to
give
advice
;
ftovXtvtadai,
to deliberate
with one's
self.
481. 4. The Causative Middle.
As the Causative
Active
(
476,
8) expresses
an
action
only
occasioned
by
the
subject,
so the Middle is
often used to denote that the
subject
has an action done
for or on itself : o
ira-rr^p
SiSdcrKerai, rbv
viov,
the
father
has his son
instructed;
irapaTiOe^ai,
Seirrvov,
I have a
meal
placed
before
me
;
8iKdo/j,ai,
I have
judgment pro-
nounced
for
me
; aTrore/jLvofiat
ra<>
^elpa^,
I have
my
hands cut
off.
4S1J. As
examples
the
following
more
important
rerbs
may
be
adduced,
whose
meaning
in the Middle
essentially
differs in various
ways
from that of the
Active :
apx,
I KM
fast,
apxpfiai,
I
begin
;
6
p^rwp
ypdfai
vofiov,
the orator
proposes (writes down)
a law
;
6
/caTrjyopos 7pa<erat
rov
aSifcrja-avra,
the accuser
prose-
cutes
(has
the name written
down)
the
wrong
doer
;
rifuapw
TIVI,
I
help
one
;
Ti/Jia>pov/juil
riva,
I
avenge
myself
on
one;
aipw,
I
take,
aipov/uu,
I choose
;
Saveifa,
I
put
out to
interest
; Savelo/j.ai,
I borrow at interest
; Treida),
I
per-
suade, Treldofjiat,
I allow
myself
to be
persuaded,
I
obey.
One and the same Middle
may
occur in different senses : 8t5do-/co-
pu (4),
7 cause to
teach,
or
(1)
/ teach
myself,
learn
;
rptno-
fjuii (1),
7 turn
myself,
or
(2)
7 turn to
myself: rpfirovrai
ras
yj/to/iaf,
they change
their
opinion; rptTrovrai
TOVS
iroXepiovs,
they
turn
away (rut
to
flight)
the
enemy ( 479,
06s.).
482. Obs. The
deponents
are distributed
among
the different
lands of Middle
verbs,
and differ from the verbs mentioned
only by
having
no active form. Thus
viri<r\i>ovfuu,
I
pledge myself,
is a
484.
USE OF THE TENSES.
273
direct Middle
;
but
8/^o/tat,
7 receive
;
KraoyMi,
I
acquire,
are in-
direct;
dyw/foftoi,
/
contend;
oijuat,
I
think,
are
subjective:
ava-
ftiuHraa-dai,
to
revive,
is causative. On the Passive
Deponents,
328.
483. 3. The Passive Voice
has a freer use in Greek than in
Latin,
viz. :
1. even such verbs as in the Active take a different
case from the
Accusative,
form a Passive :
/cara(j>povw
nvo<;
( 424),
I
despise
one
;
fcara(j)poveiTai
TIS
vir
efiov
;
Triarevovcri, rc3
(3acn\ei,
they
trust the
king
;
o
/Sao-tXei)?
TTta-Teverat VTT avrwv
; eVt/SouXeuet
TO>
TroXe/ua),
he
plots
against
the
enemy
;
6
TroXe/uo? e-Tn/SovXeuerai
VTT avrov,
a
plot
is made
against
the
enemy ly
him.
2. Neuters of Passive
participles may
be formed even
from intransitive verbs: ra
crrparev6/j,eva,
the warlike
measures
;
ra aol
7re7ro\irevfieva, your political
course,
your policy.
3. The
exclusively
Passive forms even of
Deponents
are sometimes used in a Passive sense :
fitd&pat,
1
force, efitda-drjv,
I was
forced
;
in like manner a Passive
may
be formed from a Middle :
alpiw,
I
take,
Pass. / am
chosen;
peTeTrefKpdT},
he was sent
for,
i,
I send
for ( 479).
CHAP. XX. USE OF THE TENSES.
484. In
marking
the time the Greeks
distinguished
1. The ORDER of time. The three Orders of time
being
the.
Present,
the
Past,
and the Future.
2. The KIND of time. In
regard
to the Kind of time
an action is either
a) going on,
e.
g. jijvuxrKeiv (gradually),
to learn to
know; or,
5) momentary,
e.
g. 7^<yi>at,
to
perceive,
know
; or,
T
USE OF THE TENSES. 4S.">.
<?) completed,
e.
g. eyvwtcevai,
to have
learnt,
to know
(Lat. nosse).
Obs. The
momentary
action
may
be
compared
to a
point,
the
action
going
on to a
line,
and the
completed
action to a
surface.
An action
going
on is indicated
by
the forms of the
Present-Stem.
A
momentary
action is indicated
by
the forms of the
Aorist-Stems.
A
completed
action is indicated
by
the forms of the
Perfect-Stem.
The Future denotes the future Order of time of an
action
going
on,
as well as of a
momentary
action :
yvcbo-ofjiai,
I shall
(gradually) get
to
know,
and I shall
perceive;
the Third Future
(futurum exactuni)
that of
a
completed
action :
JVWKO)<; eaofiai,
I shall have learnt
(Lat. novero).
In the
Present, Aorist,
and
Perfect,
only
tlie Indicative
indicates a defiuite Order of
time;
the other
Moods,
the Infinitive and the
Participle,
resemble the cor-
responding
Indicatives
only
in
regard
to the
Kind,
not
in
regard
to the Order of time.
The
following
table
presents
a
general
view of these
relations :
Present.
488. THE PRESENT INDICATIVE. 21
tinction,
however, may
be
perceived
in some
English verbs,
as
fcca
(<$fvyt<.v),
and
escape (frvytiv)
;
flicker
and
flash; fear (0o/3elo-&u)
f
arid be
frightened (<oij0jwtt,
Selcrai)
;
wonder
(Bavpa^eiv),
and to be
surprised (Qavpaaai)
;
to be
busy
about
(Trpacrcreij/),
and to
accomplish
(rpaat)
;
yeXav,
to be
laughing,
and
yeXdo-ai,
to burst out
laughing.
i. FORMS OF AN ACTION IN PROGRESS.
a)
The Present Indicative.
486. The Present Indicative
denotes,
as in
English
and
Latin,
an action
going
on or in
progress
at the
present
time :
iKerevo^iv
ere
Trdvres,
we all
implore
thee.
Hence
by
the Present are
expressed general assertions,
valid for all
times,
and therefore also for the Present :
ecru
cos,
there is a God.
Obs. Actions whose commencement indeed
belongs
to the
Past,
but whose effects extend to the
Present,
are sometimes
expressed
by
this tense :
OKOIKO,
I
hear,
also in the sense : / have heard
and still bear in mind
; j/wcaco,
I
conquer,
L
e.,
I am victorious
;
</>evyo),
1 am
banished', d8iK(<a,
Iam
wrong (have
done
wrong)
;
dvfjo-Kfi,
he is dead. In this sense alone are used
TJKO>,
I am
come
; OI^O/WH,
/ am
gone.
487.
By
a
lively apprehension
a
past
action
may
be
represented
as
present,
hence the
use,
very frequent
in
Greek,
of the Historical
Present,
which
frequently
alternates with
past
tenses:
poet,
/cat
TTW?
oparat
KoL
ype&r)
;
and how is she
seen,
and was she
captured
? eVei
?/7etTO
'Ap^/Sa/io?
Kal
eVopeuero
eVt
row?
a
evravda ovrot OVK
eSe^avro
rovs
Trepl
rbv
'
<i\X'
ey/cXivovcriv,
as Archidamus took the lead and
marched
against
the
enemy,
the latter did not wait
for
the
troops of
Archidamus,
but retreat.
488.
b)
The
Imperfect
is the
Preterite of an action in
progress,
like the Latin
Imperfect.
The Greek therefore uses the
Imperfect
where he
wishes to describe
past
states or
past
actions in their
progress,
in their continuance
along
with
others,
or in
276 THE IMPERFECT.
489
their
frequent,
continued
repetition:
Horn. 01
/ze*
ap
olvov
e/jLHryov
evi
Kpr/r^pcri
KOI
vScap,
ol 8' avrf
<nroyyoi(ri
7ro\vrpi]Toi(n T/3a7rea<?
vltpv
KOI
TrporiQev.
rol Be
icpea
TroXXa
Barevvro,
some were
mingling
wine and
water in
mixing-bowls,
others
cleaning
tables with
porou*
sponges,
and
placing
them,
the rest were
carving
much
meat;
TOI><?
/xei/
ovv
TreXrao-ra?
e'8eaz/ro ol
fidpfiapoi
Kal
efMa-xpvro,
tJie barbarians met the
peltasts,
and then
toere
fighting,
Horn.
o<ppa p,ev 770)? TJV
Kal de'ero
iepov
rip-ap, To<j)pa fjiatC
d^oripuiv
ySeXe' f/Trrero,
TriTrre re
Xao?,
as
long
as it was
morning,
and
holy day increasing,
so
long
the darts
of
both were
striking
and
people falling.
OV7TOT6
ftelov
dTre&TpaTOTre&evovTo
ol
/3dp/3apoi,
TWV
'E\\7jvci)v egrjfcovTo, crTaS/wy,
the barbarians
(did
not
encamp)
used never to
encamp
less than
sixty
stadia
from
tlie Hellenes.
489. Obs. 1. The
Imperfect frequently expresses
a
merely
attempted
but not
accomplished
action :
TT/JCOTOS KX/ap^or
rovs avrov
OTpaTiooTar
t
jStdffro uvai,
ol 8t avrbv
($d\\ov,
ixrrtpov
6f cVcl
iyv<*
OTI ov
8vvf](TfTai
f$id<ra<rdai,
<rvvf]yaytv (KicXrjcriav, first
Clearchus
tried to
force
his soldiers to
go,
but
they
shot at him
;
nfterwards,
however,
as he
perceived
he would not be able to
force
them he sum-
moned a
meeting.
So toiSov sometimes means he
offered
to
give,
to
distinguish
it from
eouKfv,
he
gave.
490. 06s. 2. The
Imperfects
of the verbs which denote should
and must are
used, just
as in
Latin,
to denote what should be
done,
in
opposition
to what was done : e5 rovs
\tyovras
p^re irpbs
(\6pav
irou1<r6ai rbv
\6yov p.rjT( vpos xP
4I/
>
^e
speakers ought
to
have made their
speeches
neither
from
hatred nor
from favour (Lat.
oporttbaf)
;
so
XP^">
&
ought
;
ei*6y
r\v,
it would be
fair.
On the
Imperf.
with
av, 494,
06s.
1,
and
537,
&c.
491.
c)
The
Subjunctive,
Optative, Imperative, Injinitive,
and
Participle
Present
simply express
an action in
progress,
whether it lie in
the
present, past,
or future :
/j,atv6fj,e0a
irdvre^,
cnrorav
opyi(i)fj,da,
we are all mad when we are
angry
;
eXeyov
Tc5
EiiidvBijfAq),
OTI
Trai^re?
eroi/iot
elev
p.av6dvew,
they
told
Euthydemus
that
they
were all
ready
to learn
;
OI/TOJ
492. THE AORIST INDICATIVE. 277
TTOir/cru),
&;ra>9
av crv
Ke\evr,<;,
I will do as
you may
bid
me
(sic agam,
ut tu me
agere jubebis)
;
ravra
\ejtav
dopvfiov
iJKOva-e,
Bi,a rwv
rd^eeov
iovros
Kal
rjpeTO,
ri?
6
#opu/3o9
eirj, saying
this,
he heard a noise
pass
through
the
ranks,
and asked what the noise was.
Ols, These Present forms
sometimes,
like the
Imperfect ( 489),
express
a mere
attempt
: TO
diro8i8pao-Kovra /n)
8vva<r6ai dwo-
Spavai
TroAXJj p.a>pia,
for
a man not to le able to run
away
when he tries to run
away
is
great stupidity.
492. 2. FORMS OF A MOMENTARY ACTION.
a)
The Aorist Indicative
is the
Preterite of a
Momentary
action,
and therefore
denotes
the actual
beginning
of an action in the
past,
similar to the Historical Perfect of the Latins.
The Greeks
employ
the Aorist Indicative when
they
wish to narrate
past
facts,
to state
past
actions
simply
as
having happened,
or to
represent
them as individual
facts without reference to other actions :
fj-era TTJV
ev
Kopwveta f^d^v
ol
'AQyvaloi
J*e\.nrov
Trjv
Bot&may
7ra<rav,
after
the battle at Coronea the Athenians
left
all
Boeotia
;
Havcravta<;
e'
Aa/ceSat^
'
K\\tfva)V efe7re/i<$77 yttera
ei/cocri
vrjtrov, %vve7r\eov
Be Kal
'AOrjvaloi
Tpidfcovra,
vavcrl KO\
ecTTpdrevaav
9
Kinrpov
Kal
avrrjs
ra TroXXo
Karea-rpe-
fravro,
Pausanias was sent out
from
Lacedaemon as
general by
the
Hellenes,
with
twenty ships from
the Pelo-
ponnese,
but Athenians also
accompanied
him
(accom-
panying
circumstance)
with
thirty ships,
and
they pro-
ceeded to
Cyprus
and subdued the
greater part of
it
;
ro^LKr]v
Kal
larptKrjv
Kal
fiavTiKrjv
'ATroXXtoi;
dvevpev,
Apollo
invented the arts
of archery,
medicine,
and
pro-
phecy
;
Horn.
TJ/Z/
8e TTO\V
vrpwro?
t'Se
T^Xe/ia^o?
deo-
8/7?, j3r)
S'
Wvs
TrpoQvpoio,
ve/jiecrcnjdri
S' eVl
OV/JLU) %eivov
SrjOa
Ovpycrw
e^ecrraytiez/, eyyvQi
Se
aras
X&p
eXe
Befyrepr/v
Kal
eSefaro ^d\Keov 7^09,
but her
first
Tekmachus
of form
divine
beheld,
and he went
straight
to
278 TUB AOKIST
IN! It ATIVE. 403.
the
porch,
and was
grieved
at heart that a
stranger
stood
a
long
time at tJie
door,
and
going
near he took him
ly
the
right
hand and eased him
of
his brazen
spear.
493. As the Aorist Indicative
simply expresses
an
action as
having
taken
place
in the
past,
it answers to
all the different Preterites in other
languages, especially
often in subordinate sentences to the Latin and
Knglisli
pluperfect: Aa/aeto? KOpoi/
/ieraTre/iTrerat ( 487)
O.TTO
T?}?
tt/9%*}
1
?
^?
avTov
aaTpaTrvv
eTrotr/crev,
Darius hats
Cyrus
sent
for from
the
province,
over which he had made
him
satrap (fecerat).
Thus the Aorist is used with the
Conjunctions
of
time, eVei, a>9, ore, as, ivlten,
like the
Latin Perfect with
postquam,
ubi,
ut :
o>9
6
KDpo<?
ycrdero Kpavyijs,
aveTrrjbija'ev
7rl TOV '(TTTTOV
uxnrep
evOov-
critov,
when
Cyrus perceived (ut audivit)
a
cry,
he
sprang
upon
his horse like one
inspired.
494. The Aorist Indicative is used in statements
of experience
implying
that a
thing
once
happened,
but
admitting
an
application
to all times :
poet.
r<5
xp
v(
?
V &IKT]
"navrvs
faff dnoricrafjievr),
with
time
avenging justice always
came
(and
hence
always comes)
;
cai
Bpnbvs
(vfjov\os
(l\tv
ra^vv avSpa
SttoKOJi/,
even a slow
man,
when
well
advised,
overtook
(overtakes) by pursuit
a
quick
man. In
English
we
employ
the Present in such
general
assertions,
and often
add such adverbs as
usually, commonly, always,
&c.,
ray T>V
(f)av\u>v
a-uvovffias
o\lyos ^povos
&if\vcrfv,
a short time
usually
dissolves the
associations
of
the bad. This Aorist is called the
gnomic Aorist,
because it is often used in
gnomes, proverbs,
or maxims. In Horn.
it is often also used in
comparisons.
Obs. 1. In
expressing
what
usually happens,
the Aorist some-
times has av in order to
express
the case as one Mutt
may
have
occurred,
and therefore
may
occur
oftener
:
tXtgev av,
he
may
have said. In the same
way
the
Imperfect
is
used,
but re-
ferring
to an action in
progress
:
avaXan^dvuv
avruiv ra
TroirjftaTa
diT)pa)Ta>v
av,
ri
\tyoifv,
taking up
their
poems
I would ask what
they
meant.
Obs. 2. The Aorist
Indicative,
especially
in the 1 Pers.
Sing,
is
frequently
used to
express
actions and states
beginning only
at
the moment of
speaking
:
eytXcura,
I burst out
laughing ; poet.
iirfiv((T
>
epyov
KOL
npovoiav r\v f0uv,
I
praise
the deed and the
prudence
which
you
have exercised.
On the
Hypothetical
Aorist, 537,
&c.
496. THE AOR.
SUBJ., OPT., IMPEKAT.,
AND
IXFIN. 279
495.
b)
TJie Aorist
Subjunctive,
Optative, Imperative*
and
Infinitive,
denote a
Momentary
action
simply,
whether of the
present, past,
or future : ol
rpiaKovra irpo^ira^av
cnra-
tyayeiv
Aeovra,
'iv
airoOdvoi,
the
Thirty
commanded to
take Leon
away
to die
;
a/jropw,
rl
irpwrov [AvijtrdG),
I am
in doubt what
first
to mention
;
/^rj davp-da^Te,
lav
Trapd-
Sogov
elVw
rt,
be not
surprised if
1
say something strange
;
av
fjioi
dTTo/cpivai,
&>
iral, give
me an
answer,
boy
;
fteya,
olficti
epyov
TO
dp^rjv KaraTrpd^ai,
TTO\V S' ert
fiet^ov
TO
\a{36vra Siacraxracrdai,
I deem it a
great thing
to
found
a
government,
but a still
greater
to maintain it
after
acquiring
it.
Obs. The
Subjunctive, Optative, Imperative,
and Infinitive
Aorist, therefore,
differ from the
corresponding
forms of the
Present, just
as the Aorist Indicative differs from the
Imper-
fect
;
the Aorist forms
express
a
single fact,
conceived as a
point,
the
Present,
as a state or
condition,
sometimes of
long
duration :
^aXeTrov
TO
noidv,
TO Se KeXfOcrai
padiov,
it is
difficult
to
do, easy
to command
;
ei
7177 e^eis
omXcyw, avrtXcyf
el fie
fif],
TraCcrat woXAaKt?
\tywv
rov avrbv
\6yov, if you
have
any-
thing
to
say
in
reply, reply (even
in a
long
speech), if
not,
cease
(at once) frequently repeating
the same
statement.
496.
The Aorist
Participle regularly expresses
something
which took
place
earlier or
before
the act of
the
principal
verb :
Kpoto-o?
"A\vv
&ia/3a<?
fieyd\riv
dp-^rfv
Ktna\v(rei, Croesus,
after crossing
the
Holy
8,
will
overthrow
a
great empire
;
iradaiv Be re
vrfmos eyvw
( 494), after suffering (by suffering)
even a
fool
becomes
knowing.
Obs. As the Aorist
generally
indicates the moment at which an
action
actually begins ( 485),
so the Aorist
Participle
also
only
expresses
that the
beginning
of an action took
place before
another
action,
whilst its
progress may
continue
simultaneously
with that
other :
ye\da-as
fiirf,
he
began
to
laugh
and said
(laughing) [risu
oborto
dixit\.
Horn. 2>8e 8 TIS eiirta-Ktv I8a>v ts
ir\rjcrlov
oXXov,
thus would
say many
a one while
looking
at his
neighbour;
^apto-o/
fiot anoKpivafJifvos,
answer and
oblige me,
inasmuch as the
x
a
P
L
~
Tcurffai
follows
immediately
after the
beginning
of the answer
2SO TI1E FUTURE. 497.
497. As the Aorist Indicative
may frequently
be translated
by
the
Pluperfect ( 493),
so also the Aorist
Optative
and
Infinitive
in assertions
generally
denotes
something
which took
place before
:
ol 'ivbol i\(av OTI
jrtp.^fif oifras
6 'Iv&iav
f$iun\(iis
(Ind.
art
tnffi^f),
the Indians said that the
king of
tlie Indians had tent
them;
Ki/KXanes
Xtyoirai
iv StKeXi'a
oiKtjirai,
the
Cyclops
are said to
have dwelt in
Sicily.
498.
Many
verbs whose Present-Stem
expresses
a
ftate,
denote in all the Aorist forms the entrance into
this state:
ap^eiv,
to
rule,
apai,
to obtain
dominion;
fiao-i\eveiv,
to be
king,
ftacrCkevcrai,,
to become
king;
ia"Xyeiv,
to be
strong,
la-^va-at,
to become
strong; o-iyav,
to be
silent,
a-ijija-ai,
to become
silent;
e^eti/,
to
have,
<T^lv,
to obtain
;
(fratveaOat,
to
appear, (j>ainjvat,
to become
apparent;
voa-eiv,
to be
ill,
vocrrja-at,
to become
ill;
7roAe/ie/,
to be at war
(bellum gerere), TroXe/^crat,
to
begin
war
{bellum
inferre). (Comp. 485.)
05s. This
meaning, however,
is not
always
attached to these
forms
;
and
tnoXfurjaav may
also
signify simply
bellum
gesserunt
(
492).
499. 3. THE FUTURE
expresses
the
futurity
both of an action in
progress
and
of a
Momentary
action :
a/>f&>,
/ shall become
ruler,
and
I shall rule.
Obs. The 2 Person Future with oi
nearly
resembles the
negative
Imperative,
OVK
eVtopK^emy,
thou wilt
(shal)
not swear
falsely.
500. The Future Indicative in relative
clauses,
and in clauses
with
way, tJiat,
is
worthy
of
notice,
for there the Future denote!
what
may
or should
happen
: OVK.
f^opfv
orov dirov
u>vr]tro\t.t6a,
we
have
nothing
with which we can
buy food
(non habemus, quo
cibum
emamus) ;
fieI airavra
avftpa
TOVTO
TrapacrK(vdtcr6cii,
oireas a>s
(ro(f)a>-
TOTOS
f<rrai,
every
man should take care to be
(that
he shall
be)
as
wise as
possible (comp. 553).
The
Participle
is
similarly
used :
7
X^P
11
foXA^
KOI
ayadfj
TJV
KO.\
(vrja-av
ol
epyaa6p.(voi,
the land wot
large
and
good
and there were
people
to
(who
could)
cultivate it
;
-rit
ftrrai 6
TjyT}<r6nfvos
;
who wiU be there to
(who can) guide
us
(comp.
?
380,
578).
06s. av
(Horn. *e)
is sometimes added to the Future Indicative
to denote that a case
may
possibly
occur : ev cu? on
503
THE PEKFECT INDICATIVE.
281
&v
irpos uv8pa
olos <rv et
aTraXXayjjcrerat,
I well know that he
will be
glad
to be reconciled to a man such as
you
are
;
Horn.
6 Se Kev
K%o\d>crfTai
ov Kev
ucoo/iat,
and he will doubtless be in
wrath whom I come
upon.
501. The verb
/ie'AA,a>
is used with the
Present,
Future, or,
though
more
rarely,
the Aorist
Infinitive,
to
express
an
immediately approaching
or at least intended
action :
//,e\Xa> vpas ayeiv
19
y
A<rlav,
I am
going
to lead
you
to Asia
(in
Asiam vos ducturus
sum).
This is called
\heperiphrastic
Future.
Obs. 1.
/it'XXo) may
also be used in other tenses than the Present
with an
Infinitive,
like esse in
Lat.,
with the Part. Fut.:
ir\r]criov ijfSr; TJV
6
OTadpbs
fi>6a
e/neXXoi'
KaraXvafiv, jam prope
aderat static ubi deversuri
erant,
where
they
wished to rest.
Obs.
2.ira>s or ri ov
/ie'XXw,
is
elliptical
in the sense of
Why
should I not ?
4. FOKMS OF A COMPLETED ACTION.
502.
a)
The
Perfect
Indicative
is the Present of a
completed
action,
i. e.
by
the Perfect
the Greeks denote an action
completed for
and with
reference
to the Present :
poet. ^0709
XeXe/mu
7ra9,
the
whole
speech
has been
spoken
\dixi\
;
eiy^/ca,
I have
found,
1 have, it
;
Horn.
ijSr)
yap
rerekecnai a
yttot </>//Vo9
7/#eXe #17409, for
now has been
faiished
what
my
dear soul
desired; rj
?roXi9
e/cTtarai,
Trapa
rwv
TLopwOiwv,
the
city
has been
founded by
the Corinthians
(of
a still
existing
city)
;
ra
%prffAara
rot9 Tf^ovcriois
77
rv^r)
ov
^eBcopr/rai
a\\a
SeSdvei/cev,
Fortune has not
given,
but lent
(at
interest),
their
money
to the rich.
503. Obs. Several Perfects have
entirely
a Present
meaning,
inasmuch as
they present
in a
completed
state the action of which
the
gradual accomplishment
is
expressed by
the Present :
fit/xpTjo-cro-
MU,
/remind
myself, /le'/^/iat,
I bear in
mind,
remember
(inemini)
;
-aXco/iat,
/ am named
;
Ke'xXq/xat, my
name is
;
irtiQofjLcu,
I
follmv
irtTTOtda,
I
confide
in
;
oXXv/u,
/ am
perishing
;
oXwXa,
1 am lost
,
<rdo/iat,
/
acquire; KeKri^pai,
I
possess ;
To-ra^iat,
I
place myself;
t
I stand
; /3a(Va>,
7
(/o; BtftrjKa,
I am
gone.
282 THE FUTURE FERFECT. 5C4.
504.
b)
The
Pluperfect
is the Preterite of a
completed
action,
i. e.
by
the
Pluperfect
the Greeks
express
an action
completed
for
and with reference to a
past
time: Horn.
&rj
rore
7'
arpe/j,a<;
evSe
XeXaoyiei/o?
O&CT
eTTCTrovdei,
tJten
truly
he
slept quietly, forgetting
what lie had
suffered
;
ev rot?
Apa/coi>T09
z>o/xoi? fiia
atracnv
atpicrro
rot?
afJ,aprdvov(Ti
77/410.
ddvaros,
in Draco's laws death had been
appointed
for
all criminals as the
only punishment says
an
Athenian after the laws were abolished.
(As long
as
they
were in force :
&picrrat,.)
06s. The
Pluperfects
of the Perfects enumerated in
503,
are to
be translated
by Imperfects.
On the Aorist in the sense of the Latin
Pluperfect,
493.
505.
c)
THE FUTURE PERFECT
(FUTURUM
EXACTUM^
is the Future of a
completed
action,
i. e. it denotes an
action which will be
completed
in the future. It is
only
in the Middle that the Greeks have a
special
form
for this Third
Future,
which has
generally
a Passive
meaning.
In the Active the circumlocution
by
means
of the Perfect
Participle
and the Future of elvai must
be used
( 291)
: av ravr
elBwpev,
ra Seovra
eao^eda
eyvca/cores,
when we know
this,
we shall
(thence)
have
got
to know our
duty;
Horn,
e/xol
Be
XeXe/ty-erai
aXtyea
\vypd,
but I shall have
gloomy
woes
left
me.
Obs. The Future
Perfect
of the Perfects mentioned in 503
serves as a common Future :
/xe/wjyo-o/itu,
meminero,
&c.
506.
d)
The
Perfect of
all the
Moods,
of
the
Infinitive,
and
of
the
Participle
expresses
a
completed
action
generally,
and
may
refer to
any
of the three Orders of time : ov
/3ov\eve-
crdai
&pa
aXXa
/3e/?ou\,euo-#at,
now is not tJie time to
consult,
but to have consulted
(to
be
resolved)
;
He
fc>9
ejjvdero TOV
'EXXijcrTrovTov
e^v^dai, Trporjyev
e/c
511. USE OF THE MOODS. 283
2,dpBewv,
when Xerxes learnt that the
Hellespont
had
been
bridged
over
(and
was still
provided
with a
bridge,
ort
eeuKTo),he
marched
fonvard from
Sardis;
raura
pev
ovv
7rpoeip/]a-0a>,
thus much be said
beforehand (now
to
something else)
;
Horn, ecra-erai
rjfjLap
or av TTOT'
oXoxX^
"lXto9
ipr),
a
day
will come when
holy
Ilios will be lost
(has
been
lost)
;
xprja-iftov
rt
e<r/cefj,/j,evos tffca),
I am come
after having
devised
something useful.
CHAP. XXI. USE OF THE MOODS.
A)
THE MOODS IN SIMPLE SENTENCES.
507. 1. The Indicative.
The
Indicative,
in accordance with the
usage
o
f
other
languages,
is
employed simply
to state
something
positively
or
negatively,
or
simply
and
directly
to ask
a
question
:
poet. r?}9
dperrjs iSpcora
6eol
irpoirdpoiOev
eOrj/cav,
the
gods placed
sweat
before
virtue
;
Horn, jrodev
e*9
dvSpwv
;
from
what class
of
men are
you
?
OJ.s. On the Indicative in
hypothetical
sentences with or without
av, 536, &c.,
in sentences
expressing
a
wish,
515. On the
Aorist Ind. with
av,
to
express
what
usually happens,
see
494.
2. The
Subjunctive.
508. The
Subjunctive expresses
what
ought
to take
place;
it
always
refers to the
present,
to
reality.
Hence it is used in the
following
cases :
509. 1. as a
challenge
in the first
person
:
itw/zer,
let us
go
[eamus]
;
<f>epe
817,
ra9
f^aprvpla<;
VJMV dvajvw,
well,
come ! let me read
you
the testimonies
\recitem\.
510. 2. with the
negative fiij
in
prohibitions
and in
negative
admonitions
(comp. 518)
:
/A?)
TOVTO
77-0^0-779,
ne hoc
feceris, you ought
not to do this.
511. 3. In
hesitating questions,
where it is asked
28-1 TIIE OPTATIVE MOOD. 512.
what should be clone : -n
</><
;
what am I to
say
? Horn.
7T&><? Tt?
TOt
TTpofypWV
TT(TIV
7Tl6r)Tat,
^A^atOJV
/
how
shall
any of
the Achaeans
willingly
trust
thy
words?
Seecr#e
ri/J>d<> rj a,TTLu>p,ev
;
will
you
receive
us,
or are ice
to
depart
?
512. 4. with
firf
in sentences
expressing fear
or
anxiety
:
fj,r)
aypotfcorepov $
TO
a\r)6e<; elirelv,
if
it be not
ratlier rude to
say
the truth. If the
anxiety
is to be
negatively expressed, firj
ov is used : Horn.
^
vv TOI ov
^paicrfir) crKTjTrrpov
Kal
ore/i/io.
deolo,
lest the
staff
and
wreath
of
the
god
should not
help
thee,
i. e. it will cer-
tainly
be of little
help
to thee
[Lat.
vereor ne non or
ut
tejuvet]. Comp.
533, 616,
Obs.
3, 621,
a.
513. 05s. The Homeric
language employs
the
Subjunctive
of
future
events,
quite
like the Fut. Ind. to
express
a
thing
that is
to be
expected ( 545)
: ov
yap
TTW roiovs *8ov
dvtpas
ov8e
i8w/i,
for
never
yet
did 1 see such men nor
may (shall)
/ see them, av is
sometimes added in Horn, to this
Subjunctive
: OVK av rot
xpaiV/ii?
Kt&apis
TO. re
Scop' 'A<^jo8iYr?f,
the
lyre
and
Aphrodite's gifts
would
nut
help
thee.
Comp. 500,
Obs.
3. The
Optative.
514. 1. The
Optative
alone
(without
the
particle
av)
is used to
express
a wish that
something may
take
place
:
poet.
<y
Tral, yevoio
Trarpos eirrv^icnepo^,
boy
!
may you
be
happier
than
your father [Lat.
Pres. or Perf.
Subj.].
The
particles
used
(like
Lat.
utinam)
to introduce
4
wish are : et
(Horn, at),
eWe
(Horn. aWe),
el
yap,
co?.
515. Obs. If it is to be intimated that a wish is not to b'
realised,
it is referred to the
past,
and
expressed by
the
Imperfect
C'
Aorist Indicative : tiff
r)<r6a
bvvaros
&pav
ovov
irpodvpos fl,
wouif'
that
you
were able to do what
you
ivish
;
tide erol Tore
o-wfyej/o^ryr.
would that I then had met
you.
The same kind of wish is
expressed
by
the Aorist
axfteXov (properly
"I
owed")
and the Infinitive:
o\f(T0ai
a>(f)t\ov rfj8' ij/*'pa,
would that I had
perished
on that
day
[Lat. Imperf. andFlup. Siibj.]. Comp.
537.
516. 2. The
Optative
with the
particle
av
(Horn.
KG
5!
9. THE IMPERATIVE MOOD. S5
or
Kev) expresses possibility
: TOVTO
Devoir
av,
that
(could)
might
be
;
ri
yap
yevoir'
av
\KO<;
fjiel^ov rj
0t'Xo?
Katcbs
;
what
greater
evil could there be than a bad
friend
f irou
&f)T
av elev ol
%evoi
;
why
! where can the
strangers
be f
[Lat.
Pres. and Perf.
Subj.]
The
Optative
with av is
therefore called the
potential Optative.
517. Obs. 1. Hence the
Optative
with av is used in
modestly
expressed
assertions : OVK av
Xcyot/u,
/ would not
say [non dixerim] ;
ipa
av <rvo-Kfvdfcr0ai,
ttrj,
it is
perhaps
time to break
up
;
OVK av
dvvato
firj Kapuv
evbaiuovflv,
you
could not without
taking
trouble
be
happy.
Obs. 2. In the
poets
the
Optative
in a
potential
sense is also
used without av'. Horn,
pela deosy'
(6e\(ov Kal
Tt]\66tv av8pa
craoxrm,
a
god
who is
ivilling
can
easily
save a man even
afar off.
But this
use of the
Optative
to denote a
possible
and
merely imaginary
case
is
originally peculiar
to this
mood,
and hence is
preserved
in
depen-
dent
clauses, 528, 529, 532, 06s., 546, 552,
Obs.
518. 4. The
Imperative.
The
Imperative
is the mood of command
and,
with
negatives,
of
prohibition.
A
prohibition
in the second
person
can be
expressed
only
in two
ways,
viz. either with
^
and the Present
Imperative: ^ irpa-ne,
of a continued
action,
or with
urj
and the Aorist
Subjunctive: ^
Trpd^,
of a
Momentary
action,
do not do : ravra
pot Trpd^ov,
reicvov,
teal
pr) ftpdSvve firjS' eirifjanyotiffc
ert
Tpot'a?,
do me
this,
child,
and
delay
not nor think
further of Troy.
In the third
person
also
^77
with the Aorist
Imperative
is admissible :
yu,7?8et5 vp,)v
irpo^oK^a-dra)
aAA,o>9,
let
none
of you expect
otherwise.
On the Infinitive instead of the
Imperative,
see
577. On the
Imperative
as a substitute for a
hypo-
thetical
clause, 545,
Obs. 3.
B)
THE MOODS IN COMPOUND SENTENCES.
519.
Preliminary
remarks on the connexion of
sentences with one another.
280 THE MOODS IN COMPOUND SENTENCES. 519.
1. Two
simple
sentences
(
3G1,
2) may
be combined
in two
ways,
viz. either
a)
so,
that the one
may
be
quite independent
of the
other this combination is called
Co-ordination,
or Para-
taxis
(7ra/)ttTat<>).
b)
so,
that
they mutually
are referred to each other
and
express
a
complete thought only
in their combi-
nation this combination is called
Subordination,
or
Hypotaxis (vTrora^}.
2. Of two Co-ordinate sentences each is a
principal
sentence,
and in
every respect independent
of the
other :
KOIVI) r)
TV^TJ
KO\ TO
/z.eXXoi>
aoparov, fortune
is
common,
and the
future
invisible
;
TO)TO
670)
ovr
eiprjica,
ovre
\eyotfu av,
I have neither said
that,
nor could 2
say
it.
On the manner in which coordinate sentences
may
be
combined, G24,
a.
3.
By
Subordination two sentences are combined in
such a
way
that one
expresses
the
principal
idea,
the
other a
secondary
one. The former is called the
leading
sentence,
the latter the
secondary, dependent
or
Subordinate. One
leading
sentence often has several
subordinate ones
dependent
on it. The moods of sub-
ordinate sentences are in
many ways
determined
by
the
leading
sentence:
Ttcnra^epi'T;?
ta/3a\\a
TOV
Kvpov
7rpo5
TOV
d$6\.<f>6v,
&>?
eTTifiovXevot
avry, Tissaphernes
brings
a
calumny against Cyrus before
his
brotlier,
(saying)
that he was
plotting against
him
;
Horn. <rol
afji ecrTro/jLeO'
,
o(j)pa
av
%at'pj7?,
we have
followed
thee that
thou
mayst rejoice.
4. The Correlative connexion of sentences is a
special
kind of subordination. Of two correlative
sentences,
one
always
refers to the other. The one is called the
Protasis,
and the other the
Apodosis.
The
Protasis,
which
requires
to be
completed by
another
sentence,
is
subordinate
(3).
The
Apodosis
is a
leading
sentence,
which furnishes the
necessary completion
:
Horn.
<&$
520. THE MOODS IN COMPOUND SENTENCES. 287
i8ev,
w?
fjiiv
e$v
%o\.o$,
as he saw it wrath seized him
;
Horn. oTTTTolov K
eliT^cfQa
eVo?
rolov K
eTraicovcraw,
the
kind
of
word
you speak
such
you
will hear.
Obs. 1. This correlation is
frequently expressed by
two Pronouns
or Particles
referring
to each other
( 216, 217),
as in the
examples just quoted,
but not
always
: et
7177 e^etr avriktyetv,
dvriXcyt, if you
can in
any way reply, reply.
Obs. 2.
TheApodosis
often
precedes
the Protasis : olros
fitkrurrot
&v
(tr)
OCTTIS
Kocr/iicorara
ras
crv[ji(popas (ptpftv tvvarai,
he would
be the best who can bear calamities with most
dignity.
5. From the subordination of one clause to
another,
there arises a
compound
sentence.
Obs. 1. The same
thought may
often be as well
expressed
in two
Co-ordinate sentences as in one
Compound
sentence :
prjfavl
(rvp(popav dveiSurgs, Koivfj yap f] ruffl, reproach
no one with
a
calamity, for fortune
is common
;
or ret
f] rvx^ KOIVTJ
eon,
fU]8fvi <rvn<j>opat> tivcidurfls,
since
fortune
is common
reproach
no
one with a
calamity.
The Homeric
language
abounds in series
of Co-ordinate sentences
(the paratactic arrangement).
Obs. 2.
Frequently
a word
belonging
to the
Dependent
sentence
is drawn into the
Principal sentence,
where it
may appear
in
different cases. If the
Principal
sentence stands first the ar-
rangement
is called
prolepsis (irpo\rj\^ts, taking beforehand")
:
Kai
p.oi
TOV viov
tare,
ft
fJLfpddrjKf TTJV
TrjfMji*
=
KOI
fjLOi
fine,
(I 6
vlos
lif^adrjKf TT]V ri.yyr\v ( 397).
Horn.
TvSei'Sijv
8" OVK av
yvoirjs, iroTtpoKTi /zerei'jj, you
could, scarce
perceive
on which side
Tydides
stood
;
KOI rS>v
/SapjSapcov fji-ffi^dro,
a>s
iro\ep.flv
iKavol
etr](Tav,
he also took care that the barbarians should be
capable of
carrying
on war. On the other hand a substantive
may pass
from the
Principal
to the Subordinate sentence : Horn,
/xera
ff
eaxrerat
TJV
TOT
arrrivpuiv Kovprfv BpiaJ/os, among
them also will be
the
daughter of
Brises whom I then took
away (comp. 602).
6. On the different kinds of sentences
according
to
their
substance, 624,
&c.
Only
those kinds will here
be noticed which are most
important
in
regard
to the
use of the Moods.
520. The use of the Moods in
Dependent
sentences
is
subject
to the
following general
rules :
1. The Indicative in Greek is
very extensively
used
even in
Dependent
sentences,
the Greeks
merely
288 THE MOODS IN COMPOUND SENTENCES.
5C1.
annexing
or
inserting many
sentences without
any
mark of
dependence
where the Latin
language
marks
the
dependence by
the
Subjunctive
or Infinitive :
^r\
/A
avepy,
rt?
et/LU,
ask jne not who I am
[ne
me
interroyes,
quis
sim\.
521. 2. The
Subjunctive
in
Dependent
sentences
also denotes al
way
s that which
ought
to take
place,
and
can
generally
be
employed only
when the
leading
sentence contains a
principal
tense.
Every
verbal form is
regarded
as a
Principal
tense
which connects the action with the
present
;
hence the
Present
(except
the Historical
Present,
487),
the
Perfect,
and the Future
Indicative,
and all tenses of
the
Subjunctive
and
Imperative.
522. 3. The
Optative (without av)
denotes some-
thing merely
conceived or
supposed
( 517,
Obs.
2),
and
generally
can be
employed only
when the
Principal
sentence contains an Historical tense.
Every
verbal
form, however,
is
regarded
as an Histo-
rical tense which connects the action with the
past,
hence the Historical Present
( 487),
the Indicative of
the
Aorist,
the
Imperfect
and
Pluperfect.
A
Dependent
clause, moreover,
frequently
has the
Optative
when this mood occurs in the
Principal
sen-
tence.
523. 4. In indirect
speech (oratio obliqua)
the
Opta-
tive
(without av),
but
only
after an Historical
tense,
is
used to denote
something
which is to be
stated,
not as
the
opinion
of the
speaker,
but of another
person
: oi
'AOrjvaiot
Hepuc\ea
etcaKi^ov,
OTI
a-rparrjyb^
c!)v OVK
e7rea7ot
eVl TOL>?
TroXe/uou?,
the Athenians
reproached
Pericles because
being
a
general
he did not lead them out
against
the
enemy
[quod
non
duceret]
;
ev^avro a-wTrjpia
dvcreiv evda
Trp&rov
el<f
<fri\iav
yrjv
cupl/coiino, they
vowed
to
offer thank-offerings
whenever
they
should
first
come to
a
friendly
land
;
et
n<; woXi?
e-Trl TroXti/
arparevaoL,
eirt
526. MOODS IN DEPENDENT
ASSERTIONS,
ETC. 289
<f>r)
levai,
si
qua
civitas contra
[aliarn]
dvitatem
pnynatura
csset,
contra hanc se dixit iturum.
In this
case, however,
the Indicative also is admis-
sible
according
to
520,
but never the
Subjunctive
even
after a
Principal
tense,
its
employment being
limited to
the case mentioned in 527.
524. 5. The Potential
Optative (with av) may
occur
in
Dependent,
in the same sense as in
Independent,
sentences
( 516)
to denote
something
as
merely pos-
sible :
Xeyo),
OTL rovro OVK av
yevoiro,
I
say
that this
probably
could not
happen.
The further use of the Moods in
Dependent
sentences
is treated of
specially
in what follows
according
to the
different kinds of
Dependent
sentences.
I. MOODS IN DEPENDENT ASSERTIONS AND IN
DEPENDENT
INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.
525. Sentences
containing Dependent
assertions are
those which annex the substance of a
speech
or
opinion
to a
Principal
sentence
by
means of the
conjunctions,
on, d>9,
that
;
Dependent
or indirect
Interrogative
sen-
tences are connected with the
Principal
sentence
by
means of
el,
if; Trorepov...^ [utrum...an~\,
whether.,.or
(in
double
questions),
or
Interrogative
Pronouns
( 214)
or
Adverbs.
526. 1. The Indicative
is used in those
sentences,
which when conceived inde-
pendently
would have the
Indicative,
and thus
a)
when the
leading
sentence has a
Principal
tense
the
Indicative must be used
( 521)
: etVe
fioi,
rlva
yv(0fj,rjv
e'^et?,
tell
me,
what
opinion you
have
(direct
:
riva
<yva)fj,r)v
e^e<?)
[Lat.
die
mihi,
quam
sententiam
habeas]
;
b)
when the
leading
sentence has an Historical tense
the Indicative
may
be used
( 522):
eiTrov,
dixi
quam
sententiam haberem
;
u
290 MOODS
IN DEPENDENT
ASSERTIONS,
ETC. 527,
n<t,
ox?
'EXaieta /caret
\ij7rrai,
some one came
bringing
the news that JSlatea was taken
(direct:
'E\-
dreta
KaTei\i]7rrai).
Besides the
Indicative,
the
Optative
also is in this
case
admissible, 528,
a.
527. 2. The
Subjunctive
cannot occur at all in
Dependent
assertions,
and in
Dependent
Interrogative
sentences
only
if,
when con-
ceived as
independent, they
would
necessarily
have the
Subjunctive,
and thus
a)
when the
leading
sentence has a
Principal
tense
the
Subjunctive
must remain :
j3ov\evofj,cu,
TTOJ? ere
cnroSpw,
I am
planning
how to
escape from you (direct
according
to 511 :
7r&>9
o-e
avroSpw) [delibero, quo
modo
te
effugiam\
;
b)
when the
leading
sentence has an Historical tense
the
Subjunctive may
sometimes occur :
/3ov\ev6fj,rjv,
7reo9
o-e
aTToBpa)
;
but the
Optative
is more
frequent
in
this case than the
Subjunctive (
528,
b).
The Sub-
junctive
in
Dependent Interrogative
sentences accord-
ingly
is to be translated
by may
or shall.
528. 3. The
Optative (without av)
may
occur in such sentences :
a)
as a substitute
for
tJte Indicative
(
526,
5),
i. e.
when there is an Historical tense in the
leading
sen-
tence,
in case the
Dependent
sentence,
if conceived inde-
pendently,
ought
to have the Indicative :
GLTTOV,
ijvTiva
<yv<t>fj,T)v e^oifit (direct
:
el^ov) [Lat.
dixi,
quam
senten-
tiam
haberem]
;
eyvaxrav
OTI
Kevbs
6
<o/3o<? eiij, they
knew
that the
fear
was
groundless (direct:
6
</>o/3o9
tcevbs
rjv),
comp.
523.
b)
as a substitute
for
the
Subjunctive
(
527,
b),
i. e.
when an Historical tense occurs in the
leading
sen-
tence,
in case the
Dependent
sentence,
if conceived inde-
pendently,
ought
to have the
Subjunctive
:
c^ovkevo^v,
<re
aTroSpairjv (direct
:
TTW?
ere
aTroBpo)) [Lat.
delibe-
530. MOODS IN SENTENCES OF PURPOSE. 291
rabam,
quo
modo te
effugerem],
I was
reflecting
how 1
should
escape
you.
In the second case the
Optative
is to be translated
by
should.
Obs. "Which of the two
meanings belongs
to the
Optative
is
generally perceived
from the connexion
quite
as
easily
as in the
Latin nesciebat
quid faceret,
he knew not what he did or what
he should do.
529. The
Optative
as a substitute for the Indicative is found
also without a
Conjunction
in the continuation of a direct
speech
:
f\eyov
TroXXot,
ori navrbs ilf-ia
\eyti (
526
i), ^ft/woi/ yap f"[rj
Kdl
oucaSe dironXflv ov bvvarov
fir;, many
said that he
says
what is
worthy
of
the utmost
regard, for
that it was
winter,
and that it was
impossible
to sail home.
On the Infinitive in
assertions,
560. On the
Participle
in asser-
tions,
593.
Mixed
examples
:
Hvdayopas
6
"Zdfiios TrpwTos
ev
TOt9
f/
EX\77<r/ ToX/J,r](rev
elirelv,
OTI, TO
(J,ev
awu,a
redvij^erai ( 291),
rj
Se
dvaTrracra
(
316,
5) otyrjcrerai,
aOavaros
fcal a
Pythagoras
the Samian was the
first among
the Greeks
who ventured to maintain that the
body
will be
dead,
but the
soul,
flying upward,
will
depart
immortal and ever
young
;
e/itcTTO/cA.?}?
i/0?
ert wv
eXeyev,
<w<?
KaOevSetv avrov OVK
ewrj
TO TOV MtXrtaSou
Tpofraiov,
TJiemistocles,
when still
young,
used to
say,
that the
trophy of
Miltiades would not
let him
sleep
;
'Avropoi,
TOV
(
214,
Obs.
1) Trp&Tov
^vvcrdoj,
I am at a loss what to mention
first
;
ol
'EiTriBd/jivtot
TOV
Oeov
eTrrjpovro,
el
7rapa8oiev Kopwdtois
Tr/v TTO\IV,
the
Epidamnians
asked tJie
god
whether
they
should
give up
tJieir
city
to the Corinthians.
II. MOODS IN SENTENCES OF
PUEPOSE,
OB
FINAL SENTENCES.
530. Sentences which
express
an
object
or a
purpo&o
are introduced
by
the
Conjunctions
iva,
(Horn, ofypa),
&><?, OTTO)?,
in order
that,
that,
in order
to, p,^,
or
OTTCO?
prf,
'iva
jj,rj,
in order that not.
292 MOODS IN SENTENCES OF PURPOSE. 531
As such sentences
express something
which is ex-
pected
to
happen, they
take:
531. 1. The
Subjunctive
a) necessarily,
when the
leading
sentence has a Prin-
cipal
tense :
ei?
icaipbv %Ket$,
O7ro>9
TT?<> Siicr/s d/covcrrjc;,
you
have come at the
right
time to Jtear the trial
[in
tcmpore
ades,
ut causam
audias\.
b)
more
rarely,
when the
leading
sentence has an His-
torical tense:
ei?
Kaipov
77*69,
OTTO)?
TT}? SIKTJS a/coverts
[aderas
ut
audires]
; evr^Se?
o-e ovtc
fjyeipov,
'iva
&>9
7/Sicrra
Sidyys,
I
purposely
did not wake
you
thai
you
might pass your
time as
pleasantly
as
possible.
Obs. The
Conjunctions
a>s, OTTOS,
sometimes have av
(Horn. ,
KtV)
added to them in this sense : TOUT' avrb vvv
oi&a<rx,
OTTOJS
o.v
fKfiddo), explain
that
very thing
now that I
may
learn it.
The
purpose
is
thereby represented
as one whose attainment
depends
on conditions
(as here,
if
you explain it). Comp.
554 .
532. 2. The
Optative
as a
regular
substitute for the
Subjunctive ( 531,
b),
when the
leading
sentence has an Historical tense : eVi-
T^Se?
<re OVK
ijyeipov,
'iva
o><?
fjBiaTa
Sia
A
/ot9
;
I loin.
TuSet'Sj; Ato/i^Sei
IIaXXa9
'A^^j^
8cS/ce
fievos
xal
^apcro?
iv
e/c8?7\o9 fiera
Trdatv
'Apyeioiai yevoiro,
to
Tydidcs
TJiomedes Pallas Athene
gave strength
and
courage
that
he
might
be
distmguished among
all the
Argivcs
\I)iomedi
Minerva animos
dedit,
ut
insignis
foret
inter cunctos
Argivos],
Obs. The distinction between the
Subjunctive
and
Optative
in
sentences of
purpose
after an Historical tense consists in the
rarer
Subjunctive expressing
the sentence more as an
object
or
demand that
may
be
attained,
the
Optative,
more as the
thought
or
conception
of the
acting person (comp. 521, 522).
On the Future Indicative with
onus, 500,
553. On the
hypo-
thetical Indicative in Sentences of
Purpose,
500. Ou the
non-intended
consequence (war*),
565.
533. Sentences
expressive
of
fear
introduced
by prj (Lat. m),
or
pfj
ov
(Lat. ut)
follow the construction of sentences of
purjx>se
(comp. 512). They
have the
Subjunctive necessarily
when d
.
5:-.i. MOODS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 203
dent on a
Principal
tense: ov
(/>o/3et, p.rj fjbr) Trpta-fivrfpos fjs
;
doiyou
ti at
fear
to be
already
too old
[nonne
times,
ne aetate
proved
ior
sis]
I
The
Optative
is
commonly
used after an Historical tense :
e^o/SoiWo,
v?;
TI
irddoi, they feared
he
might suffer
somewhat
[verebantur
ne
quid
illi
accideret]
;
but not
unfrequently
also the
Subjunctive
: 01
'A&rjvaioi
rods
|u^a^ovs
eSeStWai/,
p.f]
aTrooTaxnv,
the Athenians
were alarmed lest the allies should revolt
(comp.
519, 5,
06s.
2).
06s.
fjifj
and OTTCO?
pf]
after verbs of
fearing
seldom have the
Future
Indicative,
oftener the Perfect Indicative when the fear
refers to a
completed
action :
<po^oi>fj.e0a, p.rj afj.<poTfpo>v ^/iaprij-
Kap(v,
we
fear
we have
failed
in both.
Mixed
Examples
:
rovro ov
Trporjpri^ai
\eyeiv,
"va ricrlv
V/JLWV
aTrejfjddva^^aL,
I have not chosen to
say
this in order to be
hateful
to some
of you
;
Ktyjo?
<>i\a)V wero
Seta-Bat,
&>?
crvvep'yovs e'^ot,
Cyrus thought friends necessary
that he
might
have
helpers
', AeSot/ca,
fj,r] e7ri\a0(i)/A0a TT}?
of/caSe
6SoO,
I am
afraid
lest ice should
forget
the
way
home
;
<E>tXt7T7ro5
ev
</>o/3<w TJV, jjirj
e/c(j)vyoi
ra
TrpdypaTa
avTOi
1
,
Philip
was in
fear
lest the
affairs might escape
him.
III. THE MOODS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES.
534. Conditional or
hypothetical
sentences
belong
to the Correlative sentences
(
519,
4).
The Protasis
states a condition under which
something
is to occur
;
the
Apodosis
states that
something happens
under a
certain condition. Both sentences
together
form a
Hypothetical
Period.
535. In the Protasis el
(Horn, at),
lav
(i.
e.
el-av),
contracted to
tfv,
or
av
(Horn,
el'
Ke-v), if,
are
employed
;
in the
Apodosis
the
particle
av is sometimes used to
show that it is true
only
under certain conditions.
In Greek there are
four principal
forms of the
Hypo-
thetical Period :
536. 1. in the Protasis et with the
Indicative,
in
the
Apodosis
the Indicative without
av,
or the
Impera-
tive.
294 MOODS
IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 537.
Tliis form of the
Hypothetical
Period is
employed
when the relation between
the Protasis and
Apodosis
is
to be
represented
as one
absolutely necessary,
actual,
without
any opinion being expressed by
the
speaker
as
to the
probability
or
improbability
of the case : el deol
elalv,
eart real
epya
Oewv,
if
tJiere are
gods,
there are ah*,
works
ofpods
;
<rol ei
Try
a\\.r) SeSo/crcu,
Xe'7e
Kal
BlSaG/ce,
if you
have
any different opinion, speak
and
explain.
Obs. All tenses
may
be used in this
form, consequently
also
Historical tenses.
If these latter
occur,
care must be taken not
to confound
this first
principal
form with the second :
e>)i>
ow
dnitvai (K
TT]s
TroXecos,
d
pf) fjpea-Kov
(rot 01
vopoi, you
were
free
to leave the
city, if
its laws did. not
please you (in
the
present
:
effort
ti
fir) aptffKov&i);
ft n TUIV fttovrtev
tirpa\6ri,
TOV
Kaipbv,
OVK
tfif (f>r)<riv
alnov
yfyfitrjaOai,
if anything ri<jht
was
done,
he
says
that the
occasion,
not
J,
was the cause. A sure
sign
of the
second
principal
form is the
particle
av in the
apodosis.
537. 2. in the
Protasis,
el with the Indicative of an
Historical tense
;
in the
Apodosis,
av with the Indicative
of an Historical tense.
This form of the
Hypothetical
Period is
applied
when
the relation between the Protasis and
Apodosis
is to be
represented
indeed as one
quite
necessary,
but at the
same time neither
of
them as real. The Indicative in
such conditional sentences is called tJie
Hypothetical
Indicative, which, therefore,
always
denotes the
opposite
to
reality (comp.
515).
In such Conditional
Sentences,
a sentence contra-
dictory
of the Protasis
may always
be
supplied
in
thought.
Hence the Protasis
may
have the
following
forms :
538.
a]
The
Imperfect
is used when a condition is
stated as not
existing
at
present:
el rov <bi\nr7rov ra
>LKaia
Trpdrrovra ewpwv, afaSpa
av
dav/j^acrrov r/yovprjv
O.VTOV,
if
I saw
(were
to
see) Philip acting justly,
Ishould
deem him
very
admirable. Here we
may oppose
to the
Protasis the
thought
vvv Se
ov% opw
TO, Sl/caia
541. MOODS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 2.95
rovra,
but now 2 see him not act
justly.
The verb of this
contradiction to be
supplied
is in the Present.
To this form
corresponds
in Latin the
Imperfect
Sub-
junctive
: si
viderem,
putarem.
539.
b)
The Aorist Indicative is used when a con-
dition is stated which did not take
place
in the
past
:
airedavov
av,
et
ftr) r/
rwv
rpuiKoina ap^rj
Kare\vdrj,
1
should have
died,
if
the
government of
the
thirty
had not
been overthrown.
Here we
may oppose
to the Protasis the
thought
KareXudt] Se,
but it was overthrown. The verb of this
contradiction to be
supplied
is in the Aorist.
To this form
corresponds
in Latin the
Pluperfect
Sub-
junctive
:
periissem,
nisi dominatio eversa esset.
540.
c)
The
Pluperfect
is used when a
non-completed
condition is stated : el rouro
a)fj,o\6yr)TO r^ilv,
pa8io><?
av
Sie^a-xof^eda,
if
in this we had been
agreed,
we should
easily
carry
the contest
through.
Here we
may oppose
to the Protasis the
thought
aXV
ov%
wfioKo^rai,
but we have not been
agreed.
The
verb of this contradiction to be
supplied
is in the
Perfect.
To this form
corresponds
in Latin the
Pluperfect
Sub-
junctive
: si inter nos convenisset.
541. The
Apodosis
to a
Hypothetical
Protasis of
tliis kind
may
have either the
Imperfect
or the Aorist
Indicative,
or the
Pluperfect
with av
[Horn, xe-v],
and
that
quite independently
as to which of the three tenses
occurs in the Protasis. In this
case, also,
the
Imperfect
corresponds
to the Latin
Imperfect Subjunctive;
the
Aorist and
Pluperfect,
to the Latin
Pluperfect
Sub-
junctive
: el Tore
e/3or)dijcrafj,ev,
OVK av
r)V(aj(\ei
vvv 6
Oi'XtTTTTo?,
if
we then had rendered
help Philip
would
not now be
troublesome;
et
avTap/crj
TO,
'^Tj^la-fiara fjv,
^iXtTTTTO? TtaXat av eSe8co/cet
Stfsrjv,
si
plebiscita
per
se
sufficerent,
Philippus
dudum
poenam
dcdisset.
2% MOODS IN CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 542,
542. Obs. 1. The
particle
av is sunu'tiincs omitted in the
apodosis
:
fia-)(\>v6^rfv,
el vno
irciXtpiov yf
OVTHS
f{-r)iraTJ]dr)v,
1 altoiJd
be
ashamed, if
1 hid been deceived
by
an
enemy.
543. Obs. 2. The
Imperfect
sometimes refers to a
past
time
when the continuance of ail action is to be made
particularly
em-
phatic
: ft TOUT* cVot'ft
(not iiroii)<rf v) tVcaoror,
ivliuav
uv,
if
each
had been
acting so, they
would be victorious. On the other
hand,
the Aorist is sometimes used
referring
to
present
time,
when the
rapid
commencement of an action is to be indicated : ei ris a-t
yptro,
ri av
airacpivu) (not antuplvov) ; if any
one asked
you,
what answer
would
you give
t
544-. Obs. 3. A
Hypothetical Apodosis may
stand
alone,
the
Protasis
being supplied
in
thought
or deduced from the context :
fjBf)v\6(j.T)v
up,
I should like
(t ebvvdfj.r)v, if
1
could,
dared)
',
fit'
OVTOVS TrdXat av
aTroXtoXftrf, you
would
long
since liave
tb*-ouyh yourselves (i.
e. if left to
yourselves).
545. 3. in the Protasis edv
(rjv,
av,
Horn, et
ice-v)
with the
Subjunctive ;
in the
Apodosis
the Indicative of
a
Principal
tense or the
Imperative.
This form of the
Hypothetical
Period is used to
express
or
prescribe something
in
regard
to a case that
is to be taken
for granted
and
expected.
It is admissible
only
in connexion with
present
and
future
time
( 521),
and is met with
chiefly
in maxims or
proverbs
: Bel
ra
fleXricrra
avrl ra>v
rj&ecov,
av
pr}
a-vva^orepa efj,
\afj,/3dveiv, you
must choose what is best rather than what
is
agreeable,
when both
together
are not
allowed;
av TCI.
7rape\-rf\.v66ra fwrjfiovevijs,
df^eivov
Trepl
TiC;
1
ue\\6vra)v
u\eixrei,
if you
remember the
past, you
will
judge
better
*bout the
future.
Obs. 1. The Aorist
Subjunctive
in such, conditional sentences
often comes
very
near to the Latin Future
Perfect
:
vtos av
iroyfjoys,
yfjpas f|etr tvdaXts,
si
juvenis laboraveris,
senectutcm
habebis
jucundam.
Obs.
2. We find *t with the
Subjunctive
in
Homer,
and occasion-
ally
also in Attic
writers,
in the same sense as
tdv,
d <"i> and d
Kt-v :
Soph. ai/Spa,
Ktl TIS
$ (ro(p<js,
TO
[tavQavtiv
TroXX',
altrxpbv
ov8ev, for
a
wan,
even
if
he is
wise,
to learn
much,
is no dis-
grace.
Obs. 3. The
Subjunctive
in. Conditional sentences is akin to the
MS.
MOODS IN CONDITIONAL
SENTENCES. 297
Subjunctive
of
Challenging ( 509).
The
speaker thereby puts
or demands an
assertion,
to
which,
for the
present,
he
requires
the hearer's assent : TOVTO fav
(r/coTrfjre,
e
vprja-fTf,
or Travrav
apiara ?x
et
> if you
consider this
you
will
find
that it is the best
of
all
;
which is almost identical with the
challenge
: consider
this,
&c.
[comp.
Lat. Naturam
expellas furca,
tamen
usque
recurref}.
In a similar
way
the
Imperative
sometimes takes the
place
of a
Hypothetical
Protasis : Poet. TrXovrei re
yap
KCLT
OIKOV,
(I
/3ovXei, p-eya
n.a\
f?) rvpavvov (TX^IP-' fX
COI
'>
e'"J/ S'
a-rfj
TovTotv TO
%aiptiv,
raXX'
eya>
KOTTVOV crKias OVK av
irpiaifjirjv,
for
be
rich, if you will,
at
home,
and live in the
splendour of
a
great
ruler;
but
if joy
le
wanting
to
it,
I would not
give
the
shadow
of
smoke
for
the rest.
(Comp. 549.)
546. 4. in the Protasis el with the
Optative
;
in the
Apodosis
av
(fce-v)
with the
Optative.
This form of the
Hypothetical
Period is
employed
intentionally
to
represent
what is said as
quite
uncertain,
as
merelypossible,
as a
merely
conceived case :
el'ri?
K&K.TI]-
Hevos el'rj
TT\OVTOV,
%/9&>TO
Se avrw
fir/,
ap
av
eu&u/ioz'Oi
;
should
any
one
possess
wealth and not make use
of
it
(suppose any
one
possessed),
would he be
happy
?
Comp.
516, 517,
Obs. 2. The Present or
Perfect Subjunc-
tive in Latin
corresponds
to this form: si
possideat (or
possederit)
,
num beatus sit ?
Obs. In Homer the Protasis of such a
period
also sometimes
has <(-v or av : fI rovrco K<
\dfiotfjitv, apoiptQd
Ktv K\tos
ecrff\ov,
if
we should
get
these
two,
we should
get glorious fame.
The
Attic writers
very rarely
use av in the Protasis.
547. Since et with the
Optative
intimates that a
thing
is
merely possible,
it
expresses
in reference to tho
past
what
possibly might
have
been,
i.
e.,
a
repeated
case
(comp.
494,
Obs.
1)
;
the
Apodosis
then
usually
has
the Indicative : et TTOV ee\avvot,
'Acrrvdyris,
e^>'
ITTTTOU
)(pvcro-^a\ivov Trepirjje
rov
Y^.vpov, if
ever
Astyages
rode
out
(might
ride
out)
he took
Cyrus
iviih him on a horse
with a
golden
bridle.
548. el with the
Optative
in the oratio
obliqua,
takes
the
place, according
to
523,
of et with the Ind.
(1),
208 MOODS IN CONDITIONAL
SENTENCES.
549
or eav with the
Subjunctive (3),
whon a
Hypothetical
sentence
depends
on a Historical tense :
r)8ei
KOpo?,
OTI
et TI
/Jtt^?;?
Tore
Serycrot,,
etc rwv
<f>i\.a)V
avTa>
-jrapaardra^
\nrrreov
etrj, Cyrus
knew
that,
if
ever
any
battle should
be
necessary,
lie would have to take his
supporters from
his
own
friends.
In direct
language, Cyrus
would
say,
fy
Tore
Sei]<Ty
or et Trore
Serfa-ei \tjTTTeov
eo-rt. It in its
relation to the time of the
governing
verb,
the condition
lies in the
Future,
the Future
Optative
is used. "We
seldom,
in this
case,
find edv with the
Subjunctive.
The
following general
remarks also are to be observed
in
regard
to Conditional sentences :
519. 1. The two members of a
Hypothetical
Period
are not so
dependent
on each
other,
as that the one
necessarily requires
a
special
form in the other. A
Protasis of one form
may,
on the
contrary,
be
joined
with the
Apodosis
of another form. It occurs
very
frequently
that a Protasis is in the first or third
form,
and the
Apodosis
in the
fourth,
in order to
represent
the
.Assertion which it contains as
merely possible
: ei rovrc
Xe'ya?,
a/iapraj/ot?
av,
if you
mean
this,
you
would be in
error;
eav
eOeX^a-rjre
Trpdrretv
a|/a)9 vfiwv avrwv,
wrw?
av
fieya
n
KT^craiade ayadov, if you
should be
disposed
to act in a manner
worthy of yourselves, you
would
perhaps
gain great good.
The connexion of a Protasis of the
second form with an
Apodosis
of the fourth is rare :
Horn. Kal vv KV evQ* aTroXotro
ava% avSpwv
AtVa'a9,
et
fj,rj
ap
ol~v vova'e Ato?
6vjdrijp 'A^poStny,
and now
assuredly
Aeneas,
ruler
of
men,
would there have
perished,
if
Zeus'
daughter Aphrodite
had not
kept
a
sharp
look
out.
550. 2. A
Hypothetical
Period
may partly
or
entirely
be in-
serted in another sentence. The most
peculiar,
in this
respect,
are
sentences
expressing
a
purpose,
when connected with Conditional
sentences : <t
yap &(f>t\ov
otoiYe dvai ol TroXXot ra
pty
terra KUKO
ffpyd(T0ai,
"iva olo'irf
rj<rav
av KOI
dyada
ra
pf-yiara,
I would that
ike
many
were
capable of doing
(to
a
man)
the
greatest evil,
in order
552.
MOODS IN RELATIVE SENTENCES. 299
that
they might
also on the other hand te
capable of
(effecting)
the
greatest good
(instead
of: for if
they
were
capable, they
would also
be
capable).
The
Hypothetical
Indicative here denotes the im-
practicable purpose ( 515, 537).
On the
Hypothetical Participle, 583,
595. On the
Hypothetical
Infinitive, 575,
&e.
Mixed
Examples.
Et VTTO
fyi\o)v
0e\i$
ayairacrOai,
TOU9 </Xov<?
evep-
yernreov, if you
wish to be loved
by your friends, you
must
benefit your friends
;
Et TO
e%eti>
om>9
wcnrep
TO
\ajjbj3dveiv ^v f)V,
TTO\V av
Stefapov evSaiftovla
ol TT\OV-
criot rtov
irvqr(ev, if having
were as siveet as
getting,
the
rich would be
greatly distinguished
above the
poor
in
blessedness
;
Poet. Ei Trdcrt ravro Ka\bv
ecfrv a-o<pov
&
au,a,
OVK
rjv
av
a//.0t'Xe/cro9 dv6pu>7roi<; ept,<$, if
the same
thing
were to all
beautiful
and
wise,
people
would have no
bitter
disputes
;
Tl\dr(ov
Trpos
TLVCL rwv
TralBwv,
/ie/iacrTt-
ryaxro
av,
(j>rj,
el
pr) utpji^o^v,
Plato said to one
of
his
servants,
you
would have been
flogged if
I were not
angry
;
'Eav
fjiev
n
vpZv
SOKOJ
aX^^e? \eyeiv, %vvofj,o\oyijcraTe, if
you
think I utter
any
truth,
agree
with me
;
El
avBpwv
dyaOwv yevoLro,
Trepi/^d^vrov
av
efy
TO
/xr/
w?7rep
vvvl TO
ap-)(eiv, if
there were a state
(consisting) of
good
men,
it would be an
object
of
contention to avoid
ruling (how
one
might
not
rule),
as now to
rule;
'Hi>
TV
(rrpa'TLwrwv
So7/za,
et
Ti9,
OTTOTe
^
arparta
eioi,
ISia
\r)ioiro, 8?7/iocrta
elvat ra
\rjcj)devra,
it was a decision
of
the
soldiers,
if,
when the
army
went
out,
any
one took
booty by himself,
what he took was common
property (direct
eav
\r)L^rjrai S^ocria
e'o~T&>).
IV. THE MOODS IN EELATIVE SENTENCES.
551. Relative sentences are those which are con-
nected with others
by
means of Relative
pronouns
(
213, 214,
216),
or Eelative adverbs
( 217).
552. In Relative sentences all moods are
possible
in
the same
meanings
as in
independent
or
hypothetical
'00 MOORS IN IIKI.ATIYK SENTENCE?.
:
cnccs : OVK
e^o>
6 ri
irpwrov
Xa'/3ro,
I have
(know
what I shall ialee
first (
511,
coinp. 527)
;
opw
ere &KO-
Kovra wv
/*?;
r^yoi?,
I see
you pursuing
ivliat,
I
pray, you
mat/
not
attain;
(
514) ; tyiet?
eore
Trap'
wv av Ka\\icrra.
rt<?
TOI/TO
/xa#ot, yow
are
/i<?y /row
w/ww
any
one
might
best learn this
( 516);
OVK
tjdeX.ov \eyeiv
TT/JO? ty^a?
roiaOra ot' av
V/M,V ij^icrr' fjv axoveiv,
I did not wish to
*'iy
to
you
such
things
as
might
be
pleasantest
to
you
to
hear.
Comp.
544.
Obs.
Sometimes,
especially
in the
Poets,
Relative sentences have
the
Optative
without av in an indefinite
assertion, very
much
like the
potential Optative
with &v : tv
no\is
crr^o-fie,
rovS.
Xpq
K\v(iv,
whom the State
may appoint,
him we must listen to
(comp. 517,
06s.
2).
553. On the Future Indicative in Relative sentences
expressive
of
purpose,
see 500.
OTTW?, how, that,
in
order
that,
very frequently
has the Future Indicative
(yet, according
to
531,
also the
Subjunctive
of other
tenses)
after verbs which denote
looking after, caring for,
striving, avoiding
:
OTcoTret,
oTTto?
ra
TrpdyfAara
atad^a-erai,
see that the
affairs (the state)
shall be
safe
;
Set e'/c
Traz/ro?
rpoTTOV
airavra
avSpa,
TOVTO
7rapacr/ceuaeo-#at,
OTTO? &><?
a-o<f>(t)Ta,To<>
ecTcu,
every
one
ought
to take care in
every
way
to
(that
he
shall)
become as wise as
possible.
Obs. OTTCOS is often used in
challenges
and
warnings
in such a
manner that the
governing
sentence has to be
supplied
:
orrcas
irapecrd
els
TTJV f(rrrfpav,
that
you
shall be here
for
the
evening
(more completely
somewhat like : crKOTrei
OTTW?,
see th>it
you,
&c.) ;
OTTO)?
Trepl
TOV
iro\fpov p.rj8tv fpfls,
that
you
shall
say
nothing
about the war
(supply something
like :
^uXarrou,
take
care).
554. The
particle
av
(Horn, ice-v)
is added to the
Relative when the Relative sentence
expresses
some-
thing merely
conceived,
so that the assertion contained
in the
leading
sentence is true
only
when what is asserted
in the Relative sentence
really
occurs. Such a Rela-
tive is called a
Hypothetical
Relative. The
Hypothetical
?
555.
MOODS IN RELATIVE SENTENCES. 301
Relative with av in
general
is used
only
where the vert
in the
leading
sentence is in &
principal
tense,
and is then
accompanied
by
the
Subjunctive.
Such a Kelative sen-
tence
may easily
be
changed
to a
Hypothetical
sentence
of the third form
( 545)
: irav o n, av
fj,e\\rj<; epeiv
Trporepov
eTTicncoTrei
rfj yv(i)fj,y,
whatever
you may
be abou'
to
say (
=
edv n
epeiv
/ze\\?7?),
examine it
first
in
your
mind
;
in which it is left
quite
undecided,
whether one
wishes to
say anything
;
e7recr#e
077-77
av
rt<;
far/Tat,
folloio
wherever
any
one
may
lead
you
(=
lav
rt?
TTI,
i}jr}rai),
where
you
must first wait to know whether
any
one leads.
Obs. 1. As the Relative is
generalised by
the addition of
av,
it
may
often in
English
be translated
by
ever
(Lat. cunque)
: 6s
av TOVTUV TI
Spa Tf6vara>, quicunque
Jiorum
aliquid fecerit,
perito
;
Xeye
o<r av
6e\rjst say
whatever
you
wish
(comp.
(dv
n
6f\T)S Xe-ye).
06s. 2.
In the same sense the Poets use the
Subjunctive
with a
Relative without av
(or (ce'-j/)
: TU>V 8e
wrjfJ.ov(ov /xdXtora
XvTroCcr'
ai
(f>av><r avdaipfroi,
the
sufferings afflict
most which
appear
self-caused (comp.
tl with the
Subj., 545,
07;s.
2).
Homer
has also the Fut. Ind. with xe and the Relative
(
500
Oks.).
555. If the verb in the
leading
sentence is an His-
torical tense or an
Optative,
the Relative without av
with the
Optative
is
used,
quite
in the same
sense,
as a
substitute for the
Subjunctive (
522,
523).
These
Relative sentences take the
place
of those mentioned in
554,
in the same
way
as the
fourth
kind of Con-
ditional sentences takes the
place
of the third
( 548)
:
Ke\eva-v avTots
eTrecrdcu,
OTTOI
rt?
^yolro,
he bade them
follow
wJierever
any
one
might
lead. Thus we read in
Homer : ov Be tc
eyoiv
aTrdvevde
^u^ns
IdeXovra
voijcra)
,
ov oi GTreira
apKiov
ecrcreZrat
(friryeeiv
/cvvas
r)&
ix;,
but whomsoever I
may
see inclined to remain
away
from
the
battle,
to him there shall be no
security of
escaping
dogs
and birds
(i.
e.,
death),
but : ovriva
pev ftao-i\ija
Kal
e^oxpv avSpa Ki^eirj,
TOV S'
dyavois
eireevcnv
epnrv-
eracr/ce,
but whatever
(where a) king
or
prominent
man Ja
302 MOODS IN TEMPORAL SENTENCES.
might
meet
with. him lie soothed with
gentle
words. Jloin.
o>9
aTroXoiTo teal
oX\o9
o
Tt9
rotavrd
j pe^oi,
so
may any
other
perish
who shall do such
things (but
09
av
pefy
Obs. 1. This
Optative
often
implies repetition,
Zvriva
KX"?>
a*
often
as he
miyht find
one
( 547).
Obs. 2. The
Subjunctive
and the Relative with av occur
only
exceptionally
after an Historical
tense,
and the
Optative
with
the Relative and
av,
in the same case
(comp. 546,
Obs.).
V. THE MOODS IN TEMPORAL SENTENCES.
556.
Temporal
Sentences,
i. e. those which indicate
time,
are
properly only
a
particular
kind of Relative
sentences,
and follow them almost
entirely
in the use of
the Moods. The
particles
of time
employed
in such
sentences,
are :
eVei, eVetS/;,
to?
(when, after, as)
; ore,
oVoTe,
qvitca,
when,
as
/ eo>9, esre,
pe^pi-?,
till
',
irpivi
before
;
in Horn,
o^pa,
as
long
as,
till
;
97/^09,
wJien
;
and
besides the Relative
expressions: d<f>
ov,
e'f
ov,
since
;
ev
a>,
whilst
;
ctXP
1
^' ^
>
un^'
In these sentences the Indicative is used when
any-
thing
actual is
stated;
the
Optative may supply
the
place
of the Indicative in indirect
speech
after an His-
torical tense
( 522).
557. When a
Temporal
sentence states
something
merely
conceived,
occurring only conditionally,
the
par-
ticle of
time,
like the
Relative,
has av
(/ce-v) joined
to it
( 554).
This occurs
usually only
when the
leading
sentence has a
principal
tense,
and the
Subjunctive
must
then follow.
By
combination with
av,
are formed the
Hypothetical particles
of time :
orav, oirorav, eiredv,
or
eTTTJv,
eireiSdv ', Trei$av Trdvra
aKovcr^Te,
Kpivare,
wJien
ye
have heard
all,
judge;
e&>9
av
a-cafyrai
rb
ovea(o9,
Tore
ftp})
Kal
Kv^epvJJTTjv
teal irdvr
avSpa Trpodvpovs
elvai,
as
long
as the vessel is
safe,
the
sailor,
the
pilot,
and
every
one
ought
to be zealous.
Obs. Here also av is sometimes
wanting ( 5'54,
Obs,
2).
558.
MOODS IN TEMrOBAL SENTENCES. 303
558. If tlie
leading
verb is in an Historical
tense,
the
particle
of time with the
Optative
without av occurs in
the same sense :
eXeyev
on,
eVetr> iravra
dfcovaeiav,
voiveiav.
Obs. 1.
Here, too,
the
Optative
often
implies repetition (comp.
554, Obs.,
and
547),
so that
ore, onoTt,
eirti with the
Optative may
be translated
by,
"
as often
as,"
"
whenever :"
onoTf ol
*E\\r)V(s
rots
iroXepiots
firioiev,
paSiooj dirffavyov,
as
often
as the Hellenes went
up
to the
enemy,
the latter
readily
fled.
Obs. 2.
Here, too, exceptionally,
av and the
Subjunctive
some-
tunes occur after an Historical tense
( 555,
Obs.
2).
On
irplv
with the
Infinitive,
565.
Mixed
Examples of
Relative and
Temporal
sentences.
"T/j,ei<?
Trdvra \o
i
yicrdfj,evoi
ravra
^eipoTOveW^,
6 ri av
vp,lv Sotcy p,d\i<TTa
avfj,(f)epiv
TTJ 7r6\ei,
after having
weighed
all
this,
vote
for
what
you
think will most
benefit
the state
;
Ol TWV
ftapfidpwv
iV-Tret?,
WTIVI
evrvj-^dvotev
E>A?7vt,
irdvras
e/crewov,
the
cavalry of
the
barbarians,
whatever Greek
they
met,
killed them
all;
Me^/o/?
av
ey&> rjicw,
al cnrov^al
ftevovrcov,
till I
come,
let the
treaty
remain;
Poet.
M^TTOT' eTrawrjcrris,
irpiv
av
elSfjs
avSpa cra<f)r]va)s, opjrjv
ical
pvd/^ov
Kal
rpoirov
oVri?
av
77,
never
praise
a man
before you clearly
know his
temper,
and
bearing,
and character
;
'ETmS?;
rt
e^ayoiev,
dvlaTavro
Kal
ejTopevovro, after having
eaten
something, they
rose and
proceeded;
'O
^atKpar^f
TOV? <rvv6vras
etroiei ov
/JLOVOV
OTTOTe V7TO T(t)V
dvdp(i)7T(i)V OpWVTO, dlTe^aOat,
TWV d&lK(t)V
Kal
ala"xpojv,
d\\a Kal OTTOTC ev
epn^ia
elev,
Socrates
caused his
disciples
to abstain
from
what was
unjust
and
shameful,
not
only
ivhen
they
were seen
by
men,
but also
when
they
were in
solitude.
SOI THE INFINITIVE. 559
CHAP. XXII. THE INFINITIVE.
A)
TJie use
of
the
Infinitive generally.
559. 1. The Infinitive is a verbal noun
(
225,
5)
which,
as
such,
has certain
properties
in
common with a
verb,
others with a noun.
^'ith a noun the Infinitive
agrees
a)
in
expressing
the action of a verb in
general,
like
the nomina actionis
( 342):
iroietv,
Trpdrreiv, doing;
comp.
7roi?7<r9,
Trpa^t?.
b)
in the fact that it
may
have the article like nouns :
TO
"Troielv,
TO
Trpdrretv,
the
doing; comp. 17 Tro/^crt?, rj
With the
verb,
on the other
hand,
the Infinitive
agrees
a)
in its
power
of
denoting
different times:
Troielv,
Troirjcrai, TreTroirjtcevai,
and of
being
formed from the
Active,
the
Middle,
and the Passive :
iroirja-ai, iroujcra-
adai, Troiwdfjvai.
b)
in
being occasionally joined
with
av,
and
thereby
sharing
the functions of mood
(
575,
&c.).
c)
in
governing
the same case as the verb .to which
it
belongs
: troietv ra
Beovra,
doing your duty
;
xpfjaOai
roi9
oTrXoi?,
making
use
of
arms.
d)
in
being qualified,
like the finite
verb,
by
adverbs,
never
by adjectives:
/raXw?
Trpdrreiv,
doing nobly,
but
Ka\r]
7T/3a^t?,
a noble action.
2. The Infinitive is used
very extensively
in Greek.
Very
often,
besides the more definite mode of
expres-
sion,
by
means of a
Conjunction
with a
finite verb,
the
less
definite,
by
means of the Infinitive is admissible.
560. The Infinitive serves to
complete
and
qualify
different sorts of
verbs,
viz. :
l. those which
express
the
occasion,
capability,
modality
of an action : Buvavrai direkOelv,
they
can at
562. THE INFINITIVE.
305
away
;
fieityv
n
eyei
elirelv,
Tie has
something greater
to
say (can say)
;
Poet. OVTOI,
crvve^deiv
aXXo,
a-v/j,(f>i\eiv
e<f)vv,
I am born not to
join
in
hating
but in
loving
;
ap%o-
aai
\ejeiv,
I
begin
to
speak
;
eTrtTpeTrco
aoi Trocelv 6 ri av
/3ov\rj,
I leave
you
to do whatever
you
wish
;
2. such verbs as denote
appearance, perception,
opinion
:
So/eels
duaprelv, you
seem to have erred
;
3. such verbs as denote
striving
after
something,
im-
pelling
towards,
or
frightening, deterring, preventing,
something
:
^
crrreOSe
TrXovrelv,
do not hasten to be
rich
;
Horn. /eeXecu
p,e /jLvOrfcraadai, you
bid me to
speak
;
Trdvres
aiTovvTai,
row Oeovs
rd
$av\a diroTpeTreiv,
omnes homines
precantur
deos,
ut mala avertant
;
foftov-
fwi
Sie\eyxeiv
ere,
I am
afraid of refuting you
;
e\e<yov
aoi
firj ryafjueiv,
dixi
tibi,
ne uxorem duceres
;
T/?
avrov
Kw\v(rei
Sevpo
/3a8leiv ;
quis
eum
impediet, quominus
hue veniat ?
ave{3d\\To pot
BidX-e^d^vai,
he
put off
con-
versing
with me.
561. Even the
purpose
of an action
may
be ex-
pressed by
the mere
Infinitive,
as in
English by
the
Infinitive with to or in order to:
'ilevofy&v
TO
TOV
(7rparev/j,aTo<;
Kare\nre
(f)v\drTiv
TO
Kenophon left half
the
army
behind to
guard
the
camp
;
rrape^d)
efjiavrov
rw
iarp> re/j,veiv
teal
Kaletv,
I
give
myself up
to the
physician
to cut and burn
(me)
;
iritlv
StSovai,
TIVI,
to
give any
one
(something)
to drink.
Ols. Not
only
with verbs of this
kind,
but also with those men-
tioned in
5GO,
this Infinitive has a much wider
application
in Humor :
dpia-rfvta-Ke paxecrdai,
he used to be the
first
in
fighting
;
eio-l xai o18e ru'S'
elirf^tv,
these
too, then,
are
(able)
to
say
this;
/3f) Itvai,
he started to
go; {-we^Ke pa^firdai,
he
urged (them)
to
fujlit.
5G2. The Infinitive serves to
complete
or
qualify
adjectives
of different
kinds,
partly
in the sense of the
English
Infinitive with
to,
partly corresponding
to the
Latin
supine
in u:
^a\e7rov evpelv,
difficult
to
find
[diffi-
cile
inventu~\
;
oltcia
jy8i'<m; evBiaiTaaQai,
a house
very
X
COG THE INFINITIVE.
563.
pleasant
to live in
;
ato<?
eon
7r\nyd$ \aj3eiv,
he deserves
to
get
blows
;
o^vraroi
eVre
yvwvai
rd
ptjdevra, you
are
very
Jccen in
perceiving
what is said
;
Beivot
\ejeiv,
powerful
in
speaking
;
6
xpuvos j3pa%v<;
a/&>9
^iny^a-a-
trOat TO,
Trpa^Oevra,
the time is short
for worthily
nar-
rating
what has
happened.
Obs. In Homer such Infinitives are
particularly frequent:
/iya
KOI
i<r<Toptvouri irv0f<rdm, great
also
for
pottcrity
to /
dfitiv
avtpouiiv ofjLoioi,li/ce
the winds in
running
;
so with somo
substantives :
davpa lotadai,
a wonder to see.
On
olos, olosrt,
and
oo-or,
with the
Inf.,
001.
5G3. The
Infinitive,
as in
English
and
Latin,
is
used as the
Subject
of a sentence to which the
predicate
is a neuter
adjective,
a
substantive,
or an intransitive
verb : Tracnv aSelv
^aXe-jrov,
to
please
all is
difficult
;
KivSvvos
eo-Ttv
rjTraadai,
tJtere is
danger of being
worsted
;
<rbv
epyov \eyetv, speaking
is
your
business.
5G4. The infinitive is used in a freer
way,
without
depending
on a
particular word,
with and without the
particle o>s,
in several
phrases
almost like a free Accusative
( 404)
: us
tltrtlv,
so to
speak
;
e'/io!
SoKflv,
as seems to me
;
6\iyov
8dv,
almost
;
TO vvv tlvai
t for
the
present;
Kara TOVTO
tlvat,
in this
respect.
On fKW
eivat, 570,
Obs.
565. The
Conjunctions
wsre,
so
that;
irpi'v, before,
and its Homeric
synonym Trapo*;,
are
joined
with the
Infinitive :
^iXo/ia^ecrraTO? rjv
6
KOpo?,
akre
irdvra
TTOVOV
dvar\r)vai
rov eTraivelcrdat
eve/co,,
Cyrus
icas
very
fond
of learning,
so as to endure
any
trouble
for
the sake
of being praised; irpiv ryv
dp^v opOax;
V7ro0ea-dai,
paTaiov rjyovfji,at irepl
TT}? re\evrij<j
ovrivovv TroielaGai
\oyov, before properly establishing
the
foundation
I deem
it useless to make
any
words whatever about tJie end.
Obs. 1. These
conjunctions may
also be
joined
with the finite
verb
(comp. 556)
;
wore with the Indicative
represents
a
sentence as an actual
consequence
more
independent
and
by
itself,
and
may accordingly
be often translated
by therefore^
hence: ds
rty
vortpaiav
oi/%
fi
KfV
>
&J0* of 'E
567.
THE INFINITIVE. 307
he came not on the
following day, therefore
the Hellenes became
Obs. 2. For
trpiv
we also find
irpiv fj. pnus-quam; properly
irpiv,
when it means sooner
than,
is
always
to be
regarded
as an
abbreviation for
irpiv fj, irpiv originally answering entirely
to the
Latin
prius.
On the Infinitive after
fj, than,
see the
following
.
On '<'
WT6,
on condition
tliat,
with the Infin. 601.
566. After a
comparative
the Infinitive is
preceded by fj
a>sre or
fj
alone in the sense of than that :
(poftovpai. pf)
ri
}itl.ov rj
cojrc
(peptiv
fivvaadai KCIKOV
rfj
rroXet
(jv/x/3^,
2
fear
lest too
great
an evil
s/tould
befall
the state
for
it to be able to bear
(greater
than that it
should be
able).
On the Genitive of the Infinitive with the
Article,
which also is
possible here, 574, 3,
Obs.
B)
The case
of
the
Subject
and Predicate with the
Infinitive.
567. The
Subject
of the Infinitive is that word from
^hich the action of the verb in the Infinitive
proceeds.
\Vhen the
Subject
is to be
expressed
with the Infinitive
it
appears
:
1. most
generally,
as in
Latin,
in the
Accusative,
which
gives
rise to the construction of the Accusative with the
Infinitive
:
tfyyeiXav
TOV
Kvpov
viK^ja-ai,
nuntiabant
Cyrum
vicisse. The use of the Accusative with the
Infinitive,
like that of the Infinitive alone
(
559,
etc.),
is more common in Greek than in Latin. Not
only
can the substance of a statement or
perception
which,
however,
may
be also
expressed
in one of the forms dis-
cussed
5j?5,
etc. be
given
in this
construction,
but
also the effect and
consequence
of an action. Hence
the Accusative with the Infinitive also occurs after
verbs of
happening,
and is admissible after verbs of com-
manding, demanding, forbidding
:
iravre^
6/jLo\oyova-i
rr/v o^ovoLav peyiaTov ayaOov
elvai,
all
agree
that concord
is a
very great good
;
a-vveflr) pr/Beva
rwv
crrpaT^yMv
trapelvai,
it
happened
that none
of
the
generals
ivas
pre-
sent
;
ejpa-^ra
airoTrXeiv
7r/v
ra^la-rr/v
rov<?
7rpe<7/3ei9
:
proposui
ut
quam
celerrime
legati
proficiscerentur.
308 T:IE INFINITIVE. :i6i
Tlic Accusative with
the Infinitive is
properly dependent
on the
verb of the
leading
sentence
(com p.
the Knidish : 1 hear
you
sin<_r,
I bid
yon go),
and ia
explained by
the
prolepais
mentioned
in
519, 5,
06s. 2. Instead of
fjyydXav
on 6
VLvpas jviitrja-fv,
we
might
have:
ijyyti\av
rov
Kvpov
ort
tviKrjfffv;
sind for on
ivl<i](T(v, viKija-at,
according
to
5GO,
2
;
thus we obtain
fjyy(i\av
rov
Kvpov viKijcrai.
If the
governing
verb is intransitive or
passive,
the Accusative is of a freer kind
( 404)
: (\nis <rr
navra K<I\U>S
<x
f
"'>
there *s
ho}>e
that all is well.
Obs. 1. The
impersonal
verbs Set and
\P^
*' **
necessary,
arc
joined
with the
Accusative and InGnitive like the Latin
oporlet
:
Xpf) ro\fj,av xaXfTroiaiv
ev
Xyf<rt K(ip.(vov ai>8pa,
the man Ihdt
lit'S in
painful sufferings
ow/Jit
to be
courageous.
(
)ls. 2.^Ap n continuation of
an Accusative with the Infinitive
the same construction
may
he
employed
in indirect
speech
in
Relative sentences and sifter
Conjunctions, denoting
time and
circumstances' : x/nuV tirra
en/ms ((j)rj &it\tx6tirraflftKU'
eVtl
&(
yfi>f<ifl<n
(TTi
Tfi ttKtq TT,
^Ayddavos, avt(pyfi.ivt)v
KaraXafifidytur
TJJV 6vpm
,
fie ii<< that
after
such conversation
they
went
;
but
that when
they
t cached
Atjuflion's house, theyfound
the door
open.
5G8. 2. A Predicate
referring
to such a
must
necessarily
Le in the Accusative: rov a&ucov KOI
Trovrjpov aibpa <^)'//u/
aO\iov
elvai,
I maintain that the
unjust
and lad man is
miserable.
Not
nnfreqnciilly
a Predicative
expression requires
an indefinite
Subject
(TWO)
to be
supplied:
ra roiavra
ti^ecrrt (nva) yu,67 prjcravra
teal
aptB^cravra
flbivat,,
one
may
know such,
things by measuring
and
counting.
5G9. 3. When the
Subject
of an Infinitive is tla
same as that
of
the
leading
sentence,
it is
usually
not
expressed
at all:
vo^l^w
veviKnvevai,
puto
me
viasse,
2
think I have
conquered
; eXTrt'^et? Tev^eadai
cov av
Serj,
you hope
to obtain u'hat
you
need
;
vTrea^ero irapiaeadai
els
TTJV
ecnrepav, promisit
se
affuturum
ad
vesperam.
Obs. For
greater emphasis, especially
when
opposition
to some-
thing
else is to be
expressed,
the
subject maybe
added,
and that
either in the Accusative or Nominative : Herod, of
Alyinmot
eVo-
p.iov ((ovTuusnpuTovsyfVfa'dui dvdpoiTrwv,
the
Egyptians thought
that
theyfirst of
all men came into exiRtcnc.e
;
floir6f \d\Ki8fat
5
Mryaptas
T^'EXXuSa
ffwirfiv,
vue't.? 8(
anoSpufffffdai
ra
Trp-iy
571. THE INFIXITIYE. 309
fjLara,
OVK
optiws
olfcrdt, if you
tliink tlie Clialcidians and
Mcya-
rians will save
Greece,
lut
you escape from trouKe, you
art
mistaken.
570. 4. Predicative
qualifications referring
to the
Principal
Subject
are in the Nominative : 6
'AA,e'fai/8po<?
fycMTfcev
elvai
Ato9
uto9,
Alexander dicebat se esse Jovis
fililim
;
670)
OVK
6fj,o\oyija-w
a/cX^ro? tficciv,
aXX' UTTO crov
KeK\r)/j,evos,
I will not
acknowledge
that I am come unin-
vited,
but invited
by you;
ol
Bo/covvre<;
cro^oi
etvai,
they
who seem to be wise.
OZs. From the Predicate IKU>V
joining
the freer Infinitive
( 564),
arises the combination exui/ dvat : TOVTO tK<av flvai ov
,
this
(if
I
am)
to l>e
offree
will Iwill not do.
571. 5. In
many
cases a
personal
instead of an
impersonal
form of
expression
is used in
Greek,
the
Subject
of the Infinitive
being
made the
Subject
of the
leading
sentence
;
so instead of the
English,
"
it was
announced that
Cyrus
had
conquered
"
(^77^X^77
rov
Kvpov vucrjcrai,),
we
have,
o
KO^o?
ijyye\6r) vi/criaai,
Cyrus
was announced to have
conquered.
This form of
expression
occurs not
only
as in Latin with
dicitur,
videtur with
So/ce?, eot/ce,
it
seems;
Xeyercu
[dicitur,
traditur]
;
ayy&Xerat,,
it is announced
;
o^oko^elrai,
it is
agreed,
but also with
o-v/jifiaivei,
it
happens,
and with
several
adjectives
with
et'/u,
as:
Si'/ccuo?,
just;
Seio?,
e7rta//3to9,
fitting
;
cTrt'So^o?, probable
;
necessary
:
auro?
/tot
So/cco evddSe
Karapeveiv,
it
appears
to me that I
myself
shall remain here
;
Slicaios
el
ayeiv
dvOpwTTovs,
it is
just
that
you
should lead men
(you
are
justified
in
leading men)
;
eV/Sofot
elcn TO avro Tretcre-
o-Oai,
it is to be
expected
that
they
will
suffer
the same
;
Poet.
TrpeTTMv
e<u9
irpo
rwv^e
(jxaveiv,
it becomes
you
to
speak
in their
presence.
The Personal construction is
explained,
like that of
the Accusative wit