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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Ester Armengou Miret


9th May 2005

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Presentation Plan
• Chapter 1 Galileo Signals Overview:
– Galileo Frequency Plan
– Galileo Signals Baseline Overview
• Galileo Navigation Signals in L1
• Galileo Navigation Signals in E6
• Galileo Navigation Signals in E5

• Chapter 2 The choice of baseline modulations: modulations, chip rates,


multiplexing schemes.

• Chapter 3 Spreading codes design: lengths, types, generation, performance


criteria.

• Chapter 4 Navigation message: frame structure, data rates, page format,


navigation message types, message contents, navigation data.

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 2/46

1
GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

-Chapter1:
-Chapter 1: Galileo
GalileoSignals
Signals Overview
Overview
-- Galileo
Galileofrequency
frequencyplan
plan

Galileosignals
Galileo signalsbaseline
baselineoverview
overview

Generalconcepts:
General concepts:signal
signalgenerator,
generator,satellite
satellitetransmission
transmissionchain
chain

GalileoNavigation
Galileo NavigationSignals
Signalsin
inL1
L1

GalileoNavigation
Galileo NavigationSignals
Signalsin
inE6
E6

GalileoNavigation
Galileo NavigationSignals
Signalsin
inE5
E5

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 3/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Galileo Frequency Plan


ThreeFrequency
Three FrequencyBands
Bandspart
part
of the RNSS allocated bands
of the RNSS allocated bands
ARNS Bands ARNS Bands

RNSS Bands RNSS Bands


E5 L2 E6 E2 L1 E1
L5
Hz

Hz
Hz

Hz

Hz
Hz

Hz

Hz
z

z
Hz

MH

MH
Hz
Hz

Hz
4M

4M
5M

0M

9M
3M

1M

0M
5M

0M
7M

7M
8.75

5.42
116

121
121

130

155
156

159

161
1.79

123

158
126

127

157
119

GALILEO Bands (Navigation) GLONASS Bands (Current & modernized) GPS Bands (Current & modernized)

E2-L1-E1and
E2-L1-E1 andE5a/L5
E5a/L5are
arecommon
commontotoGPS
GPSFrequency
Frequencybands
bandsfor
forinteroperability
interoperability

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 4/46

2
GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Galileo Signals Baseline Overview


E5A Signal: E5B Signal: L1F Signal:
Data+Pilot Data+Pilot E6C Signal: Data + Pilot
BPSK mod. BPSK mod. Data + Pilot BOC(1,1) mod.
Rc=10.23 Mcps Rc=10.23 Mcps E6P Signal: BPSK mod. Rc=1.023 Mcps
Rs=50 sps Rs=250 sps BOCcos(10,5) mod. Rc =5.115 Mcps L1P Signal: Rs=250 sps
OS/CS OS/CS/SOL Rc=5.115 Mcps Rs=1000 sps BOCcos (15,2.5) mod. OS/CS/SOL
Services Services PRS Service CS Service PRS Service Services

90x1.023 MHz 40x1.023 MHz 40x1.023 MHz

Frequency
Hz

(MHz)
5M

z
MH

MH
1.79

8.75

5.42
119

E5 Signal: E6 Signal: L1 Signal:


127

157
AltBOC(15,10) mod. CASM mod. CASM mod.

Navigationsignal
Navigation signaland
andsignal
signalchannel
channelare
arenot
notthe
thesame
same

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 5/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Definitions : what do we mean by signal???


• Composite signal or RF transmitted signal:
– The signal generated on board the satellites in a certain band and carrier
frequency. Each signal is the result of applying a given multiplexing scheme to
combine a set of components.
3 Composite Signals in Galileo: E5, E6 and L1 signals
• Signal channel or component:
– Each of the components transmitted in an specific carrier frequency. It consists of
the modulation of the modulo-two addition of an optional navigation data stream
(data channel or pilot channel) and a spreading code.
10 signal channels in Galileo: 4 in E5, 3 in E6 and 3 in L1
• Navigation Signal:
– Set of components of the composite signals which are characterised by the type of
navigation service they can provide due to the contents of their navigation data
stream. Results from the transmission of a data channel, or a combination of a
data channel with a pilot channel.
6 navigation signals in Galileo: L1F, L1P, E6C, E6P, E5a
and E5b signals
Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 6/46

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

General concepts: Signal Generator


• Base band functional diagram:
Data

Data channel Code Modulation

Pilot channel Code Modulation


X-band signal
Data
Multiplexing

Data channel Code Modulation


Pilot channel Code Modulation
(present or not)

• All elements in the signal generator have an impact on the


payload architecture and performances and more widely in the
ultimate system performance.

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 7/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

General concepts: Satellite transmission chain


• Functional diagram:
Up-conversion Amplification

E5
HPA Filter

Signal E6
generator HPA Filter

L1
HPA Filter

• The definition of signal parameters is tightly related to the


overall payload architecture:
– The choice of the modulation depends on filter properties (bandwidth, etc)
– The choice of multiplexing technique depends on amplifier properties
(non linearity) and on the presence of a filter before amplification (up-
conversion stage)
Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 8/46

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Galileo Navigation Signals in L1


• Two Navigation Signals transmitted in the 3 channels of L1-
band signal:
– L1F: open access signal containing navigation and integrity data
– L1P: restricted access signal
• Characteristics:

Signal Channels Modulation Rc Rd Mess. Services Multiplex.


(Mcps) (sps) Type scheme
L1F Data BOC 1 250 I/Nav OS,CS, CASM
Pilot BOC 1 -- SoL

L1P Data BOCcos 2.5 G/Nav PRS

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 9/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Galileo Navigation Signals in E6


• Two Navigation Signals transmitted in the 3 channels of E6-
band signal:
– E6C: commercial access signal
– E6P: restricted access signal

• Characteristics:

Signal Channels Modulation Rc Rd Mess. Services Multiplex.


(Mcps) (sps) Type scheme
E6C Data BPSK 5 1000 C/Nav CS CASM
Pilot BPSK 5 --
E6P Data BOCcos 5 G/Nav PRS

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 10/46

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Galileo Navigation Signals in E5


• Two Navigation Signals transmitted in the 4 channels of E5-
band signal:
– E5a: open access signal containing basic data for navigation and timing
– E5b: open access signal containing navigation and integrity data

• Characteristics:
Signal Channels Modulation Rc Rd Mess. Services Multiplex.
(Mcps) (sps) Type scheme
E5a Data BPSK 10 50 F/Nav OS,CS AltBOC
Pilot BPSK 10 ---
E5b Data BPSK 10 250 I/Nav OS,CS,
SoL
Pilot BPSK 10 ---

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 11/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Chapter 2:
Chapter 2: The
The choice
choice of of baseline
baseline modulations
modulations
-- L1
L1modulations:
modulations:design
designdrivers
driversand
andconstraints,
constraints,the
thefinal
finalchoice,
choice,
multiplexingtechnique
multiplexing technique

--E6
E6modulations:
modulations:design
designdrivers
driversand
andconstraints,
constraints,the
thefinal
finalchoice,
choice,
multiplexing technique
multiplexing technique

--E5
E5modulations:
modulations:design
designdrivers
driversand
andconstraints,
constraints,the
thefinal
finalchoice,
choice,
multiplexing technique, AltBOC modulation
multiplexing technique, AltBOC modulation

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 12/46

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

L1 modulations: design drivers and constraints (1/2)


• L1F open signal: relative small bandwidth desired.
• L1P restricted signal: higher performances, larger bandwidth
and spectrally separated from any open signal.
• L1 band already crowded!!!

Interoperabilityand
Interoperability andcompatibility
compatibilitywith
withGPS
GPSdesired.
desired.
Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 13/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

L1 modulations: design drivers and constraints (2/2)


• The solution has to:
– Make a good use of the spectrum
– Keep the same carrier frequency than GPS C/A to assure
interoperability
– Limit the overlap with other signals
Galileo L1 baseline : L1F BOC(1,1)+L1P BOCcos(15,2.5)

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 14/46

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Definitions: BOC modulation


• BOC modulation (Binary Offset Carrier modulation) based on applying a
squared subcarrier to a BPSK signal
• BOC(n,m):
– n: subcarrier frequency in multiples of 1.023 MHz
– m: chip rate in multiples of 1.023 Mcps
• Energy allocated around subcarrier frequency and not at the central frequency
C/Acode
C/A codeisisaaBPSK(1)
BPSK(1)
BPSK (1)
Rc = 1Mcps 1 1 0 1
BOC(1,1)
Fsc =1Mcps

BPSK (2. 5)
Rc = 2. 5Mcps 1 1 0 1
BOC(15,2.5)

Fsc = 15 Mcps

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 15/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Impacts on receiver of the BOC modulation


• Autocorrelation function has multiple peaks, a problem specially
for BOC(15, 2.5) where direct acquisition is very difficult
• Side- lobe acquisition possible (filter side-band)
• S-curve slope increases: better tracking accuracy but smaller
linear zone

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 16/46

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Definitions: BOC vs BOCcos


• By default a BOC signal is generated by a sinus subcarrier, a
BOCcos signal uses a cosinus subcarrier
scsin (t ) = sign (sin( 2πFsct ))

sccos (t ) = sign(cos( 2πFsct ))

• It results in a reduction of the secondary lobes and improves


isolation with signals in the same band

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 17/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

L1 modulations: the final choice


• The final choice depends on National Security Compatibility
Criteria (NSCC): Spectral Separation Coefficients used to
quantify interference with other signals, specially with GPS M-
code.
– SSC theoretical method to quantify the influence of the overlap between
signals based on signal power spectral density. Agreed method EU-US.
• For L1P BOCcos(15,2.5) chosen because:
– Enough isolation from the GPS M-code and with the open signals (better
spectral isolation thanks to the 2ary lobes reduction of the BOC cosine
subcarrier).
– Wide bandwidth and efficient use of the spectrum: E1 and E2
• For L1F BOC(1,1) chosen because:
– Even if BOC(2,2) have better multipath and tracking performances, it is
not compliant with NSCC
Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 18/46

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

L1 multiplexing technique (1/2)


• Three channels to be multiplexed :
– L1F data channel: s L 1F − d (t ) = d L1F (t )⋅ c L 1F − d (t )⋅ sc BOC (1,1) ( t )

– L1F pilot channel: sL1F − p (t ) = cL1F − p (t ) ⋅ scBOC (1,1) ( t )


– L1P data channel: s L1P (t ) = d L1P (t ) ⋅ c L1P (t ) ⋅ sc BOC cos(15, 2.5 ) (t )

• Constraints:
– Amplifier to be used in saturation: constant envelope
– Power sharing: 50% for L1P and 50% for L1F
– Optimise satellite implementation
– Easy to separate the two signals at reception

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 19/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

L1 multiplexing technique (2/2)


• CASM : Coherent Adaptative Subcarrier Modulation

S L1 (t ) =
3
2
[ ] [
s L1F − d (t ) − s L1F − p (t ) + j 2 ⋅ s L1P (t ) + s L1,int (t )
1
3
]
INTERMODULATION PRODUCT TO ASSURE CONSTANT ENVELOPE

• Relative power levels: • Constellation:

Channels Before After Q


multiplexing multiplexing
L1F data 25% 22%
L1F pilot 25% 22%
L1P 50% 44% I
IM -- 11%

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 20/46

10
GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

E6 modulations
• No constraints in terms of operability or compatibility to chose
E6 modulations because the band is not used by GPS or Glonass
• Galileo E6 baseline :
– BPSK(5) for E6C commercial signal
– BOCcos(10,5) for E6P restricted signal
• BOCcos chosen to have into account NSCC: good isolation of
the restricted signal from the commercial one

Reducedspectral
Reduced spectraloverlap
overlapwith
withBOCcos
BOCcos

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 21/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

E6 multiplexing technique
• Three channels to be multiplexed :

– E6C data channel: sE 6 C − d (t ) = d E 6 C ⋅ (t )⋅ cE 6C − d (t )

– E6C pilot channel: sE 6C − p (t ) = cE 6C− p (t )

– E6P data channel: s E 6P (t ) = d E 6P (t ) ⋅ c E6 P (t ) ⋅ sc BOC cos(10, 5) (t )

• CASM modulation

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 22/46

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

E5 modulations: design drivers and constraints

• E5 bandwidth is very large and it is interesting to


take profit of it using large band signals

• E5 band comprises two adjacent bands: E5a and


E5b. E5a band corresponds to GPS L5 band

• GPS L5 signal is a BPSK with 10Mcps: for


interoperability at receivers, we choose 10Mcps

BPSK(10) modulations

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 23/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

E5 multiplexing technique (1/3)


• Four channels to be multiplexed:

– E5a data channel: sE 5 a − d (t ) = d E 5 a ⋅ (t ) ⋅ cE 5 a − d (t )

– E5a pilot channel: sE 5a− p (t ) = cE 5a − p (t )

– E5b data channel: sE 5 b− d (t ) = d E 5b ⋅ (t )⋅ cE 5b − d (t )

– E5b pilot channel: sE 5b− p (t ) = cE 5b − p (t )

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 24/46

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

E5 multiplexing technique (2/3)


• Two possible way to multiplex the two adjacent signals E5a and
E5b (each composed of data+pilot):
– OPTION 1: Two different QPSK signals:

QPSK
E5a
NavE5a(t) Up-
Modulation HPA Filter
Conversion
& Spreading

SE5(t)
QPSK:22BPSK(10)
QPSK: BPSK(10)signals
signalsin
inquadrature
quadrature OMUX

NavE5b(t) QPSK
Up-
Modulation HPA Filter
Conversion
& Spreading
E5b
– OPTION 2: One AltBOC signal:
NavE5a (t)
AltBOC SE5(t)
Up- HPA Output
Modulation
Conversion Filter
NavE5b (t) & Spreading

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 25/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

E5 multiplexing technique (3/3)


• OPTION 1: two QPSK signals
– Straightforward and simple implementation
– Small transition bandwidth for the filters
– Less than 24 MHz useful bandwidth for each signal
• OPTION 2: AltBOC
– One single chain to transmit the four channels
– Constellation constant envelope
– Wide reception signal, like BOC(15,10) E5a E5b
– Side-band processing possible
– Intermodulation product appears
– Complexity in implementation

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 26/46

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Definitions: AltBOC Modulation


• Theoretical expression
s t (t ) =x
1
⋅ (s Et 5 a − d (t ) +
x
) ⋅ [sc
j ⋅ s Etx 5 a − p (t ) E 5− d (t ) − (
j ⋅ sc E 5 − d t − T scE 5 4 + )]
E5
2⋅ 2
1
(
⋅ s tEx5 b − d (t ) + j ⋅ s tEx5 b − p (t ) ) ⋅ [sc E 5− d (t ) + (
j ⋅ sc E 5 − d t − T sc E 5 4 +)]
2⋅ 2
1
(
⋅ s Et x5 a −d (t ) + j ⋅ s Et x5 a − p (t ))⋅ [sc E 5− p (t ) − (
j ⋅ sc E 5 − p t − T sc E 5 4 +)]
IM LOSSES 2⋅ 2
15% POWER 1
( ) ⋅ [sc
⋅ s Et x5 b − d (t ) + j ⋅ s Et x5 b − p (t ) E 5− p (t ) + (
j ⋅ sc E 5 − p t − T scE 5 4 )]
2⋅ 2
• Power levels: • Constellation
Q
Channels Before multiplexing
E5a data 25%
E5a pilot 25%
E5b data 25% I
E5b pilot 25%

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 27/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Chapter3:
Chapter 3:Spreading
Spreadingcodescodesdesign
design
--Galileo
Galileospreading
spreadingcode
codelengths
lengths

-- Tiered
Tieredcodes
codesconstruction
construction

-- Type
Typeofofcodes
codes

-- Gold
Goldcodes
codesgeneration
generation

-- Codes
Codesperformance
performancecriteria
criteria

--Galileo
Galileospreading
spreadingcodes
codeschoice
choice

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 28/46

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

GALILEO spreading code lengths


• Spreading codes are used to acquire and track a specific satellite. Each
channel and satellite has a different code (CDMA)
• Code lengths:
– Data channels: code period duration is equal to one symbol duration.
– Pilot channels: long pilot code periods to improve cross-correlation and channel
isolation (determines usable signal dynamic), and noise and interference
suppression. Duration chosen 100ms.
Code rate Data Rate Code period Code length
Channel
(Mcps) (symbol/s) (ms) (chips)
E5a data 10.230 50 20 204600
E5a pilot 10.230 Pilot 100 1023000
E5b data 10.230 250 4 40920
E5b pilot 10.230 Pilot 100 1023000
E6C data 5.115 1000 1 5115
E6C pilot 5.115 Pilot 100 1023000
L1F data 1.023 250 4 4092
L1F pilot 1.023 Pilot 100 1023000

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 29/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Tiered codes construction


• Most of the codes are very long and code families with good performances
are difficult to find.
• Codes longer than 16383 chips are constructed by Tiered codes (all of them
except L1F data and E6C data).
• A tiered code consist of successive repetitions of a primary code modulated
by the chips of a secondary code.
NP Chips

Chip rate: RP

PRIMARY N P*N S Chips


Period i Period i+1 Period i+NS -1Period i+N S
CODE
GENERATOR
N S Chips

SECONDARY
CODE Period j Period j+1
GENERATOR

Chip rate: RS=RP /NP N P: Primary code length (chips)


N S: Secondary code length (chips)

• Primary codes can be used for fast acquisitions while the entire code can be
used for tracking. Aiming at typical integration times for acquisition of 1ms
or a few ms, primary code periods is of the order of 10 kchips.
Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 30/46

15
GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

0 4 ms 10 ms 20 ms 100 ms
1 ms

Symbol d0 d1

E5a-d Sec. Code 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 18 19 0 1


Pri. Code

Sec. Code 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 98 99 0 1
E5a-p
Pri. Code
Allsignals
All signalscoherently
coherently
derivedfrom
derived fromthe
thesame
same Symbol d0 d1 d2

E5b-d Sec. Code 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 0 1


on-boardfrequency
on-board frequency Pri. Code

standard.They
standard. Theyare
are Sec. Code 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 98 99 0 1
E5b-p
perfectlysynchronised.
perfectly synchronised. Pri. Code

Symbol d0 d 1 d2 d 3 d 4 d5 d 6 d7 d 8 d 9
E6C- d
Pri. Code

Sec. Code 0 1 2 3 4 49 0
E6C- p
Pri. Code

Symbol d0 d1 d2
L1F-d
Pri. Code

Sec. Code 0 1 24 0
L1F-p
Pri. Code

d k Message stream k-th symbol n Secondary code n -th chip One entire primary code period ( N p chips length)

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 31/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Type of codes
• Primary codes are:
– Truncated Gold codes: can be systematically generated by LSFR (Linear
Feedback Shift Registers)
– Memory codes: randomly generated and optimised. Need to be stored in memory,
no systematic generation possible
• Most secondary codes (enough length) are randomly generated and
optimised.
Primary Secondary
Channel Type Length Length The same
E5a data Truncated Gold 10230 20 secondary
E5a pilot Truncated Gold 10230 100 code for all
E5b data Truncated Gold 10230 4 satellites
E5b pilot Truncated Gold 10230 100 (exhaustive
E6C data Memory code 5115 seach and the
E6C pilot Memory code 5115 100 best chosen)
L1F data Memory code 4092
L1F pilot Memory code 4092 25

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 32/46

16
GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Gold codes generation


• The generation of a Gold code require two shift registers (LFSR), the output
sequence being the exclusive OR of register 1 and 2 outputs

SHIFT REGISTER 1 - R: number of registers


XOR
- Feedback tap polynomial: 'switches'
that indicate whether a feedback
R1 R1 R1 R1
Register 1 output sequence connection exists or not
C1 C2 C3 CR
- Initial states: indicates the stored
Gold output sequence
R2 R2 R2 R2
contents of all the stages in a specific
C1 C2 C3 CR
moment. The initial status vector
Register 2 output sequence
a2 determines which sequence will be
(Feedback taps register 2)
generated. Register 1 always
XOR initialised to the “all ones” state.
SHIFT REGISTER 2 Register 2 initial state depends on
each channel and satellite.

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 33/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Codes performance criteria


• The autocorrelation function of a code should have in an ideal case a high
peak value while all other values should be as small as possible. This
behaviour should not be lost if the Doppler effect is taken into account.

• The crosscorrelation values between two given codes should also be as small
as possible to get good acquisition performance.

• Criteria in GALILEO code selection process:


– Acquisition performances: Mean Excess Welch Square Distance. To quantify the
values of the cross-correlation function that exceed the Welch bound and
degenerate the acquisition performance.
TheWelch
The Welchbound
bound isisthe
thetheoretical
theoreticalminimum
minimumof ofthe
themaximum
maximumvalue
valueofof
crosscorrelation that can be obtained for a given code length within a set of codes.
crosscorrelation that can be obtained for a given code length within a set of codes.
– Tracking performances: quantified through the Merit Factor.
– Average Excess Line Weight: describes similarity to ideal random codes.

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 34/46

17
GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Galileo spreading codes choice


• Different families of codes selected for study and optimisation:
– TruncatedGold codes
– Concadenated Gold codes
– Kasami codes
– Gold-like codes
– Randomly generated codes

• For each channel, the best set of codes of each family identified and
compared through the previous performance criteria.

• The best option retained, not only in terms of performances but also having
into account implementation issues and future evolutions.

Gold codes in E5 because of their systematic generation


Memory codes for E6 and L1 to allow higher flexibility
Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 35/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Chapter4:
Chapter 4:Navigation
Navigationmessage
message
-- Frame
Framestructure
structure

-- Page
Pageformat
format

--Message
Messagecontents
contents

--Navigation
Navigationdata
data

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 36/46

18
GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Frame structure (1/2)


• The navigation message is transmitted in the data stream as a sequence of
frames.
• Each frame is composed of a certain number (depending on the signal band)
of subframes which are composed of several pages.

Frame #1 Frame #2 ……. Frame #N-1Frame #N Frame #1 Frame #2

Subframe #1 Subframe #2 ……. Subframe #M-1 Subframe #M

Page #1 Page #2 ……. Page #P-1 Page #P

• This arrangement allows to accomplish the three different main categories of


data to be transmitted:
– repeated at fast rate (for urgent data, such as integrity): page.
– medium rate (like data required for warm start TTF) : sub-frame.
– and slow rates (like data required for cold start TTF): frame.
Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 37/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Frame structure (2/2)

Signal Data rate Page #Pages in a sub- #Sub-frames in a


duration frame frame
F/Nav E5a 50 sps 10 s. 5 12
I/Nav E5b L1P 250 sps 1 s. 30 18
C/Nav L1C 1000 sps 1 s. 15 8
G/Nav E6P L1P

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 38/46

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Page Format
• A page contains:

Synchro Data CRC Tail

FEC encoded and interleaved


(convolutional code with rate 1/2)

• A three levels error coding is applied to the GALILEO Message Data


Stream:
- A Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) with error detection capabilities after
recovery of the received data
- A one-half rate Forward Error Correction (FEC). Tail Bits (sequence of
zeros) to allow Viterbi decoding.
- Block Interleaving on the resulting frames: provides robustness to the
FEC decoding algorithm by avoiding packets of errors
• FEC and CRC are defined according to BER and FER targets.

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Message Contents
• F/NAV is the acronym for Freely Accessible Navigation message type.
• I/NAV is the acronym for Integrity Navigation message type.
• C/NAV is the acronym for Commercial message type.
• G/NAV is the acronym for Governmental Access Navigation message type.

Message Message Data Content


Type
Navigation Integrity Search&Rescue Supplementary Service Management
F/Nav Yes No No No No
I/Nav Yes Yes Yes No Yes
C/Nav No No No Yes Yes
G/Nav Yes Yes No No Yes

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Message Contents
• The navigation data includes both satellite and constellation message data.

• The Search and Rescue return link provides the capability to send 8
acknowledgement SAR messages of 64 bits every 50 seconds to a Beacon
equipped with a suitable Galileo receiver.

• Supplementary data is provided as part of the CS only navigation message on


E6. The supplementary data is expected to provide weather alerts, traffic
information and accident warnings, etc.

• Service management data is used to provide key management and other


information to enable controlled access to the Galileo signals and message
data. For the CS key management data is required to provide access to the
encrypted revenue earning data and to the ranging code on E6.

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Navigation data
• The navigation data contain all the parameters that enable the
user to perform positioning service. They are stored on board all
the satellite with a validity duration and broadcast world-wide
by all the satellite of the constellation.

• 4 types of data needed to perform positioning are specified:


– Ephemeris: needed to indicate the position of the satellite to the user with
a sufficient accuracy
– Time parameters and Clock correction parameters: needed to compute
pseudo-range measurements
– Service parameters: needed to identify the set of navigation data, the
satellites, some indicator of the health of the signal, etc.
– Almanacs: to indicate the position of all the satellite in the constellation
with a reduced accuracy needed for the acquisition of the signal by the
receiver

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Summary
Summary

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Functional implementation of L1 channel


Reference
10.23 MHz
Subcarrier generation f L1=1575.42 MHz
Carrier Frequency
x 154

10 SIN Limiter
BOC(1,1) Subcarrier Waveform
CASM
DATA generation 40920
250 Hz Symbol Clock

L1F Interleaving 250 sps


Add Tail FEC
Data Add CRC &
bits Encoding sc L1 F− d (t )
Message UW Insertion
dL1 F (t ) L1F COS
10 Rc ,L1 F−d Mcps Data Channel 2 3
L1F-d c L1 F− d (t )
Code Generator
+
CODE 10 Rc ,L1 F −p Mcps sc L1 F− p (t ) + X
L1F-p
L1F -
generation Code Generator Rc ,L1 F− p Mcps 2
Pilot Channel 3
250 Hz Clock 25-chips c L1 F −p (t )
40920
Secondary +
Code
+
DATA generation X
L1P Symbol Clock
- L1 Signal
SIN
L1P dL1 P(t )
Interleaving
Add Tail FEC 2
Data Add CRC & L1P 3
bits Encoding
Message UW Insertion

4 Rc ,L1 PMcps c L1 P (t ) sc L1 P (t ) 1
3
L1P X + X
Code Generator
CODE generation X

BOCcos(15,2.5) Subcarrier Waveform


(10/15) COS Limiter
XOR/Modulo-2 addition

RESET
Subcarrier generation

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Main conclusions
• Main design drivers for signal design: trade-off between
technical and programmatic aspects
– Target performances: intended use, user type, scenario.
– Compatibility and interoperability with other navigation systems.

• All elements in the signal generator have an impact on the


payload architecture and performances and more widely in the
ultimate system performance.

Good news for your future:


A lot of work to do at receiver side and applications

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 45/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Questions?
Questions?

Thank you
Thank you

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23
GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Auxiliary slides

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Functional implementation of E6 channel


Reference
10.23 MHz f E6 =1278.75 MHz
Carrier Frequency
x 125
CASM
DATA generation 10230
1000 Hz Symbol Clock

E6C Interleaving 1000 sps


Add Tail FEC
Data Add CRC &
bits Encoding
Message UW Insertion
dE 6 C (t ) COS
E6C
R c, E6 C − d Mcps Data Channel
2 E6C-d 2
c E6 C − d (t )
Code Generator 3
+
CODE Rc , E 6 C − p Mcps + X
2 E6C-p
generation Code Generator Rc , E 6 C − p Mcps
E6C
Pilot Channel
-

c E 6 C − p (t )
2
500 Hz Clock 50-chips 3
20406 Secondary +
Code
+
DATA generation X
Symbol Clock
- E6 Signal

(t ) SIN
E6P Interleaving dE6 P
Add Tail FEC
Data Add CRC & E6P
bits Encoding 2
Message UW Insertion
3
2 c E6 P (t )
E6P R c, E6 P Mcps sc E6 P (t ) X + X
Code Generator
1
CODE generation X 3

BOCcos(10,5) Subcarrier Waveform


COS Limiter
XOR/Modulo-2 addition

RESET Subcarrier generation

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Functional implementation of E5 channel


Reference 1191.795 MHz
10.23 MHz Carrier Frequency
x 116.5
50 Hz Symbol Clock
204600

E5a Interleaving 50 sps


Data Add CRC Add Tail FEC &
bits Encoding
d E5 a (t )
Message UW Insertion
1 kHz Clock
10230 20-bits
Secondary
c E5 a − d (t )
Rc , E 5a − d Mcps Code
E5a -d
Code Generator E5a
100 -bits c E 5 a − p (t ) Data Channel
R c, E 5 a− p Mcps Secondary COS
Code
E5a -p
Code Generator E5a cos(k. π/4)
Pilot Channel X

+
Look-up
250 Hz Symbol Clock +
40920 Table
SIN -
E5 Signal
d E5 b ( t )
E5b Interleaving 250 sps k∈{1,…8}
Add Tail FEC
Data Add CRC & sin(k. π/4)
bits Encoding
Message UW Insertion X
1 kHz Clock
10230 4-bits
Rc , E5 b − d Mcps Secondary cE 5 b− d (t )
E5b -d
Code
cE 5 b − p (t )
AltBOCtoo
AltBOC too
Code Generator E5b
Rc , E 5b − p Mcps 100 -bits
Secondary
Data Channel complicated using
complicated using
Code
E5b -p
Code Generator E5b time domain
time domain
Pilot Channel
Counter
1..8
formula.ItItisis
formula.
(2/3)
AltBOC(15,10) Subcarrier Frequency easier withaaLUT
easier with LUT
RESET

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Impacts on receiver of the BOC modulation


• Autocorrelation function has multiple peaks, a problem specially
for BOC(15, 2.5) where direct acquisition is very difficult
• Side- lobe acquisition possible (filter side-band)
• S-curve slope increases with Fsc/Rc relation

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GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Impacts on receiver of the BOC modulation


• Autocorrelation function has multiple peaks, a problem specially
for BOC(15, 2.5) where direct acquisition is very difficult
• Side- lobe acquisition possible (filter side-band)
• S-curve slope increases with Fsc/Rc relation

Ester Armengou Miret 9th May 2005 51/46

GALILEO SIGNAL-IN-SPACE DESIGN

Impacts on receiver of the BOC modulation


• Autocorrelation function has multiple peaks, a problem specially
for BOC(15, 2.5) where direct acquisition is very difficult
• Side- lobe acquisition possible (filter side-band)
• S-curve slope increases with Fsc/Rc relation

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26