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# Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.

0 (KWP) Page 1 of 19

1. Giancoli - Physics: Principles with Applications (5th Edition): Chapter 20 Magnetism;
Chapter 21 Electromagnetic induction and Faradays Law; AC Circuits
2. Materials regarding AP Physics B & C Exams
as well as other resources.

Test information
The following sections will be emphasized in the electromagnetism test on Jun 9
th
, 2014
(Monday), for both regular and honors Physics 12 classes:
Chapter 20: Section 1~6, 8 (Solenoid), 10, 12
Chapter 21: Section 1~7

[CH20] Magnetic field around a magnet

Magnitude of the magnetic field at Earths surface:

or B, the magnetic field, is directed
from N to S outside of the magnet.
The SI unit of the magnitude of the
magnetic field strength is T (tesla).
1T = 1

2

0.5 10
4
= 5 10
5

Attraction
Repulsion
Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 2 of 19

Magnetic field around a current carrying wire
Direction of B can be determined by RHGR:

How large is the field?

Circular wire Coil Wire

Solenoid Magnet

=

0
: Permeability of free space = 4 10
7

I: Current in the unit of A
r: radius from the wire in m
B: magnetic field strength in T
(Electromagnet)
Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 3 of 19

Magnetic field around a solenoid

The solenoid connected to a battery acts as an electromagnet. If an iron core is placed within
the solenoid, the field becomes more concentrated... thus stronger.

Force, field and current

B

Out of the
page
Into the
page
=
0

I: Current in the unit of A

## is the number of turns divided by the length l of the solenoid

0
: Permeability of free space = 4 10
7

B: magnetic field strength in T
L

Current-carrying wire
Current into the page
B due to wire interacts with B
due to magnets.

Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 4 of 19

We can determine their mutually orthogonal direction by using the Right Hand Rule. It mainly
applies to electric generators, comparing to the Left Hand Rule which is used for motors.

where L is the length of the wire within the field, and is the angle between the current
direction and magnetic field.

Solenoid example
Calculate the number of turns per meter in a solenoid which produces a magnetic field of 50
mT given a current of 10A.

=
current I
magnetic field B
Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 5 of 19

Solution:

Application of F=BIL
(1) Measuring B (p.594)

(2) Force on a moving charged particle

Force acts towards the center.

. force on N charged particles in the wire
Force on 1 moving charged particle with speed v and charge q inside a magnetic field, B is

=
0

0
=
0.05
(410
7
)(10)
= 4.0 10
3
/
=

F is measured with a spring scale attached to the top
of the coil zero calibrate it first. I is measured with an
ammeter.
=
= (

)
=
=

N particles along L of the wire
moving with speed v in time t.
= (

)()
mutually orthogonal case
Note: This is a negative charge, thus the
force it experiences is in the opposite
direction than that predicted by the RHGR.
Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 6 of 19

Magnetic force and the corresponding centripetal force

but for circular motion

so (F
c
= F
M
)

To determine the radius of the particles circular motion

*Refer to mass spectrometer (p.607)

(3) Northern Lights

(4) Force between parallel wires (p.598)

= =

=
=

shielding
due to
Earths
magnetic
field
ionization of particles in
the atmosphere
Recombination causes
emission of light.

2
=
1

2
= (

1
2
)
2

2
2

Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 7 of 19

(5) Linear accelerator

Used for rail propulsion?

[CH21] Electromagnetic Induction (Generating electricity)
Current can be induced (generated) in a coil of wire by moving a magnet through it. In effect we are
changing the magnitude of the magnetic field in the coil.

How much current is induced?

(Length of the rod
which current flow)
Movable conducting rod
=
measures minute amounts of current

= (

)
Magnetic flux, represented with letter phi
=

Lenzs Law

: Induced emf in V.
: Number of turns in the coil
: Magnetic flux
= () = () ()
Magnetic flow is measured in Weber, Wb. (1 Wb = 1 Tm
2
)
Think: So how can one change the magnetic flux?
Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 8 of 19

The size of is indicated by the number of field lines enclosed.
e.g.:

Example
The coil is moved from a region with B = -0.1 T to
a region with B = 0.1 T, given that there are 100
turns in the coil, the area which the coil encloses
the field is 0.01 m
2
and the time it takes to move it
into the field is 0.5 s, determine:
(a) the emf induced in the coil
(b) the current induced if the resistance of the wire
is 1.5
Solution:
(a)

(b)

Which direction does the current flow?
The Lenzs Law
An induced emf always gives rise to a current whose magnetic field opposes the original
change in flux.
Ex.1 Before After

increases
B B
B B
decreases

= (

=
(100)(0.1 (0.1))(0.01
2
)
0.5
= 0.40

=
0.40
1.5
= 0.26 = 260
Thus (-) in
B & decrease

Use Right Hand Rule to
find

which produces

: Induced current

: Induced field
Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 9 of 19

Ex.2

Ex.3

constant B

Emf on a moving conductor
OR

B & increase

A & decrease

(Note P4)
movable conducting
rod with speed v
I
Field out of page and current to left produces
a force on the e
-
upward (RHGR). Thus
current (+) in rod goes downwards.

No and

Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 10 of 19

Since

This is the induced emf across the rod as it moves in the magnetic field.

Example
Is an emf induced across the winds of a moving
plane? (v = 300m/s , B
earth
=510
-5
T)
Solution:

Generators and Motors
a) The Motor (Text 20-9,10; 21-6)
Electrical energy ->
Mechanical energy

(Where A is the area of
armature)

For an armature with N turns

=
A

=
(t)l

: ( = 1)

=

16

=

= (5 10
5
)(16)(
300

)

= 0.24

=

2
+

2

=
= ()
=
Armature

=
Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 11 of 19

Issues: When the armature is rotated, eventually it will be flipped by 180 degree. Current will
be travelling in another direction and wires will be tangled up. How can we solve this problem?

Problems solved using commutators

Beginning to twist
(No torque/rotation)
The commutators ensure that
current is always flowing in the
same direction through the
armature.
No twisting of wires.
Split-ring

1.
2. I = 0
Armature is
vertical at
this point.
3.
Armature is
flipped at this
point.
Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 12 of 19

B) The Generator (Text 21-5,6)
Mechanical energy -> Electrical energy

l is the length across the armature
(distance between a and b)

If the armature has N turns, the max. emf induced when both sets of conducting wires cut the
flux is given by

You can relate information on this diagram to the equation
Light-bulb
Slip Ring Commutator
prevents twisting

(1)
(2)
( emf induced)
(3)
As each conducting wire cuts the flux,

= a
b
( min)

= 2
Alternating current (AC)
= .
Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 13 of 19

Now we know that angular velocity w =

,
so

But (2) is equal to the area of the armature, A.
Thus

The generator creates an alternating induced emf,

## and consequently an alternating current,

A.C. The power grid produces A.C. with a frequency of 60 Hz.

Motor as a generator
As a motor turns due to the = , there is a change in the magnetic flux since the area of
the armature enclosing the flux changes. Consequently, a motor induces current, I
i
, and emf, E
i

(also called E
back
and V
back
)

Here is a model of the circuit of a motor with the generator effect.

= 2
Aside:
=

= (

)
=

Changes dependent on the
speed of the spinning
armature

(KII)

)

Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 14 of 19

What happens when you turn on the motor
The steps:
Motor is turned on!

Some situations:
a) What happens if we now add an extra load onto the motor?

b) What happens if the load is too much for the motor such as mewing grass which is too
long?
-> Motor burn out, since

is max, (

= 0A)

Examples
A motor with an armature resistance of 3.0 is connected to a 120 V source. When the motor
reaches full speed its back emf is 105 V. Determine
(a) the start-up current of the motor
(b) the current in the motor when it is landed and running at full speed.
1
Coil just starts to move
= 0
2
Motor acclerates
Due to torque,
3
Moving coil means
4
produces

## is in the opposite direction to current

due to the battery,

6
When I decreases, decreases
Slows down

, ,
Acclerates to new
working speed
Max
Since

is MAX. (

= 0)
(*Note:

)

We call

## the back emf,

or

.
((Note:

t
)
This reduces net current, I in the
armature.
This continues until the motor
reaches a constant speed.
We say it is running at full
speed working speed.
Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 15 of 19

Solution:
(a)

(b)

Induction stove

= 3

= 120
=

=
120
3
= 40

= 3

(KII)

= 105V
= 120
120 105 =

15 = (3)

= 5
When we place a metal sauce pan on this alternating magnetic field, the change in flux
creates an induced current in the base of the sauce pan.
Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 16 of 19

These eddy currents heat up the metal base. They have specific direction but not specific path.

Transformers and transmitting electricity

We step up the voltage for transmitting over long distances to reduce the current carried along
the cable. In turn, we are reducing power loss in the transmission line.
where R is the resistance of the transmission line.
Note: P=VI and V=IR; thus, if V increases, I decreases and P
loss
decreases

Swirling induced currents in the base: eddy currents
12000V 240000V 2400V 120V
(small amounts of current
> less heat lost)
Recall: P=VI
A.C. (Alternating current) is used.

=
2

Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 17 of 19

Transformers (Text 21-7)

or

From the conservation of energy, in an ideal transformer with a 100% efficiency,

Iron core directs the field
Step-Down Transformer (N
P
>N
S
)
(A.C.)
Solenoid (CH 20)
I through a coil
creates B

)
Induced emf (CH 21)
Fluctuating B
creates in the
secondary
windings
emf induced (

Note: For Step-
Up Transformer
(N
S
>N
P
)

Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 18 of 19

Example
Suppose in the above step-down generator,

is 2400V,

is 700 turns,

is 400 turns,
determine the secondary voltage (

)

Editors Notes:
This marks the end of your Physics 12 studies! Usually I dont add personal words into the
notes, but I just want to express my gratitude for your patience when Im processing the notes.
Maybe you like physics, or maybe you dont. Maybe you are still going to study physics in the
upcoming years, or maybe you can finally say farewell to it. Anyways, I wish you good luck in
the future, and may the ma, or , or be always with you!

=
(2400)(400)
700

= 1371.43
Physics 12 Honors/Regular Notes Electromagnetism and Induced EMF V3.0 (KWP) Page 19 of 19

Data Table
Charge on proton/electron e ().

Permeability of free soace
0
4 10
7

Electron rest mass

9.11 10
31
kg
Proton rest mass

1.6726 10
27
kg
Neutron rest mass

1.6749 10
27
kg

Equations
Magnetic field

Magnetic field and force

Motors and Generators

Transformers

=

2
=
0

= =

2
2

=

= (

= 2