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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND BUILD ENVIRONMENT


PREPARED BY
ALI AKRAM SABER (P71082)
ALI EMAD JEHAD (P71084)
HAITHAM THAMER ISMAEL (P71057)
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CONTENTS:-
The Subject Page no.
INTRODUCTION 4
PROBLEM STATEMENT 5
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY 5
INTERSECTIONS 5
AREA OF STUDY 6
STUDY METHODOLOGY 7
INTRODUCTION 7
MANUAL TRAFFIC VOLUME COUNTS METHOD 8
CAPACITY/SATURATION FLOW RATE 9
DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM CYCLE TIME 11
INTERSECTION 1 11
INTERSECTION 2 12
OVERALL ARCHITECTURE OF THE SYSTEM 13
THE ARCHITECTURE VIEW OF ITS 14
THE ITS ARCHITECTURE IS COMPRISED OF THREE
LAYERS
15
LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE 17
PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE: 19
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHYSICAL & LOGICAL
ARCHITECTURE:
21
ADAPTIVE TRAFFIC CONTROL 21
ADAPTIVE TRAFFIC SIGNAL CONTROL (ATSC) 21
OPERATIONS OF ADAPTIVE SIGNAL CONTROL 22
SCATS - THE BENCHMARK IN URBAN TRAFFIC
CONTROL
22
3

HOW SCATS WORKS? 23
WHY YOU SHOULD CHOOSE SCATS FOR YOUR TOWN
OR CITY?
25
THE SMART SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM 28
TRAFFIC SURVEILLANCE CAMERAS 30
PROPOSED (ITIS) IN KAJANG 30
ITIS BENEFITS 32
PUBLIC TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 33
VARIABLE MESSAGE SYSTEM (VMS) 35
PORTABLE DYNAMIC MESSAGE SIGNS 36
COMMUNICATION SYSTEM 37
What Does the ITS Communications Office Do? 38
THE SERVICE PROVIDED TO DRIVERS INCLUDES: 38
ALERT PAGING SYSTEM 39
CABLE TV 40
TRAVELERS ADVISORY RADIO SYSTEM 40
ESTIMATED COST OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEM 41
CONCLUSION: 42
REFERENCES 43






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INTRODUCTION
Kajang is a town in the eastern part of Selangor, Malaysia. Kajang is
the district capital of Hulu Langat. It is located 21 kilometers (13 mi) from
Malaysia's capital, Kuala Lumpur.
The current locational gravity of growth in Kajang would be Sungai Chua.
The total population of Kajang has grown rapidly in the past few years, with
estimated population growth of 9% per annum. The soon-to-be-realized Klang
Valley MRT station in Bandar Kajang will boost the property value in Sungai
Chua.
As of 2004, a few townships have been developed in Kajang, such as
Taman Prima Saujana (straight from Jalan Cheras), Sungai Chua, Taman
Kajang Perdana (Kajang Highlands). Lately, many high-end developments has
mushroomed in Kajang such as Twin Palms, Sri Banyan, Country Heights, Jade
Hills and Prima Paramount.
Areas surrounding these new townships are easily accessible via the
SILK Expressway. Kajang is governed by the Majlis Perbandaran Kajang.

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PROBLEM STATEMENT:
The traffic at the intersection during peak hours is regularly and very
crowded as results to the huge number of cars reaching the carrying capacity of
the road. Long queues at the intersections are another problem facing traffic
stream. Also the increasing in growth population and number of condominiums
that inhabited by foreign students those came from different countries, will also
increase number of cars that will run all streets of Kajang additional to the local
PEPOLE.
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY:
An alternative solution will be presents to solve out the traffic jam at the
intersection during peak hours.
The capacity of the will increase and the movement of vehicles will
become a streamline and more fluent.
Deploy ITS technologies (VMS, CCTV, Communication System, etc.) to
ease traffic stream and movement among the city-centers.
Decrease travel time from residential area to the commercial area for
example from Pearl Avenue to Kajang Town to the half at least people.
INTERSECTIONS:
Intersections are an important part of the highway system. The operational
efficiency, capacity, safety, and cost of the overall system are largely dependent
upon its design, especially in urban areas. The primary objective of intersection
design is to provide for the convenience, ease, comfort, and safety of those
traversing the intersection while reducing potential conflicts between vehicles,
bicycles, and pedestrians.


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AREA OF STUDY:-
To study the traffic condition in Kajang we propose three intersections as
to represent Kajang city, one intersection that located in residential area (Taman
Sepakat Indah), the other two are located in the heart of Kajang city (Sungai
Chua), represented an offset successive intersections.



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STUDY METHODOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
Traffic volume studies are conducted to determine the number,
movements, and classifications of roadway vehicles at a given location. These
data can help identify critical flow time periods, determine the influence of large
vehicles or pedestrians on vehicular traffic flow, or document traffic volume
trends. The length of the sampling period depends on the type of count being
taken and the intended use of the data recorded. For example, an intersection
count may be conducted during the peak flow period. If so, manual count with
15-minute intervals could be used to obtain the traffic volume data.

Optimization Procedure

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MANUAL TRAFFIC VOLUME COUNTS METHOD
Most applications of manual counts require small samples of data at any
given location. Manual counts are sometimes used when the effort and expense
of automated equipment are not justified. Manual counts are necessary when
automatic equipment is not available.
Manual counts are typically used for periods of less than a day. Normal
intervals for a manual count are 5, 10, or 15 minutes. Traffic counts during a
Monday morning rush hour and a Friday evening rush hour may show
exceptionally high volumes and are not normally used in analysis; therefore,
counts are usually conducted on a Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday.



Intersections Layout



9


Phase
No. of
Lanes
Saturation Traffic
Flow
per lane (car/hr)
Total Saturation
Flow
(car/hr)
Actual Flow
(car/hr)
1 3 1800 5400 1990
2 2 1800 3600 1030
3 3 1800 5400 1140
Total

5400 14400 4160

Phase
No. Of
Lanes
Saturation Traffic
Flow
Per Lane (Car/Hr)
Total Saturation
Flow
(Car/Hr)
Actual Flow
(Car/Hr)
1 3 1800 5400 1520
2 4 1800 7200 1840
3 4 1800 7200 1770
Total

5400 19800 5130

CAPACITY/SATURATION FLOW RATE
Capacity at signalized intersections is based upon the concept of
saturation flow and saturation flow rate. Saturation flow rate is given the
symbol s and is expressed in units of vehicles per hour of effective green time
(vph) for a given lane group.
The flow ratio for a given lane group is defined as the ratio of the actual
or projected demand flow rate for the lane group (vi) to the saturation flow rate
(si). The flow ratio is given the symbol (v/s)i (for lane group i).
The capacity of a given lane group may be stated as


Where;
ci = capacity of lane group i, vph,
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si = saturation flow rate for lane group i, vphg,
Gi/C = effective green ratio for lane group i.
Saturation flow rate is defined as the flow rate per lane at which vehicles can
pass through a signalized intersection in such a stable moving queue. By
definition, it is computed as
s = 3,600/h
Where;
s = saturation flow rate (vphgpl).
h = saturation headway (sec).
3,600 = number of seconds per hour.
Phase No.
of
Lanes
Saturation
Traffic
Flow
per lane
(car/hr)
Total
Saturation
Flow
(car/hr)
Actual
Flow
(car/hr)
Flow
Saturation
Flow
Ratio
Green
Time
Split

Green
Time
(sec.)
Que Length /
veh.
1 3 1800 5400 1990 0.37 0.43 66 22
2 2 1800 3600 1030 0.29 0.33 51 6
3 3 1800 5400 1140 0.21 0.24 38 13
Total 5400 14400 4160 0.87 1.00 155


Phase No.
of
Lanes
Saturation
Traffic
Flow
per lane
(car/hr)
Total
Saturation
Flow
(car/hr)
Actual
Flow
(car/hr)
Flow
Saturation
Flow
Ratio
Green
Time
Split

Green
Time
(sec.)
Que Length /
veh.
1 3 1800 5400 1520 0.28 0.36 56 9
2 4 1800 7200 1840 0.26 0.33 51 8
3 4 1800 7200 1770 0.25 0.31 49 13
Total 5400 19800 5130 0.78 1.00 155


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DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM CYCLE TIME
The data obtained from the intersection are made in the previous section
are analyzed. The objective was development cycle times which minimizes
vehicle delay.
For optimum time, Webster method is used for calculation as it is a
widely used and easily understood method. The Webster formula is given as
follows (Webster & Cobbe 1966):




Where;
Co = Optimum cycle time in second.
L= Lost time in one cycle which includes all red time and start up delay.
For Malaysian condition, 3 to 4 seconds per phase can be used.
Y= Summation of critical flow ratio with saturation flows at all
approaches.

INTERSECTION 1

Phase 1 Green time = 65.97860963 Take 66 sec.
Phase 2 Green time = 51.22459893 Take 51 sec.
Phase 3 Green time = 37.79679144 Take 38 sec.
Total Green time = 155 sec.
Cycle time = 155 + 15 = 170 sec.

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INTERSECTION 2

Phase 1 Green time = 55.73033708 Take 56 sec.
Phase 2 Green time = 50.59727972 Take 51 sec.
Phase 3 Green time = 48.67238321 Take 49 sec.
Total Green time = 155 sec.
Cycle time = 155 + 15 = 170 sec.








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OVERALL ARCHITECTURE OF THE SYSTEM:
ITS Architecture provides a common framework for planning, defining,
and integrating intelligent transportation systems. It is a mature product that
reflects the contributions of a broad cross-section of the ITS community
(transportation practitioners, systems engineers, system developers, technology
specialists, consultants, etc.).
The architecture defines:
The functions (e.g., gather traffic information or request a route) that are
required for ITS.
The physical entities or subsystems where these functions reside (e.g., the
field or the vehicle).
The information flows and data flows that connect these functions and
physical subsystems together into an integrated system.










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THE ARCHITECTURE VIEW OF ITS
The architecture view is an interconnected presentation of all of the
components of the ITS Architecture. A variety of entry points allow you to start
with any of these components. Once in, you can easily navigate from
component to component to find what you need. This view of the architecture is
possible because of the traceability that is maintained between each of the
architecture components.








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THE ITS ARCHITECTURE IS COMPRISED OF THREE LAYERS.
THE INSTITUTIONAL LAYER:
The Institutional Layer includes the institutions, policies, funding
mechanisms, and processes that are required for effective implementation,
operation, and maintenance of an intelligent transportation system.
THE TRANSPORTATION LAYER:
The Transportation Layer is where the transportation services are
defined in terms of the subsystems and interfaces and the underlying
functionality and data definitions that are required for each transportation
service. This is the heart of the ITS Architecture.
The ITS Architecture focuses on system integration and system
integration requires effective communications. A general description of the
communications services and technologies that support ITS is defined in the
communication layers.


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THE COMMUNICATIONS LAYER:
The ITS Architecture provides the framework that ties the
transportation and telecommunication worlds together to enable the
development and effective implementation of the broad range of ITS User
Services.
The Communications Layer of the Physical Architecture identifies
four major types of communication to support the communications
requirements.









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LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE:
The Logical Architecture defines the Processes (the activities and
functions) that are required to provide the required User Services. Many
different Processes must work together and share information to provide a User
Service. The Processes can be implemented via software, hardware, or
firmware. The Logical Architecture is independent of technologies and
implementations.
The Logical Architecture consists of Processes (defined above), Data
Flows, Terminators, and data stores. Data Flows identify the information that is
shared by the Processes. The entry and exit points for the Logical Architecture
are the sensors, computers, human operators of the ITS systems (called
Terminators). These Terminators appear in the Physical Architecture as well.
Data stores are repositories of information maintained by the Processes.

The Logical Architecture is presented to the reader via Data Flow
Diagrams* (DFDs) or bubble charts and Process Specifications (PSpecs).



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The DFDs are graphical presentations of the Processes, Terminators, Data
Flows, and Data Stores in the architecture. The DFDs are organized
hierarchically starting from highest-level activity "Manage ITS". High-level
activities are then decomposed functionally through multiple levels to arrive at
the fundamental ITS processes and activities.
The PSpecs are textual descriptions of the most rudimentary processes in
the Logical Architecture. Each PSpec description consist of an overview, a set
of functional requirements, and a complete listing of inputs and outputs. A
system designer can use these descriptions as a guide to writing the
specifications for the systems that will implement the processes described.
The "Processes" link in the figure above presents a list of all of the DFDs
and the PSpecs defined in this version of the Architecture. Also included are the
Subsystems from the Physical Architecture that utilize the PSpecs. All of the
PSpecs and Subsystem entries are hyperlinked to detailed descriptions in this
document.

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PHYSICAL ARCHITECTURE:
The physical architecture is a physical representation (though not a
detailed design) of important ITS interfaces and major system components. The
physical architecture identifies the transportation systems and the information
exchanges that support ITS.
The physical architecture forms a high-level structure around the
processes and data flows in the Logical Architecture. The Transportation Layer
defines the Physical Entities (Subsystems and Terminators) that make up an
intelligent transportation system. It defines the Architecture Flows that connect
the various Subsystems and Terminators into an integrated system. The
subsystems generally provide a rich set of capabilities, more than would be
implemented at any one place or time. Equipment Packages break up the
subsystems into deployment-sized pieces. The complete definition of the
Physical Architecture is behind these entry points. By following the links, you
can traverse between the physical architecture structure and the related process
and data flow requirements in the logical architecture.


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The Physical Architecture provides agencies with a physical
representation (though not a detailed design) of the important ITS interfaces and
major system components. It provides a high-level structure around the
processes and data flows defined in the Logical Architecture. The principal
elements in the Physical Architecture are the 23 subsystems and architecture
flows that connect these subsystems and terminators into an overall structure. A
physical architecture takes the processes identified in the logical architecture
and assigns them to subsystems. In addition, the data flows (also from the
logical architecture) are grouped together into architecture flows. These
architecture flows and their communication requirements define the interfaces
required between subsystems, which form the basis for much of the ongoing
standards work in the ITS program.
The Local Area Network (LAN) approach is proposed to link up all
controllers as shown in Figure 23. Each computer or microprocessor at the
traffic light controllers given an IP (Internet Protocol) address. Each computer
will share traffic data and timing with its neighbors for coordination purposes.
In case where proactive control is required such as giving priority to an
emergency vehicle, the computer at the control room will override the timing at
each intersection with pre-determined timing that gives priority flows for an
intended route.
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DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PHYSICAL & LOGICAL ARCHITECTURE:
The logical architecture is a more detailed structure defines what has to
be done to support the user services. It defines the processes that perform
functions and the information or data flows that are shared between these
processes. Logical architecture do not include physical server names or
addresses. They do include any business services, application names and details,
and other relevant information for development purposes.
A physical architecture has all major components and entities identified
within specific physical servers and locations or specific software services,
objects, or solutions. Include all known details such as operating systems,
version numbers, and even patches that are relevant.
Any physical constraints or limitations should also be identified within
the server components, data flows, or connections. This design usually
precludes or may be included and extended by the final implementation team
into an implementation design.
ADAPTIVE TRAFFIC CONTROL
Is a traffic management strategy in which traffic signal timing changes,
or adapts, based on actual traffic demand. This is accomplished using an
adaptive traffic control system consisting of both hardware and software.
ADAPTIVE TRAFFIC SIGNAL CONTROL (ATSC)
Adaptive Traffic Signal Control optimizes traffic flow by applying
algorithms such as SCOOT, SCATS or ITACA to name a few. The challenge is
that there can be hundreds of intersections requiring real-time connectivity to
the Traffic Management Center.


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OPERATIONS OF ADAPTIVE SIGNAL CONTROL

SCATS

- THE BENCHMARK IN URBAN TRAFFIC CONTROL


SCATS

is a fully adaptive urban traffic control system that optimizes


traffic flow. Its self-calibrating software minimizes manual intervention, which
can result in substantial operational cost savings.
SCATS

has been continually developed for over 40 years and sold to 27


countries, delivering real and measurable reductions in road travel times and
delays.





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HOW SCATS

WORKS?
The Sydney coordinated adaptive traffic system (SCATS

) is a computer-
based area-wide traffic management system designed and developed by the
Roads and Traffic Authority of NSW (RTA).
SCATS

is an advanced computer system that monitors in real-time the
traffic signals and the volumes of traffic using them in order to use this data to
coordinate adjacent traffic signals to ease traffic congestion and improve traffic
flow.
SCATS

is an acronym for Sydney Co-ordinated Adaptive Traffic


System. It was first developed by the New South Wales Roads and Traffic
Authority and is now recognized as one of the most advanced urban traffic
control systems in the world.
The system is used in more than 50 cities around the world including
most capital cities in Australia, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta, Manila,
Shanghai, Hong Kong, Teheran, Qatar, Mexico City, Detroit, Minneapolis,
Dublin and Auckland.
SCATS

is making life a lot easier for millions of road users every day.
SCATS - Objectives and Installations:
Minimize Stops (light traffic), delay (heavy traffic) and travel time.
SCATS is installed in many cities worldwide.
There is approximately 5000 intersection under, SCATS

control around
the world.
Largest systems are: Sydney (2000 intersections), Melbourne (2000),
Hong Kong (600) and, in the US, Oakland County MI (350).


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To use SCATS

you need:
A SCATS-compatible Traffic Signal Controller.
A centralized computer system to manage all Traffic Signal Controllers.
A reliable communications network for the centralized computer system
to exchange data with all Traffic Signal Controllers in your city.
Vehicle detectors at each intersection, usually in the form of loops in the
road pavement.
How Does SCATS

Improve Traffic Flow?


Adaptability is the key. The SCATS

system automatically adapts to


changing traffic conditions every moment of the day or night. In so doing,
it is able to respond quickly to changes in traffic volume, traffic
movement demands and direction of travel thereby providing the best
possible traffic signal control within its area of influence. For instance,
SCATS can clear higher traffic volumes generated by sporting events far
quicker than if the traffic control signals were operating independently.
Its ability to coordinate traffic signals optimizing traffic flow on major
routes is invaluable during peak periods.
The system continually adjusts the time available to each individual
traffic signal movement and by providing coordination between
consecutive sets of traffic lights traffic congestion is significantly
reduced.
This does not mean that road users have a green signal at every signalised
intersection as there are, after all, other road users travelling in different
directions. However, where SCATS

is in operation, road users can be


assured that their journey will be quicker, safer, with fewer stops and
consequently more enjoyable.

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When entering a main road from a side street you may be stopped at the
next set of traffic lights. However as you continue along the main road
your stops will be less frequent if you drive according to the current
conditions and speed limits.
WHY YOU SHOULD CHOOSE SCATS

FOR YOUR TOWN OR CITY?


Reduced costs:
SCATS

maximize road network use with real-time adaptive control. Its


self-calibration system minimizes manual intervention, which can reduce your
traffic management operational costs. SCATS

requires no ongoing traffic


surveys and site visits to update traffic plans.


Proven performance:
SCATS

has proven itself in cities and towns across the globe, providing
real and measurable reductions in road travel times and delays under various
road network, traffic and driving conditions.



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A global traffic solution:
SCATS

has been in use for over 40 years and is sold in 27 countries


around the world.


Highly configurable:
SCATS

feature a wide range of configuration parameters. It is an
'Engineers toolbox' with the power to allow engineers to reconfigure the system
to meet changing traffic needs.


Flexible integration:
SCATS

is designed to be modular and can be integrated with a wide
variety of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS).


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Ongoing software improvements:
We're regularly improving our software to meet the needs of our
customers and the demands of increasing traffic, and the evolution of traffic
systems.

The benefits are:
Reduced air pollution
Reduced fuel consumption
Reduced delays
Enhanced public transport time and reliability.










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THE SMART SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM
Introduction:
Smart CCTV Preventive Surveillance is the solution to that as it helps to
alert you when break-in is about to happen, to verify if it is an intruder, to
quickly call for help with the Panic Number, and to deter the intruder by
remotely activating the siren with the Panic Siren Button. All can be done via
your IPhone or Android, or any web browser.
Recent world events have created a shift in the security paradigm from
"investigation of incidents" to "prevention of potentially catastrophic incidents".
Existing digital video surveillance systems provide the infrastructure only to
capture, store and distribute video, while leaving the task of threat detection
exclusively to human operators. Human monitoring of surveillance video is a
very labor-intensive task. It is generally agreed that watching video feeds
requires a higher level of visual attention than most everyday tasks.
Challenges:
1. Technical Challenges:
There are a number of technical challenges that still need to be addressed
in the underlying visual analysis technologies. These include challenges in
robust object detection, tracking objects in crowded environments; challenges in
tracking articulated bodies for activity understanding, combining biometric
technologies like face recognition with surveillance to achieve situation
awareness.






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2. Challenges in Performance Evaluation:
This is a very significant challenge in smart surveillance system.
Evaluating performance of video analysis systems requires significant amounts
of annotated data. Typically annotation is a very expensive and tedious process.
Additionally, there can be significant errors in annotation. All of these issues
make performance evaluation a significant challenge.

Powerful CCTV cameras can recognize and track faces from more than half a
mile away.




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TRAFFIC SURVEILLANCE CAMERAS
Cameras are used to monitor traffic flow and around the event area, and
are provided to the public on the Internet and cable TV during the event.


PROPOSED (ITIS

) IN KAJANG
Integrated Transport Information System (ITIS

) is a comprehensive
traffic information system for Kajang City to monitor traffic flow and analyze
the data on road conditions to provide useful traffic information to road users.
At the heart of ITIS

is the Transport Management Centre (TMC), which
serves as the hub or nerve center of the entire ITIS

system as it receives
processes and disseminates traffic information around the clock. System
operators will then use this information to monitor the transportation system
operations and formulate strategies to enhance transport management.
ITIS

integrates the present transport network as well as offers a
communication interface for sprawling road systems through its two core
support systems namely the Advanced Traffic Management System (ATMS)
and the Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS), which are located in
the Transport Management Centre (TMC).
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The system also manages the Closed Circuit Television (CCTV)
surveillance cameras to monitor traffic situation and congestions. In addition,
ATMS updates real-time road condition messages on Variable Message Signs
(VMS) boards along major roads.


Information gathered on traffic situations and congestion will be sent to
TMC for analysis and evaluation before being transformed into useful traffic
32

information. TMC operators will use this information to formulate traffic
management strategies such as maximizing roadway capacity usage, reducing
travel times and improving traffic safety.

ITIS

BENEFITS
Intelligent Transport systems such as ITIS

have been widely and
successfully implemented in major cities around the world, bringing significant
benefits to motorists and commuters.
Some of the benefits of ITIS

:
Allows informed decisions to be made on travel (i.e. choice of routes,
modes and schedules).
Enables real-time capture of traffic information for incident management
and long-term transport planning.
Alleviates traffic congestion and delays during rush hour periods and
emergency situations.
Reduces accidents, their severity and impact on the highway.
Improves emergency assistance for motorists and commuters.
Reduces travel times and promotes more uniform traffic flow.
Reduces pollution as a result of less time idling in traffic.
Provides comfort, safety and security in highway travel particularly
around construction zones.
Improves utilization of available road capacity.
Improves quality of life in the.





33

PUBLIC TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Existing Systems
1. Global systems that track everything from school buses and fleet
vehicles to the family boat.
2. Tracking systems record data via:
Onboard hard drives.
Communicate back to a base station via GSM, GPRS, CDMA or
conventional two-way radio.
3. Taxi tracking used to get the closest free taxi to awaiting customer.
4. Bus Tracking systems already used to help customers know when bus
is due to arrive.
5. Tracking of corporate fleets to keep a watch of company assets and
logistics efficiency.
Overview
In crowded cities buses are often delayed, infrequent and
overcrowded.
Often buses arrive all at once and some leave nearly empty.
We will be designing a bus management system to alleviate this
problem.
Also designing a bus and passenger simulator.
Management Software
Features
Informs buses if they are late/early/on-time.
In extreme circumstances will change the route of a bus to increase
efficiency.
Inform manager when bus capacity has been reached.
Time Management On-time completion.
Learning of new computing languages.
Programming shortcomings.
Integration of all different elements.
Realism of the simulation and tracking product.


34

What We Hope To Learn?
Modularization of bigger problems.
A systematic engineering approach to problem solving.
The use of simulations and an engineering approach to solve real-
world problems.
Transforming ideas into actual physical working solutions.





















35

VARIABLE MESSAGE SYSTEM (VMS)
Variable message signs can be placed in a wide range of places like
highways, major road junctions, and urban arteries. Typically installed at the
side or above the roadway, the VMS uses text and graphics in monochrome or
color. The versatility of variable message signs makes them suitable for
providing traffic information for a variety of situations including emergencies,
construction, and road closures. The VMS can also be used in cities to
communicate events and activities, public office schedules, waste collection,
parking availability, and travel warnings in several languages.
Our displays are built with long life LED technology that is easily visible
in all types of weather and through the use of a solar sensor; the brightness can
be adjusted for both clear day and night viewing. The display system can
operate as a stand-alone system or be integrated with other traffic control and
management systems providing data for traffic detection, monitoring and
surveillance.

Deferent kinds of (VMS)
36

PORTABLE DYNAMIC MESSAGE SIGNS
Variable message signs are the safest means for notifying motorists of
changes in traffic patterns and road conditions. Wanco message signs are ultra-
bright and highly legible, with a variety of functions for any application: lane
closures, highway construction, work zones, parking lots, and more. A choice of
sizes and options make these signs extremely versatile.
These portable signs are deployed to strategic locations on arterial and
local roads in advance of a special event.
Messages are pre-programmed, but may be changed in real time as
conditions warrant. The signs may be moved to different locations as
needed during an event, an advantage over permanent dynamic message
signs.

37

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Effective and efficient operation of transit system relies on a
communications infrastructure and vehicle-based communication
technologies
Communications system are used to transmit voice and data between
transit vehicles and operation centers, and to transmit commands between
operators and technologies
Transit communications system is comprised mostly of wireless
technologies and applications.

ITS communications service management monitors the operation of
ITSC. This may include:
Communications system configuration and update management:
Addition and configuration of new communications systems.
Updating of the core software used to implement the ITSC
functions.
Regulatory compliance, e.g. compliance with national spectrum usage
rules.
Recording and forwarding of usage billing events.
38

Communications system fault monitoring, alerts, diagnosis, automatic
mitigation including optional switch to an alternative communication
system, and reporting.
Maintenance utilities to allow faults to be managed, e.g. to allow a local
faulty communications system to be deactivated.

Higher levels of service management will be required where the ITS-
S is designed to support road safety applications, these may include:
Monitoring service level.
Recording the delivered performance of the communications system.
WHAT DOES THE ITS COMMUNICATIONS OFFICE DO?
Provides engineering services (Path and Interference analysis) for
wireless applications.
System design and documentation.
State Interpretability Executive Committee (SIEC) point of contact for
wireless applications and license activity.
Design last mile connectivity to ITS devices.
Project management of the wireless activity.
Coordinate regional radio staff.
Inventory ITS device connectivity.

THE SERVICE PROVIDED TO DRIVERS INCLUDES:
Local Roads information.
Word information.
Traffic jam information.
Concierge service for foreign tourists, etc.
39




ALERT PAGING SYSTEM
This paging system works with the Kuala Lumpur City police
Coordinated highways action Response Team system to joint effort for
managing and operating the city facilities, in cooperation with other federal,
state, and local agencies. Their mission is to improve real-time operation of
Citys highway system through teamwork and technology.


40

CABLE TV
During special events, the TMC offers a cable TV program that provides
audio from the travelers advisory radio system, scrolling text with traffic and
incident information, and video feeds from traffic cameras. This same type of
show is used daily and for peak traffic periods seven days a week.




TRAVELERS ADVISORY RADIO SYSTEM
Transmitters are placed throughout the City and simulcast travel
information is recorded by transportation management technicians in the citys
TMC. The information includes any conditions related to a special event that
need to be relayed to the public.
41




ESTIMATED COST OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEM
No. Items Cost ( RM )
1 Traffic Control System 2,000,000.00
2 Smart surveillance system 600,000.00
3 Variable message system 550,000.00
4 Communication system 150,000.00
5 Public Transport Management system 1,400,000.00
6 Others 500,000.00
Total 5,200,000.00


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CONCLUSION:
The aim of this study has been to investigate the impact of setting
Intelligent Transport System utilities upon traffic flow streams in Kajang City.
Six proposed aspects have been reviewed:
Overall architecture of the system that explains the full process on what,
where, how to install ITS in growing city like Kajang.
Traffic Control system is traffic management strategy in which traffic
signal timing changes, or adapts, based on actual traffic demand. This is
accomplished using an adaptive traffic control system consisting of both
hardware and software. Where (SCATS

) adaptive traffic control chosen


to be installed in Kajang road way to give the authority full control of
Kajang traffic congestions.
Smart surveillance system is used to monitor traffic flow in and around
the event area, and is provided to the public on the Internet and cable TV
during the event. While we can cooperate with the same company that
control Kuala Lumpur CCTV (ITIS

) to develop this system in Kajang.


We proposed new Variable massage system (VMS) technology which is
called Portable Dynamic Message Signs these can deployed to strategic
locations on arterial and local roads in advance of a special event.
Public Transport Management system is tracking everything from school
buses and fleet vehicles to the family boat. Tracking systems record the
data of Taxes and buses movements. Even to monitor the whole CCTV,
adaptive traffic control and the VMS in one place.
Communication system is the back bone of every elements that linked
together from the traffic signs, VMS, CCTV and Public transport then
work homogeneously to present a powerful intelligent transport system.



43

REFERENCES:
1. http://www.scats.com.au/
2. Monahan, Torin. 2007. "War Rooms" of the Street: Surveillance Practices
in Transportation Control Centres. The Communication Review 10 (4):
367-389.
3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelligent_transportation_system
4. http://www.iteris.com/itsarch/
5. http://www.itis.com.my/atis/index.jsf
6. http://www.wanco.com/products/products.php?type_id=7
7. Khalid A.S. Al-Khateeb, Jaiz A.Y. Johari and Wajdi F. Al-Khateeb
(2008). "Dynamic Traffic LightSequence, Science Publications". Journal
of Computer Science (Science Publications): 517524.
doi:10.3844/jcssp.2008.517.524.