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Journal of Materials Processing Technology xxx (2004) xxx–xxx Investigation of residual stress and post weld
Journal of Materials Processing Technology xxx (2004) xxx–xxx Investigation of residual stress and post weld

Journal of Materials Processing Technology xxx (2004) xxx–xxx

of Materials Processing Technology xxx (2004) xxx–xxx Investigation of residual stress and post weld heat

Investigation of residual stress and post weld heat treatment of multi-pass welds by finite element method and experiments

J.R. Cho a, , B.Y. Lee a , Y.H. Moon b , C.J. Van Tyne c

a Division of Mechanical and Information Engineering, South Korea Maritime University, Pusan 606-791, South Korea b Division of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Pusan, South Korea c Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA

Abstract

The residual stress distribution after welding and after a post weld heat treatment have been determined by a finite element transient heat flow analysis in conjunction with a coupled thermal–mechanical analysis. To verify the numerical results, the surface residual stresses of a multi-pass butt weld were measured by the hole-drilling technique and they compared favourably with the finite element analysis predictions. The numerical analysis was applied to two multi-pass welds of thick plates used in ship construction—a 12-pass K-groove weld joint with 56 mm plate, and a nine-pass V-groove weld joint with 32 mm plate. A maximum residual stress of 316 MPa was found in the 56 mm plate, but was reduced to 39 MPa after the post weld heat treatment. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Welding residual stress; Thermal elastic-plastic analysis; Post weld heat treatment; Finite element analysis

1. Introduction

Fusion welding is a joining process extensively used in construction, ship building, steel bridges, pressure ves- sels, etc. The advantages of welding, as a joining process, include high joint efficiency, simple set up, flexibility and low fabrication costs. Even though it has many posi- tive properties, fusion welding can alter the properties of the material and may causes deflection, shrinkage and/or residual stresses in the joint. A post weld heat treatment is widely used to relieve the residual stresses caused by welding. Thermal stresses are generated during welding due to the non-uniform temperature distribution around the joint. As the temperature of the base metal increases, the yield strength decreases and the thermal stresses increase. It is well known that resulting residual stresses have a strong influence on weld deformation, fatigue strength, fracture toughness and buckling strength. Thus, it is important to evaluate and understand the residual stresses due to welding. There are many methods to evaluate the residual stress dis- tribution. Experimental methods include X-ray diffraction,

Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 51 410 4298; fax: +82 51 403 3856. E-mail addresses: cjr@mail.hhu.ac.kr (J.R. Cho), yhmoon@pusan.ac.kr (Y.H. Moon), cvantyne@mines.edu (C.J. Van Tyne).

0924-0136/$ – see front matter © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.04.325

ultrasonic analysis, hole drilling and sectioning. Numeri- cal methods, which provide detailed analysis of the residual stresses due to welding, have developed considerably during the last three decades due to the improvements in computers and in the numerical techniques [1]. Among these develop- ments is the work of Hibitt and Marcal [2], who developed numerical thermal–mechanical models using the finite ele- ment method. Rolelns et al. [3] compared experimental re- sults for residual stresses determined by X-ray diffraction with those of a numerical analysis. Janosch et al. [4] have proposed a numerical model for multi-pass welding and a material database for toughness of butt-welded assemblies used in heavy structures. The effect of residual stress on the fatigue strength in a weld toe for a multi-pass fillet weld joint has been investigated by Mochizuki et al. [5]. Varia- tions of the welding process sequence controlled the residual stresses in their weld joints. For the present investigation, the residual stresses after welding and after a post weld heat treatment were de- termined by the finite element method. A fully coupled thermal–mechanical two-dimensional analysis was per- formed with the commercial software program ANSYS [6]. Heat flow was evaluated by a non-linear transient analysis. The results of numerical analysis for the residual stresses in multi-pass butt weld were verified by experimental mea- surements of surface residual stress using the hole-drilling method.

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2. Residual stress analysis

2.1. Analysis procedure

In general, the welding of a joint is a very complicated operation and it is difficult to model the entire process. In the present study, a two-dimensional analysis was used in order to simplify the model while retaining the essential fea- tures and characteristics of the process. To analyse properly both the residual stresses and residual deformation by the finite element method, both a heat flow analysis and a cou- pled thermal–mechanical analysis are needed. The heat flow model calculated the temperature distribution at each time step and the residual stresses were determined by the cou- pled thermal–mechanical analysis. For the heat flow analy- sis, the 4-node Plane 55 element was used. For the coupled thermal–mechanical analysis, the Plane42 element was used [6]. During the heat flow analysis, the already deposited weld beads were included but the weld beads for future passes were excluded. In the coupled thermal–mechanical analysis, the appropriate weld bead for each pass was created by the birth and death method. The material properties of SM400B (A131 Gr. 50), which are used in the model, are shown in Table 1. The yield stress at room temperature was obtained from exper- imental measurements and other properties were referred to reference [7]. The yield strength and Young’s modu- lus of both the base and the weld metal are functions of temperature [7] and the temperature variation of these prop- erties was included in the numerical analysis with table input.

2.1.1. Analysis of a butt weld joint Multiple passes were used to produce the weld bead layers in a butt weld joint. The numerical analysis had multiple heat input steps to reflect the multi-pass process. Fig. 1 shows the geometry of the butt weld joint and the finite element mesh. Fig. 2 shows the sequence of the 10-pass welding process. Welded beads were deposited in steps A11–A18, in sequence.

Table 1 Mechanical properties of SM400B

Temperature ( C)

 

20

426

550

800

850

1000

Yield stress (MPa) Weld Base

500

239

98.07

49.03

44.52

29.42

294.2

142.3

98.07

49.03

44.52

29.42

Young’s modulus (GPa) Poisson’s ratio Expansion (m/m K)

210.8

184.4

164.8

117.3

99.1

58.8

 

0.3

1.2e-5

Conductivity

(W/K m 2 )

43

Specific heat (J/K kg) Density (kg/m 3 ) Convection (w/m 2 C)

 

469

7850

100

(w/m 2 ◦ C)   469 7850 100 Fig. 1. Dimensions and mesh of butt weld.

Fig. 1. Dimensions and mesh of butt weld.

7850 100 Fig. 1. Dimensions and mesh of butt weld. Fig. 2. Welding sequence for butt

Fig. 2. Welding sequence for butt weld.

The 10-pass weld process is simulated for the entire weld- ing time. Fig. 3 shows the temperature input imposed during each pass. The pre-heat temperature was 120 C and the sur- rounding temperature was room temperature of 25 C. The non-linear transient heat flow analysis was performed for 190 s after the temperature source was removed. Mechanical boundary conditions were applied in order to prevent rigid body motion of the base plate.

conditions were applied in order to prevent rigid body motion of the base plate. Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Temperature input for each bead.

J.R. Cho et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology xxx (2004) xxx–xxx 3 Fig.

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of Materials Processing Technology xxx (2004) xxx–xxx 3 Fig. 4. Residual stress distribution in butt weld

Fig. 4. Residual stress distribution in butt weld (before post weld heat treatment).

Fig. 4 shows the distribution of residual stresses calcu- lated by the non-linear thermal elastic-plastic analysis after the completed weld has cooled. The maximum and mini- mum residual stress values are 333 and 267 MPa, respec- tively. A post weld heat treatment was applied to the weld. The temperature was increased linearly to 600 C during the ini- tial 1000 s and then cooled to room temperature during the last 2600 s. Fig. 5 shows the residual stress distribution after the post weld heat treatment. The maximum residual stress was reduced to 38 MPa. Fig. 6 compares the simulation results for the surface residual stresses with experimental data at various loca- tions. From the simulation, it is found that the surface residual stress varies from 60 to 270 MPa before heat treatment. After the post weld heat treatment, the surface residual stress is reduced to a maximum of 38 MPa, which

residual stress is reduced to a maximum of 38 MPa, which Fig. 5. Residual stress distribution

Fig. 5. Residual stress distribution in butt weld (after post weld heat treatment).

300 before heat treatment 280 (simulation) 260 after heat treatment 240 (simulation) 220 200 before
300
before heat treatment
280
(simulation)
260
after heat treatment
240
(simulation)
220
200
before heat treatment
180
(experiment)
160
140
after heat treatment
120
(experiment)
100
80
60
40
20
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
- 150
-68
-31
- 14
-6
-4
2
14
31
68
150
Sx(MPa)
D i s t (mm) Weld
D i s t (mm)
Weld

Fig. 6. Comparison of experimental and simulation residual stresses.

T= 20 T= 20 o o C C 500 500 A A Residual stress after
T= 20
T= 20
o
o
C
C
500
500
A
A
Residual stress after welding
T=600
T=600
o
o
C
C
88
88
Residual stress at T=600 o C
B
B
R
Residual stress after post-heat treatment
C
C
Stress(MPa)

Strain

Fig. 7. Schematic of the mechanism for residual stress reduction.

is 14% of the value prior to the heat treatment. The simu-

lation results match well with the experimentally measured

values.

2.2. Relaxation mechanism of residual stresses

After welding and cooling to room temperature, a high

residual stress exists in the weld, assumed to be at point

A in Fig. 7. If the specimen is post weld heat treated, the

temperature goes up. With the rise in temperature, the yield

strength decreases significantly and the residual stress is reduced to point B. If the temperature remains steady for a period time and the weld is cooled gradually, the state of stress does not changed significantly, moving to point C, which is close to point B.

3. Applications to thick plate welding

Because of the success for the butt welding simulations, a similar modelling approach is taken to examine the residual stresses for thick plate welding of parts used in ship con- struction. The material properties are the same as those used

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of Materials Processing Technology xxx (2004) xxx–xxx Fig. 8. Dimensions and mesh for K-groove model. the

Fig. 8. Dimensions and mesh for K-groove model.

the butt weld analysis (i.e. properties of SM400B as shown in Table 1).

3.1. K-type butt weld joint

Fig. 8 shows the geometry and mesh of a K-type butt weld joint. Fig. 9 shows the 12-pass bead sequence. The order of the beads is that A1 and A2 are welded first on the top side then A3–A6 on bottom side. Finally, beads A7–A12 are welded in sequential order. The preheat temperature is 120 C and the input temper- ature for each new bead is 900 C with a 2 s heat-up. The time of the heat flow analysis for each bead is equal to the

of the heat flow analysis for each bead is equal to the Fig. 9. Welding sequence

Fig. 9. Welding sequence for K-groove model.

total joint length (2900 mm) divided by the welding velocity (20 cm/min). Fig. 10 shows the residual stresses at room temperature after welding. The residual stresses prior to the post weld heat treatment range from a maximum of 316 MPa to a min- imum of 300 MPa in the weld. On the surface, a maxi- mum of 316 MPa to a minimum of 145 MPa residual stress is observed. Fig. 11 shows the residual stresses after post weld heat treatment and the maximum value on the surface is 39 MPa. The post weld heat treatment reduces the maximum residual stress on the surface to 12% of the value that exists imme- diately after welding.

to 12% of the value that exists imme- diately after welding. Fig. 10. Residual stress distribution

Fig. 10. Residual stress distribution for K-groove model (before post weld heat treatment).

J.R. Cho et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology xxx (2004) xxx–xxx 5 Fig.

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of Materials Processing Technology xxx (2004) xxx–xxx 5 Fig. 11. Residual stress distribution for K-groove model

Fig. 11. Residual stress distribution for K-groove model (after post weld heat treatment).

3.2. V-type butt weld joint

Fig. 12 shows the geometry and mesh for the V-type weld joint of another part used in ship construction. Fig. 13 shows the nine-pass bead sequence. The bead sequence is first from A1 to A7 and then A8 and A9, which are the bottom side. The time for the heat transfer analysis for each bead is that the total joint length (2000 mm) divided by the welding velocity (20 cm/min). Fig. 14 shows the residual stresses after welding but prior to post weld heat treatment range from 239 to 265 MPa in the weld and form 97 to 209 MPa on the surface. As shown in Fig. 15, the post weld heat treatment reduces the residual stresses to values between 34.2 and 30.7 MPa

residual stresses to values between − 34.2 and 30.7 MPa Fig. 12. Dimensions and mesh for

Fig. 12. Dimensions and mesh for V-groove model.

30.7 MPa Fig. 12. Dimensions and mesh for V-groove model. Fig. 13. Welding sequence for V-groove

Fig. 13. Welding sequence for V-groove model.

model. Fig. 13. Welding sequence for V-groove model. Fig. 14. Residual stress distribution for V-groove model

Fig. 14. Residual stress distribution for V-groove model (before post weld heat treatment).

for V-groove model (before post weld heat treatment). Fig. 15. Residual stress distribution for V-groove model

Fig. 15. Residual stress distribution for V-groove model (after post weld heat treatment).

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in the weld and to a range between 1.7 and 30.7 MPa on the surface. The maximum residual stress in the weld is reduced to 15% of that found prior to the post weld heat treatment.

4. Conclusions

A numerical analysis for a multi-pass welding process of thick plates was performed to understand the distribution of residual stresses and to evaluate the effect of a post weld heat treatment. The residual stresses were calculated using a two-dimensional thermal elastic-plastic finite element anal- ysis. The non-linear transient heat flow and fully coupled thermal–mechanical analysis was done with the commercial software ANSYS. Experimental measurements for the sur- face residual stresses of a butt weld joint were made using the hole drilling method. The experimental data were con- sistent with the results from the numerical model. The maximum residual stresses for K- and V-type weld joints of thick plates were 316 and 265 MPa, respectively, before the post weld heat treatment. After the post weld heat treatment, they were reduced to 39.3 and 30.7 MPa, which

is a stress relaxation to less than 15% of the values before the heat treatment.

References

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483–503.

[5] M. Mochizuki, T. Hattori, K. Nakakado, Residual stress reduction and fatigue strength improvement by controlling welding pass sequences, Trans. ASME J. Eng. Mat. Tech. 122 (2000) 108–112. [6] AHSYS, Inc., Version 5.6 Theory Manual, 1999. [7] Y. Toshioka, Theoretical study of the deformation of quenching steel bar, Tetsu-to-Hagane 62 (13) (1976) 154–164.