Journal of Materials Processing Technology xxx (2004) xxx–xxx
Investigation of residual stress and post weld heat treatment of multipass welds by ﬁnite element method and experiments
J.R. Cho ^{a}^{,}^{∗} , B.Y. Lee ^{a} , Y.H. Moon ^{b} , C.J. Van Tyne ^{c}
^{a} Division of Mechanical and Information Engineering, South Korea Maritime University, Pusan 606791, South Korea ^{b} Division of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan, South Korea ^{c} Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA
Abstract
The residual stress distribution after welding and after a post weld heat treatment have been determined by a ﬁnite element transient heat ﬂow analysis in conjunction with a coupled thermal–mechanical analysis. To verify the numerical results, the surface residual stresses of a multipass butt weld were measured by the holedrilling technique and they compared favourably with the ﬁnite element analysis predictions. The numerical analysis was applied to two multipass welds of thick plates used in ship construction—a 12pass Kgroove weld joint with 56 mm plate, and a ninepass Vgroove weld joint with 32 mm plate. A maximum residual stress of 316 MPa was found in the 56 mm plate, but was reduced to 39 MPa after the post weld heat treatment. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Welding residual stress; Thermal elasticplastic analysis; Post weld heat treatment; Finite element analysis
1. Introduction
Fusion welding is a joining process extensively used in construction, ship building, steel bridges, pressure ves sels, etc. The advantages of welding, as a joining process, include high joint efﬁciency, simple set up, ﬂexibility and low fabrication costs. Even though it has many posi tive properties, fusion welding can alter the properties of the material and may causes deﬂection, shrinkage and/or residual stresses in the joint. A post weld heat treatment is widely used to relieve the residual stresses caused by welding. Thermal stresses are generated during welding due to the nonuniform temperature distribution around the joint. As the temperature of the base metal increases, the yield strength decreases and the thermal stresses increase. It is well known that resulting residual stresses have a strong inﬂuence on weld deformation, fatigue strength, fracture toughness and buckling strength. Thus, it is important to evaluate and understand the residual stresses due to welding. There are many methods to evaluate the residual stress dis tribution. Experimental methods include Xray diffraction,
^{∗} Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 51 410 4298; fax: +82 51 403 3856. Email addresses: cjr@mail.hhu.ac.kr (J.R. Cho), yhmoon@pusan.ac.kr (Y.H. Moon), cvantyne@mines.edu (C.J. Van Tyne).
09240136/$ – see front matter © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.04.325
ultrasonic analysis, hole drilling and sectioning. Numeri cal methods, which provide detailed analysis of the residual stresses due to welding, have developed considerably during the last three decades due to the improvements in computers and in the numerical techniques [1]. Among these develop ments is the work of Hibitt and Marcal [2], who developed numerical thermal–mechanical models using the ﬁnite ele ment method. Rolelns et al. [3] compared experimental re sults for residual stresses determined by Xray diffraction with those of a numerical analysis. Janosch et al. [4] have proposed a numerical model for multipass welding and a material database for toughness of buttwelded assemblies used in heavy structures. The effect of residual stress on the fatigue strength in a weld toe for a multipass ﬁllet weld joint has been investigated by Mochizuki et al. [5]. Varia tions of the welding process sequence controlled the residual stresses in their weld joints. For the present investigation, the residual stresses after welding and after a post weld heat treatment were de termined by the ﬁnite element method. A fully coupled thermal–mechanical twodimensional analysis was per formed with the commercial software program ANSYS [6]. Heat ﬂow was evaluated by a nonlinear transient analysis. The results of numerical analysis for the residual stresses in multipass butt weld were veriﬁed by experimental mea surements of surface residual stress using the holedrilling method.
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2. Residual stress analysis
2.1. Analysis procedure
In general, the welding of a joint is a very complicated operation and it is difﬁcult to model the entire process. In the present study, a twodimensional analysis was used in order to simplify the model while retaining the essential fea tures and characteristics of the process. To analyse properly both the residual stresses and residual deformation by the ﬁnite element method, both a heat ﬂow analysis and a cou pled thermal–mechanical analysis are needed. The heat ﬂow model calculated the temperature distribution at each time step and the residual stresses were determined by the cou pled thermal–mechanical analysis. For the heat ﬂow analy sis, the 4node Plane 55 element was used. For the coupled thermal–mechanical analysis, the Plane42 element was used [6]. During the heat ﬂow analysis, the already deposited weld beads were included but the weld beads for future passes were excluded. In the coupled thermal–mechanical analysis, the appropriate weld bead for each pass was created by the birth and death method. The material properties of SM400B (A131 Gr. 50), which are used in the model, are shown in Table 1. The yield stress at room temperature was obtained from exper imental measurements and other properties were referred to reference [7]. The yield strength and Young’s modu lus of both the base and the weld metal are functions of temperature [7] and the temperature variation of these prop erties was included in the numerical analysis with table input.
2.1.1. Analysis of a butt weld joint Multiple passes were used to produce the weld bead layers in a butt weld joint. The numerical analysis had multiple heat input steps to reﬂect the multipass process. Fig. 1 shows the geometry of the butt weld joint and the ﬁnite element mesh. Fig. 2 shows the sequence of the 10pass welding process. Welded beads were deposited in steps A11–A18, in sequence.
Table 1 Mechanical properties of SM400B
Temperature ( ^{◦} C)
20 
426 
550 800 
850 
1000 

Yield stress (MPa) Weld Base 
500 
239 
98.07 49.03 
44.52 
29.42 

294.2 
142.3 
98.07 49.03 
44.52 
29.42 

Young’s modulus (GPa) Poisson’s ratio Expansion (m/m K) 
210.8 
184.4 
164.8 117.3 
99.1 
58.8 

0.3 

1.2e5 

Conductivity 
(W/K m ^{2} ) 
43 

Speciﬁc heat (J/K kg) Density (kg/m ^{3} ) Convection (w/m ^{2} ^{◦} C) 
469 

7850 

100 
Fig. 1. Dimensions and mesh of butt weld.
Fig. 2. Welding sequence for butt weld.
The 10pass weld process is simulated for the entire weld ing time. Fig. 3 shows the temperature input imposed during each pass. The preheat temperature was 120 ^{◦} C and the sur rounding temperature was room temperature of 25 ^{◦} C. The nonlinear transient heat ﬂow analysis was performed for 190 s after the temperature source was removed. Mechanical boundary conditions were applied in order to prevent rigid body motion of the base plate.
Fig. 3. Temperature input for each bead.
J.R. Cho et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology xxx (2004) xxx–xxx
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Fig. 4. Residual stress distribution in butt weld (before post weld heat treatment).
Fig. 4 shows the distribution of residual stresses calcu lated by the nonlinear thermal elasticplastic analysis after the completed weld has cooled. The maximum and mini mum residual stress values are 333 and −267 MPa, respec tively. A post weld heat treatment was applied to the weld. The temperature was increased linearly to 600 ^{◦} C during the ini tial 1000 s and then cooled to room temperature during the last 2600 s. Fig. 5 shows the residual stress distribution after the post weld heat treatment. The maximum residual stress was reduced to 38 MPa. Fig. 6 compares the simulation results for the surface residual stresses with experimental data at various loca tions. From the simulation, it is found that the surface residual stress varies from −60 to 270 MPa before heat treatment. After the post weld heat treatment, the surface residual stress is reduced to a maximum of 38 MPa, which
Fig. 5. Residual stress distribution in butt weld (after post weld heat treatment).
Fig. 6. Comparison of experimental and simulation residual stresses.
Strain
Fig. 7. Schematic of the mechanism for residual stress reduction.
is 14% of the value prior to the heat treatment. The simu
lation results match well with the experimentally measured
values.
2.2. Relaxation mechanism of residual stresses
After welding and cooling to room temperature, a high
residual stress exists in the weld, assumed to be at point
A in Fig. 7. If the specimen is post weld heat treated, the
temperature goes up. With the rise in temperature, the yield
strength decreases signiﬁcantly and the residual stress is reduced to point B. If the temperature remains steady for a period time and the weld is cooled gradually, the state of stress does not changed signiﬁcantly, moving to point C, which is close to point B.
3. Applications to thick plate welding
Because of the success for the butt welding simulations, a similar modelling approach is taken to examine the residual stresses for thick plate welding of parts used in ship con struction. The material properties are the same as those used
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J.R. Cho et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology xxx (2004) xxx–xxx
Fig. 8. Dimensions and mesh for Kgroove model.
the butt weld analysis (i.e. properties of SM400B as shown in Table 1).
3.1. Ktype butt weld joint
Fig. 8 shows the geometry and mesh of a Ktype butt weld joint. Fig. 9 shows the 12pass bead sequence. The order of the beads is that A1 and A2 are welded ﬁrst on the top side then A3–A6 on bottom side. Finally, beads A7–A12 are welded in sequential order. The preheat temperature is 120 ^{◦} C and the input temper ature for each new bead is 900 ^{◦} C with a 2 s heatup. The time of the heat ﬂow analysis for each bead is equal to the
Fig. 9. Welding sequence for Kgroove model.
total joint length (2900 mm) divided by the welding velocity (20 cm/min). Fig. 10 shows the residual stresses at room temperature after welding. The residual stresses prior to the post weld heat treatment range from a maximum of 316 MPa to a min imum of −300 MPa in the weld. On the surface, a maxi mum of 316 MPa to a minimum of 145 MPa residual stress is observed. Fig. 11 shows the residual stresses after post weld heat treatment and the maximum value on the surface is 39 MPa. The post weld heat treatment reduces the maximum residual stress on the surface to 12% of the value that exists imme diately after welding.
Fig. 10. Residual stress distribution for Kgroove model (before post weld heat treatment).
J.R. Cho et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology xxx (2004) xxx–xxx
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Fig. 11. Residual stress distribution for Kgroove model (after post weld heat treatment).
3.2. Vtype butt weld joint
Fig. 12 shows the geometry and mesh for the Vtype weld joint of another part used in ship construction. Fig. 13 shows the ninepass bead sequence. The bead sequence is ﬁrst from A1 to A7 and then A8 and A9, which are the bottom side. The time for the heat transfer analysis for each bead is that the total joint length (2000 mm) divided by the welding velocity (20 cm/min). Fig. 14 shows the residual stresses after welding but prior to post weld heat treatment range from −239 to 265 MPa in the weld and form 97 to 209 MPa on the surface. As shown in Fig. 15, the post weld heat treatment reduces the residual stresses to values between −34.2 and 30.7 MPa
Fig. 12. Dimensions and mesh for Vgroove model.
Fig. 13. Welding sequence for Vgroove model.
Fig. 14. Residual stress distribution for Vgroove model (before post weld heat treatment).
Fig. 15. Residual stress distribution for Vgroove model (after post weld heat treatment).
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in the weld and to a range between −1.7 and 30.7 MPa on the surface. The maximum residual stress in the weld is reduced to 15% of that found prior to the post weld heat treatment.
4. Conclusions
A numerical analysis for a multipass welding process of thick plates was performed to understand the distribution of residual stresses and to evaluate the effect of a post weld heat treatment. The residual stresses were calculated using a twodimensional thermal elasticplastic ﬁnite element anal ysis. The nonlinear transient heat ﬂow and fully coupled thermal–mechanical analysis was done with the commercial software ANSYS. Experimental measurements for the sur face residual stresses of a butt weld joint were made using the hole drilling method. The experimental data were con sistent with the results from the numerical model. The maximum residual stresses for K and Vtype weld joints of thick plates were 316 and 265 MPa, respectively, before the post weld heat treatment. After the post weld heat treatment, they were reduced to 39.3 and 30.7 MPa, which
is a stress relaxation to less than 15% of the values before the heat treatment.
References
[1] C.S. Seok, M.W. Suh, J.H. Park, Investigation of welding residual stress of high tensile steel by ﬁnite element method and experiment, KSME Int. J. 13 (1999) 879–885. [2] H.D. Hibitt, P.V. Marcal, A numerical thermomechanical model for the welding and subsequent loading of a fabricated structure, Comput. Struct. 3 (1973) 1145–1174. [3] J.B. Roelens, F. Maltrud, J. Lu, Determination of residual stresses in submerged arc multipass welds by means of numerical simulation and comparison with experimental measurements, Welding World 33 (1994) 152–159. [4] J.J. Janosch, J.B. Roelens, H. Koneczny, Deﬁnition of a materials database for heavy structures, Int. Con. Press. Vessel Tech. 1 (1996)
483–503.
[5] M. Mochizuki, T. Hattori, K. Nakakado, Residual stress reduction and fatigue strength improvement by controlling welding pass sequences, Trans. ASME J. Eng. Mat. Tech. 122 (2000) 108–112. [6] AHSYS, Inc., Version 5.6 Theory Manual, 1999. [7] Y. Toshioka, Theoretical study of the deformation of quenching steel bar, TetsutoHagane 62 (13) (1976) 154–164.
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