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Hydrogen fuel enhancement for vehicles

HYDROGEN FUEL ENHANCEMENT FOR VEHICLES.............................................................................................1

HISTORY ............................................................................................................................................................................. 2
THE THEORY BEHIND HYDROXY BOOSTING IN VEHICLES ............................................................................. 3
INSTALLATION. ................................................................................................................................................................ "
EACH CYLINDER OF THE ENGINE. ............................................................................................................................ &
HYDROGEN IN#ECTION METHODS ........................................................................................................................... &
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HTTP())WWW.ANSWERS.COM)TOPIC)ELECTROLYSIS ........................................................................................ '
HTTP())WWW.MIMOUSA.COM)HYDROGEN)INSTALLATION.ASP .................................................................... *
HTTP())WWW.ANSWERS.COM)TOPIC)ELECTROLYSIS ........................................................................................ *
EXAMPLE 3 :PULSE WIDTH MODULATOR FOR 12 AND 24 VOLT APPLICATIONS ........................................................................... 17
EPOXY GLUE .................................................................................................................................................................... 2"
VEHICLES INSTALL INSTRUCTIONS ...................................................................................................................... 32
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS ................................................................................................................................................ "3
Research in 1975 examined hydrogen enhanced gasoline in lean combustion.
John Houseman and D.J Cerini of the Jet
ro!ulsion "aboratory !roduced a re!ort for the #ociety of $utomoti%e &ngineers titled '(n)*oard Hydrogen +enerator
for a artial Hydrogen ,n-ection ,nternal Combustion &ngine'. and /.0. Hoehn and 1.0. Do2y. also of the Jet ro!ulsion
"ab. !re!ared a re!ort for the 9th ,ntersociety &nergy Con%ersion &ngineering Conference. titled '/easibility
Demonstration of a Road 3ehicle /ueled 2ith Hydrogen &nriched +asoline.'
Research done in 4554 sho2s that the 'addition of hydrogen to natural gas increases the burn rate and extends the lean
burn)limit'. $lso concluded 2as that 'hydrogen addition lo2ers HC emissions'. and 2ith !ro!erly 'retarded ignition timing'
also reduces 6(x emissions.
/urther research in 4554 achie%ed results sho2ing 'a reduction of 6(x and C(4 emissions'. by modeling an on)board
hydrogen reformer and '%arying the efficiency'.
8he research 2as s!ecifically a 'numerical in%estigation' done to 'forsee
!erformances. exhaust emissions. and fuel consum!tion of a small. multi %al%e. s!ar9 ignition engine fueled by hydrogen
enriched gasoline'.
,n 455: 8sola9is et al. of the ;ni%ersity of *irmingham sho2ed that '!artial re!lacement of the hydrocarbon fuel by
hydrogen combined 2ith &+R resulted in simultaneous reductions of smo9e and nitrogen oxides emissions <6(x= 2ithout
significant changes to engine efficiency'. #imilar results ha%e been !resented by a team of scientists from >he-iang
;ni%ersity. China. 2hich found that 'a little amount of hydrogen su!!lemented to the gasoline)air mixture can extend the
flammability of the mixture... im!ro%ing the economy and emissions of engines'.
8est results in 455? sho2 'that the H4)rich reformate gas 2as an excellent 6(x reductant. and can out !erform ra2 Diesel
fuel as a reductant in a 2ide range of o!erating conditions'.8his is referring to Diesel fuel being used in excess. as a
reductant. to cool the combustion reaction. 2hich indeed has a mitigating effect on 6(x !roduction.
,n 455? research 2as conducted concluding that an '#, engine system fueled by gasoline and hydrogen rich reformate
gas ha%e been demonstrated' to achie%e a 'dramatic reduction of !ollution emissions'.8his 2as achie%ed by 'extending
&+R o!eration' in addition to consuming 'gasoline and hydrogen rich reformate'. &missions results sho2 that 'HC)
emissions as 2ell as 6(x)emissions could be reduced to near @ero'. (%erall a :.5A reduction in C(4 emissions 2as
achie%ed during the '/8 test cycle'. 8he research also concluded that the exhaust after treatment system can be
sim!lified. 'resulting in cost reduction for the catalysts'.
8o date. Hydrogen fuel enhancement !roducts ha%e not been s!ecifically addressed by the &$. 6o research de%ices or
commercial !roducts ha%e re!orts a%ailable as !er the '1otor 3ehicle $ftermar9et Retrofit De%ice &%aluation rogram. ,n
general there are no references a%ailable for the ;# +o%ernment addressing the conce!t of hydrogen fuel enhancement.
The Theory behind hydroxy boosting in vehicles
Hydrogen fuel enhancement is a term used to describe the su!!lementation of an internal combustion engine <,C&= 2ith
hydrogen to im!ro%e fuel efficiency and !o2er. *y su!!lementing an engineEs normal fuel 2ith hydrogen C com!ressed
natural gas blends <H4C6+ or HC6+=. the exhaust emissions of the ,C& can be dramatically im!ro%ed.Hydrogen
in-ection is similar to both !ro!ane in-ection and nitrous oxide in-ection.
HC6+ <or H4C6+= is a mixture of com!ressed natural gas and ?)9 !ercent hydrogen by energy. Hydrogen contents of
less than 55A in the HC6+ blend ha%e lea9age and flammability ris9s similar to those of C6+ alone. 0ith the hydrogen
being !art of the mixture. there are no s!ecial !recautions needed to a%oid hydrogen embrittlement of the materials
coming in contact 2ith the mixture.. HC6+ stations can be found at Hynor <6or2ay= and the *C hydrogen high2ay in
$utomoti%e fuel enhancement systems in-ect either a hydrogen)rich mixture. or !ure hydrogen into the inta9e manifold of
the engine. ,n some cases. this is combined 2ith airCfuel ratio and timing modifications. $ small amount of hydrogen
added to the inta9e air)fuel charge !ermits the engine to o!erate 2ith leaner air)to)fuel mixture than other2ise !ossible.
$s the airCfuel mix a!!roaches :5B1 the tem!erature of combustion substantially decreases effecti%ely mitigating 6(x
;nder idle conditions !o2er is only reFuired for extraneous com!onents other than the dri%e train. therefore fuel
consum!tion can be minimi@ed. $ 55A reduction in gasoline consum!tion at idle 2as re!orted by numerically analy@ing
the effect of hydrogen enriched gasoline on the !erformance. emissions and fuel consum!tion of a small s!ar9)ignition
;nder most loads near stoichiometric airCfuel mixtures are still reFuired for normal acceleration. although under idle
conditions. reduced loads and moderate acceleration hydrogen addition in combination 2ith lean burn engine conditions
can guarantee a regular running of the engine 2ith many ad%antages in terms of emissions le%els and fuel consum!tion.
,ncreases in engine efficiency are more dominant than the energy loss incurred in generating hydrogen. 8his is
s!ecifically 2ith regard to use of a hydrogen reformer. (%erall com!utational analysis has mar9ed the !ossibility of
o!erating 2ith high air o%erabundance <lean or ultra)lean mixtures= 2ithout a substantial !erformance decrease but 2ith
great ad%antages on !ollution emissions and fuel consum!tion.
(%erall com!aring the !ro!erties of hydrogen and gasoline. it is !ossible to underline the !ossibilities. for hydrogen fueled
engines of o!erating 2ith %ery lean <or ultra)lean= mixtures. obtaining interesting fuel economy and emissions
reductions.8he conce!t of hydrogen enriched gasoline as a fuel for internal combustion engines has a greater interest
than !ure hydrogen !o2ered engines because it in%ol%es fe2er modifications to the engines and their fueling systems.
Hydrogen fuel enhancement from electrolysis of 2ater can !roduce fuel efficiency im!ro%ements on the order of ?A and
similar modest reductions in emissions. and is currently in use in Canada
$ sim!lified single)ste! combustion reaction is re!resented asB
[/;&"7 G [HHDR(+&67 G [$,R7 I HC G C( G C(4 G H4( G 6(x
xyhydrogen is a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gases. ty!ically in a 4B1 atomic ratioJ the same !ro!ortion as 2ater. $t
normal tem!erature and !ressure. oxyhydrogen can burn 2hen it is bet2een about ?A and 9?A hydrogen by %olume.
2ith a flame tem!erature around 4555 C.
!odifying the "ehicle#s $%& to 'ccommodate the (e) !ixture
1any !eo!le ha%e been ex!erimenting 2ith systems in 2hich an on)board electroli@er. using the %ehicleEs battery !o2er.
con%erts 2ater into a hydrogen)oxygen gas. 2hich they then duct into the engineEs air inta9e. 2here the hydrogen
cataly@es a more efficient burn of the fuel. resulting in significant mileage increase. torFue increase. and a reduction
in emissions. #ome entities ha%e been commerciali@ing %arious iterations of this a!!roach. !ro%iding e%erything from
!lans and 9its to com!leted systems and installation.
,n general there are t2o com!onents to hydrogen addition that effect efficiency. /irst is flame %elocity. 2hich !ro%ides
more time for the fuel to burn bet2een %al%e cycles. #econd is the lean burn limit. in 2hich gasoline does not li9e to
remain flammable !ast a certain !oint. "eaning the airCfuel ratio results in less fuel being in-ected therefore less engine
!o2er out!ut. 8he lean condition uses excess air to Fuench combustion tem!erature. 2hich reduces 6(x !roduction. /or
!erformance !ur!oses the engine should be tuned to use ultra lean conditions only 2hen substantial !o2er out!ut is not
reFuired. therefore maintaining !ea9 !o2er out!ut 2hen necessary. Hence lean conditions 2ill only be used during idle.
moderate acceleration and cruise. *asically this is all defined in the fuel ma!s of the &C;. and there are many
consideration in ho2 to !rogram them. /uel enhancement allo2s for different o!tions to consider 2hen tuning the %ehicles
fuel ma!s. $lso in automatic %ehicles the shift !oints of the transmission can be calibrated to increase the a%erage time
the engine is o!erating in an efficient R1 region.
,ncreasing gas mileage de!ends on changing ho2 the engine is o!erating. 8o do this the !rimary com!onent that needs
modification is the &C; or the carburetor. #toc9 &C;Es are designed by (&1 manufacturers such as *osch. and are not
modifiable. (nly a cou!le of hac9s. and chi!s are a%ailable to t2ea9 stoc9 &C;s. 2ith the best and most effecti%e course
of action being com!lete re!lacement 2ith an aftermar9et tunable &C;.
8he o!timal im!lementation of fuel enhancement reFuires in-ection of !redefined Fuantities of hydrogen de!ending on
conditions <R1. load. etc..=. Different Fuantities of hydrogen in-ection 2ill ha%e a different effect. and should be
reflected in great detail in the &C;Es fuel ma!s. #uch customi@ation reFuires at minimum a dynomometer. and
ho!efully a !yrometer ta!!ed into each cylinder of the engine.
Hydrogen *n+ection !ethods
8he actual increase from hydroxy in-ection. also called HH(. hydro)boost. and hydrogen boostJ is !robably more in the
region of 15):5A. 0hen combined 2ith other things such as !ro!er tire inflation. better dri%ing habits. lubricant additi%es
for the oil. !reheating of the fuel <%ery dangerous=. then it is concei%able that consistent 55)K5A im!ro%ement could be
6e2 &nergy Congress member. 8ai Robinson argues for ha%ing hydrogen tan9s on board to in-ect H in !ro!ortion to the
torFue reFuirements of the %ehicle <go%ernable=. rather than %ia onboard electrolysis. 2hich is not go%ernable. and is
!rone to be more dangerous because of the tendency of the H)H)( mixture to 2ant to ex!olosi%ely recombine into 2ater.
$n argument against that system 2ould be the u!)front costJ and the !otential danger of the hydroxy gas can be mitigated
by a flash)bac9 arrester or a bubbler.
,-. 'ssist
/iesel0.as 'ustralia 1http://www.dieselgasaustralia.com.au/default.aspx?ID=Vehicles2 3 This com4any has been
able to do a fuel as4iration into the air inta5e for diesels6 (ormally7 this is a dangerous condition7 as
once the heat of com4ression reaches the autoignition 4oint of the fuel7 uncontrolled combustion ta5es
4lace7 often )ell before to4 dead center6 This system does not do it at all7 )hich is ama8ing6 "a4ori8ed
,-. is introduced into the air inta5e to augment the normal diesel fuel in+ection into the cylinder6 The
result is cleaner combustion and higher overall fuel mileage6 33 9en :auen7 ;eb6 <7 200<
.reen-o)er =i3;uels 1http://www.gpbf.co.uk/bifuel.htm2 ) *i)fuel is the !rinci!le of running t2o fuels in an
engine simultaneously. ,ntroducing a small amount of "+ <"iFuid etroleum +as= into a diesel engine %ia the air
inlet manifold has the effect of acting as a catalyst. causing the diesel to combust more effecti%ely. burning more
of the diesel.
'$%#s (e) *nitiative -roduces Hydrogen3on3/emand for 'ir
*nta5e 1http://pesn.com/200/02/0!/"#00$%0&'lternate(nerg)*orp&h)drogen+in,ection/2 ) Differing from the
%arious electrolysis)based hydrogen)in-ection a!!roaches being !ursued. $lternate &nergy Cor!. has a
!ro!rietary hydrogen)on)demand system that is metallurgical based. <PESNJ /eb. 1. 455L=
$lectrolysis &nits
(n board electrolysis of 2ater !roduces hydrogen and oxygen 2hich are added to the airCfuel mixture to increase
combustion efficiency. $lso 9no2n as *ro2nEs gas or egas <electrolysis gas or electrolytic gas=. #ystems that !roduce
less than a!!roximately 45 liters !er hour reFuire oxygen sensor o%erride <http://www.eagle-
research.com/fuelsav/efie.html= to 2or9 !ro!erly.
$ con%erter se!arates 2ater into a gas called HH( <4 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom= HH( gas is also 9no2n as
bro2ns gas or sim!ly hydroxy. using the electricity from the battery of the %ehicle. $ con%erter !roduces hydrogen that is
reFuired by the %ehicle. 8his gas is called *ro2n +as. 2hich burns smoothly. ,t deli%ers the atomic !otency of hydrogen
and also retains the stability of 2ater. (nce burned as fuel in the %ehicle the end !roduct is H4(M ,t is easy to install.
affordable and a Fuart of 2ater can last for months. HH( is a form of gas created by electrolysis. (rdinary 2ater contains
a ton of energy. but the tric9 is to get that energy out 2ithout using a lot of energy to do so. 8he creation of !ure hydrogen
gas is im!ossible. $s of no2. it is not e%en economical for large cor!orations
'luminum xidation
$luminum is oxidi@ed in a chemical reaction that releases hydrogen gas.
'llH2 >ust 'dd ?ater 1http://www.allh2.com/!0-0.$.html2 ) ,ncrease your gas mileage by ?5 A or more. ,t
ta9es only : hours to install the con%ersion 9it to your carEs existing fuel system. ,t modifies the car to idle on
hydrogen and accelerate on gasoline. 8he gal%anic hydrogen !roducer generates hydrogen from sea2ater. 8his
cell is a combination of magnesium. aluminium and stainless steel.
h2gen6info ) Hydrogen +enerator 2or9ing !rototy!e for automobile engine sho2s im!ro%ed gas mileage.
=everage can hydrogen 1http://www.green+trust.org/200#/0"/be/erage+can+aluminum+h)drogen.html2
' chemistry lesson 1http://www.newton.dep.anl.go//askasci/chem00/chem00.!.htm2
ther *nnovations
@A*3(anoB (i;e -roduct -rofile Hydrogen .eneration
$lectrodes 1http://www.0sinano.com/white&papers/12I&D2(&3)drogen&445&6arch&0%.pdf2 - (36-!"#
PDF$ N#, <http://www.qsinano.com/apps_hgen.php= %!& '#()*&+,!+#' +%!+ -. /&0*" 0+& *!*) *012#3
!*' 0,)* !,+013#& 0+ 0& )&&0-3# +) #41##' +%# D#!,+(#*+ )5 E*#,".6& +!,"#+ 70+% 859 #*#,".
#55010#*1. -. 0*1,#!&0*" +%# &/,5!1# !,#! )5 +%# !1+0:# 1)()*#*+& )5 +%# %.',)"#*
#3#1+,)3.;#,< 70+%)/+ !*. CO2. (Quantum Sphere= M!. 1< 2>>8$
$lectroly8er build 4rocess
(ne im!ortant use of electrolysis of 2ater is to !roduce hydrogen.
4H4(<l= I 4H4<g= G (4<g=
8his has been suggested as a 2ay of shifting society to2ard using hydrogen as an energy carrier for !o2ering electric
motors and internal combustion engines.
$ctually. 2ater is 'burned hydrogen' or 'hydrogen ash'. 0ater is the by)!roduct resulting from o!erating a %ehicle on
hydrogen. ,n more technical terms. then. 2ater is a lo2er energy form of hydrogen. 8o turn 2ater bac9 into a fuel. energy
must be !um!ed into the 2ater causing it to dissociate. freeing the hydrogen. /or this reason. 2e do not consider
hydrogen to be a source of energy. ,t is. rather. an energy %ector))a con%enient form of energy that can be stored safely
and then used efficiently 2ithout -eo!ardi@ing the en%ironment.
8he sim!lest !rocess for dissociating 2ater em!loys the use of electrical energy and is 9no2n as electrolysis. 0hen
t2ometal !lates are !laced in 2ater in the !resence of a catalystand connected to a source of electricity. 2ater molecules
!ulled a!art into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen bubbles collect on the negati%e !late <cathode= 2hile oxygen bubbles
gather on the !ositi%e !late <anode=. #ince hydrogen and oxygen exist in 2ater at a ratio of t2o to one. t2ice as many
hydrogen bubbles form as oxygen bubbles. &Fui!ment to commercially se!arate 2ater into hydrogen and oxygen has
been on the mar9et for many years. 8his electrolysis eFui!ment utili@es %arious schemes and technologies to
increase the Fuantity of hydrogen !roduced !er unit of energy consumed. 8he measure of hydrogen !roduced by an
electroly@er %erses the electricity consumed is referred to as the electroly@erEs efficiency. ,f the amount of hydrogen
!roduced by an electroly@er 2ere exactly eFui%alent to the
electrical energy !ut into the unit. then the de%ice 2ould be said to be 155 !ercent efficient. ,n reality. commercial
electrolysis eFui!ment ranges in efficiency from ?5 to L5 !ercent.
&ach electron 2hich is !assed through 2ater in an electrolysis de%ice liberates one atom of hydrogen. 82o electrons.
then. !roduce one hydrogen molecule <H4=. $%ogadroEs number of electrons <K.54 x 154:= !roduces one gram of
hydrogen. #ince each electron !roduces one hydrogen atom. the efficiency of
an electrolysis de%ice can be determined by measuring the electric %oltage reFuired to o!erate the cell. $ cell o!erating at
the theoretical %oltage of 1.4: %olts is 155 !ercent efficient. 8he amount of %oltage abo%e 1.4: reFuired to o!erate the cell
is 2asted. 8he ob-ecti%e. then. is to ma9e a cell that 2ill o!erate
as close to this %oltage as !ossible.
Distilled or de)minerali@ed 2ater is added to the hydrogen generator once e%ery tan9 full of fuel and is usually done 2hen
chec9ing your oil. ,f the 2ater is not added no damage is done to the engine or to the hydrogen generator <electroly@er=.
1ineral 2ater should not be used because the minerals 2ill stay behind in the electroly@er and e%entually you 2ill ha%e
mud inside. Distilled 2ater can be !urchased at 0almart for K? cents !er gallon. Rain 2ater can be used. as 2ell as air
conditioner dri!!ings. ,t only uses 14)1K ounces of 2ater e%ery tan full of gasoline. ,f you use mineral 2ater. it 2ill cloud
u!. get muddy and cause the electrolyte to need rinsing or cleaning out in 2ee9s or months. Hou can use de)minerali@ed
ta! 2ater if your city !i!eline gets filtered.
0hen an electrolysis solution is !laced in the body. and a current !ro%ided across the electrodes. 2ater is caused to
decom!ose into hydrogen and oxygen. 8hese combustible gases are then !assed into the internal combustion engine to
increase the efficiency and !o2er thereof. ,n one embodiment a reser%oir is !ro%ided to ensure that the le%el is
maintained in the cell. #afety features include a lo2 le%el sensor s2itch and lo2 le%el shut off. a tem!erature sensor and
high tem!erature cut off. and a !ressure sensor and high !ressure cut off.
The 4late conditioning 4rocess
&lectrolysis of 2ater can be obser%ed by !assing direct current from a battery or other DC !o2er su!!ly <e.g.
com!uter !o2er su!!ly 5 %olt rail= through a cu! of 2ater <in !ractice a salt2ater solution increases the reaction
intensity ma9ing it easier to obser%e=. ;sing !latinum electrodes. hydrogen gas 2ill be seen to bubble u! at the
cathode. and oxygen 2ill bubble at the anode. ,f other metals are used as the anode. there is a chance that the
oxygen 2ill react 2ith the anode instead of being released as a gas. /or exam!le using iron electrodes in a
sodium chloride solution electrolyte. iron oxide 2ill be !roduced at the anode. 2hich 2ill react to form iron
hydroxide. 0hen !roducing large Fuantities of hydrogen. this can significantly contaminate the electrolytic cell )
2hich is 2hy iron is not used for commercial electrolysis.
8he energy efficiency of 2ater electrolysis %aries 2idely. 8he efficiency is a measure of 2hat fraction of electrical
energy used is actually contained 2ithin the hydrogen. #ome of the electrical energy is con%erted to heat. a
useless by)!roduct. #ome re!orts Fuote efficiencies bet2een 55 and 75A. 8his efficiency is based on the "o2er
Heating 3alue of Hydrogen. 8he "o2er Heating 3alue of Hydrogen is thermal energy released 2hen Hydrogen is
combusted. 8his does not re!resent the total amount of energy 2ithin the Hydrogen. hence the efficiency is
lo2er than a more strict definition. (ther re!orts Fuote the theoretical maximum efficiency of electrolysis. 8he
theoretical maximum efficiency is bet2een L5 and 9?A. 8he theoretical maximum considers the total amount of
energy absorbed by both the hydrogen and oxygen. 8hese %alues only refer to the efficiency of con%erting
electrical energy into hydrogenEs chemical energy. 8he energy lost in generating the electricity is not included.
/or instance. 2hen considering a !o2er !lant that con%erts the heat of nuclear reactions into hydrogen %ia
electrolysis. the total efficiency is more li9e 45O?5A.
8he acti%e surfaces of the !lates) that is. the surfaces 2hich are 1.Kmm a!art from each other. need to be
!re!ared carefully. 8o do this. these surfaces are scored in an x)!attern using :K)grade coarse sand!a!er.
Doing this creates miniature shar! crested bum!s co%ering the entire surface of each of these !lates. 8his ty!e
of surface hel!s he hydroxy bubbles brea9a2ay from the surface as soon as they are formed. ,t also increases
the effecti%eness area of the !late by about ?5A.
/irst. it is necessary to add an electrolyte to the 2ater. $n electrolyte is a chemical 2hich ioni@es in the 2ater and
facilitates the conduction of electricity through the liFuid. 3ery !ure 2ater has an extremely high electrical
resistance <in excess of one megohm !er centimeter=. ,n a sim!le electrolysis cell. either hydrochloric acid <HCl=
or !otassium hydroxide <P(H= can be used as the electrolyte. 0hen e%en a small Fuantity of the electrolyte
material is added to the 2ater. the electric current begins to flo2. 8he next im!ro%ement to lo2er the %oltage is a
metallic catalyst. ,nstead of co!!er. 2hich is not an ideal material for electrolysis. electrodes of nic9el should be
substituted. 6o2 2hen connecting the circuit as sho2n in /igure 9)1. hydrogen bubbles begin to form at the
negati%e electrode 2hile oxygen bubbles form at the !ositi%e electrode.
6uclear energy can be used to !o2er a high tem!erature 2ater electrolysis !rocess. 2hile another uses heat
and electricity from solarelectric concentrators.
=ob =oyce#s $lectroly8er
,t isnEt critical ho2 you get the !ulses used to modulate the $C on the DC biasJ any method 2ill do. $ !ressure
s2itch is needed to turn the cell off at 5 !si and bac9 on 2hen it falls to : !si. *obs bubblerEs ha%e one 2ay %al%es to
retain !ressure in the system so that !roduction begins immediately 2hen the system 9ic9s bac9 on. He uses many
small holes in his bubbler inlet belo2 the 2ater so bubbles are tiny and diffused. 8his is to !re%ent a flashbac9 from
firing across se%eral large bubbles bac9 to the cell. *ob said it 2or9s 2ell.
lates are crosshatch sanded using no.L5 sand!a!er to create masses of !oints on each !late surface. late edges
are seal for t2o reasonsJ to !re%ent all the se!aration from occurring only on the edges. and to !re%ent current
lea9ing through the 2ater from cell to cell.
*ob says this causes a magnetic circuit through the center of the !lates in the electroly@er. 8he result of all these
refinements is that 2hen the 2ater is s!lit. the bias %oltage 9ee!s it from recombining. and H molecules ha%e !lenty
of electrons to absorb. !re%enting the t2o Hs from -oining. 8hus the extra large %olume of monatomic Hydrogen
0ater must be distilledJ or clean. s!ring or rain2ater. 8hese last may reFuire se%eral filterings. to remo%e sludgeJ
much li9e Joe Cell Charging 2ater. 8he K'xK' lates are s!aced :mm a!art exactly and sealed on the sides and
bottom. 0ater le%els must be maintained in each cell. *obEs has a su!!ly !i!e 2ith holes drilled along it for each
Cleansing !rocess. 2ith 6a(H :A solution. $fter t2o or three days of cleansing the unit to remo%e im!urities from
the steel !lates and box. a Q45GA solution of P(H is used to condition the box in !re!aration for use either as a
booster or in resonance mode for high %olume out!ut of hydroxy gas.
/ilter material 2as added to the to! of the inside of the box for use during resonance o!eration. 8he filter material
hel!s !re%ent the aFueous solution of P(H from o%erflo2ing into the other cells.
8he surfaces are scored an R !attern using a :K grade coarse sand!a!er. Doing this creates miniature shar!
crested bum!s co%ering the entire surface of each of these !lates. 8his ty!e of surface hel!s the hydroxy bubbles to
brea9 a2ay from the surface an d also increase the effecti%e surface area of the !late by ?5A.
!late cleansing and conditioning is done 2ith a 6a(H solution from 5A to 15A in
strength.S $ 5A solution <'by 2eight'= is 55 grams of 6a(H in 955 cc
of 2ater.S $ 15A <'by 2eight'= solution is 155 grams of P(H in 955
cc of 2ater.
%om4onents and definitions6
Houghton 1ifflin Com!any and +.
Hall. $ll rights reser%ed.
htt!BCC222K.ufrgs.brCctCntcmCgraduacaoC&6+5KK:1C45ele.!!tT4KK.L.#lide L
Houghton 1ifflin Com!any and +.
Hall. $ll rights reser%ed.
&lectrolysis of 2ater
&lectrical circuit of an electroly@er
&lectrical com!onents
#ee UHard2are Com!onentsV belo2
01 <!ulse 2idth modulator=
ulse 0idth 1odulation <01= is a common techniFue for s!eed control 2hich can
o%ercome the !roblem of the !oor starting !erformance of a motor.
$ good analogy is bicycle riding. Hou !eddle <exert energy= and then coast <relax= using your
momentum to carry you for2ard. $s you slo2 do2n <due to 2ind resistance. friction. road
sha!e= you !eddle to s!eed u! and then coast again. 8he Eduty cycleE is the ratio of !eddling
time to the total time <!eddle G coast time=. $ 155A duty cycle means you are !eddling all
the time. and a 55A duty cycle means you are !eddling only half the time.
01 for motor s!eed control 2or9s in a %ery similar 2ay. ,nstead of su!!lying a %arying
%oltage to a motor. it is su!!lied 2ith a fixed %oltage %alue <such as 143= 2hich starts it
s!inning immediately. 8he %oltage is then remo%ed and the motor EcoastsE. *y continuing
this %oltage onCoff cycle 2ith a %arying duty cycle. the motor s!eed can be controlled.
$s time goes by %arious inefficiencies of the electrolysis !rocess raises the tem!erature of the electrolyte. 8his increases
the current flo2ing through the electroly@er. 2hich in turn. heats the electrolyser more. 8his causes 4!roblems. /irstly the
gas !roduction rate at startu! is lo2er than ex!ected as the electrolyte is hot as it 2ill become. #econdly. 2hen the
electrolyser has been going for some time. a tem!erature runa2ay effect is created 2here %a!or or steam. neither of
2hich are desirable as they ta9e u! s!ace in the cylinder 2hich could ha%e been used for useful fuel
8here are %arious solutions for this situation. (ne is to acce!t the gas !roduction 2ill be lo2 in the early stages of each
run. and ad-ust the concentration of the electrolyte so that the maximum running tem!erature gi%es exactly the design
through the electrolyser. 8his is not a !o!ular solution. es!ecially 2ith !eo!le 2ho ma9e lot of short -ourneys bet2een
long tri!s. 8he best solution is to use the highest concentration of electrolyte and an electronic ulse 2idth modulator
circuit to control the current. 8his rather im!ressi%e name means a circuit 2hich s2itches the !o2er to the electrolyser
(6 or (// many times each second. and is the DC %ersion of the dimmer s2itch used to control lighting le%els in the
homes. ;sing this solution an ammeter to sho2 the DC current. and a 01 control 9nob. are mounted on the
dashboard of the %ehicle. and the dri%er lo2ers the current manually if it start to get too high.
&xam!le 1 B using 555 ,Cs
8he conce!t of 01 inherently reFuires timing. 82o 555 timer ,Cs and some
!otentiometers can be used to generate a 01 signal. and since 01 !ro%ides a digital.
onCoff signal. it is also easy to use a C or micro)controller to create the signalJ ho2e%er
this is beyond the sco!e of this article.
8he circuit in figure 4 uses t2o 555 ,Cs and is actually a combination of t2o ty!es of
circuit. 8he first is a free running multi%ibrator <astable= 2ith an ad-ustable freFuency
around :5H@. 8he out!ut of this circuit then triggers a 4ulse sha!ing <monostable= circuit
2hich ad-usts the )idth of the 4ulse. 8he circuit !roduces a duty cycle in the range of
a!!roximately 5.:A to 97A.
8he s!eed of the motor is controlled 2ith a single !otentiometer <%ariable resistor=. ,t
is !ossible to run a 1eccano 15 motor to test the circuit. and it 2ill run from dead still
to full s!eed using the !otentiometer s!eed control and a K3 battery as the sole
!o2er source. ,f you ha%e a 143 motor. you can of course use a 143 !o2er source.
8he motor is s2itched on and off %ia a 8,:1C transistor <sho2n in figure := 2hich
can handle motors rated u! to :$ at 1553. or a total !o2er of ?50. ,f you are using a
high !o2er motor. ma9e sure there is a heatsin9 bolted to the transistor.
*alibrating the *ircuit
8he nature of this circuit means that the motor can ne%er be fully s2itched off.
Ho2e%er. the minimum 5.:A duty cycle should be lo2 enough to effecti%ely sto! the
motor running.
0hen you first s2itch the circuit on and mo%e the s!eed !otentiometer slo2ly from its
minimum !osition to its maximum !osition. you 2ill !robably find that the s!eed of the
motor increases linearly. then suddenly dro!s slightly before increasing again. 8his is
due to the 4ulse )idth becoming longer than the time allo2ed for it by the 555
8he freFuency !reset of the 555 astable circuit sol%es this !roblem by allo2ing the
freFuency of the signal to be ad-usted so that the s!eed !otentiometer can achie%e its
full range. 8o calibrate it. set the s!eed !otentiometer to its maximum !osition. then
ad-ust the freFuency !reset so that the motor runs as fast as !ossible. ,f you ha%e a
multimeter that can measure freFuency. you can chec9 the modulation freFuency at
!in : of the 555 astable. and confirm the range of the duty cycle at !in : of the
&xam!le 4 B using 55K ,Cs
%ircuit /escri4tion
8his is a circuit for controlling the s!eed of small DC motors. it 2or9s nicely as a s!eed
controller for an H( or 6 gauge model railroad.
8he left half of the 55K dual timer ,C is used as a fixed freFuency sFuare 2a%e oscillator. 8he
oscillator signal is fed into the right half of the 55K 2hich is configured as a %ariable !ulse 2idth
one)shot monostable multi%ibrator <!ulse stretcher=. 8he out!ut of the one)shot is a %ariable
2idth sFuare 2a%e !ulse. the !ulse 2idth is set 2ith the s!eed control !ot on the control
%oltage in!ut. 8he %ariable 2idth out!ut !ulse s2itches the ,R/541 1(#/&8 transistor on and
off. 8he 1(#/&8 am!lifies the current of this signal so that it is !o2erful enough to control a
small DC motor. 8he :11 com!arator is used to cut off the one)shot %ia the reset !in 2hen the
control %oltage is belo2 a certain threshold. the :11 is also controlled by the s!eed control !ot.
8he cut off circuit is necessary because the 55K one)shot circuit 2ill al2ays !ut out a small
!ulse. e%en 2hen the control %oltage is at @ero.
$d-ust the 15P cutoff !ot so that the motor is com!letely off 2hen the s!eed !ot is fully counter
(xample . :4ulse 8idth 6odulator for !2 and 2$ Volt applications
This circuit was featured in an article in ome Power !aga"ine #$%
<C= +. /orrest Coo9 1999
$ !ulse 2idth modulator <01= is a de%ice that may be used as an efficient light dimmer or
DC motor s!eed controller. 8he circuit described here is for a general !ur!ose de%ice that can
control DC de%ices 2hich dra2 u! to a fe2 am!s of current. 8he circuit may be used in either
14 or 4? 3olt systems 2ith only a fe2 minor 2iring changes. 8his de%ice has been used to
control the brightness of an automoti%e tail lam! and as a motor s!eed control for small DC
fans of the ty!e used in com!uter !o2er su!!lies.
$ 01 circuit 2or9s by ma9ing a sFuare 2a%e 2ith a %ariable on)to)off ratio. the a%erage on
time may be %aried from 5 to 155 !ercent. ,n this manner. a %ariable amount of !o2er is
transferred to the load. 8he main ad%antage of a 01 circuit o%er a resisti%e !o2er controller
is the efficiency. at a 55A le%el. the 01 2ill use about 55A of full !o2er. almost all of 2hich
is transferred to the load. a resisti%e controller at 55A load !o2er 2ould consume about 71A
of full !o2er. 55A of the !o2er goes to the load and the other 41A is 2asted heating the
series resistor. "oad efficiency is almost al2ays a critical factor in solar !o2ered and other
alternati%e energy systems.
(ne additional ad%antage of !ulse 2idth modulation is that the !ulses reach the full su!!ly
%oltage and 2ill !roduce more torFue in a motor by being able to o%ercome the internal motor
resistances more easily. /inally. in a 01 circuit. common small !otentiometers may be used
to control a 2ide %ariety of loads 2hereas large and ex!ensi%e high !o2er %ariable resistors
are needed for resisti%e controllers.
8he main Disad%antages of 01 circuits are the added com!lexity and the !ossibility of
generating radio freFuency interference <R/,=. R/, may be minimi@ed by locating the controller
near the load. using short leads. and in some cases. using additional filtering on the !o2er
su!!ly leads. 8his circuit has some R/, by!assing and !roduced minimal interference 2ith an
$1 radio that 2as located under a foot a2ay. ,f additional filtering is needed. a car radio line
cho9e may be !laced in series 2ith the DC !o2er in!ut. be sure not to exceed the current
rating of the cho9e. 8he ma-ority of the R/, 2ill come from the high current !ath in%ol%ing the
!o2er source. the load. and the s2itching /&8. N1.
laces to buy
1. htt!BCCsearch.globals!ec.comC!roductfinderCfind!roductsWFueryXelectrical
2. htt!BCC222.automation?less.comCWsrcXo%erture
3. htt!BCC222.usdirectory.comCny!r.as!xW
8y!e and gauge
Connection strategies <solder. crim!=
8est o2er #u!!lies <ie a su!!ly that is used 2hen not in the %ehicle=
8o !o2er the booster use electrical hard2are ca!able of handling 45am!s DC. Run the !o2er through
the ignition circuit. so that it only runs 2hen the %ehicle is
(6. $ :5 am! relay should be used to !re%ent damaging the ignition circuit 2hich may not be designed
for an extra 45am! dra2. 1a9e sure to use a !ro!erly rated fuse. :5am!s is ideal. Hou can use a toggle
s2itch for further control.
01:& C board. as it comes from !cbex!ress. 8hese boards need to be !ainted right a2ay to
!re%ent oxidation of the traces <as can be seen in lo2er right corner of this board=.
and to !rotect the traces from corrosion damage. (nly use 8estors 1K51 8rans!arent Candy &merald
+reen for this. (ther ty!es of !aint may contain conducti%e additi%es that can affect o!eration of the
Hard2are Com!onents
Containers <!ros and cons of each=
1. &oncentrator Photovoltaics '&P(): 8his !art consists of a small !hoto%oltaic <3=
!anel !laced -ust outside of the focal !oint of a conca%e dish.
4. Spectral Splitter: laced in front of the 3 !anel is a filter that is used to reflect
infrared energy 2hile allo2ing %isible light to !ass through to the 3 !anel.
:. *ight Pipe: 8his de%ice transfers infrared energy from the s!ectral s!litter to the
?. Solid +,ide Electrol-"er &ell 'S+E&) Stac.: 8his com!onent of the system
combines the heat from the light !i!e and the electricity from the 3 !anel to
se!arate 2ater into oxygen and hydrogen molecules.
Circuit board fully loaded and housed in aluminum housing to !rotect the circuitry
during resonance o!eration
6oteB 8he lin9 belo2 contains rele%ant information but since itZs a !rotected document
, cannot co!y any information. *ut it could be good as additional reading material.
8he hard2are de%ice consists of four ma-or sectionsB the !o2er conditioning
circuit. the feedbac9 de%ice. the sensors and their connections. and the ,C microcontroller. 8he !o2er
conditioning circuit regulates the amount of !o2er that gets into the controller. ,t is necessary because it
ensures that the battery 2ill not send too much !o2er into our controller and fry our integrated circuits.
8he feed bac9 de%ice is made u! of four light emitting diodes <"&Ds=. an "&D dri%er. and the connecting
2ires. 8he feedbac9 de%ice 2ill alert the user should some error occur. or it 2ill sho2 that the
electrolysis cell is 2or9ing !ro!erly 2hen no errors occur. 8he sensors exist to alert the
,C to ad%erse conditions either in the electrolysis cell or in its connections to the
%ehicleZs engine. 8he ,C determines 2hether or not the electrolysis cell 2ill o!erate
based on information from the sensors. and dis!lays its choices to the user %ia the
feedbac9 de%ice. 8he !o2er conditioning circuit consists of a %oltage regulating chi! and a %arious
ca!acitors. inductors. and resistors connected to its !ins. 8he !o2er conditioning circuit 2e used for our
de%ice is sho2n in figure :.5. 8hese extra com!onents allo2 the %oltage regulator to o!erate in its
ex!ected and most o!timal conditions. 8he !o2er conditioning circuit is located on the !rinted circuit
board. ,t does con%ert the a!!roximately t2el%e %olts of direct current that 2e recei%e from the battery
into the ex!ected in!ut %oltage for our microcontroller. fi%e %olts DC
-o)er %onditioning %ircuit6 8he chi! that controls the circuit is in the center. (ther ca!acitors and
inductors are sho2n that bias the chi! in the !ro!er manner.
8he feedbac9 de%ice consists mainly of "&Ds and an "&D dri%er. 8he "&D dri%er is
necessary to ensure that each "&D recei%es enough current to ensure that a user 2ill be
able to clearly determine the "&D as being in the on state. 8he correct functioning light
is blue 2hich ma9es it easily distinguishable from the sensor error lights. 2hich are all
red. 8he feedbac9 de%ice is located on the !rinted circuit board. 8he "&Ds 2ill be seen
as bright lights in the !ac9aged %ersion of the final !roduct.
8he sensor !ortion of the controller is made u! of three sensorsB the %acuum sensor. the
2ater le%el sensor. and the tem!erature sensor. &ach of these sensors has the !o2er to
halt the o!eration of the electrolysis cell. 8hey are gi%en their !o2er by the ,C microcontroller.
8he soft2are !rogramming of the ,C 2ill halt and shut off !o2er to the
electrodes of the electrolysis cell if any of the sensors indicate that a malfunction is
%c !i!e
$crylic !i!e
$crylic box
+lass Jar
laces to buy <no !ros and cons needed=
8he electrolysis cell consists of a tube of ? inch diameter schedule ?5 3C !i!e that is closed
at one end. the electrode end. and accessible %ia a scre2)on ca! at the other end. the hose
end. #chedule ?5 3C !i!e 2as chosen because of its con%enience. ,t is relati%ely chea! for
the amount of customi@ation that may be done to it. $lso all of the tools that 2ere at hand 2ere
enough to full fill our creation needs. 8he electrolysis cell. during normal o!eration. is !laced
!er!endicular to the ground !lane in a manner 2ith the hose end to2ard the hood of the host
%ehicle. and mounted in the bed or trun9 of the host %ehicle. 8he electrode end is facing the
ground !lane in this descri!tion. During normal
o!eration. the electrolysis cell contains 555 ml of salt)2ater solution. *ecause of the manner in
2hich the electrolysis cell is situated. the salt)2ater solution is nearest the electrode end of the
electrolysis cell. 8he electrolysis cell is not only filled 2ith 555 ml of solution inside and also
about 45 ml of air fills em!ty s!ace.
,f the cell is not !er!endicular to the ground !lane then the
saline solution has a high !robability of s!lashing into the air inta9e of the host %ehicle.
During the course of o!eration. the electrolysis cell 2ill brea9 do2n the 2ater in the salt2ater
solution to such an extent that the solution 2ill dry u!. 8o a%oid this ha!!ening. the electrolysis
cell is connected to a !um! that 2ill !um! in 2ater from an external reser%oir. 8he reser%oir is
a !lastic container that holds a!!roximately t2o liters of
2ater. 8he 2ater must be distilled 2ater. ,f normal ta! 2ater from a faucet is used any number
of !roblems could result. #ome of these !roblems include. excess residue in the electrolysis
cell. un2anted gasses in the combustion chamber. and increased corrosion of the electrodes.
During the electrolysis !rocess only the hydrogen and oxygen gasses 2ill be used from the
2ater lea%ing any residue behind to be cleaned by the o2ner or a ser%ice technician. 0hen the
electrolysis cell runs lo2 on 2ater. our controller sends a signal to the !um! to !um! more
2ater into the electrolysis cell. 8he 2ater !um! is connected to the electrolysis cell through a
hose that is used to transfer the 2ater.
8he electrolysis cell recei%es 2ater from a reser%oir 2hene%er the controller detects that the
amount of 2ater is too lo2. 8o detect the le%el of the 2ater the controller uses the 2ater le%el
sensor. 8he 2ater le%el sensor is made of a float that is connected to a rod that is !laced at an
angle orthogonal to the salt 2ater. 8he rod extends into the salt 2ater but the float 2ill stay at
the le%el of the 2ater. $bo%e the float is a magnet that triggers a Hall &ffect s2itch. 0hen the
salt)2ater amount de!letes after some amount of use. then the 2ater le%el 2ill be detected. as
too lo2 so the ,C 2ill send a signal to the reser%oir to refill the electrolysis cell.
Hose %onnections 8his !icture sho2s a hose connector that connects the out!ut of the
electrolysis cell to the air inta9e of the host %ehicle.
Different electrode arrangements <!roZs and cons of each=
rectangle !lates
round dis9s <li9e 2ashers=
laces to buy <no !ros and cons needed=
8he %ery best electrode metal is made from 1K gauge :1K")grade stainless steel and is recommended that there be
bet2een 4 and ? sFuare inches of !late area on e%ery face of e%ery electrode for each am! of current !assing through the
#ome !eo!le !lace an ultrasonic transducer underneath the !lates to %ibrate the bubbles off the !late surface. #ome
!eo!le use !ie@o crystal attached to the !lates to %ibrate the !lates and sha9e the bubbles free. others use magnetic field
s . usually from !ermanent magnets. 8he best method is to treat the electrodes !lates 2ith cross)hatch sourcing. an
extensi%e cleansing !rocesses and an extensi%e conditioning !rocess. $fter the !rocess. a catalyst layer builds u! on the
electrodes. doubling their efficiency and bubbles no longer stic9 to the electrodes but brea9 a2ay immediately 2ithout the
need for any form of additional hel!.
*olts and nuts <si@es and material ty!e=
8ubing <si@es and ty!es=
Chec9 %al%es <one 2ay %al%es=.
Com!onents used
8he air coming into the electrolysis cell from outside of the host %ehicle must be filtered
to a%oid any un2anted trash entering the combustion chamber of the host %ehicle. ,f
trash 2ere to enter the combustion chamber any number of !roblems could occur that
2ould e%entually lead to the !urchase of a ne2 %ehicle. $lso 2e do not 2ant any trash
from the outside air to interfere 2ith our electrolysis !rocess. 8o filter the incoming air
2e used an air filter 8he filter is connected to a hose. 2hich is in
turn connected to the electrolysis cell. 8he filter that is used has a one)2ay %al%e so
that the outside air may only come into the system but not out of the system. 8his one2ay
%al%e ensures that the hydrogen and oxygen that is generated from the electrolysis
cell is only sent into the combustion chamber of the %ehicle and not into the engine 2here
any s!ar9 might set off a small combustion under the hood of the %ehicle.
+lues < !ros and cons =
,n chemistry. e4oxy or 4olye4oxide is a thermosetting e!oxide !olymer that cures <!olymeri@es and
crosslin9s= 2hen mixed 2ith a cataly@ing agent or 'hardener'. 1ost common e!oxy resins are !roduced
from a reaction bet2een e!ichlorohydrin and bis!henol)$.
$4oxy .lue
$ t2o)!art resinChardener glue that is extremely strong. ,t is generally a%ailable in K and :5)minute
lastic to !lasticC2ood. metal to metalC2ood.
#trong ) note that longer setting time e!oxy is often stronger and more durable.
Difficult to sand ) be careful if using it 2here it 2ill need sanding to get a finish.
Re!air cars. truc9s. motorcycles and more. *onds to metal. glass. !lastic. %inyl. and leather. #eals
con%ertible to!s. /ixes seats. mats. lights. mirrors. handles. trim. 0ithstands heat u! to 155[ /. 1any
usesB attach loose auto trim and emblemsJ re!air and attach crac9ed hosesJ mend leather
,t 2or9s under the most ad%erse conditionsJ it stic.s to virtuall- ever-thing and remains fle,i/leM
+(( cannot be used in !lace of latex or silicone caul9s 2here a!!earance is critical.
0ashers <si@es and ty!es=
laces to buy
&lectrolytes <!roZs and conZs of each
*a9ing #oda
,f the liFuid of the electroly@er is distilled 2ater. then almost no current 2ill flo2 and almost no gas 2ill be
!roduced. ,f you add t2o or three dro!s of battery acid to the 2ater. the current and gas !roduction increases
enormously. utting acid in the 2ater is a bad idea as it gets used in the !rocess. the acidity of the 2ater 9ee!s
changing. the current 9ee!s changing. the acid attac9s the electrode the un2anted gases are gi%en off. utting
salt in the 2ater. or using sea2ater. has nearly the same effect 2ith !oisonous chlorine gas being gi%en off.
*a9ing soda is alsoa bad choice as it gi%es off carbon monoxide 2hich is a seriously toxic gas. it damages the
electrodes and ends u! as sodium hydroxide. ,nstead of using these acti%ities. it is much better to use a
UcatalystV 2hich !romotes the electrolysis 2ithout actually ta9ing !art in the chemical !rocess. 8he best of these
are sodium hydroxide <Red de%il lye in ;#$. Ucaustic sodaV in the ;P= and e%en better still. otassium hydroxide
<UCaustic otashV=.
Different Pno2n &lectroly@ers
&lectroly@er designs <!roZs and conZs of each as 2ell as the \setu!sZ
used in by the creator. *y \setu!sZ , meanB electrode s!acing.
electrolyte ty!e. am!s. %olts. etc].=
H2 Hybrid -ro 1http://www.h2oh)bridpro.com2 ) ,nternal combustion
retrofit hydrogen generator 9its for both diesel and gasoline engines. 1a9e any
%ehicle a hybrid.
Hydrogen3=oost !ileage $nhancement
Aystem 1http://www.pureenerg)s)stems.com/store/3)drogen+9oost/2 ) (n)
board electrolysis system in-ects hydrogen into air inta9e. to im!ro%e mileage and
!o2er. 2hile decreasing emissions. (ther enhancements also included in
!ac9age deal. 2hich includes a #can+auge
,, <http://www.pureenerg-s-stems.com/store/Scan0auge/=.
Amac5 =ooster hydroxy in+ector ) $nother on)board electrolysis system
!ro%ides hydroxy gas at a rate of 155 liters !er hour. to go into the air inta9e.
2hich is said to im!ro%e mileage and decrease emissions. 8he #mac9 booster
!lans are a%ailable for free. and it costs %ery little to build yourself. $lso. a 9it is
a%ailable for ^455.
H';%C Hydro 'ssist ;uel %ell 5it ) 8he H$/C 9it !resently for sale
combines three fuel sa%ing technologies along 2ith a so!histicated com!uteri@ed
emission system o!timi@er. ,t includes 1= an electrolysis unit for on)board
hydrogen in-ectionJ 4= a %a!ori@erCioni@er using magnetsJ and := additi%es that
include acetone and xylene.
o >efftto6com ,T/#s challenge to H';% critics ) H$/C hydrogen
boost dealer. Jeff (tto. lays do2n the gauntlet regarding the com!any
<;C# of $=Es guarantee of a 55A im!ro%ement in mileage. as9ing for
any s9e!tic to come for2ard 2ith ^5555 cash to matched by him in the
same amount. 0inner ta9es all. <PES1i.iJ 1arch 4L. 455L=
*nde4endent :e4ort on ?ater4.as ) &boo9 by (@@y /reedom !ro%ides
instructions on ho2 to build an on)board electroli@er to !ro%ide hydroxy gas to
in-ect into the air inta9e of a %ehicle for im!ro%ed mileage and !erformance. as
2ell as reduced emissions. Ho2 does it com!are to other systems. 9its. !lansW
<PES1i.iJ 1arch 15. 455L=
!odifying the $%& to 'ccomodate a (e) !ixture from Hydrogen
=oosting ) (ne of the most 9no2ledgeable researchers and com!ilers of the
%arious a!!roaches being tried 2ith on)board electroli@ers is 6e2 &nergy
Congress member. 6oah #eidman. 8his is his latest article on the to!ic.
<PES1i.iJ July 4. 455L=
htt!BCC222.hydrogen)2ater)cars.com ) ,ncludes 1$ sensor enhancers.
electrodes. :1K" 2ire.
The ?ater0;uel %onverters -ro+ect D The ?ater0;uel %onverters -ro+ect
?ebsite 1http://www.waterfuelcon/erters.com/2 $n electrolysis initiati%e that
sets forth to clearly establish the difference bet2een *ro2nEs +as. Rhodes +as.
(xy)Hydrogen. HH(. and the !roduction methods thereof. <2ENJ Dec. 4. 455K=
.et Hydro -o)er 16com2 ) 6ext generation hydrogen boost technology
announced. 2ith !resent !erformance in range of 15A to 55A im!ro%ement in
fuel economy. "atest inno%ation may boost that to bet2een 55A and 155A
mileage im!ro%ement.
=ob =oyce Aystem :e4lications :e4orting 403<0E m4g
*ncreases 1http://pesn.com/200%/!!/2"/"#00$-!&9o)ce&(lectrol):er&replica
tions/2 ) $nother u!date by 1ichael Couch on %arious de%elo!ments in the 2ater
fuel cell field. in 2hich hydroxy gas from electroly@ed 2ater is added to the air
inta9e of a %ehicle. 8he team2or9 resembles the days of !re)$!!le com!uter
collaboration. <PESNJ 6o%. 49. 4557=
!ileage :esults from Hydroxy =oost 'ddition ) Robert ritchett re!orts
on ex!erimentation 2ith a /ord &:55 Cargo 3an dubbed the 'Hindenburg ,,' as
he transforms it from an ugly duc9ling fuel liability to a smooth)gliding fuel)
efficient goose. <PES1i.iJ 1ay 4:. 455L=
Hydrogen Technology '44lications *nc ) Hy8ech <nic9name for Hydrogen
8echnology $!!lications ,nc= claims a !rocess of con%erting H45 to HH(.
!roducing a gas that combines the atomic !o2er of hydrogen 2ith the chemical
stability of 2ater. 8ightly related to *ro2nEs
+as <http://www.freeenerg-news.com/3irector-/4hodes0as= technology.
Hydrogen3=oost 1http://www.h)drogen+boost.com/index.html2 #ystem
is a gas mileage enhancement system <http://www.h-drogen-
/oost.com/novem/er5667.html= that includes an on)board hydrogen gas
generator. fuel heater. fuel %a!ori@or. fuelCair mixture ad-ustment. engine
lubricants and dri%ing ti!s.
HydroAtar $lectrolysis %onversion 9it ) lans being sold for installing
2hat is essentially a *ro2nEs gas unit on car. to run HC( mixture into air inta9e.
enhancing fuel combustion for mileage enhancement. Nuestionable dealer site
claims and 2ording. data lac9ing.
xy Hydrogen 1http://sa/efuel.ca/ox)+h)drogen/2 ) $dd)on unit increases
fuel economy by an a%erage of 15 ) 4L A.
Hotsabi#s e3%ell is a >oe %ell variant ) ;ses an electrolysis !rocess to
in-ect hydrogen into the air inta9e of a %ehicle. resulting in im!ro%ed fuel
economy of around 55A.
HyFor 1http://www.eagle+research.com/fuelsa//h):techld.html2 by
&agle)Research re!laces some fuel 2ith 2ater.
Hy-o)er ;uel 1http://www.h)powerfuel.com/2 ) 8he design of the
Hyo2er a9_ ma9es it easily installed on any internal combustion engine.
regardless of the fuel source. ,t is a closed chamber unit that !roduces hydrogen
and oxygen on demand.
H2 (3.en 1http://ihsresearch.com/2 by ,nno%ati%e Hydrogen #olutions.
o *HA -re4aring 'fter3!ar5et Hydrogen Au44lement /evice for
"ehicles 1http://pesn.com/200#/!!/2#/"-0020%&Inno/ati/e&3)droge
n&2olutions&Inc/2 ) ,nno%ati%e Hydrogen #olutions. ,nc. of Canada has
been de%elo!ing an electrolysis unit that extracts hydrogen and oxygen
from 2ater and adds it into the air inta9e of a %ehicle. to increase fuel
economy by any2here bet2een 15A and :5A. <PESNJ 6o%. 45. 4555=
Hydro3.enG 1http://www.sa/efuel.ca/2 users re!ort an a%erage 41A
im!ro%ement in their gas mileage.
Hydrogen *nnovations 1http://www.burnh2o.com/2 ) 8he Hydro+en
system !ro%ides a cleaner. leaner burn. 2hich gi%es you a 15A to ?5A increase
in fuel efficiency.
%anadian Hydrogen $nergy %om4any 1http://www.chechfi.com/2 )
CH&C H/, hydrogen in-ection system for large diesel engines.
Hy3/rive Technologies 1http://www.h)+dri/e.com/2 ) Claims a significantly
more efficient electrolysis !rocess.
Hydrogen 1http://www.energistx.com/energ)/libert)booster.html2 H4(
Hybrid 1ileage *ooster.
)ater4o)eredcar6com 1http://waterpoweredcar.com/h)drobooster2.htm
l2 ) Ho2 to ma9e a Hydrogen *ooster Hourself
Hydrogen %ar H !ulti ;uel
/"/ 1http://www.knowledgepublications.com/h)drogen&car&d/d/h2&car&d
/d.htm2 teaches ho2 to hydrogen)boost your engine.
:eactor 1http://,lnlabs.imars.com/bingofuel/html/bfrhowto.htm2 is an
under2ater carbon arc. ,t !roduces C(H4 gas that can burn %ery cleanly in air as
fuel for an internal combustion engine. 1ay be higher efficiency electrolysis. 8he
Carbon $rc loo9s %ery !romising as !ro%iding excess
energy <http://www.intale..com/8nde,/Pro9ects/Spar.0apE,p/Spar.0apE,p.htm=
H To .o 1http://www.htogo.com/2 ) 1$#(& electrolysis units !roduce
Hydrogen from 2ater on board a %ehicle. enhancing the fuel economy of
gasoline. diesel or bio)diesel internal combustion engines and minimi@ing
emission le%els. 8est data sho2s u! to 7:A more m!g 2ith the hydrogen unit.
Distributed in 6e2 >ealand by 3ision &nergy <http://www.visionenerg-.co.n"/=.
#ee also Hydro)charger <http://www.fuelcellswor.s.com/Supppage:;<6.html=
Hydrogen ?ater %ar HH Atore 1http://www.hhokitstore.com/2 <Direct
Retailer= is one of the only retailers of on board %ehicle hybrid fuel systems 2hich
carries more than one brand of 9its. $bo%e 8echnology coined the term
electrolytic in+ection to describe the !roducts in order to gi%e some consistency
to the terms used by the industry. $bo%e 8echnology carries !re)built 9its and
su!!lies from re!utable manufacturers.
.o .reen ;uel Aystems 3 Hydrogen $nrichment
Technology 1http://www.gogreenfuel.com/2 ) +o +reen 4??L is an on)board.
on)demand. hydrogen enrichment system that 2ill increase mileage ty!ically
from bet2een 15A ) 45A. sometimes more. and decrease emissions. es!ecially
Carbon 1onoxide and 6(x. ,nstallation is Fuic9 and easy.
o (ot3Tsoo3-a $nviro ;uel Aystems 1http://www.ntpefs.com/2 )
6orth2est Distributor of the +o +reen /uel #ystem
o ?ater "isions 1http://www.h)drofuel200#.com/2 ) Hydro/uel +o
+reen /uel &conomy #ystem`
Hydro.en 'utomotive -arahydrogen
.enerator 1http://cgi.eba).com/3)drogen+;enerator+2a/e+<uel+
d=!11cmd=ViewItem2 reFuires no electrolyte.
The hydro boost device you can build
yourself 1http://www.angelfire.com/ak#/energ)2!/h)droboost.htm2
/ynamic ;uel Aystems 1http://www.d)namicfuel.com/2 ) 8he Jetstar` is
a trans!ortable hydrogen generator retrofit targeted for use in the hea%y tractor
trailer industry.
$nergy $nhancement
Technologies 1http://www.energ)enhancement.ca/2 has de%elo!ed a !late
de%ice. using 6anotechnology that enables it to !roduce significantly more
Hydrogen and (xygen 2hile not ha%ing to use dangerous. caustic solutions.
Hydro.ator 1http://www.h)drogator.com/page/page/.#-%%20.htm2 )
Hydrogen fuel sa%er add)on su!!lement !ro%ides 14)a:5A a%erage <high2ay u!
to a55A= fuel sa%ings.
Hydro%harger 1http://www.h)drocharger.net/2 ) $ bolt)on hydrogen fuel
generator module <si@e 14x14x14'= that can be !laced in a car trun9. truc9 bed.
bac9 of #;3 or e%en mounted in engine com!artment if desired. Designed to
!assi%ely utili@e your com!uteri@ed fuel manangement system to increase gas
mileage. clean engine.
Hydro 'ssist ;uel %ell 1http://www.gasall).com/hafc.htm2 ) 8he
H$/C <http:///efreetech.com/save_gas.htm= is a combination of se%eral
technologies. (ne of these technologies is a unit that extracts a Hydrogen)
(xygen mixture from distilled 2ater. 8he H$/C adds extra hydrogen to the fuel
mixture. 2hich burns easily and !o2erfully and enriches your fuel mixture. gi%ing
you added mileage and !o2er. 8he added oxygen also increases the octane
le%el of your fuel. $ Dennis "ee !roduct.
!ileage!a5er 1http://www.mileagemaker.us/2 ) (ur electroly@ing
hydrogen and oxygen generator s!lits the gases in H4( <2ater= through the in!ut
of excess electrical out!ut from your alternator. 8his excess electrical out!ut is
generated by your alternator 2hether you use it or not. (ur 1ileage1a9er
generator sim!ly allo2s you to sto! 2asting the excess energy and uses the
energy to s!lit the electrolyte into combustible gases.
.reen ;uture Technology 1http://www.greenfuturetechnolog).com/2 )
8he +/8 Hydrogen +enerator_ turns any internal combustion engine into a
%irtual hydrogen)hybrid. ,t burns ta! 2ater only. not distilled 2ater mixed 2ith
electrolytes. gi%ing 45A to ?5A better mileage.
Hydraficient 1http://www.h)draficient.com/drupal/2 ) 8his multi)electrode
array design offers higher Hydrogen !roduction than any other de%ice on the
mar9et 2hile reFuiring no electrolyte. maintaining lo2 !o2er reFuirements.
o!erating at lo2er heat !roduction. and maintaining the lo2est cost !er liter of
!roduction a%ailable.
/iesel Hydrogen *n+ection 1http://www.dieselh)drogenin,ection.com2
#ystem designed for hea%y)duty diesels
0hat are the o!timi@ed arrangementsW
8o understand ho2 an o!timi@ed &lectroly@er 2or9s. ty!ically reFuires a 2or9ing 9no2ledge of se%eral
disci!linesB &lectronics. &lectrical &ngineering. Chemistry. hysics. $nd 1echanical &ngineering. &lectroly@ers
ma9e hydrogen by !assing an electric current through 2ater containing an electrolyte. 8he &lectroly@er has the
!otential to lo2er the cost of !roducing hydrogen energy through the 2ater electrolysis !rocess. /or exam!le.
+eneral &lectric researchers ha%e built and tested an &lectroly@er big enough to ma9e a 9ilogram of hydrogen
!er hour. 0ithin the next fi%e to ten years. &lectroly@ers could ser%e as the foundation for future hydrogen %ehicle
refueling stations. 8he 9ey ho2e%er. is an o!timi@ed &lectroly@er. 2hich s!lits out the hydrogen in a 2ay that
doesnEt reFuire massi%e amounts of electrical current.
#o then ho2 much HH( can ty!ical 2ater for gas &lectroly@erEs !roduceW ,tEs lo2. 1aybe 1.5 liters. , ha%e
disco%ered ho2e%er. that itEs not the huge amount of HH(. but a cle%er im!lementation of the system. 8he small
Hydrogen atoms ram onto the gas !articles ma9ing them smaller and thus more efficient in the combustion
!rocess. (f coarse HH( or Hydroxy itself %ery flammable and 2ill also aid in im!ro%ing your fuel economy. *ut
the im!ortant thing to consider is the interaction of the HH( and the gasoline mist that is in the combustion
chamber. ,t is li9e !utting a needle to a balloon. ,t only ta9es a trigger. not a brutal force. to enhance the
!erformance of gasoline.
best electrode s!acing
,n general. the closer together the better. but according to *ob
*oyceEs extensi%e ex!erience this is the minimum !ossible before free
hydroxy bubble dislodgment becomes im!eded.
Pee!ing in mind that *obEs unit !roduces a "(8 of hydrogen. 2ay more
than a brute force sealed series. , can understand the need for a :mm
distance bet2een !lates. Ho2e%er in a brute force unit does this
still hold trueW 8here are lots of !ostings suggesting a 1.5mm
s!acing instead.
8he s!acing is at 1CL' because if it is closer the bubbles 2ould ha%e a hard
time getting out of the s!ace thin9 of it as gra!es and !ing!ong balls they need
s!ace to get out and if the s!ace is too close a traffic -am ha!!ens
best electrode si@es
best electrolyte <
most am!s !er sFuare inch of electrode
8he sFuare form of !ermeable electrode is ad%ocated for use in !ressure electrolysis !rocess units for
high. uniform hydrogen and oxygen gas yields !er unit area of ex!osed electrode surfaces.
8he sFuare form electrode assures uniform electrical conducti%e flo2 bet2een the narro2 electrolyte
ga!s bet2een each face of the sFuare anodes and cathodes for e%en gas molecule !olari@ation.
*oth thin 2all !orous rectangular metallic sheets. or extruded sFuare !orous metal tubes can be used.
or fine mesh monel screening of ?55 mesh si@e may be the electrode material.
8he total ex!osed electrode surface area must be as large as !ossible com!ared to the o%erall cell unit
si@e and electrolyte %olume.

hydrogen !roduction is critical to fuel cell o!eration. (ne of

the most con%enient methods to
!roduce hydrogen is %ia 2ater

electrolysis. Ho2e%er. o%er!otential losses at the cell electrodes results

!oor efficiency. ,n this study 2e carried out 2ater electrolysis

ex!eriments 2ith ruthenium <Ru=
nanorod arrays as the cathode. 0e

sho2 u! to 45A reduction in o%er!otential and 45A reduction

energy consum!tion by use of the Ru nanorod cathode

com!ared to the !lanar Ru cathode. 0e
attribute the im!ro%ement

to the increased acti%e area of the nanostructured electrode 2hich

the o!erating current density of the electroly@er. b455K =merican 8nstitute of Ph-sics
Tools needed to build an electroly8er
"ehicles install instructions
Com!onents and definitions

&ssentially the electroly@er is a 2ater holding tan9 2hich is mounted inside the engine com!artment under the hood of the
%ehicle. &lectricity is added to the electrical com!onents inside the electroly@er 2hich brea9 do2n the 2ater into hydrogen
and oxygen gas by a uniFue !rocess of magnetic enhanced electrolysis.
Hydrogen. in combination 2ith other electroly@ed gases is introduced into the inta9e manifold of the engine. 0hen these
gases are dra2n into the cylinder they accelerate the flame s!read during combustion. 8his causes more of the %a!ori@ed
fuel in-ected into the cylinder to combust during the !o2er stro9e. 1ore fuel is combusted. and less fuel is 2asted through
the exhaust. thereby creating more !o2er from the fuel 2hich 2as in-ected into the combustion chamber. "ess fuel can
no2 be used by the engine to maintain 'normal' !o2er le%els. increasing o%erall engine efficiency and gas mileage.

8he !erformance of a gas fuelled s!ar9 ignition engine is enhanced 2hen relati%ely small amounts of hydrogen are
!resent 2ith methane. 8his im!ro%ement in !erformance. 2hich is es!ecially !ronounced at o!erational eFui%alence
ratios that are much leaner than the stoichiometric %alue. can be attributed largely to the faster and cleaner burning
characteristics of hydrogen in com!arison to methane. 8hrough analytical simulation of engine !erformance. the addition
of hydrogen is considered through its !roduction in situ on board the engine by electrolysis of 2ater 2ith the necessary
energy su!!lied from engine !o2er. ,t is sho2n that 2hen the 2or9 energy reFuired for the !roduction of hydrogen by
electrolysis is ta9en into account. the range of %iable o!eration of such an engine is %ery narro2. 8his 2ould render the
2hole conce!t of in situ hydrogen !roduction through 2ater electrolysis uneconomical in con-unction 2ith engine
o!eration. e%en though the !resence of additional oxygen !roduced 2ith the hydrogen tends. in !rinci!le. to im!ro%e
engine !erformance beyond that obser%ed 2ith hydrogen addition
1ount the HH( de%ice in the engine com!artment. ,t should be mounted flat and le%el. and secured is such a manner as
to assure that it cannot bounce around 2hen the %ehicle hits bum!s etc. osition the de%ice so that it can easily be
accessed and can be con%eniently remo%ed and filled 2ith 2ater. or cleaned. ser%iced or ins!ected.
Note: The lin. /elow contains relevant information /ut since it>s a protected document 8 cannot cop- an- information. ?ut
it could /e good as additional reading material.
(ne method to in-ect hydrogen and oxygen into the combustion chamber is to create an
electrolysis cell that 2ould run current through a saline solution and then connect the
resulting out!ut to the air inta9e of the car. $n im!ortant consideration that should not be
forgotten is the oxygen sensor of the car. 8he oxygen sensor o!erates by chec9ing the
oxygen le%els in the exhaust. 0ith the !re%iously !ro!osed !rocess. an excess of oxygen
2ould be found in the exhaust. 8he oxygen sensor 2ould inter!ret the increased amounts
of oxygen as meaning that the %ehicle 2as recei%ing too little gasoline and then send a
signal causing the car to use more gasoline. 8he result of this 2ould be decreased fuel
economy. 8o a%oid the oxygen sensor !roblem 2e ha%e created a controlling circuit that
ad-usts the out!ut of the oxygen sensor and also measures the le%el of 2ater. the tem!erature of the 2ater. and the
%acuum in the electrolysis cell.
circuit is mounted in the dashboard of a %ehicle and !o2ered by the DC %oltage of
the carZs battery. $ %oltage regulating circuit is in !lace to ensure that the microcontroller
recei%es the !ro!er amount of %oltage as 2ell as !rotection from im!ro!er
connection. "ight emitting diodes are used to gi%e information regarding conditions
inside the electrolysis cell i.e. tem!erature of the 2ater etc. $ se!arate dri%er is used to
dri%e these diodes.
8o test the system the circuit 2as gi%en a %ariety of in!ut %oltages. re!resenting the
different sensor out!uts. and the res!onding "&Ds and the out!ut %oltage of the circuit
2as obser%ed. 8he sensors 2ere tested indi%idually and later they 2ere tested as a
,nstalling the Hydrogen *oost #ystem is a matter of installing four com!onents on gasoline %ehicles and only three on
diesel %ehicles. 8he hydrogen generator also 9no2n as the electroly@er. the fuel heater. the engine treatment. and the
electronic control circuit com!rise the gasoline system. 8he diesel system has no electronic control circuit.
Com!onents for attachingC2iring the electroly@er in the %ehicle
o relayZs
relay is an electrical s2itch that o!ens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. ,n the
original form. the s2itch is o!erated by an electromagnet to o!en or close one or many sets of contacts.
,t 2as in%ented by Jose!h Henry in 1L:5. *ecause a relay is able to control an out!ut circuit of higher
!o2er than the in!ut circuit. it can be considered to be. in a broad sense. a form of an electrical
o s2itches
o 2ire <the a!!ro!riate gage=
o electroly@er brac9et <hard2are to attach the electroly@er to the %ehicle=
8he hydrogen generator is usually installed in the engine com!artment or under the front fender. ,t is usually !laced
in !osition 2here it rests on something sturdy and it is held in !lace 2ith a mounting brac9et that bolts to the %ehicle.
8he 2iring to the hydrogen generator is a se!arate circuit installed from the %ehicle battery. through a fuse holder.
an ammeter. and a relay. to the center electrode of the hydrogen generator. 2hich is grounded by the mounting
stra! andCor a se!arate ground 2ire clam!ed to the outside of the unit. 8he relay is acti%ated by a single 2ire from
the fuel !um! relay. 8he 2iring 9it su!!lies all the 2ire and connectors needed for installation along 2ith the fuse
holder. relay and ammeter. 8he 2ire does need to be cut to si@e. stri!!ed. and terminated 2ith %arious 2ire
connectors crim!ed to the end of each 2ire.
8he fuel heater is a sim!le heat exchanger that is installed in a con%enient location and is !lumbed to the cabin
heater hose circuit and the fuel line coming to the in-ector rail. /or some %ehicle a!!lication the factory hosing 2ill
not reach. you may need to !urchase a fe2 feet of heater hose. fuel line and clam!s to install the fuel heater.
8he engine treatment is sim!ly added to the oil sum!. (n diesel %ehicles 2e also include a !ermanent transmission
treatment and a !ermanent differential treatment that is sim!ly added to the lubricants in each.
8he electronic control circuit is a sim!le !otentiometer <%ariable resister= that is installed on a cou!le 2ires run from
your cabin into the engine com!artment and attached to the 1$/ <mass air flo2= sensor signal line or 1$
<manifold absolute !ressure= sensor signal line. 8he !otentiometer <dial= is installed in a con%enient location 2here
the dri%er can ad-ust the airCfuel ratio to a leaner setting than normal 2hile dri%ing. $ll 2ire connectors and 2ire are
included 2ith the system. During o!eration the u!stream oxygen sensor is un!lugged. 8he oxygen sensor is
o!erational. the reason it needs to be 9e!t un!lugged because other2ise it 2ill o%er2rite the ad-ustment of the
electronic control circuit by increasing the fuel in-ected as it senses to extra lean airCfuel mixture. ,f you 9ee! it
un!lugged it 2ill not o%er2rite anything and the system 2ill 2or9 smooth. ,f you ha%e ins!ections in your state. you
2ill ha%e to !lug the oxygen sensor bac9 in !lace for the initial ins!ection and un!lug it after2ards.
,nstallation can ta9e bet2een t2o hours and eight hours
0iring diagram to suite CD, <&+B 1#D= ignition
$DD,8,(6$" 6(8&# 8( 0R,6+ D,$+R$1
c 1ount booster as close to battery as !ossible <usually at rear of %ehicle=.
c Pee! red and blac9 2ires as short as !ossible <maximum length of 1L inches=.
c 1ount ca!acitor as close to CD, unit as !ossible <usually at front of %ehicle=.
c Pee! orange 2ire as short as !ossible for s!ecific a!!lication.
c 6ecessary 2iring is !ro%ided as !art of installation !ac9age.
c *ooster can only be used to !o2er a single CD, system.
c #uitable for 1#D K$. K$". 7$")4. 15. Digital K and Digital 7.
c 8a9e care not to short !osts on ca!acitor e%en 2hen !o2er is turned off. as ca!acitor stores
c &nsure booster is fitted 2ith su!!lied %ibration absorbing mounts <3$1s= in a moisture free
8he electrical !o2er !asses through the gas !ressure s2itch mounted through the electrolyser. ,f the gas
!roduction rate is grater than the engine reFuirement and as a result. the gas !ressure inside the
electrolyser gets abo%e 5 !si. then the gas !ressure s2itch disconnects the s2itch the electrical su!!ly
2hich in turn cuts off the generation of more gas until the !ressure inside the electrolyser dro!s again as the
engine uses the gas. ,f all is 2ell the gas !ressure s2itch 2ill be closed and the electrical !o2er is then
!assed to the relayZs s2itch contacts. 8he relay is 2ired in such a 2ay that the relay 2ill be !o2ered u! if .
and only the engine is running. ,f all is 2ell and the relay contacts as closed. then the !o2er is !assed
through to both the in%erter and the electronics board. 8he in%erter out!ut is 115%olts $C so it is !assed
through a diode bride 2hich con%erts it to !ulsing DC 2ith !ea9 %alue of about 115 %olts. 8his %oltage and
the out!ut of electronics board toroidal transformer are !assed to the electrolyser to brea9 do2n the 2ater
and generate hydroxy gas. 8he 2ire connecting the %ehicle negati%e to the in%erter and the electronics
board should be %ery hea%y duty. /or clarity. the diagram abo%e sho2 the electronics circuit board belo2 the
toroid. but due to the %ery strong magnetic field generated by the toroidal transformer. the circuit board is
!hysically !laced in a hole in the center of the toroid as that is the one !lace 2here there is no significant
magnetic field.
1odifications for the %ehicleZs sensors
o (4 sensors
De!ending on the year. ma9e. model of the %ehicle. it may be necessary to install a ma! enhancer in order
to Etric9E your ecm. 0hat ha!!ens. is the (4 sensors 2ill read an increase in oxygen in the exhaust mix and
enrich the fuel and you 2ill lose gas mileage. ,f you see an initial increase then it dro!s bac9 do2n. this is
2hat has ha!!ened. 8here are se%eral methods that are currently being used to o%ercome this !roblem and
here is the order of trial and error that , !ersonally suggestB
1. #im!ly 2ra! the outer !ortion of your !re)cat o4 sensors 2ith aluminum foil a fe2 times and secure 2ith
small thin 2ire))so the foil 2ill not blo2 off.
4. ;se a Estand)offE to slightly !ull the (4 !robe out of the exhaust stream. <8his has been sho2n to 2or9
better than the aluminum foil in some cases=
:. Disconnect your closest (4 sensor))it 2ill thro2 a code and your chec9 engine light 2ill come on. but if
you can ignore that this 1$H also 2or9)), ha%enEt !ersonally tested this one as of yet.
?. "ast resort. ha%e a ma! enhancer or &/,& !rofessionally installed. 8he ob-ect here is to slight %ary the
signal %oltages from the (4Es andCor the ma!Cmaf sensor in order to fool the ecm into thin9ing e%erything is
o9 so it 2ill not enrich the fuel mix.
8he oxygen sensor is a de%ice that monitors the amount
of oxygen in the exhaust of the %ehicle. 8he oxygen sensor sends a %oltage based on the
amount of oxygen in the exhaust. 8his %oltage is directly !ro!ortional to the ratio of the
amount of oxygen in the exhaust to the amount of oxygen in the surrounding area. 8he
%oltage that is sent by the oxygen sensor is an amount bet2een @ero and one %olt.
8o test the functionality of the oxygen sensor the follo2ing is neededB the oxygen sensor
of the %ehicle connected to the %ehicle. a digital multi)meter. a la!to! com!uter ca!able
of reading many data !oints and storing them in a data file. 1any ste!s are in%ol%ed in
the (4 sensor testing. /irst. the %ehicle must be turned on and running for no less than
fi%e minutes. 8he 2arm)u! is necessary to ensure that the chemicals inside the (4 sensor
are functioning !ro!erly. 6ext the digital multi)meter 2ill read the out!ut of the oxygen
sensor 2ith the %ehicle at idle and dri%ing do2n the road. 8he la!to! com!uter must be
connected to the digital multi)meter and be set to read a test !oint at least once e%ery
three milliseconds. 0e too9 test !oints are ta9en once e%ery three milliseconds. 8hree
minutes of consecuti%e data !oints are sufficient for the idle test. 0hen gra!hed the data
!oints of a !ro!erly functioning (4 sensor -um!ed around a lot based on %ehicleZs current
o!eration. but 2ere 2as al2ays bet2een 5 O 1.5 %olts.
;igure 161 xygen Aensor ,ocations6 8his figure sho2s the three most
common locations for oxygen sensors.
o 1$ sensors
8he 1$ sensor is the accrostic for !anifold 'bsolute -ressure.
,t is connected to the inta9e manifold on both &/, and Carbureted engines to monitor the changes in the
%acuum <)%e !ressure= that are occuring as you ride change s!eeds and %ary the load %ia the throttle
!osition. ,t is tem!erature com!ensated and uses a com!lex algorithm to hel! offset the !ulsating 2obble
effect of the HD 3 t2inEs assymetrical firing setu!.
,t is a %ery ma-or com!onent of the final s!eed density calculation that ulimately determines the in-ectorEs
!ulse 2idth reFuired to sustain the best $C/ ratio at any gi%en time ) for &/, setu!s. ,n Carburetor %ersions it
assists in monitoring the degree of ad%ance for the timing of the s!ar9 !lugs.
8here are se%eral codes that it can thro2 out such asB
515K 1$ #ensor Rate of Range &rror Carb
-0107 1a! #ensor /ailed (!enC"o2 %arb
-0107 1a! #ensor (!enC"o2 $;*
515L 1a! #ensor /ailed High Carb
515L 1a! #ensor High &/,
8he 5157 indicated that the reading 2as either absent or fell belo2 the minimum range for a some !eriod
of time.
,f not calibrated correctly or 2or9ing !ro!erly the &C1 2ill fix a canned %alue and use the other in!uts to
ad-ust the $C/ ratio. ,t 2ill in an &/, setu! greatly affect your richnessCleaness if it is s9e2ed or not
registering accurate readings.
, ho!e you ha%e the seFuence for chec9ing the D8Cs both current and historical as they ha%e been !osted
se%eral times on this forum in !re%ious threads.
Hou 2ill need to !erform the D8C diagnostic trouble code chec9 using the historical mode to see if it is still
there. 8hen errase the error code. ride around and see if it returns.
1ore ad%anced systems also use a second sensor to -ust monoitor the *arometric ressure and then use it
as an offset de!ending on your ele%ation and the local atmos!heric conditions.
8he manifold absolute !ressure measurement is used to meter fuel. 8he amount of fuel reFuired is directly
related to the mass of air entering the engine. <#ee stoichiometric.= 8he mass of air is !ro!ortional to the air
density. 2hich is !ro!ortional to the absolute !ressure and in%ersely !ro!ortional to the absolute
tem!erature. <#ee ideal gas la2.= &ngine s!eed determines the freFuency. or rate. at 2hich air mass is
lea%ing the inta9e manifold and entering the cylinders.
<&ngine 1ass $irflo2 Rate= d R1 e <$ir Density=
or eFui%alently
<&ngine 1ass $irflo2 Rate= d R1 e 1$ C <absolute tem!erature=
8he 1$ or 1anifold $bsolute ressure #ensor is a little though ex!ensi%e de%ice installed in your inta9e
manifold. or installed on the fire2all and connected to the manifold 2ith a thin hose. ,t has 5 3olts or 14 3olts
coming in. and it sim!ly senses the %acuum in the manifold and attenuates <reduces. 2ea9ens= this
incoming %oltage by a certain factor. ,n other 2ords it reduces the su!!ly %oltage to a direct)current %oltage
in the range of 15A to K5A of the su!!ly %oltage <de!ending on the carEs design these numbers 2ill %ary=.
and this %arying <but non)!ulsing= signal is then sent bac9 to the com!uter.
8he arrangement of resistors in the 1$ #ensor &nhancer sim!ly ta9es this already attenuated <reduced.
2ea9ened= signal O and attenuates it further. 8oo much attenuation 9ills the engine. it 2ill sim!ly shut off.
Het if you control it correctly you can lean do2n the mixture from the stoichiometric <a big 2ord that sim!ly
means Ubalance of ingredientsV= 2hich is factory set at 1?.7B1 <1?.7 !arts of air to 1 !art gasoline= O do2n to
45B1. maybe e%en 55B1 or 155B1.
8his de%ice is totally !assi%e and 2ill 2or9 -ust the same if the signal coming in is 14 %olts. 5 %olts. or
2hate%er comes on the line. 8he diagram in the boo9 is the #,1"&#8 2ay of doing this. 8he line from the
sensor to the &C; is cut. and you !lace a !ot on the line as sho2n in the !hoto contained in the boo9.
/urther belo2 you 2ill see the im!ro%ed enhancer based on the same !rinci!le.
o 1$/ sensors
8he 1ass $ir /lo2 <1$/= sensor hel!s the com!uter to calculate the flo2 and mass of the air entering the
engine. ,t does that by measuring the cooling effect of air flo2 o%er a heated 2ire element. 8he electronic
circuit inside the sensor attem!ts to 9ee! the sensor at a fixed tem!.
0hen it is cooled more by an increased air flo2. more current is needed to maintain a constant tem!erature.
8he increase in current is con%erted into a signal and that signal goes to the com!uter. ,n most cars this
signal 2ould be a high freFuency signal. 6ot as high as a radio 2a%e. but much faster changing than the
<relati%ely= slo2 freFuency of the (xygen sensor.
During lo2 air flo2 rates. such as at engine idle. the 1$/ sensor !roduces a lo2er freFuency signal. During
high air flo2 rates. such as at 2ide o!en throttle)road load. the 1$/ sensor increases the freFuency. 8he
control module then con%erts these freFuencies into their corres!onding +rams)er)#econd %alues.
Het again. some 1$/ sensors may 2or9 on a straight DC signal 5)53olts such as the ty!ical 1$ sensor.
8his is the case in some older 1$ #ensor designs that ha%e a tra! door 2ith a !otentiometer connected to
its shaft.
#chematics for the abo%e sensor modifications
$n oxygen sensor consisting of a metal electrode formed on the surface of the side to be measured of a solid electrolyte
sintering and of a reference oxygen !ole formed by a mixture of metal and metal oxide on the o!!osite side of said
surface of the side to be measured of the solid electrolyte sintering body. characteri@ed in that. at least o%er the 2hole
surface ad-oining the mixture of metal and metal oxide on the side of the reference oxygen !ole of the solid electrolyte
sintering. a !orous metal electrode is formed to insulate the solid electrolyte sintering from the mixture of metal and metal
oxide. thereby im!ro%ing the lo2 tem!erature !erformance and internal im!edance characteristics. as 2ell as !rolonging
the life thereof. $ method for manufacturing this sensor is also !ro%ided.
?459:77 (xygen sensing element Jun 4?. 19L5
?4K??4? Hydrogen ion sensor ha%ing a membrane sheath of an oxygen ion
conducting ceramic
$!r 4L. 19L1
?47L559 1ethod of acti%ating oxygen concentration cell Jul 1?. 19L1
?:797?1 (xygen concentration sensor $!r 14. 19L:
55?:55: Reference electrode !robe for use in aFueous en%ironments of high
tem!erature and high radiation
$ug 47. 1991
5L47?15 (xygen sensor (ct 47. 199L
K?97L5L +as sensor Dec 4?. 4554
K555:9L 3ery high !ressure miniature sensing and mounting techniFue Jan 1?. 455:
KK55454 &lectrodes for solid state gas sensor $ug 14. 455:
K951K51 (xygen concentration detector (ct ?. 4555
$ combination manifold absolute !ressure and ambient absolute !ressure sensor utili@ing a single
absolute !ressure sensor and a second sensor 2hich is de%ised to sense the difference bet2een the
manifold !ressure and atmos!heric !ressure. 8he second sensor is !ro%ided 2ith a s2itch mechanism
actuated by a dia!hram at a !reselected !ressure difference bet2een manifold !ressure and
atmos!heric !ressure. 8he actuation of the s2itch mechanism causes a sam!le)and)hold circuit to
sense the instantaneous manifold absolute !ressure at the time of actuation of the s2itch and
electrically add the sensed manifold !ressure to the set difference bet2een the manifold !ressure and
atmos!heric !ressure to !ro%ide a signal indicati%e of ambient absolute !ressure. 8his signal is utili@ed
to !ro%ide altitude com!ensation in a fuel in-ection system.
$ mass air flo2 sensor de%ice for determining the mass of air flo2ing therethrough is o!erati%ely
associated 2ith an engine control module of an internal combustion engine 2hich uses data
corres!onding to the mass of air flo2ing to the engine for controlling the o!eration of the engine for
increased efficiency and lo2er exhaust emissions. 8he mass air flo2 sensor de%ice includes a housing
ha%ing an air flo2)through housing com!rising an electrically resistant air tem!erature sensing element
at the air inlet end of the housing and an electrically resistant air heating element in the housing
do2nstream of the air tem!erature sensing element. 8he resistor of the air tem!erature sensing
element and the resistor of the air heating element are com!onents of a common electrical circuit. 8he
air heating element is o!erati%ely res!onsi%e to the tem!erature of the incoming air as sensed by the air
tem!erature sensing element so that the air heating element is heated to a !redetermined.
*nstallation instructions
#8& 1. 3$C;;1 3acuum lines are su!!lied from the engine to %arious car systems. and you should best use the
system that gets the highest %acuum. 8he idea is to suc9 the HH( into a !lace such as the carburetor or the inta9e
manifold. 2here it can be automatically mixed 2ith the existing fuelCair mixture. Connect the out!ut to the carbCinta9e
#8& 4. &"&C8R,C$"B 8he de%ice is designed to o!erate on 14 3olts. :. 8urn the s2itch off and ta9e out the 9ey.
Connect !ositi%e <14 3olts= to the red terminal of the de%ice. using the /;#&D 2ire su!!lied <red=. to the !oint youZ%e
identified abo%e. ?. 8o !rotect the 2iring from long term damage. you can no2 !ut the ne2ly installed 2ires into
2hatEs called Us!lit flex tubingV.
#8& :. /,6$" #&8;B /ill the -ar 2ith D,#8,""&D 0$8&R. lea%ing 1V of free s!ace at the to!. $dd 4 teas!oon of
&lectrolyte <!ure *a9ing #oda= to the :4o@ <N;$D=HH( +enerator and 4 8eas!oons to the K?o@ <N;$D= HH(
+enerator. Close the -ar. *oth HH( ;nits should dra2 about :)? $1# of !o2er. 1ore *a9ing #oda may be added
but. ma9e sure the units o!erate cool and donEt o%erheat. Running the units too hot 2ill create steam and that 2ill
cause a dro! in mileage and engine !erformance.
8&#8 R;6
1. #tart 2ith 6( electricity. by ta9ing out the fuse or lea%ing one of the terminals disconnected <ma9e sure it doesnEt
touch metal !arts of the car to !re%ent fuse blo2out=. 4. 8urn the 3acuum $d-ustment 3al%e <sometimes called
U*ubbler Ca!V or -ust U*ubblerV= fully C"(CP0,#&. 8hen turn it half)turn C(;68&R)C"(CP0,#&. :. 8urn the
engine and 2atch the bubbling action coming out of the lo2er end of the thin tubing inside the de%ice <here by the
2ay is the great ad%antage of ha%ing a strong glass -ar instead of metal or non clear !lastic O total trans!arency and
%isibilityM= +radually turn the 3acuum $d-ustment 3al%e and 2atch the bubbling action in the -ar. $d-ust the %al%e until
there is a small amount of bubbling action. ?. 8urn off the engine. 5. Connect the electricity by !utting the fuse on and
ma9ing sure all connections are tight <hand force only=. K. #tart the engine again and 2atch the electroly@ing action
bet2een the s!iral electrodes. $ yello2ish gas <HH(= 2ill start forming and flo2 to2ard the to! of the -ar. 7. 0ithin a
short time <roughly :5 seconds=. you 2ill notice that the engine starts to sound Fuite differently. ,t 2ill sound smoother
and Fuieter. ,ts R1 may be unstable for a cou!le minutes. 8his is normal O the HH( is starting to change the
combustion cycle and cancels the !inging O and the engine is no2 ad-usting to the changes. CongratulationsM Hour
HH( 0ater?+as system is no2 ready to goM &n-oy it.
Iou tube video
Hydrogen &lectrolysis ) using /lat lates
Aafety 4recautions
2ear rubber glo%es 2hen using 6a(H
&ye +oggles 2ith side s!lash guards
Hea%y Duty Rubber +lo%es
Hearing rotectors
Rain Jac9et
/ar and a2ay the most im!ortant item is the eye goggles since the electrolyte 2ould cause considerable damage to an
eye. 8he glo%es and rain -ac9et li9e2ise !re%ent caustic burns should an accident or ex!losion occur. 8he hearing
!rotectors 2ould muffle the sound of an ex!losion should one occur.
/uring the installation 4rocess
0or9 outside. no smo9ingJ ma9e sure the engine is not hot. 0ear goggles and glo%es and only use !rofessional toolsJ
use common sense and general safety !rocedures used for automoti%e installations and maintenance.
,f the tem!erature inside the electrolysis cell rises to abo%e 94[ C. then the 2ater 2ill be
dangerously close to boiling. ,f the saline solution in the electrolysis cell starts to boil
then there is an increased chance that the solution 2ill s!lash out into the air inta9e of the
host %ehicle. 8his tem!erature must not be reached. 0e used a tem!erature sensor to
ensure that the saline solution ne%er comes to a boiling !oint.
underta9en many !recautions to ensure that the s!lashing from the cell does not
get into the system. 8he first !recaution that ha%e ta9en is to create a s!lashguard.
8he s!lashguard is a schedule ?5 3C grate that fits in the electrolysis cell and ser%es to
!re%ent any sloshing 2ater from sloshing into the system. #econdary !recaution is a
2ater collector. 8he collector 2ill collect any 2ater that manages to get into the hoses of
the system. 8he collector must be manually em!tied but it does not fill u! %ery often. sloshing into the air filter side of the
hose by the fact that the system is in a %acuum and
air is constantly being suc9ed into the electrolysis cell and this air 2ould !ush any
collected 2ater in the hoses into the electrolysis cell for reintroduction into the
electrolysis !rocess.
8he booster must not ma9e hydroxy gas 2hen the engine is not running. &lectrical booster is rooted through the ignition
s2itch of the %ehicle.
#oldering is better than crim!ing. $ny loose connection 2ill cause heat and !ossibly a fire. so it is u! to you to ma9e sure
those connections are of high Fuality. 8hey must be clean and tight. and should be chec9ed from time to time as you
/ata on testing that has been done6
(@@y /reedom a fello2 ex!erimenter conducted some ex!eriments and disco%ered the follo2ingB ',n my car the one -ar
2ith : am!s 2as enough to gi%e me o%er 54 1+ a%erage. 2hich is 74A gain in fuel economy. 8he six)cell arrangement
<K -ars= 2as ta9ing only K.K am!s. so it couldnEt ha%e been much more HH( than the one <maybe double=. and it got me to
o%er K1 1+. or 157A gain. #o , doubled the mileage 2ith a tiny little bit of HH('. '8he K cell isnEt -ust lo2 am!s. ,t is also
%ery lo2 maintenance ) , dro%e ? months 2ithout touching it. and , could go K or more months if , had to'.
,n my next ex!eriment ,Em going to ma9e a High Hield &lectroly@er. 8his 2ill reFuire re2inding the &lectroly@er to2er so
that the coils are double density or only about 1C?' or K mm a!art. , am 2or9ing 2ith another electrolyte as 2ell. #odium
Hydroxide. 8his aids in !roducing more HH( than *a9ing #oda and is safer for the 2ires in the &lectroly@er. , 2ill also
ex!eriment 2ith #odium Citrate. 2hich is as safe as ba9ing soda <used in ice cream=. 1y goal is to double or tri!le my
mileage. 2hile at the same time getting the com!lete &lectroly@er set to dra2 less than 45 am!s.
?ater sources for automotive electroly8ers
8he !resent in%ention !ro%ides a self)re!lenishing liFuid 2ater source onboard an automobile for su!!lying liFuid 2ater to
an electroly@er. such as an on)board hydrogen generator useful for the su!!ression of un2anted emissions. 0hile
automobiles ty!ically ha%e 2ater reser%oirs resu!!lied by a !erson. the in%ention !ro%ides a !assi%e means of 2ater
collection for reliable re!lenishment due to o!erations of the automobile itself. 8he in%ention !ro%ides condensate from the
engine exhaust gas by cooling a region of the exhaust system using cooling fluid from the engine coolant system. 8he
cooling fluid is circulated during a !eriod follo2ing the engine cold start e%ent 2hen the heat load on the engine coolant
system is lo2.
/ual3direction flo) membrane su44ort for )ater electroly8ers
Due to the limited structural integrity of the ion exchange membrane. o!eration at !ressure gradients exceeding about 455
!si can cause electroly@er failure due to the ion exchange membrane being !hysically forced into the holes of the screen
set forming the chamber on the lo2er !ressure side of the ion exchange membrane. ;tili@ing a !orous sheet bet2een the
anode electrode and the screen set !ro%ides additional structural integrity to the ion exchange membrane and allo2s
simultaneous dual)directional flo2 of 2ater to the anode electrode 2hile oxygen flo2s from the anode electrode. thereby
allo2ing high !ressure gradient o!eration.
=ac5fire 4rediction in a manifold in+ection hydrogen internal combustion engine
Hydrogen internal combustion engine <H4,C&= easily occur inlet manifold bac9fire and other abnormal combustion
!henomena because of the lo2 ignition energy. 2ide flammability range and ra!id combustion s!eed of hydrogen. ,n this
!a!er. the effect of in-ection timing on mixture formation in a manifold in-ection H4,C& 2as studied in %arious engine
s!eed and eFui%alence ratio by C/D simulation. ,t 2as concluded that H4,C& of manifold in-ection ha%e an limited
in-ection end timing in order to !re%ent bac9fire in the inlet manifold. /inally. the limit of in-ection end timing of the H4,C&
2as !ro!osed and %alidated by engine ex!eriment.
,m!ro%ements could be made in the area of si@e. 8he !rinted circuit board could be made
smaller 2ith some careful design and !art choices. 8hough si@e is not really an issue. a
smaller unit 2ould be more attracti%e to !otential customers. 8he controller could also
be made 2ith a smaller ,C that 2ould ha%e less 2asted s!ace and functionality. ,n
!articular the ,C should only ha%e as many in!ut and out!ut !ins as needed and the
analog to digital con%ersion is not necessary at all. 0e estimate that the si@e of the
controller could be lessened do2n to the si@e of a radar detector.
Connecti%ity is also an issue. $s it is no2. the electrolysis cell itself loo9s li9e an a2ful
mess 2hen it is !ro!erly connected and running. ,f some design effort 2ere directed to
general a!!earance. then much could be done to lessen the U!ro-ectV loo9 that our de%ice
1ore research could be done to find the exact chemical ha!!enings in the electrolysis
cell. 0ith this information. 2e could determine the correct salt to 2ater ratio and
maintain this ratio. $n in de!th analysis of the combustion chamber and the amount of
2asted fuel that goes through an automobileZs engine 2ould also be hel!ful in clearly
determining the amount of benefit the electrolysis cell !roduces. $t the time of this
2riting com!lete testing of the ha!!enings inside of the electrolysis cell are beyond our
means both financially and chronologically.
(ne of the main issues that our grou! faced during the testing of our de%ice 2as that the
electrolysis cell 2ould reFuire many ne2 electrodes. 8he anode 2ould deteriorate after
about :555 miles of high2ay dri%ing. 0e 9no2 that. because of the hot electron effect.
the anode 2ill dissol%e o%er time. Ho2e%er 2e ha%e found that if the electrodes are
made of titanium they 2ill ha%e a much longer life s!an. 8he biggest reason not to go
2ith all titanium bolts for the electrodes is cost. 8itanium bolts cost around ^5.55 each
not including shi!!ing costs.
$nother consideration that could result in a better design 2ould be the sha!e of the
electrodes. Chemistry and !hysics tells us that the most surface area of the electrodes
2ill result in the most current and therefore the most hydrogen and oxygen !roduced.
Ho2e%er. if the sha!es 2ere not chosen carefully it 2ould be easy to ha%e t2o electrodes
that do not line u! and thus !roduce less effect than the existing method.
o exam!lesB
6a(H instead of P(H
1L !lates instead of 1K
4 %olts !er cell instead of :