Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 273

811.111'36(075.

4)
81.2-2
93

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93

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. : , 2011. 272 . : . ( ).
ISBN 978-5-699-47915-3
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811.111'36(075.4)
81.2-2

ISBN 978-5-699-47915-3

.., 2011
, 2011


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2. , ! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
4. , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
5. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
10. ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
13. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
19. , ! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Across, over, through, in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Also, too, either, as well , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

Accept, admit, agree, consent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Allow, permit, let , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Almost, nearly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Already, now, yet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Always . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Among, between , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Another, else, more, other, stil, yet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arise, rise, get up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Around, round, about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Arrive, come , / . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
As, like . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
As, because, for, since . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
As if, as though , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
As as . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
At all, quite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
At the end, in the end . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bank, beach, coast, shore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Because, because of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Become, fall, get, go, grow, turn , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beside, besides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Big, large, great . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Borrow, lend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Both and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bring, fetch, take . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cant help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Care about, care for, take care of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Close, closely , ; , . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Close, shut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Come, go . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convince, persuade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dismiss, fire, give the sack, retire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Die, dead, death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Do, make . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
During, for, while . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Each other, one another . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Either or , neither nor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Expect, wait for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fairly, pretty, quite, rather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

212
213
214
215
215
216
217
218
218
219
220
221
221
222
223
223
224
224
225
226
226
227
227
228
228
228
229
230
230
231
231
232
232
234
234
235
235
236


Far, a long way . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Far, very, much . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Few, little; a few, a little . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Find out, get to know, learn, recognize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fit, match, suit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Get married, marry , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hard, hardly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hardly, scarcely, no sooner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Holiday, vacation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ill, sick . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In, at, on (place) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
In, at, on (time) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Its no use V-ing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Its since . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Its time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Journey, travel, trip, voyage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Last, latest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Late, lately , ; , . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Learn, pick up, study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Leave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Like . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Long, for a long time; long ago, a long time ago . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Look, see, watch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Many, much . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Near, nearly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Need, want . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Next, nearest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No, none . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Older, elder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Once, one day, some time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pass an exam, take an exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Proper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Raise, rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Say, speak, talk, tell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5
237
237
238
239
239
240
240
241
241
242
242
245
246
246
246
247
247
248
248
249
249
250
250
251
252
252
253
253
254
254
256
257
257
258
258
259
259
260

Shade, shadow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shake, shiver, shudder, tremble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Since, for, from, ago . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
So . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Some time, sometimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surprise, astonish, amaze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
There is / are , , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trouble, worry, bother . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Used (to) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Used to V, would V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Weep, cry, shout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

261
261
262
263
264
264
264
267
268
268
269


,
, -
, 1
. 60 % -
, 40 % .
, , .
, , ,
, . , ,
,
, .
, , ,
.
,
. ,
, ,

(-) , .
, , , ( , ) ,


. ,
, , , ,
, .
,
, , ,
.


,
.

1
.

,
, . ? . ? , ,
, .
.
.

, . . ? , ,
1, , , , ,
. , . ,
money , , .
, :
1) : , ;
2) ;
3) , .
,
1

11

.

. . .

an.
,
1, .
a pen
a city
a union
a yacht

an apple
an obsession
an uncle
an engineer

?
1) ;
2) , -, ;
3) ;
4) ;
5) .

,
. , .
I have a son. . (, -,
.)
We can see a car in front of our house.
- . ( .)
He is an ordinary student. . (
.)
1

[ + ]: [], [], [].

12


Please give me an interesting book. , . ( ,
, .)
Once upon a time there lived an Englishman in New York. . ( , , ,
.)

.
The Englishman is American now. ( )
.

.
the, . ,
. ! ?
1) , , ;
2) ;
3) , ;
4) ;
5) .

Do you know the man? / ?


I read the book last year. .
The rose is a flower. The flower is a plant. (, , ,
. .) . .

(the rose) ,
.
(the flower), , , , ,
.
man, woman,
child. , .
, , , .


Man has domesticated animals. .
The rules of society should be observed. .

, (. 3 ), . , ,
.
An octopus has eight tentacles. () .
( .)
The president is in the capital. . ( .)

the. .
, .
Please open the door and close the window. ,
(, ) (, ).

, ,
.

.
3 4 (. . 12). . :
.
, the stars, .
. ,
stars, .
The stars are magic lights of the universe, bright points on the dark background
of the night sky. ,
.

13

14


. , ,
.
.
, .
.
All children like sweets. . ( .)
All the children in our family play the violin.
. ( !)
Cars are very popular nowadays. .
( .)
The cars of Japan are conquering all the markets of the world. . ( .)
Men love women. Women love children. Children love hamsters, and hamsters
love nobody.

, . ,
hamster .
.
.
The weather is fine today. . (
.)
I have seen the marble. . (,
, , .)
The coffee tastes good. . (,
, , .)

, .
I like rainy weather. .
Love makes wonders. .
Knowledge is power. .


The only conclusion we can draw from History is that nobody draws any conclusions from it. , , , .

, .
- ,
(Modern History, English History etc.).
, , .
Life is beautiful. . ( !)
Its a beautiful life. ( "Ace of Base? , .)
They gained a great knowledge of Japanese at Moscow University. .
( .)
A purple sky hung over us. . ( , .)

.
? , .
.
,
.
The baby looks so fragile but he is a real Ivanov.
, . ( .)
Lately I got a nice Rembrandt at a reasonable price. . ( ?
?)

- , .
.

15

16



.
The Jacksons promised to visit us but they never kept their word.
, . ( .)

, ? . , :
main ,
only
central , , ,
unique ,
following
next ,
last
previous
supreme , ,
former , ,
latter ,
principal ,
leading , ,

, (the best , the worst , the most interesting


, the greatest . .), (the first , the second , the third . .).
The only child is usually spoiled. / .
Have you seen the last film by Tarkovskiy?
?
We have to take the following steps.
.
The leading parts in the performance are played by the best actors of the theatre. . (
?
: .)



. . - - .
The rich cry, too. .
A wow suits the young. ! .
Buts and ifs get so much on my nerves.
.
Have a go, come on! , !

, , . ,
. , .
, , . . . glass
a glass, glasses. iron an iron. Copper
, a copper.
.
,
. , , . ,
:
home
town
church
breakfast
lunch ,
dinner / supper
jail / prison
school
college
university
hospital
bed
work
court / trial

17

18


( ) . , -
,
. , ,
the, a.
I go to work on weekdays, on Saturday I go to town, and on Sunday I go to
church. , , .
At last they finished the work on their book. .
Usually people have three meals a day: breakfast, lunch and dinner, but there
are such outlaws that are in the habit of having tea and even supper. , ,
,
.
The wounded criminal was taken to hospital and then to jail. On recovering, he
is going to appear in court. ,
. .
It is a new hospital. The hospital is situated in the outskirts of the city.
. .

, , . ,
. , . . , , ,
. , ,
: .
In June, July and August the schoolchildren of our country have summer holidays. , .
December, January and February are winter months. ,
.
We have our English thrice a week: on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. : , .


Mum is cooking, Dad is reading, Granny is washing up, and Grandpa is dozing. , , , . ( , .)

, , :
Page 127 127, 127-
Flat / apartment 35 35, 35-
School 10 10, 10-
Room 72 72 ( ), 72-

, .
(44th Street 44- , 9th Avenue
9- ), (sixth grade
, ninth grade ).
, , . , .
I go to the office at half past seven.
. ( office
, , - , 1.)
Every weekend we go to the cinema or to the theatre.
.
They usually have classes at the university till four oclock. .

:
the office ,
the theatre
the cinema
1

, ( ,
) ,
.

19

20

the shop
the restaurant
the caf
the university1
the circus
the disco
the museum
the movies
the country ,
the zoo
the railway station
the airport
the seaside
the army

:
the north
the south
the east
the west

() .
.
shoulder to shoulder
hand in hand
side by side
face to face
from beginning to end
from morning till evening
day by day
head over heels
from head to feet

by, :
1

.
, .
.


by bus ,
by plane ,
by train ,
by tram ,
by car ,
by boat ,
by air , ,
by sea , , ,
by bicycle ,
by underground / subway

,
. : a headache (
), a cold (), the flu (). aches ,
, .
,
.
. . , , ,
- .
.
1. () ,
, , , , , , , , , ,
: , , , , . . : the Netherlands1 , the Ukraine . .
the North ( ,
)
the South (
)
the Thames , the Volga , the Amazon
the Sea of Azov , the Black Sea , the
Mediterranean Sea
1

, , -, .

21

22


the Atlantic Ocean , the Arctic Ocean
the Sahara
the Urals , the Carpathians
the Canaries
the Middle East
the Hilton
the Bolshoy Theatre
the United Kingdom , the Irish Republic , the United States of America
, the Russian Federation , the Community of
Independent States ()

2. , , , , , , , . : the Hague , the Crimea .


Africa , America
Lake Baikal , Lake Ontario
Rome , Tokyo , Phoenix
Java , Jamaica
Russia , Poland , Japan , Italy

. -

, , - . , : ? , .
. , , . .
A mineral water, please. , . ( ,
, , .)
Will you bring us three coffees, please? ,
().
How many Histories do you have today?
()?

,
, some. -


, ,
, , . , . . ,
, some
. , , , , , , ,
.
Some boy is waiting for you at the entrance. -
. (, ? , !)
Ive got some time and can talk to you. / , .
Please give me some water, I am dying for a drink. ,
, .
There are some cups, some saucers and some spoons on the table.
, .
Some people are making a lot of noise in the street. -
.

, some .
You have got beautiful teeth. . ( .)
You have got some beautiful teeth. .
( . ? ,
.)
She has delicate hands. . ( .)
She has some delicate hands. . (
. ?)

23

24


. , . , , ,
. ,
, ,
. . , , ,
.

2 , !
, ?
, ! !
4-
:

, .
. ,
26 . ,
going to , .

, !

26

, ,
, , .
, :
1) , ( V1),
2) ( V-ed V2),
3) , ,
II ( V3),
4) , , I
(V-ing).
, .
.
, ?
, .
, , , , () , , , ,
.

to be ( am, is, are; was, were; been; being), to have (have,


has; had; having), will (shall), would (should), to do (do, does; did). . , 26
16 10 .
, ,
( , ? ?). 1

V verb .

, !

27

, , , ,
. , ,
. . , ,
,
. , ?
,
.
(Active Voice)
Present

Past

Future

Future
in the Past

Future Simple / FP1 Simple /


Indefinite
Indefinite

Simple / Indefinite
/

Present Simple / Past Simple /


Indefinite*

Indefinite

Progressive /
Continuous
/

Present
Progressive /
Continuous

Past Progressive / Future


Continuous
Progressive /
Continuous

Perfect
C

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

Future Perfect FP Perfect

Perfect Continuous Present Perfect

Continuous

Past Perfect
Continuous

Future Perfect FP Perfect


Continuous
Continuous

FP Progressive /
Continuous

*
.
1

Future in the Past.

, !

28

, ! .
,
.
. , , , . , .
(Passive Voice)
Present

Past

Future

Future
in the Past

Simple /
Indefinite
/

Present Simple /
Indefinite

Past Simple /
Indefinite

Progressive /
Continuous
/

Present
Progressive /
Continuous

Past
Progressive /
Continuous

Perfect

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

Perfect
Continuous

Future Simple /
Indefinite

Future Perfect

FP Simple /
Indefinite

FP Perfect

. . C Perfect Continuous
(c ). .
.

, !

2.1

29

. , Present Simple
, . ? ,
, ? , , .
Present Simple , .

? . , - ,
, , , ,
. .
? ? ,
Present Simple ,
, .. , ,
, Infinitive to. -
,
? ? . -,
, -, , -,
. Present Simple.
(. . , , ). -(e)s.
, ,
. ,
, -, ,

, !

30

. .
, ,
, , . to be (, , ), to have (), to do (). Present Simple.
to be [bi:]

to have [hv]

to do [du:]

I ()

am [m] ,
,

have

do

you ()

are [:] ,
,

have

do

he / she / it
( / / )

is [z] ,
,

has [hz]

does [dz]

we ()

are ,
,

have

do

you ()

are ,
,

have

do

they ()

are ,
,

have

do

to be.
-, . ,
, . , = . : = .
.

-, . ? . . ,
. .
.
. , . ,

, !

31

-. :
? , . :
, , , : = . , =
to be.
are, we,
. 30.
We are the champions! ! (
-.)
I am ill. . ( .)
Are you? ?! ( .)
She is fine. .
They are busy. .

, ,
, .
Im (I am)
youre (you are)
hes (he is)
shes (she is)
its (it is)

were (we are)


youre (you are)
theyre (they are)

, , .
,
to be , ( ).
, ,
- (, , , , , ).
, . . ( , ), to be
am, is, are.
.

, !

32
am
(?)

is

are
Are you all right? / ?
Is she in? ?
Are they at home? ?
Where are they? ?
What is it? ?
Who is it? ?

not
be.
.
I am not a student. = Im not a student.
He is not here. = He isnt here (: Hes not here).
We are not engineers. = We arent engineers (: Were not engineers).

, . . , no yes , , ,
, .
no yes, , , be .
Are you a doctor? () ?
Yes, I am. / No, I am not. = No, Im not. ( ). / (
).
Is he at home? () ?
Yes, he is. / No, he is not. = No, he isnt. ( ). / ( ).
Are they Americans? ? ?
Yes, they are. / No, they are not. = No, they arent. ( ). /
( ).

, !

33

!
to have.
-, ,
-, , ,
, . - -.
. : . , -
, He has two sons
and three daughters.
I have a dog and a parrot. .

, have do.
What do we have for lunch? ?
Do you often have colds? ?
How many lessons do you have on Monday? ?
I dont have any intention to go there.
.

.
, , .
Present Simple.
I / we / you / they V
he / she / it V-(e)s
V
I smoke 20 cigarettes a day. 20 . ( , , !)

, !

34

On weekdays they come back home late. .


At the weekend, we usually drive to the country.
.
On his way home, he crushes a glass with his colleagues.
.
A good sportsman does exercises every day. . ( .)
Whenever she has an opportunity, she helps her friends. ,
, .

, .
. .
, .
.

( ).

, (: ? ? ? ? . .).
. ,
, ,
. , . ,
.
( ). .
do
(?)

does

( )

. .

, !
-: ?
where. do
does. ? , -s
, .. / / . , , , do. .
? . , you.
to live. to.
, , . . ? Where do you live? ? .

.
, , , , does.
(. . ),
do does ( does .
).
(, ,
. .), .
: always , usually , often , sometimes
, seldom , never . often seldom very , so too ,
.
,
: , , , ,
. -.
: ? ?
, ,
(? ? ? ? ? ? . .). ? ?
? ?
?
, . who ? what

35

, !

36

? which ? whose ? (
). -s ( , what, which whose
). .
, .
What do you do? ? ? ?
What kind of books do you read? ?
Why does she learn Japanese? ? (
.)
Who does he meet in the street every day? ?
How many classes do you usually have? ?
How often do you get newspapers and magazines?
?
How many times a year do they have a holiday?
?
When does she come to the office? ?
(, , , . - ?)
Do you speak Russian? -?
Does he play basketball with his friends? ?
Do they often go to see their parents? ?
Who works at this place? ?
What troubles you so much? ?
Whose car stands in the yard every evening?
?
Which book interests you more? ?

.
do / does, not.
.

, !

37

I / we / you / they do
not

he / she / it does
dont / doesnt.
, .
I dont understand you when you speak English fast. , -. ( , .)
They dont smoke and dont drink alcohol. . ( , .)
She doesnt often buy new cars. () .
He never comes too late. . (
.)

, . ? .
never ().
. , .
.
.
Yes, I / we / you / they do. , ( , / ,
).
No, I / we / you / they dont. , ( , /
, ).
Yes, he / she / it does. , (, ) .
No, he / she / it doesnt. , (, ) .

:
Do you speak English? -? ( . , , -

38

, !
. , . , , - ,
.)
Yes, I do. , .
Do you speak Chinese? -? ( ?)
No, I dont. , . ( .)
Do they run a newspaper? ?
Yes, they do. .
Do they run a magazine? ?
No, they dont. .
Does she often have a bath? ?
Yes, she does. . (- .)
Does he often take a shower? ?
No, he doesnt. . (- . .)

, , Present Continuous, Present


Progressive. Present Progressive .
?
Present Continuous , .


.
I am writing a very useful and interesting book. . (, .)
We are discussing the political situation in this country. . ( ?)
The fire brigade is hurrying to the fire in the suburbs.
. ( .)
The students are having their English. .

, !
:
What do you do? I am a doctor. ()?
, ? ? .
What are you doing? I am examining a patient. ()? .
Present Continuous , .

I usually drive to work, but this week I am walking there as my car is being repaired. ,
, .
John is living in Moscow, but he lives in Bristol. , .
My boss isnt working this week. He has got the flu.
. .
You are being so clever today. Its just unbelievable. .
. (- .)

to be. , . ,
,
. , ,
, , , .
, Present Continuous , , , .

, .
.
.
Eddy is always drinking beer. . ( , .)

39

, !

40

Mary is constantly going shopping. .


Our neighbors are traveling somewhere all the time. - . ( -.)
Present Continuous .

- , , , , , Present Continuous.
I am visiting my dentist at 5 oclock tomorrow afternoon. 5
. (, .)
They are meeting the Japanese representatives at 7 pm.
7 .
The students are having a party on Saturday. .

. , . , ,
.
(
, ).
.
,
Present Continuous.

(move, go, leave, come, arrive,


return, start). be going to.
My beloved aunt is coming on Friday evening. .

, !

41

We are going to Rome next year. () .


The Petrovs are leaving for the USA in three days.
.

,
to be Present Simple
. Present Continuous.
I am
he / she / it is

V-ing

we / you / they are


,
Present Continuous. -
I. , , ,
. , . ,
.
,
to be .
, Present Continuous
: be,
.
.
am
(?)

is

V-ing

are
, .
.
What are you doing? ? (, !)
Where is she going? / ?
Why are you running about? ( )?

, !

42

Are you listening to me? ?


Is the chief shouting at us? ? ( .)
Am I saying anything ridiculous? Why are you laughing? - ? ?

.
not be. .
.
I am not (Im not)
he / she / it is not (isnt)

V-ing

we / you / they are not (arent)


I am not standing. I am sitting and looking out of the window. .
.
My brother isnt working. He is searching for a good job. . .
The sportsmen arent training; they are relaxing.
, .
It isnt raining. It isnt snowing, either. . .
( -: , .)

to be , to be, .. am, is, are.


, - ,
dj vu. .
, . , , . ,
. . , ,
.

, !
.
! .
. . , .
, . ,
Present Perfect. , . ,
.
.
, ,
. Present Perfect
.
Present Perfect :
1) ,
;
2) , ;
3) , .

. ? ,
, ,
. ,
. ,
( ). !
I have washed my car. . (, - , .)
A flock of pigeons has flown by. . (
.)
We have bought an interesting book. .
The man has struck a match. . ( ,
. .)
The Olimpic Games have started! ! ( .)

43

44

, !
Our friends have opened a shop of their own. . ( . !)
The concert has made a great impression on the audience. .

. 1998
. 2000 ,
. ,
.
I have lived in my hometown since 1968. 1968.
Mr. Brown has worked for the BBC for 10 years.
10 .
For the last three months we have only seen a couple of films worth seeing.
, . ( .)
Janes daughter has attended the special school since 2007. 2007 .

. ,
. , , , , , : this week, this year, this century, this millennium, today.
This week I have missed three lectures.
.
This century scientists have invented a great number of different gadgets in all
the fields of science and technology. .
This year I have learnt several interesting applications.
.

Present Perfect ,
, , . ,
, .
, , .
, Present Perfect.

, !
never (), ever (-), always (), often (), seldom
(), just ( ), already (), not yet ( ), yet ()1, up to
now ( , ), so far ( , ), lately (, ), recently (, ), since
( - ), for ( - ), how long ( , ), since when ( ,
).
My friend has never been to Moscow. .
Have you ever broken a window? - ?
We have always hoped to leave this friendly country.
. ( , .)
Our old uncle has often had colds. . ( .)
They have seldom visited that snack bar in the shopping centre.
.
The doctor has just come, but the patients are no longer ill.
, . ( .)
Thank you for good advice, but I have already taken a decision.
, .
Dont bother her. She hasnt recovered yet. , .
Has your wife put up with your new job yet?
?
Up to now we havent seen the "Turkish Gambit". .
The readers havent mastered the Present Perfect so far. /
.
Lately I have been engaged in agriculture.
.
Steven Spielberg has recently shot a couple of interesting thrillers.
.
Since then he hasnt met the girl. .
1

45

, !

46

For years my father has had this car, and he keeps loving it.
, .
How long have you lived in the capital? ?
Since when have you kept this picture?
?

, ,
- Present Perfect.
, .
I / we / you / they have
V3
he / she / it has
(
V), II, , .
. , II , , I
(, , ).
. .
, . . : 1) , , ,
; 2) ; 3)
. 2- 3- . ( ( ?) -ed). 2 3
. V3 .
, Present Perfect
. ,
.

.

, !

47

have
(?)

has

( )

V3

What have you done, little monster? , ? ( !)


Have you ever tasted sukiyaki? - ?
( .)
Has she found her pass? ?

. .
I / we / you / they have not (havent)
V3
he / she / it has not (hasnt)
You havent yet done your homework. .
The chief hasnt attended to the matter yet.
.
The children have never seen an animal like that.
.

, ,
. never ()
.
to have.
Yes, I / we / you / they have.
No, I / we / you / they havent.
Yes, he / she / it has.
No, he / she / it hasnt.

, !

48

Present Perfect Continuous / Progressive ( / ). . , ,


. , .
, Present Perfect Continuous / Progressive , , .

,
.
since, for.
My colleague has been living in this town since 1988.
1988 .
The children have been playing football for an hour.
.
He isnt a punctual person. I have been waiting for him for twenty minutes, and
he hasnt come yet. .
, .

: have , be, .
I / we / you / they have
been

V-ing

he / she / it has
. , ,
, . ,
. have .

, !

49

have
(?)

been

V-ing

has
How long have you been studying French? ( )
?
Since when has he been working at the company?
?
What have you been doing for the last four years? I havent seen you since
then. ?
.
Have the Chinese been building Communism for such a long time?
?
Has the president been examining the economical situation since he came to
power? ,
?
Have the deputies been discussing the law for a week? ?

, , have , .. have / has.


I / we / you / they have not (havent)
been

V-ing

he / she / it has not (hasnt)


I havent been writing to him since last year.
.
The hero hasnt been doing anything heroic for ages. . ( .)
We havent been watching TV for a long time.
. ( .)

50

, !
Present Perfect Continuous / Progressive , - .

Present Perfect Continuous / Progressive


( / / ?).
Your eyes are red. What have you been doing? .
?
I have been playing computer games. .
Why is your hair wet? ?
I have been swimming. .
Whats up? Youre so dirty. ? .
I have been working in the garden. .

,
, , Present Perfect Continuous.
. , , Present Perfect.
I have known my teacher for 3 years. 3 .
How long have you had your car? ( ) ?
They have owned the factory since 1998. 1998 .
We have believed in God since our childhood. .

, , , . , . , , .
. . , . . , . , . . . , .
, , , , .
.
.

, !

2.2

51


, .

Past Simple / Indefinite


, .
. - ,
. , , , , , , .
? ?
Past Simple ,
, .

, , , , Present
Perfect, ?
, .
,
Present Perfect. -
- . ,
Present Perfect.
Past Simple -(e)d ( ). . , ,
, Past Simple , , .
, 1.
1

V2.

, !

52

. , , : ? : .
Past Simple.
V + (e)d

( )

V2

( )

Past Simple , :
1) , ;
2) last ();
3) days / weeks / months / years ago ( / / / );
4) , : yesterday, the day
before yesterday, the other day ;
5) when what time;
6) ;
7) : often, sometimes,
usually . .

The incident happened at 6 pm. 6 .


The first man flew into space in 1961.
1961 .
Last year we went on holiday to Odessa. .
I graduated from college 20 years ago. 20 .
Yesterday all my troubles seemed so far away. . (? , , , - .)
The other day I ran into an old friend of mine on my way home.
. ( .)
When did they start school? ?
When did she last go to Berlin? ? (-, 1933 , - .)

, !

53

What time did your chief call you up? ?


I have bought a nice dress. I bought it quite by chance at a small downtown
store. . .
They often came to see us last year.
.
I usually went home with my friends. .
( .)

.
Past Simple,
- Present Simple. did, do. , do / does,
.

(?)

did

What kind of books did you read when you were a child?
?
Where did you go last summer? ?
Did you enjoy the party at your friends place?
?
Did she play basketball at school? ?
Did the manager agree to your conditions?
?


did not. . ,
, (
. 201205),
-

, !

54

Past Simple. . ,
? ( !), , , ,
, . ?!
, . , .
. .
, . ,
, . . , .
did not (didnt)

My brother didnt pass the driving test last year. .


Our footballers didnt win the championship in Portugal.
. ( ,
.)
Many students didnt want to stay in town after the summer exams.
.
On the 3rd of June I didnt go to work as it was the first day of my vacation.
,
.

did.
Did you see the film? Yes, I did. / No, I didnt. ?
. / .
Did your mother let you go to the disco? Yes, she did. / No, she didnt.
? . / .

. be did,

, !

55

was were (was , were ).


was
(?)

were
Where were you at 6 pm? 6 ?
Why was she so late for work yesterday?
?
Was he a good student? ?
Were the astronauts ready when the signal came? , ?
Were you at home when I called you up? , ?

I / he / she / it was not (wasnt)


we / you / they were not (werent)
I wasnt so happy when that client addressed me with a complaint.
, .
The captain was not angry with his crew. It wasnt their fault.
. .
The complications after the flu were not so serious but the patient needed
time to recover. , , . ( .)
The soldiers werent in the village at that time.
.

, was were.

, !

56

Were you a good pupil at school? Yes, I was. / No, I wasnt. ? . / .


Was the manager cross with us? Yes, he was. / No, he wasnt.
? . / .

, . , be
Present Simple (am, is, are)
Past Simple (was, were), . ! -:
"It is a piece of cake".
- , , . ( ,
, , ) : - - ?
? 25
26 1917 ? 31
11 ? .
Past Progressive / Continuous .
Past Progressive / Continuous , :
1) ;
2) ;
3) , (. . );
4) , .. ,
( ).

was
V-ing
were

, !
At 6:30 pm I was returning home and looking forward to having a roast-chicken for dinner. 6.30 . ( ?
.)
From 7 till 10 in the evening my son was doing his homework. 7 10 . ( ? .)
That week he was bothering me with questions about our project.
.
When Sam rang me up, I was having a bath.
, .
While Jane was doing her lessons, her brother was listening to something noisy
like rock or heavy metal. ,
- . (
,
,
.)
A black man was making his way through the thick forest.
. (? .)
A strong wind was blowing from the sea. (
).
We were working all day long. . (: We
worked all day long. .)
For some minutes he was walking about the room, and then he put on his coat
and went out. , . (: He walked about the room
)
For a minute she was hesitating in front of the entrance, but on hearing someones steps she pulled herself together and rang the bell. , , - ,
. ( : For a minute she hesitated )

,
, .
( ).
.

57

58

, !
, - Past Perfect ,
.
Past Perfect ,
.

, , , .
,
. ,
. , by + , - .
By the end of the year, the workers had finished decorating our apartment.
. (
.)
I had done the work by 6 oclock. 6 .
The students had learnt all the topics by the next lesson.
. ( .)

Past Perfect
.
. ,
after, until, before, when, as soon as, no sooner than.
, Past
Simple.
After we had passed the exam, we went to the caf to celebrate the event.
, .
I did not want to leave for Italy until I had learnt Italian.
, . ( ,
.)

, !
He had known nobody in the city before I introduced him to some of my
friends. , .
Until the doctors had examined the strange patient closely, they couldnt give
any information to the police. , .
When we came into the hall, the movie had started (already). , . ( , .)
When my parents had read the letter from beginning to end, they told us the
news. , .
As soon as we had seen the film, we told our friends about our impressions.
,
.
No sooner had the criminal left the building of the bank than he was knocked
down by some of the SWAT. ,
. ( , .)

Past Perfect
.
The poor student couldnt pay the fare because someone had stolen his wallet. , -
.
The sales clerk didnt tell the investigator that he had taken that money. , . ( ,
.)
The girl sat down into the armchair and closed her eyes. She had had a very busy
day. .
.

, , , ,
. ( ?) .

59

, !

60

When we came back home, our family had had dinner.


, .
When Dad switched on the TV, the match had finished.
, .

had.
Had you cooked lunch by the time Mother came? Yes, I had. / No, I
hadnt. , ? . / .
Had he hidden his present by his brothers arrival? Yes, he had. / No, he
hadnt. ? . / .

Past Perfect Continuous / Progressive.


, ,
.
Past Perfect Continuous / Progressive ,
-
- .

! ? .
- . , , . . ,
. , ?
, - ,
, , 25 . , ? . ,
25 . -? When I came to the
theatre, the play had been going on for 25 minutes.
. ? , , . have
been going on had been going on. .
Past Perfect Continuous.
had been

V-ing

, !

61

I had been waiting for an hour when the bus came. /


, .
The pilots had been sitting in their planes for 15 minutes until the general ordered them to take off. () 15 ,
.
The divers had been exploring the ruins of an old ship for two hours when suddenly a shark frightened them.
, .
Jack had been driving for a long time when he stopped and walked a little.
, .

Past Perfect Continuous Present Perfect Continuous, have , had.

(?)

had

been V-ing

How long had you been listening to the speaker when the light went out?
, ?
Had they been serving in the army for 3 years when the war broke out?
, ?

had not (hadnt) been

V-ing

I hadnt been studying at college for two years when the dean suggested that
I should work in the lab. ,
.
The pirates hadnt been sailing for a day before they saw a brig in the
distance. ,
.

.
.

, !

62

2.3


, .
, .

.

. , ( ,
) , ( ).
.
will. .
. ,
, .
Future
Continuous

Future Perfect

Future Perfect
Continuous*

will (shall) V

will (shall)
be V-ing

will (shall)
have V3

will (shall)
have been V-ing

(?) will (shall)

(?) will (shall)

(?) will (shall)

(?) will (shall)

be V-ing

have V3

have been V-ing


Future Simple

will not (wont) /


shall not (shant)
V

will not (wont) / will not (wont) /


shall not (shant) shall not (shant)
be V-ing
have V3

* .

will not (wont) /


shall not (shant)
have been V-ing

, !
. - . ,
. , -
.
Future Simple. , . . .
Future Simple , , .. -. , .

? . , . , .
, , , , ,
.
perhaps (), probably (), maybe ( ), suppose, presume (), think, guess (), believe (, ), Im sure / certain
() . ., Future Simple. , , .
I have got a terrible headache. Wait a moment. I will get an aspirin.
. , .
( , , , .)
We wont take part in the competition.
. ( . , .)
That party will win the election, Im sure. ,
. ( , .)
I suppose the government will raise the prices for gas, electricity and heating.
, , .
( .)
Do you believe they will be ready in time? ,
?
Youll probably pass the exam, but youll have to look for a good job then. ,
, , .

63

64

, !
Maybe, theyll play tricks on their friends. It is All Fools Day. ,
. - .
First I will get up, and then I shall go for a run in the park. ,
. ( )
We shall be at the station at 5:30. 5.30.

shall. , .
. , , , , , .
will.
,
will-will-will ,
shall.
(, ). . - ,
,
- - , ,
- -,
shall,
. , - .
, , ?
You shall pay for everything. . ( .)
They shall not pass. . ( : "No
pasaran".)
He shall regret having talked with us like that. , . (--!)

.
will shall.
Will you help us? Yes, I shall / will. / No, I shant / wont.
Will they be able to lend us some money? Yes, they will. / No, they wont.

, !
Future Continuous
:
1) ;
2) ( - );
3) , , ( - ).
Tomorrow at this time I will be lying on the beach of Saint Tropez.
-. (--,
.)
On the 23rd of June well be taking our last examination. 23
.
Next week I will be getting ready for the interview.
. ( ,
.)
My parents will be traveling about Europe next summer. . (, . .)
The Prime Minister will be visiting Japan late in May. - . ( - .)
Our plane will be flying at 750 km / h. 750 / . ( , .)

Future Perfect , .
Future Perfect , - .

by ().
By 2013 we will have made a fortune. 2013 .
By the 1st of August the scouts will have explored all the corners of the area.
1 .

65

66

, !
The engineer says that the brigade will have built the house by the end of the
month. , . (,
.)

Future Perfect Continuous . , , , . .


.
, , ,
. , . . , . , .
Future Perfect Continuous ,
( , ) - .

, .
. Future Continuous.
.
Next year I will have been working as a translator for 20 years.
20 , .
In 2015 we will have been living in this apartment for 15 years. 2015 . 15 , .
How long will you have been studying at the university next year? , ?

. . . .

, !

2.4

67

Future in the Past.


, -, , , .. .
. . ,
. , ,
, .
, .
, . . ,
, , . ,
.
, ,
. , . , , . ,
,
, .
.
I said (five years ago) we would live in Petersburg in 3 years. (5
), 3 . ( , Future in the Past.)

68

, !
I said (five years ago) we will live in Petersburg in 7 years. (5
), 7 . ( , Future Simple / Indefinite.)

, , .. . ,
, ,
.
,
, .

, 6 , .
, . -
, : ,
. . , ? . . .
. .
I said that I was writing an article. , (,
). ( .
.)

. , . - ,
. ,
, .
.
The director told the journalists in yesterdays interview that he had shot the
film. ,
.

, . ,
. ,

, !
, , . , , .
My friend promised last week that he would drive us to the seaside.
, .

. ,
,
,
(Past
Simple Past Continuous), (Past
Perfect), (Future in the
Past).
She said that her brother was playing football at the stadium. ,
.
The man told us that he worked as an accountant at an office. , .
Jane said that she had read the book. ,
.
The client complained that he had been waiting for the agent for half an
hour. , .
The doctor said our son would get better in a couple of days. ,
.
The newspaper said that the President would be visiting Germany early in
August. ,
.

, Future in the Past


. ,
, .
, . .

69

, !

70
Future Simple
in the Past

Future
Continuous
in the Past

Future Perfect
in the Past

Future Perfect
Continuous
in the Past

would (should)
V

would (should)
be V-ing

would (should)
have V3

would (should)
have been V-ing

(?)
would (should)

(?)
would (should)

be V-ing

(?)
would (should)

have V3

(?)
would (should)

have been V-ing

would not
(wouldnt) /
should not
(shouldnt)

would not
(wouldnt) /
should not
(shouldnt)
be V-ing

would not
(wouldnt) /
should not
(shouldnt)
have V3

would not
(wouldnt) /
should not
(shouldnt)
have been V-ing

, .. .
In 1998 I settled in Melitopol and thought that I should spend most of my life
there. 1998 . ,
. ( , - , ,
.)
Three years ago my uncle said he would help us buy a new house.
, .
The painter showed his first picture to some friends in 1993. In two years he
would be famous all over the world. 1993 .
.
He said that he would have finished the novel by the end of the year. , .

, !
The scientist declared he would have been working on the discovery for 5 years
the next year. , 5 ,
.
My kids told me that they would be studying for the exam the next week.
, .


would / should.
Yes, I / we would / should. / No, I / we wouldnt / shouldnt.
Yes, you / he / she / it / they would. / No, you / he / she / it / they wouldnt.

. .
.

71

3
, .
,
1

, , , ? ,
.
.
, , Passive Voice.
? ,
, , .

, , , . . .
be
(
). . -, .
,
. . .
- : .
be. - , .
. (. 28). .
1

, , , , .
, , .
.


Mail is usually delivered at 3 oclock in the afternoon. ( ) 3 .
The printer will be installed tomorrow morning.
.
Some new shops are being built in our street now.
( ) .
The book was published in 2009. 2009 .

. , ,
- .
.
I was told to go home. . (:
.)
The doctor has been sent for. . (:
.)
You are wanted to the phone. . (: .)

- ,
, - , .
, . -
, by. ,
with.
The letter was written by the student with a pen.
. (, :
.)
The tune was composed by Glinka at the beginning of his career.
. ( :
.)
The ship was caught and sunk by the storm. . ( - : .)
He was killed with a jackknife. . (: .)

73

74


,
. ,
.
. . :
, "It is
said that" "They say that"

. : , , , . .
The actors are declared to give a series of free concerts all over the country.
, .
The artist is said to be painting a new masterpiece. ,
.
The summit meeting is reported to take place late in May. ,
.
The scientist is considered to have done his best to decipher the ancient writings. , ,
.

, , , Passive Voice.
. , , ,
. ,
.

4 ,

,
, .
,
,

() -, .
(Modal Verbs).
,
, ,
, , . , .
, - , ? , , .
. ,
. ,
( ),
.
, .. . ,
. .
.
! -!

, ,

76

can

(, , . .)
, ,

could

, , ; , ,

may

, , , ;

might

. . ; ,

must

, , ;

need

;
(need not / neednt)

shall

; ;
*

will

, , , ;

should

; **

would

; ,
, ;

dare

ought to

should; , , ;

* will.
** would.

, ,
.
Can can
could. , . can
. could
: , ,
, . , .
, . to. ,
ought to.
I can play golf and even cricket. .
( , , !)
The student can solve sophisticated problems like this with the utmost ease.
.
When I was 10, I could ride a bicycle very well. 10 ,
. ( ,
.)
That man could help the refugees but he didnt.
, .
Could you tell me the shortest way to the British Museum, please? , ( , ) ?
We could transfer the money through the Western Union, but their charges are
too high. ,
.
I cant / couldnt imagine such a wonderful place! / !
They cannot work with people; theyd better keep away from society.
.
. ( ,
. .)

can (see, hear, smell etc.)


(understand, remember etc.). .

77

, ,

78

You can see a round table in the middle of the room.


.
I can hear somebody playing the piano behind the wall. , -
.
Cant you smell that awful odour?
? (, , .)
He cant understand your bombastic words. .
We cant remember that mans name. .

, .
can
(?)

could

annot / cant
V
ould not / couldnt
: cant [k:nt] ,
[knt] ; could [kd], couldnt [kdnt].
. ?! ,
. , . , can
: Present Simple Past Simple. .
?
. . .
? , .
can to be able to. Able
. be , . be , .

, ,
was / were able to V,
will be able to V. , ,
, was / were able to V
/ . .
He could get me on the phone yesterday. . ( , .)
He was able to get me on the phone yesterday.
. ( . . .)
They were able to solve the problem. .
Mr. Bush was able to win the election. . ( , ,
.)

. ,
, -.
We will be able to meet the deadline if the kids dont bother us.
, .
The European Union will not be able to put an end to unemployment within
such a short period. .
The scientists will be unable to create a time machine in the nearest future.
. (
.)

able unable. : not, un-.


Im not able to walk 40 miles a day. = Im unable to walk 40 miles a day.
40 .

, , to, . ( ,
).

79

80

, ,
, .
, , ,

.
Being able to drive has helped me in many situations. . ( can.)
Having been able to cope with the difficulties, he showed his strong points in
solving all sorts of problems. ,
.

can : to manage
(, , ).
The mountain climbers managed to reach the summit during the daytime.
.
Our managers managed to manage the managing structures in the best way.

. (, , , , .)

can, , can , .
You cant smoke here. .
The children cannot chew gums in class.
.
You cant touch this. . .

can ,
, .
May , .
, . , can, . might, [mat]. may ,

, ,
- , , -
. : maynt
mightnt. , mustnt cant.
The schoolgirl complains that she may only walk till 9 pm. , 9 .
May I use your phone? ?
May I come in? ?
The boy might play Dads comp for a while. .
You might as well tell me the truth. .
My daughter might as well warn me of her trip.
. (
, .)
The kids maynt play games on the road. .

may to be allowed to V.
be ,
. Allowed , , , . ,
( , ?).
All children are allowed to take part in the competitions. .
The employees of our company are allowed to have a months vacation once a
year.
.
We were allowed to bring our partners to the party. .
Men arent allowed to come to that posh restaurant without a tie. .
Werent you allowed to go to the disco last Saturday? ?

81

82

, ,
May ,
-.
Must , , , . , . , . ,
. , , should ought
to. ,
. ,
, ,
, must .
must .
, , ,
.
I must see the dentist. . ( , , ,
.)

,
, .
I must wash my hair. . ( , .)

,
, , ,
.
I must study English. . ( , ,
.)

,
must. .

, ,
Dear John, you must go to Tmutarakan as a representative of our corporation. , . ( .)
You must learn the words for tomorrow.
. ( .)
Guys, you must win the match. , . ( .)

, must .
.
must .
, .
You must take the elevator to rise to the 80th floor.
, 80- 1.

, , , . , ,
. - 80- ?
, --.
, .
You must see the latest movie by Nikita Mihalkov.
. ( !)
You must be careful. There are pickpockets around. . . (, ! .
, .)
You must come and see us this weekend.
. ( , .
!)

must , . to have to V. : to be obliged to V,


to be forced to V, to be bound to V.
1

, , lift.

83

84

, ,
must have to . , to have to
, , ,
. , , .
? , , , , . .
, - ,
. , , , , -
to have to. ,
, . ? . ,
. . , ,
, .
, .
We feel like going out for a walk but it is raining, and we have to stay at home.
, , .
I am ill and have to keep to bed.
.
We would like to emigrate but nobody wants us abroad so we have to stay in
this country. , , . ( .)

, , to
have to,
have / has got to V.
: - -. .
Ive got to go shopping. .
They have got to do this job. .
What have you got to do (now)? ()?
We gotta (have got to) think a bit. .

, ,
. ,
had to , , ,
will have to , , .
The other day we had to entertain.
.
Last year our city had to celebrate the 250th anniversary of its foundation.
250-
.
All of us had to go to school in our childhood.
.
The sportsmen will have to train a lot to win the championship. , . ( ,
.)
Ill have to check all the files with chapters of my book before I submit them to
the editorial. , .

to have to, , . : to be obliged to V , to be forced to V


, to be bound to V , .
, , .
All the students are obliged to attend classes at college. . ( .)
The Prime Minister was obliged to promise wages increase. . (
?)
The train is bound to arrive at 5:30 pm. 5.30 .
The opposition will be obliged to support the strikers. .

must: must not = mustnt


[msnt]. ? , ,

85

86

, ,
, , : 1) 2) .
.
mustnt, , .
cant, maynt. .
neednt
dont / doesnt / didnt have to.
You mustnt smoke here. .
We mustnt walk on the grass. . (
.)
You mustnt talk / chew chewing gums during the lesson. / .
Passengers mustnt take explosives and weapons aboard. (, )
. ( , .)
We neednt take the bus; Alex will drive us to the office.
, . (
.)
You neednt take the dog out for a walk. .
( , , , .)
The trainees neednt go to work on Friday.
. (
.)
Retired persons neednt go to work. . ( , .)
Children dont have to pay bills. . (
)
We didnt have to wait for the chief. He came on time.
. . ( .)

need, . ( ) ( )
. ? ,
, . Neednt -

, ,
. , ,
to need must, should, shall .
I neednt buy this textbook. I can borrow it from Max. . .
We neednt hurry. We still have plenty of time. .
.
They neednt tell us the news. We have heard it already. . .
Need he come to the party? ?
Need the women vote? ?

to need
to.
, , .
I need a sheet of paper. .
The peasants needed a lot of oxen to plough all the fields. , .
Do you need to go to the shop? ?
She will also need to pass the exam so as to be fit for the job.
, .
I didnt need to do that exercise. (And I didnt.)
. ( .)
:
I neednt have done that exercise. (But I did.)
. ( .)

() , ,
. . : , , . , .

87

88

, ,
. , ,
. -, -:
, ! .
, .
Shall ,
. ,
. , - . , ,
will.
shall ,
, , must.
, , , . shall . shall .
, , , ,
. , ,
( ).
You shall do it! ! ( .
.)
Both parties shall observe all the clauses of this contract. . (. , -, , , . ? must. ,
.)
Shall he go on a business trip tomorrow? ?
Shall we invite our Italian colleagues to the party our company is organizing for
our employees? () ,
? ( ?)
Shall I fill out the form in ink or in pencil? () ? ( , . .)
Shall I help you? () ?

, ,
shall. ? . ,
. , . , ,
. shall.
should
shall. , , . ,
. Should .
, shall, must.
, shall, , . .
Should I take the bus or the train? ?
Should we do the exercises for tomorrow? () ?
You should read the novel. The writer has done his best. . .
The footballers should play better if they want to go to the championship.
, .
( , - .)
You shouldnt drink so much beer. .
( .)
Visitors should keep off the grass. ( :
, , ) .

Will .
. , -,
. . , will :
?

89

90

, ,
Who will show the lady out? I will. ? .
I will learn Japanese. . ( . .)
The car wont start. . ( .)
The door wont open. .
He will sit for hours in front of the fireplace. .
Will you follow me, please! , ! (
.)
Wont you have a cigar? ?

will , , .
Grandpa will keep losing his spectacles.
.
Bobby will complain of his life. .

Would will,
,
. , would ,
, ( ) , , will, . ,
will. , .
. : ( ! !)
. . , , , . .
The German tribes would attack the frontiers of the Roman Empire. . ( .)
The old man would come to see us every evening.
. ( .)

, ,
He wouldnt sell anybody the boat. .
We would travel round the world but we have no money for it. , . ( would
. .)
I would like (to have) another cup of tea. () .
Would you shut the door, please? ?
Would you lend me $ 50, please?
50 ?
Theyd like to go to the East. .

would like to / / .
would d, wouldnt.
Dare , . , . need,
. darent. : I darent do it. I dont dare to do it.
We darent tell our mother that terrible news. .
I darent ask my boss for a summer holiday. .
How dare you? Take your feet off the desk! ?
! ( .)
Jack, may I put on your cool boots? You dare! ,
? ! ( !)
You are wrong, I dare say. ( ),
.
I dare say that boy will live up to your expectations. , .

I dare say
, : ,
.

91

92

, ,
dare . .
I dare you type 300 signs a minute! -, 300 ! ( - .
, .)

, , , ought to. , ?
,
to . ought to
should. . ought
to , , . ought to , ,
, , .
Men ought to wear uniform if they are in the army. ,
, .
Men ought to provide for their families. .
A thief ought to be in jail. . (
.)
Parents ought to bless their children for marriage. ,
.

.
. .
, . .

5 -
, ,
, ,
!

.
.

, ,

, . , : , , ,
, , - . .
,
.
- . .

94
will

95 %

must

90 %

45 %

, ,

9095 %

may
could
might
cant

, will . must. cant. may, might, could. .


, , . .
, : , ,
- . ?
, , ( ), ( ), (
),
(- ). ,
, may
be likely to (-).

may come

be V-ing

must be working

have V3

might have done

have been V-ing

must have been


waiting

95

, .

be V3

must be kept

have been V3

may have been made

, ,
, , , .
, ?
?
, , . , -
. , , . , , , maybe, probably, perhaps, possibly
. . . . ? ,
, .
Mr. Brown must be working in the garden. , , .
That will be John. Only he can call up at such an hour. .
.
Can you drive a little faster? The plane will have landed already.
? .
He must be around. He could be taking a bath. Or he may be watching TV upstairs. , , - . , . , , .
The writer may have written the book under hard financial circumstances. , .
The house may have been built in the 17th century. , , XVII .
You may have been waiting for 40 minutes, and the Ulyanovs havent come
yet. , , 40 , . (, , -, .)

96

-
They must have been living in this town for ages. ,
.
The facts cant be true. , .
A child like this cant have broken the window. ,
.
The book you have ordered cant be delivered so soon. , , , .

, , ,
must .
.
He must not work at that office. /
.

.
The tide may come in at any moment.
.
The representative is likely to arrive at night. , -,
.
Our team is unlikely to win the match. , ,
.

,

, , , .
They may have to stay at home till Sunday. , , . / , .
The doctor must have had to examine all the patients. ,
/ , .

, , , ,
, , .

6
.
.
,
,
.

, , .
. , , :
! . . ? .
, , , , : , , , , .
, , , . .
-
, . !
. ( ), .
, . of, .
, , . , . . ,
. , .
,
I, .

98

Doing morning exercises is very useful for health.


. (
.)
The party program consisted of drinking, talking, eating with drinking, smoking, dancing, singing and more drinking.
, , , , , . ( , . , !)
Among the school subjects, most of all we enjoyed drawing, reading, singing
and physical training. , , . ( ?
?)
Their visiting us at the weekend became a habit. . ( .)
Inviting friends to a stag party has become a premarital tradition. .
On arriving in the city, he took a cab and went to the hotel.
. ( , on , , .)
After graduating from college, he went to work in the research institute. . ( after , . , , , ,
, , , ,
, .)
We use this sort of paper for printing.
. ( ?)
Before leaving, the emigrants had a lot of things to arrange. .
The upset girl left the room without saying goodbye to anybody. , . ( , -.)

without
( , ) .


Without answering any questions, the teacher dismissed the pupils. , . ( .)
Without understanding one another, it is impossible to come to an agreement. , .
They ran out of the house without saying a word. ,
.


: . ,
, , ,
, , . , .
I am grateful to you for having calculated all the expenses.
, .
Being treated is not so pleasant according to some persons. , ( ) .
Our having moved to another district told on our family microclimate very positively. , ( ) , .

:
At that time, the building workers were building a building opposite the post
office. .

, . !
I ( workers ),
Past Continuous (),
(, ). .
, !

99

7
.

, ,
.
- .

, , ,
, , ,
.
.
, , ,
, . ., . ., , --. -
,
, I.
I, , , .

-, - -.
, I , -
. . ,
? ,
?
"The running man" by Philip Dick was made into a film full of special effects.
. ( , .)


Can you see a man standing at the pole? ,
?
The boy sitting in front of the computer is my son. ,
, . ( ,
.)
Crossing the street, look right and then left. ,
, . ( .
.)
He was sitting in the armchair smoking his pipe and reading the newspaper.
, .

II ( V3) , . ?
.
, , (. ).
II
( ?) -ed .
(. . 201205, 3). II , .. 2 . -
II ? , . , .
II : ? ?
, , , .
, II. : sent , done , received , corrected , built , used . ., . .
Said is not always done. .
Gone with the wind. . (, , .)
Wanted a chef. -. (
. wanted -

101

102

. , , , ,
. , , ,
.)
Born to suffer. .
They are airborne. . (To bear , ; air
. , .)
I have lately bought a nice used car. / .
Have you found the lost file? ?
Watch out! There is broken glass on the floor. !
.

. -,
. -,
, , ,
, , . , , . , ,
, ,
? having + V3.
after, on
( , ). I to be .


(
)


(
, )

V-ing

being V3

having V3

V3

having been V3


Walking in the park, I saw a squirrel in a tree. ,
.
Cooking a meal, the cook cut herself on a knife. , . ( . .)
Having received his sisters message, Michael immediately sent her a reply.
, .
Having graduated from the university, the young lawyer started searching for a
job with a reliable company. ,
. ( ,
,
.)
Hidden in the bushes, the archers were waiting for the knight.
, . ( - .)
Being invited to the party, the girl went to the shop to buy some new clothes.
, ,
.
Having been caught in the rain, the students got wet through.
, .
Having been introduced to the lady, Mr. Pickwick immediately retreated several
paces. , .

while when.
, , , .
, .
While doing his homework, the boy answered several calls. .
While riding on the train, the passenger met a few interesting persons.
. (, ,
.
, .)
When dressing in the morning, keep watching the time. You may be late for
work. , .
.
When having a party, invite your guests in advance. , . ( -.)

103

104


When being boiled, water evaporates. .
When being asked personal questions, dont be too sincere with journalists.
, .
When asked about his new job, Nick kept silent and ignored all the questions.
,
.

.
( - ?) . : , , .
? ,
, . , ,
. , ,
.

.
The rivers being very close, the builders have connected them by means of channels. ,
.
Many people speaking English all over the world, the language has become the
most spread one. - , -
, .
The wolf having been killed, they could now sleep easily. ,
, . ( . ,
.)
The weather permitting, we shall set off at 5 oclock. ,
5 .

. . . with.


. , ,
. .
The thief was walking in the street, with his eyes scrutinizing the windows of
the ground floors. ,
.
The old man was gazing into the fire, with his mind wandering elsewhere in the
past. , - .
The cyclist rushed through the village, with a pack of dogs following him. .

I. (see, hear, watch, observe, feel etc.) , .


.
The old woman watched the children playing in the park. , . (: ,
.)
Did you hear that pop star singing her hit? , -
/ ? ( : -,
?)
The policeman saw a masked man climbing through the window of the next
house. , .
I can see the sun hiding behind the mountains. ,
.
I can feel the wind blowing. , .

, , , . , I to.

. ?, ?

105

106


Did you hear that pop star sing her hit? , -
() ? ( .)
The policeman saw a masked man climb through the window of the next
house. ,
.
We heard the bomb explode. , . (
.)
The teacher saw the boy break the window with a stone. ,
.

.
( ,
), II , . :
have / get smth V3. , have get , .
I have had a new suit made. . (,
.)
They had their house repaired and decorated. .
We are going to have our pictures taken on this occasion.
.
When will you get your laptop fixed? ? (
.)

, , , , .

8

,

!

,
,
, ,
.

.
, , , , , -
.
, , , , , ,
, . , . , , ,
, (
), .
, .
, .
, . - .
, , . , ,
( ),
, - .
.

108


, ,
. .

, , . , . ,
. , . .
, .

Present Simple, if Present Simple.
If water is boiled, it evaporates. , . (
, .)
If you throw a stone upwards, it falls down. ,
. ( .)
If you are caught in the rain and have no umbrella, you get wet. , .
A film is a success if a good director makes it. ,
. (, )
You dont come late if you go to bed in time. , .
, , .

, , .
Future
Simple, Present Simple.
If the weather is fine tomorrow, well go to the country.
, .
If you pass the exam successfully, well take you to the seaside.
, . ( .)


He will lend you the car if you promise to drive carefully.
, . ( . !)
If they buy the company, they will fire all the managers.
, .
, - .
.

, -, . , , .
- ? -? . .
. , , ,
. , , . , . , .
, .
, , , -
.
. ,
, , . .
if Past Simple,
, , Future in the Past.

.
If I won the lottery, I would buy a posh car or travel round the world.
, .
If the teacher knew the students better, she would never leave her purse in the
classroom. ,
.
We would go to see our relatives if they called us for tea. , .

109

110


My brother would understand the strangers if he could speak English.
, -.
If I had more time, I would take up Dutch.
, ().
, . ,
, , , .

.
. (, , ).
, -, -! - .
,
Past Perfect,
Future Perfect in the Past.
If my grandfather had done better at school, he would have become a general or a famous scientist. ,
.
If the October revolution had failed, the Russian Empire would have turned
into the greatest power in the world.
,
.
Hitler would have conquered the whole world if his troops had not been
stopped in the East. ,
.
If we hadnt bought the DVD, we wouldnt have seen such an interesting
film. DVD-,
.

. ,
. .
If we had started at 6 pm, we would be approaching Moscow now.
6 , .


If only he were a little taller, he could have joined the Navy last year.
, -
.
If Samuel had been working for a couple of years, he had had enough material
then and would be finishing his thesis now.
, .

, , - , , . ,
. , . ,
, .

111

9
.

-

. , .
. -- , . ,
, , ( ), ( )
, -
( ), . , , .
, , , , , -
.
, , to
be (), to have (), to possess (), to own () .
to weigh (), to measure (
), to cost (). , , , to see (), to hear (), to feel (), to smell
(), to taste ( , ).
to love (), to like (, ),
to hate (, ), to think (, ), to understand () . - (
!).
be

assume ,

have

believe ,

apply to

care

113

belong to

consider

compare ()

detest

concern

envy

contain

expect ,

cost

fear

depend on

find

deserve

forget

differ from

hate ,

exist

hope

hold

imagine

interest

know

measure

like ,

own

love

possess

mean

resemble ,

mind ,

stand for

notice

weigh

prefer

hear

regret

see

remember

feel

suggest

smell

suppose

taste

think ,

look

understand

want

wish

, ? ,
,
? , . , ,
. , ,

114


, ,
-.
. - , . to love to like, ,
. , .
, , , ,
. (to hate) , . . , . ,
, . .
, , .
- , . to understand. -, .
, . , ,
. -, . ,
, - ,
- , .
, , to
weigh () to measure ( - ). ,
, 79 , 100. to measure:
, , , . ,
, , .

- . , . , ,
, . .

.
, , : , . , , .

115

think

, -
-. / -.; ,

, -. / -.;
,

What do you think of the


concert?
?
?

What are you doing? Im


thinking. ?
.

I think he is right. /
/ , .

We are thinking of running away to a


deserted island.
,
.

The rose smells wonderful.


.

Shes smelling the flower. Cant she


see it is artificial?
. ,
?

The soup tastes delicious.


( ).

Why are you tasting all the buns?


?

(),

, ,

I feel well, and Im writing to


you about it.
/
.

Theyre feeling the cloth, and they like


it. ,
.

My friend comes from the Far


East.
.

Our aunt is coming from Odessa


on Friday.
. (
.)

smell

taste

feel

come
from

116

measure

have

see

look

weigh

This room measures 5 metres


across.
5 .

What are you doing? I am


measuring a client for an overcoat.
?
, .

We have good friends.


.

Dont bother me. Im having lunch.


. ,
.

Do you see that building?


?

Im seeing my dentist now. . (


, .)

He looks great today.


.

What are you looking at?


?

That gentleman weighs at least


Are you weighing your bag?
about 20 stones. - ?
20 (127 ).
What are you thinking of? Im
weighing all pros and cons.
?
.
realize

They realize what they can do.


,
.

We are realizing a very important


project now. .


, . . .
- . - , ,
.
, , see look .
,
, , ,
, . , , , , , , . , !
hear listen .
, , ,
, . ,
. , , , - ,
, - .
. ! , . : , .
.

117

10 ?
, ,
, ,
, -, --.
.
( , .)
?
, ?
?
, ?
?
, ?

, , , , ?
:
1) to;
2) to;
3) + to;
4) + to;
5) .
I am learning to swim. .
Friends must stick together. .
The officer ordered the soldiers to attack. .
Poverty made us work hard. .
( . , .)
We started speaking English well a year ago.
- .


, . .

, 2, 3, 4 5. 1,
. ,
2 4. . , . , to,
.
, 2. , to,
, ought to. , , .
4. , to. have, let,
help, make.
Have + smb + V , -
-; , - -.
Let + smb + V , -
-.
Help + smb + V - - (
to,
: , ).
Make + smb + V -
-.

119

120

, make
, to.
I wont have you behave like this in my house. ,
.
The grandparents let their grandchildren do everything. () .
The USA helps or makes other countries build democracy.
.
The judge made the accused plead guilty.
. ( ?)
The journalist has been made to write that article.
.

5. .
, ,
:
admit
adore
appreciate
avoid
consider ,
contemplate ,
deny ,
detest ,
dislike
endure ,
enjoy ,
excuse
face
feel like
finish
forgive
give up ,
go on
hate
cant help
imagine ,
involve ,

?
keep ,
like ,
look forward to1
love
mention
(not) mind ()
miss ,
postpone
practise ,
prefer
prevent from , ,
put off
resent ,
resist ,
risk
cant stand / bear ,
start
stop
suggest
understand

Go V-ing . , .
Burst out crying / laughing / , .
Last weekend we went boating and swimming.
. ( , ,
.)
Many boys go cycling. / .
In winter children go skiing and skating.
.
Men go fishing and hunting. That makes them men. . . ( .)
They burst out laughing when they saw the joke. ,
. ( - - .)
1

to , , .

121

122

?
5
would , to: would like to V,
would love to V, would prefer to V, would hate to V.
1. ( ,
), .
afford ,
agree ,
appear
arrange ,
ask
attempt , ,
beg ,
begin
care ,
choose , ( -)
consent ,
dare ( ) , ,
decide ,
determine ,
expect ,
fail ,
forget
happen ,
hesitate ,
hope
intend ,
learn ()
manage ,
mean
neglect
offer ,
prepare
pretend , ; , ,
promise
propose
refuse
seem
swear
trouble / ( )
try , ;
want
wish

?
, , , , .
, to, . .
, 3, . . to:
advise
allow ,
ask
beg
encourage ,
expect ,
need
invite
order
remind
tell
want
warn
would like / /
would love / /
would prefer / /
would hate / /

, ,
, .
:
want smb to do smth , - -
would like smb to do smth // , -
-
expect smb to do smth / , - -

123

124

?
I want you to make a list of things well need during our holiday. , , .
Would you like me to give you a lift? , ? ( , .)
We didnt expect the guests to come so soon. ,
. ( .)

,
, .
stop, remember, try, forget.
Stop , ,
, . , , .
Remember ,
, (forget
).
Try ,
- , , .
The tourists stopped to ask the way to the station. ,
.
The boys stopped working and played football a little.
.
Remember to send the letter. I know your memory too well. . . ( , .)
I often remember my walking with dad when I was a child. , . ( ,
.)
Did you try to translate the extract? ?
Try composing music or writing poems. You may succeed in creative work.
. ,
. ( . ,
, ?)

?
,
, .
begin (), continue (), start (), cant bear ( ), cease (), prefer ().
, .
.
.
It was starting raining.
It was starting to rain. . : .
The army was beginning retreating.
The army was beginning to retreat. .
Some peoples are continuing fighting for freedom.
Some peoples are continuing to fight for freedom. .

, ?
, , .
,
. . .

125

11


, , .
, , .

, , . - ( ) .
. .
, ,
. .
,
. . , .
,
, , ,
.
, .
. . , ,
, ,
, , .
.

.

-s
. . .


a man men
a woman [wmn] women [wmn]
a child [tald] children [tldrn]
a foot feet
a tooth teeth
a goose geese
a mouse mice
a louse lice
an ox oxen

,
:
a deer deer
a grouse grouse
a mackerel mackerel , ,
a plaice plaice
a salmon [smn] salmon , ,
a sheep sheep
a trout trout

, [z] [s]: Vietnamese


( ), Chinese ( ), Japanese (
), Portuguese ( ), Swiss (
).
, ,
, , . . . , , ,
. ,
. , - , , ,
,
-.
( , ) .

127

128


-us -i: a
radius radii [a] [i:]. : bacillus, cactus, fungus, nucleus, terminus. .

. : a genus genera, a corpus corpora.
-,
- [a] [i:]. amoeba, antenna, formula, nebula (an antenna antennae).
:
-um -a (bacterium bacteria; memorandum etc.);
-is -es [i:z] (an axis axes; basis, crisis, thesis, oasis etc.);
-on -a (a phenomenon phenomena etc.);
-ex / -ix -ices [si:z] (a matrix matrices; appendix, index etc.);
-eau -eaux [] [z] (a bureau bureaux; plateau, tableau etc.).
, , , , . , ,
, . ,
. ? , -s (
) . ,
.
, ,
-s, . ,
.
, -s
.

: news (),
measles (), mumps (), physics (), mathematics ()
.
,
( ,


) :
a barracks barracks ( ), bellows ( ,
), gallows (), gasworks ( ), golf-links
( ), headquarters (), innings (
), kennels (, ), means (), series (), species ().
,
: binoculars (), braces
(. ), breeches (, ), glasses (), jeans (), knickers (, , ), pants (, ,
, ), pincers (, , ), pliers (, ,
), pyjamas (), scales (), scissors (), shorts
(, ), spectacles (), tights (), tongs (,
), trousers (, ), tweezers (, , ).
, . : annals
(, ), antipodes (), archives (
), arms (, ), belongings (, ), clothes
(), congratulations (), earnings (), goods (,
, ), looks ( , ), manners
( , , , ), odds (, , ; ; ; ; ), outskirts (, ; ; ),
particulars ( , ), premises (
; ; ), remains (,
), surroundings (; ; ), valuables (
, ; ), whereabouts (, , ).
, ,
, ,
, . people (), cattle
( ), police (), vermin (, ; , ). .
The police are investigating the case. .

129

130


, ,
: family (), crew (), staff (,
, ), clergy (), youth (), gentry () . .
He is American but his family come / comes from Ireland. ,
.

. Possessive case
,
, .
. , ,
. Vasyas brother . . s.
. s .
, , ,
. , -s, s,
(child's children's).
, .
,
.
Bills father ( )
Iras mother
a students bag (-)
the composers car ()


my friends flat
my friends flat ( , ; - )
mens footwear
womens clothes
childrens books
boys school
a months holiday
yesterdays newspaper (
)
the ducks eight nice ducklings

, , , ,
, . ,
, of .
You can see that the left leg of the table is much shorter than the others.
, .
They bought a piece of soap as a present for us. . ( , .)
The walls and ceiling of the room were snow-white. .
Some workers of Moscow have no place to live in. . ( .)

, .
-, .
? , ,
. ,
. . ?
.
( , )
. -er,
-est.

131

132


,
, .. ,
.
short shorter the shortest ( )
big bigger the biggest ( )
narrow narrower the narrowest ( )
pretty prettier the prettiest (
)

, , . .
, .
(-er, the -est) -y.

( ). ,
more ( ) the
most ( ).
interesting more interesting the most interesting ( / / )
expensive more expensive the most expensive ( )
dangerous more dangerous the most dangerous (
)

, . common
(, ), handsome (, ), polite (), quiet
(, ), wicked (, ), pleasant (), cruel (), stupid (), tired (), -ow, -er, -le.
( more, the most) .
narrow narrower / more narrow the narrowest / the most narrow (
/ )


simple simpler / more simple the simplest / the most simple ( / / )
clever cleverer / more clever the cleverest / the most clever (
/ / )

, , .
good better the best ( )
bad worse the worst ( )
far farther / further the farthest / the furthest ( / () )
old older / elder the oldest / the eldest ( / )

Elder : my elder brother ( ), the elder


sister ( ) etc. eldest: the eldest child (
).
Further
, .
You can find further information in the appendix of the manual.
() .
The company is going to conclude further agreements within the current
month. () () .

. ,
than , the , the ,
, .
much, far,
a lot, lots (), any (-, ; , ), no ( ), rather (), a little, a bit ().
It is colder today than it was yesterday. , .
This tie is nicer than that one. .

133

134


The better you speak a foreign language, the more interesting information you
can get. , .
The worse the weather is, the better I like it. ,
.
I have been reading far more interesting books lately.
.
The company is getting a lot more profitable contracts under the new administration.
.

.
, , , , , , , . . , most .
, ,
, .
He is the best actor in the world. . ( .)
It is the most fascinating film in our collection.
. (
.)
I am the most outstanding person under the sun. . (
- .)
Vovochka is the cleverest boy in the form. . ( . ,
.)
The Shermans are the richest in our city. . ( .)
Thats most (=very) kind of you. .
That is a most intelligent child. / .
( .)

,
, -


. , , . . : . ? .
, . ,
, .
: huge / enormous =
very big / large. :
hot boiling ( )
tired exhausted ( / / )
cold freezing ( )
tasty delicious ( / ,
)
interesting fascinating ( )
dirty filthy ( / / )
funny hilarious ( / / )
pretty / attractive beautiful ( / / )
angry furious ( / / )
frightened terrified ( )
surprised astonished / amazed ( / )
clever brilliant ( )

: good perfect / marvelous / superb / wonderful / fantastic / brilliant ( / / / . .) bad horrid / horrible / awful / terrible / disgusting ( / / . .).
,
. .
? . , , .
. very
absolutely, really, extraordinarily . ? delicious = very tasty, very delicious = very very tasty?
: absolutely exhausted, really fascinating, absolutely marvelous, really
wonderful. very .

135

136


, ,
. , .
, ; , , , ; , , , , , .
, , ,
:
a school building
a wooden school building
a Russian wooden school building
a brown Russian wooden school building
a small square old brown Russian wooden school building

, ,
, , , . , ,
,
, . . ,
. - , , .

12
, .

,
--
---

, .
. (
.)

-ly:
quick quickly (
)
slow slowly (
)
excellent excellently ( )
brilliant brilliantly ( )

,
.
fast
hard ,
early

, , . ? -ly , , -

138

. .
.
. :
near (, ) nearly ()
close (, ) closely (, )
late (, ) lately (, )
hard (, ; , ) hardly (, )

.
.
-ly :
loudly more loudly most loudly (loudly louder loudest ; slowly, quickly)
neatly more neatly most neatly ( )

, early :
soon sooner soonest1 ( )
late later latest ( / )
early earlier earliest ( / )
: often more often most often ( ; oftener
, ).

, , . -
. , !
well better best ( / )
badly worse worst ( / )
far farther / further farthest / furthest ( )
much / many more most ( )
little less least ( , )

139

, , as as possible - ( ).
as soon as possible
as much as possible
as loudly as possible

, , . (always ,
often , usually )
. ( !), , ,
,
. (soon , early , late ),
, ,
. (well , slowly , excellently ) , , .
We always correct mistakes in our friends speech.
. ( . .)
I think he will come soon. , .
She runs very quickly. .
They pronounce the sound perfectly.
.

, ,
.
.

13 2
- ,
- , .
,
, .

,
?
?
-

- , -
. , ?
. . .
, up, down, away, back, forward, out, off, on, in, over, .
, . , : away, back, out. ,
,
. at, for, from, into, of, with.
. !
- .
Off , (switch / turn
off , take off ), on , , (go on , put on ), in
(let in , take in ; ),
over - (talk over / , think over / ). , ,
.
. ? , .

, , .
: up / , down / , away , back / , forward , out
/ / .
,
, ,
. : call up (
), calm down ( ), turn out
( ).
, , .
, . : go up ( ), come back
( / / ), fly away ( ), get
out ( ), step forward ( ). ,
.

141

142

.
, , 1, .
,
,
. .
: , ,
. .

.
.
Sort out the problems. / Sort the problems out. / .
Sort them out. / .
Please call Mr. Smith up. / Please call up Mr. Smith. ,
.
Please call him up. , .
Pick up the newspaper. / Pick the newspaper up. .
Pick it up. .
Put down the words. / Put the words down. .
Put them down. .
We switched all the lights on. / We switched on all the lights.
.
We switched them on. .

, .
, . , ( ) ,
. .
. ,
. .
, . : + + + .
1

, . .
.

2
Do you get on with your mother-in-law? ? (to get on with
smb. -.)
They say medicine has done away with all the contagious diseases. ,
. (to do away with
smth. -.)
Sometimes one has to put up with objective circumstances. . (to put up with smth.
-.)
I must cut down on my spending. . (to cut
down on smth. , -.)
Children usually look forward to Christmas holidays. . (to look forward to smth. -.)
Its time to get down to business. . (to get down
to smth. -.)
Weve run out of paper. . (to run out of smth. , -.)

- , , . . -
.
Come on! ! (-?)
She picked up a little German. . (
, .)
The plane took off and flew. . (-
, . ?)
He brought up two sons and a daughter.
. ( ?)

. - , . ,
?

143

14
, .
.

, 1
. , , ,
.
, . ,
.
.
.
1 one
2 two
3 three
4 four
5 five
6 six
7 seven
8 eight
9 nine
10 ten

-teen. 11 12. 13 15,


t 18. .
11 eleven
12 twelve
13 thirteen
14 fourteen
1

, ,
.


15 fifteen
16 sixteen
17 seventeen
18 eighteen
19 nineteen

, -ty . 3 5 30
50, u 40 t 80. .
20 twenty
30 thirty
40 forty
50 fifty
60 sixty
70 seventy
80 eighty
90 ninety

( + ) -.
, . .
25 twenty-five; 43 forty-three; 98 ninety-eight

: + , + . : 300 three hundred, 5000 five thousand. : five hundred thousand.


, .
Hundreds of unidentified flying objects are roaming about in the vast expanses
of the sky.
.
Thousands of students try to pass the examinations free of charge. . ( . ,
.)

145

146

+ + ,
. and .
and , , , , .
123 one hundred and twenty-three (Br.), one hundred twenty-three (Am.)

. 1100 1900
( ) : 1500 fifteen hundred
( ), 1800 eighteen hundred ( ).
I have bought a nice laptop for fifteen hundred.
. ( , - .)

, ,
, .
1 000 000 1,000,0001.
, . 17,375 - 17.375.
, : !
.
point () .
3,141592 three point one four one five nine two

0, nought zero .
O, []. nil,
zero. love,
1

, one million , one billion. ,


milliard.


. , . loeuf 1 love.
, , . , : six
six, two two, double : double six
, double two . ,
[] zero .

.
, , .
2: 1492 fourteen (hundred) ninety-two; 1812
eighteen twelve; 1995 nineteen ninety-five. 2000
: 2003 two thousand (and3) three.

: , , ,
. . (!) ,
: page 450 450- / 450, room 111
111- / 111- / 111, flat 33 33- / 33.
.
?
. ,
.
$ 4.99 four dollars ninety-nine (cents)
$ 1.55 a / one dollar fifty-five (cents)
$.65 65 sixty-five cents
10.80 ten pounds (sterling) eighty (pence)
8.35 eight pounds thirty-five (pence)
10p ten pence ten p [pi:]

penny,
pence.
1

0 , ?
.
3
.
2

147

148

, , ,
. -,
-.
and +, plus.
is, are equals1.
2 + 3 = 5 Two and / plus three is / are / equals five.

? :
Whats two and two?
minus equals, to leave to take
away .
15 10 = 5 Ten from fifteen leaves / is five. : Fifteen take away ten
leaves / is five. : Fifteen minus ten equals five.

. .
s
-.
3 x 8 = 24 Three eights are twenty-four.
2 x 4 = 8 Two fours are eight.

times is
makes =.
, equals , multiplied by
.
10 x 25 = 250 Ten times twenty-five is / makes two hundred (and) fifty. :
Ten multiplied by twenty-five equals two hundred (and) fifty.
1

Plus equals , , .


, , . :
10 : 2 = 5 Ten into two goes five (times). : Ten divided by two equals five.

.
, ? the, -th. , , , .
! 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 9 12.
1- the first (. one) 1st ( , )
2- the second (. two) 2nd
3- the third (. three) 3rd
4- the fourth 4th
5- the fifth (. five) 5th
6- the sixth 6th
7- the seventh 7th
8- the eighth (. eight) 8th
9- the ninth (. nine) 9th
10- the tenth 10th
11- the eleventh 11th
12- the twelfth (. twelve) 12th

, . ,
.
-ty -tieth.

: Fortieth Street, Ninth Avenue, : fifth grade (Am.) ,
: the sixth form (Br.) .
(), , ,
.
The first of September is the beginning of the school year in Russia.
.

149

150

The twentieth century was the age of many discoveries and inventions that
changed mans life radically.
, .
They say Louis the Thirteenth liked musketeers. , XIII . ( .)

, , ,
.
You are our ten thousandth customer. .
Alexey Leonov was the first man to go out into outer space.
, .
What does the third Kepler law say? ?
( , .)

. , .
1

/7 a seventh one seventh


/8 three eighths
3
/8 mile = three eighths of a mile
1 3/5 one and three fifths
3

.
hour = half an hour ;
1 hours = one and a half hours an hour and a half
= a quarter
= three quarters ; a quarter of an hour

half, six months eighteen months .

15
, , ,
.

. -,
, . , , , , ,
, . ? , .
. . , . ?
-, you, , ( ), (
). . you ,

152


, , . : ?
. ,
. , . , .
-, . . he. she. it.
. .
. , , , .
she.
, . , , , . 1 XVIIIXIX
. .
, , . . , , , ,
, , ,
. ? she. ,
, .. he.
. , ,
. , , -
, ? ,
, ,


he she, , .
,
. . I , , .
Hey, you! Get out of here! , ! ! (
, .
.)
You are a great man, Mr. Mozart. , .
( .)
Could you give me a piece of advice, please? ? ( could.)
It is our cat called Pussy. She has had three nice kittens.
. . (-, .
-, , .)
How do you find my Volvo? Shes really beautiful, isnt she? Especially in her new
shoes. ? . . (
.)
I think that I am the most modest person in the world. , . ( .)

,
. . ,
: (), () ( ). ,
s s .
, .
. 154.

153

154

(
?)


( ?
? )

(?)

me ,

my , ,
,

you

you ,

your , ,
,

he

him ,

his

she

her ,

her

it

it , ; ,

its ,

we

us ,

our , ,
,

you

you ,

your , ,
,

they

them ,

their

? , ,
him, his; them,
their. ,
? ,
? . :
I often see him in the street. (? ) .
I often see his wife in the street. (?) .
I visit them every weekend. (? )
.
I visit their friends every weekend. (?)
.


. .
,
. .
.
I will help you do it for them. / / .
She sometimes brings them to our place to talk to us about it.
, / / .

. , .
, , , .
, , ,
, .
. : ? ,
. :
. ? . , ? .
, . . ? . :
?
, , . : , . -
,
. ,
, .
I am reading my article with great pleasure. ()
. ( .)

155

156

Alec is watching his children playing in the yard.


() , .
We like going to see our friends in the country.
() . (
.)
The students are in the habit of studying for their exams at the last moment.
( = ) . ( .
.)
I wash my face and hands and clean my teeth with cold water. ( =
) , ( = ) . (
, ,
- .)

. , . , , . ,
, , .

.

my

mine (, , , )

your

yours (, , , ; ,
, , )

his

his ()

her

hers ()

its

its (, )

our

ours (, , , )

their

theirs ()

157

This money is mine, and that is yours. , . ( , .)


Please take my friends to the caf, and dont forget about yours. , (= ).
Whose is the shoe? It is mine. ? . (, .)
Dont mix your things with theirs.
( , ).

,
, . , :
. . . .
. .

(-),

myself

(-),

yourself

himself

herself

itself

ourselves

yourselves

themselves

. I have bought a suit for myself (for me). (


.)
. He writes himself letters. ( .)

158

. Take an umbrella with you. = Take along an umbrella. ( ,


, .
.)
. They went to their place. ( , ,
. : .)
/ .
I have done this work all by myself. (
.)

myself, himself
, , ,
.
I myself cook meals and go shopping. .
He is honesty itself. .

.
.
.
He writes himself letters. .
He writes letters himself. .

, , .
. It goes without saying. ( .)
. I am my own master. ( .)

- - , . : sit down; rise, get up; wash; shave;


, fight; begin; end . . -

159

, ,
, , .
.
? , , , , ,
, , , . , ,
, .
,
. some, any, no, every.
, body, thing, one,
where, .
body

one
,

thing

where
,

some
,

somebody
-,

someone
, -

something
-,

somewhere
-, -

any
-,
-

anybody
-,
-

anyone
-,
-

anything
-,
-

anywhere
-,
-

no

nobody

no one

nothing
,

nowhere
,

every

everybody

everyone

everything

everywhere
,

Some . , : 1) 2) .

160

Ive got some relatives in Frisco.


.
Could I have some more cake, please? ( ) , ?
Will you give me some orange juice, please? , ( ) .
Have you got some1 time to explain the data we obtained?
(- / -) ( , , ), , ? ( some
.)
Have you got any time to have a word with me?
(- / -) ( , ), ? ( any , ,
.)
Somebody phoned and said Jessica would be working till late at night. -
, .
I have something to think over. - .
He lives somewhere in the South. - .

Any -
. , any.
: no = not + any. ,
any. .
Nothing can make us do it. Anything cant make us do it. : Not anything can make us do it.
.
Nobody will win any money in that gambling house. Anybody wont win any
money in that gambling house. .
Do you have any kids? (- ) ?
Has he found anything suitable? () - ?

, some .
, some , : , ,
. .


Would you like to go anywhere cold? -,
?
Has anybody called up? - ? (
, . ?)
Has someone called up? - ? ( , .)
Does anyone want an ice-cream? - ? (
, .)
Does someone want an ice-cream? - ? (
, - .)

No, , . :
. , ,
, any.
Nobody has answered my letter yet. .
I can see nothing under the table. .
No one finds fault with me at work. .
That person has helped nobody in his life.
.
This year we are going nowhere for a holiday. .
No one has ever seen anything strange anywhere in this city.
. (Ever
never any.)

, every , , .
Everybody is doing well in this class. .
Not everybody understands Spanish. -.
When you have a car, you can go everywhere. ,
.
Have you learnt everything for geometry? ?

161

162


, . one,
. is, has, V-(e)s ?
one ,
(, , . .).
, , -, - . . .
One should clean ones (his / her their) teeth twice a day, in the morning and before going to sleep. ,
.
When one comes home, one (he / she they) feel(s) like relaxing. , .
One can see many cars, trucks, buses and vans on (in Br.) the main street.
( ) , ,
.

, it. .
one
he / she, they his / her their. , one
ones . he, his, she, her , ( ) they,
their. . , - -s, , .
. . , !

16
. . .
. . .
. .
--.
. . .


: . ,

: . . .
( ,

, , , .)
. , , . ,
, .
, ,
, . , : . . .

it. , , , , ,
. it . . ?
.

164

It is cold / warm / cool / hot / chilly / frosty / windy / snowy / / / / / /


It is 6 oclock / midnight / noon / morning / evening / night 6 / / / / /
It is raining / snowing. / .
It is clearing off / getting dark. / .
It takes us 20 minutes to get to college. 20
/ , .

, : .
6 . . , , . it, ,
, .
( ,
it , ).
it , , , . , : ,
, . . it
to be .
It is important to realize the significance of the fact. .
It was impossible to find the right person for the post of general manager.
. ( , , .)
It seems quite natural to meet people like that in such a pub. .
It is desirable to be able to work with such applications as Word, Quark Express and Photoshop if you want to cooperate with a publishing house. , Word, Quark Express
Photoshop, . (
.)

for, , , , . ., ,
, .


, , .
Is it good for children to get up so early? ? ( , , .)
It is too difficult for you to solve problems for the third year.
.

it .
: , , . .
It is said that politicians sometimes have conscience. , . ( , .)
It is reported programmers have developed new protective applications that
prevent computers from receiving viruses through the net. ,
, . ( ,
, ,
.)
It has been discovered that some insects have a high IQ. ,
. ( , - . ,
.)

, .

165

17
?
?
.

.
, .
.
, .
, (
) ,
.. , : am, is, are, was, were, have, has, had, will, shall,
would, should, .
do, does did , ,
(
-s -ed).
Who has come? ? ( ? .)
Who came to see you last night? ?
Who comes to the office on time? ?
Who will sign the agreement? ?
Whose car is parked there? ?
What made you think so? ?
How many students (have) passed the exam? ?

-, , . . , ,
, , . . , .
who ?
what ? ? ( )


which ? ( ) ?
whose ? ? ? ?
where ? ?
when ?
what kind of ? , , ? ( )
what sort of = what kind of
what like ? ? (: ? ?)
why ? ? ?
how ? ?
how many ? ( )
how much ? ( )
how well ?
how often ?
how long ? ? ( )
since when ? ?
where from ?
what time1 ? ?
what colour ?

? , .
. :
, , ,
what kind / sort of. ,
what.
: , , what like.
What kind / sort of book are you reading? ? (
, , . .)
What book are you reading? ? ()
Which book are you reading? ? ( )
What is the book like? ? ?
? ( , : ,
, )
1

At what time? , .

167

168


, ,
. - . :
()! ( ), , .
,
.
Where are you from? Where do you come from? ()?
Who did I see you in the park with? ?
What is the house made of? ?
What are you driving at? ?
Who are these flowers for? ?
Who was the film directed by? ?
What are they talking about? ?

. , , .
Yesterday I danced a lot at the disco. .
Who with? ?
Why arent you eating? ?
What with? ?
Why not talk about that problem? ?
Who to / with? ?
The Browns are coming. .
Where from? ?

, . , ,
.
,
.


or, .
Are you writing with a ball pen or with a felt-tip pen?
?
Do they go to church on Saturday or on Sunday? ?
Is he a surgeon or a physician? ?

.
(Im writing) with a ball-pen. ( ) .
(They go there) on Sunday. ( ) .
(He is) a surgeon. () .

.
, . . ,
, . , 1 , ,
, , , . ,
, : "No pasaran!" ,
, .
.
.
, - , ,
. ?
. , -, ,
1

. , - (
- , ), ( ), (
). . (. .)

169

170


, , .
,
.
He asks me: "What do you do?" : ?

.
He asks me what I do. , .
I would like to know where your parents live. ,
.
They wonder where we come from. , .
I have to find out what time the train is due (at). ,
.
She cant tell us when her brother will come. ,
.
Do you know how much a single room at this hotel is? ,
? ( : .)

, ,
, , ,
. ,
, , if whether,
.
, . . Do as
Romans do - , .
I dont know if you have understood me right. ,
.
She asked me whether I went to college. ,
. ( .)
Stop asking if we are going to the seaside this summer. , .


I wonder whether all the Scots wear kilts. , .

. , , ,
.
He didnt know what to do in that case. , .
We asked her how to get there. , .

, Present Simple.
when if, .
when if ,
. :
Ill call you when I come to the camp. , .
Let me know when you will go to the camp. , .
If I fail the exam, Ill drop out. , .
I wonder if you will take the exam. , .

? , . - - , , !
. , !

171

18

,
,
, , - . -.
. , . .
. -, tag question, .. . , , . ,
, . , ?
- ( - , -), , .
, . .
, , ,
, .
My mother is a very good cook, isnt she? ,
?
All our friends speak good English, dont they?
-, ?
You will have to translate the instructions as soon as possible, wont you?
, ?

, , ,
am? . , arent. , .


Im right, arent I? , ? ( , !)
I am taking a reasonable decision, arent I? , ? ( .)

,
. . , , , , ,
.
We cant skate well, can we? , ?
It didnt rain yesterday, did it? , ?
You havent learnt the poem, have you? ?

.
, .
.

.
lets + V, , . shall we.
Lets take a taxi, shall we? , ?
Lets make coffee, shall we? , ? (, ,
.)
Lets go to the caf, OK? , ? (?)

, ,
, ?

173

19 ,
!

, , .
, ,
,
.
, . ? ,
,
. . . - ,
,
. , ,
, , , , , , ,
, .
. , , , .
, ,
, . .
, , , .

, !
, , , , , ,
, , , , .
(, .)
, - , ,
. , .
, .
, , .

, . : , ; , ; , . . ?
. . , , ,
.
, -
, , .
, , Subjunctive Mood (
) , . , ,
. .
, be : I be, you be, he be, we be, they be;
, be : I were, you were, he were,
we were, they were.
, to.
, to have have
( ), had ( ).
1.
,
.
1

, !

175

176

, !
be ( ) :
1) it is
necessary () / important () that () ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) , , , ,
. ., , ,
;
5) , ,
.
It is important all the tools be delivered on time. , . ( .)
The prisoner escaped from jail lest he be tortured and executed.
, . ( .)
Nobody wants to have a rendezvous with an executioner, be he ever so good an
executioner. ,
( ) .
It was suggested that the execution be cancelled. ,
. (,
.)
If the punishment be cancelled, the citizens will be given a festive dinner.
, . (
.)
were ( ) , :
1) ;
2) as if.
If "ifs" and "ands" were pots and pans.
.
He talks as if he were King. , . (
.)

, !
, , ,
. ,
,
,
.
I wish it were spring now. , . (: ,
.)
They wish we were beside them. , .
(: , .)

: , . , ,
, . , , , wish. ,
. :
I wish I were cool and rich. , . :
, . ( ,
. .)
I wish I werent so cool and rich. ,
. : , . ( ,
, .)
I wish I were Akunin or at least Fandorin. ,
. : ,
. ( .)
I wish I werent Russian / Ukrainian / Belorussian etc. , / / . . ( . . . , - ,
.)

, , ,
, , were.

would, .

177

178

, !
, . ,
. :
I wish you would switch off that music of yours. ,
. ( .)
I wish you would obey the elders. , .
I wish you would go out of here right away. ,
.

, . , , .
I wish the workers wouldnt make so much noise. Its impossible to have a
rest. ! .
I wish that cursed dog would stop barking! I am sick and tired of that terrible
noise. !
.
We wish our parents would come to the party. ,
. :
.

if
.
If I were you, I would go to the police.
.
If it were not for his luck, he would never have found such a good job.
, .

were was.
: it is important () / vital ( ) / essential (,
) / necessary () / desirable () that .

, !
It is important that there were a good chance for everybody. ,
.
It is essential that an ordinary citizen have every opportunity to earn his living. ,
.
It is desirable that you revise all the grammar we have learnt. ,
, .

ask (), demand (), command (, ), insist (), recommend (, ), request


(, ), propose (), suggest (). .

should. .
The chief suggests that my colleague (should Br.) go on a business trip next
week. ,
.
The speaker insists that the meeting (should Br.) be finished, and the rest of
the problems (should Br.) be discussed next time. () , , .

,
. .
God be with you! God bless you! ( ) ! () !
Long live the Queen and Her relations! !

, were ( were)
if,
.
be, . : / / /

179

180

, !
Were he to tell everything to the police, they could arrest the suspected person. , .
Were he my son, I would flog him! , !

, .
, , . !
Its a sort of American black coffee, as it were. , ,
. ( ,
.)

, . , ()
. : ,
"I want you to help me".
. , .
. ! God bless you!

20
.
, .
.

182

on () , . ?
, onto,
- , ; on.
,
, . Out of () , off ()
, from (, ) . , out of,
, . from, , .
Under () -
, below () , ..
- . Below above ().
There exist various forms of life under the sea. .
It is below zero today. () .

Behind (, ) - ,
, , for , . In front of () -.
Inside ()
- in (
). outside () beyond ().
We can see some guerillas inside the camp, and some outside it.
.
It is beyond my power to set them free. / (
/ ) .

at (), near (, ), next to ( ). at


near . , , , . .

183
Whos sitting next to you? ( )?
Whos sitting near you? ( , )?

, ,
, , . to.
! . , to into.
, . to toward(s), , ,
, .
We went to school. .
We went into the school. ( ).
He is kind to old people. = He is kind toward old people. (toward Am., towards Br.) / .

between. .
among (). ,
. Between , among .
The main difference between the two peoples is that Croats are Catholics and
use Latin fonts, and Serbs are orthodox Christians and use Cyrillic fonts.
, , .
There are many talented singers among Italians.
.

, . ,
.
. , .

21
.


, ,

,
. . . ,
, .
, . ,
.
!
, .
.

, . ,
, .
? ,
, , ,
. , .
- . .
, . -


.
- . , . ,
, .
, . ,
. : at the weekend, on the weekend.
.
agree with smb, about smth, on smth, to smth -., -., -.
apologize for N / V-ing -.
arrive at / in - , , ,
, - / , (in )
ask smth (questions, the way, the time) -. ( , , ); ask for smth (a sheet of paper, the book)
- ( , )
believe smb; believe in smb / smth -.; -. / -.
borrow smth from smb -. -.
bump into smb / smth -. / -., -. /
-.
call smb after smb -. -.
care about smth -.; care for smth / smb , -. / -.; take care of smb -. / -.
congratulate smb on smth -. -.
crash into smb / smth -. / -., -. /
-.
depend on smb / smth -. / -.
die of smth -.
divide smth into smth -. -.
dream about smth -.
dream of smth -.
dress in (black) () ()
drive into smth -.
effect on smth , -.
explain smth to smb -. -.
get into smth (a car) , -.; -. ()

185

186


get out of smth (the car) , -., -.
()
get on smth (the bus, the train) -. / -. (, ,
)
get off smth (the train, the bus) -. (, ,
)
insist on N / V-ing -. / -
lack smth, be lacking in smth , -. ( , )
laugh at smb / smth -. / -.
listen to smb / smth -. / -.
look after smb / -.; look at smb / smth
-. / -.; look for smb / smth -. / -.
participate in smth -.
pay for smth -.
prevent smb / smth from V-ing -. -., -.
remind smb of smb / smth -. -. / -. ( -. / -.)
run into smb / smth -. / -.,
-. / -.
search for smb / smth -. / -.
shiver with smth -.
shoot at smb / smth -. / -.
shout at smb -.; shout to smb -. /
-.
smile at smb -.
speak to (with ) smb
-.
succeed in (at) smth -.
suffer from smth -.
take part in smth -.
talk to (with ) smb -.
think about smb / smth () -. / -.; think of
smb / smth -. / -. ( - -. /
-.); think of smth / V-ing -.,
-.
throw smth at smb -. -. (, ), -. -.; throw smth to smb -. -.
tremble with smth -.
wait for smb -.
write to smb -.


.
absent from smth -. (-)
accustomed to smth -.
afraid of smb / smth -. / -.
angry with smb -.
annoyed with smb -.; annoyed about smth -. -
anxious about smth / -.
anxious for smth, anxious to V -., -.
ashamed of smb -.
astonished by smth / smb -. / -.
attentive to smb / smth -. / -.
averse to smth , -.
aware of smth / V-ing -., .-.
bad at () -., -.
blue with smth / -.
bound for smth -.
busy with smth -.
capable of smth -.
careful of smb / smth -. / -.
careful with smth -.
clever at smth -., -
certain of smth -.
close to smth -.
concerned about smth -.
concerned in smth -.
confident of smth -.
conscious of smth -.
content(ed) of smth -.
contrary to smth -.
convenient for smb / smth -. / -.
crazy about smth -.
critical to smth -.
cross with smb -.
cruel to smb / smth -. / -.
curious about smth -.
dear to smb -.
delighted with smth, delighted at V-ing -.
dependent on smb / smth -. / -.
different from smth / -.
disappointed with smb, with (at, about) smth -. / -.

187

188


disgusted with smb, with (at) smth
-. / -.
doubtful about smth -.
due to smth -. ( / - -.)
eager for smth -., -.
envious of smb -.
equal to smth -.
essential to smth / smb -. / -.
excited about smth -.
experienced in smth -.
faithful to smb -.
familiar with smth -.
familiar to -.
famous for smth -.
fit for smth , -.
fond of smth -., -.
full of smth -., -.
furious with smb, about smth ,
-., -.
generous to smb -.
gentle with smb -.
good at smth -
grateful to smb for smth -. -.
guilty of smth / V-ing -. / -.
happy about smth -.
harmful to / for smth -.
honest about smth -.
ignorant of smth -., -.
ill with smth -.
important for smth -.
impressed with (by) smth -. / -.
independent of smb / smth -. / -.
interested in smth / -.
jealous of smb -.
keen on smth -.
kind to smb -.
late for smth -.
loyal to smb , -.
married to smb -., -.
necessary for smb / smth -. / -.
nice to smb -.
obedient to smb -.
patient with smb -.


pleased with smb -., pleased with (about, at) smth -.
polite to smb -.
prepared for smth -.
proud of smb/smth -./-.
quick at V-ing -.
red with smth / -.
responsible for smth -.
rude to smb -.
sad about smth , -.
satisfied with smth -.
sensible about smth -.
sensitive to smth -.
serious about smth -.
severe on smb -.
shocked at smth -.
sick of smth -., -.
silly about smth -.
similar to smth -.
sincere about smth -.
skilled / skilful at smth -.
sorry for smb / -.
sorry about smth -.
successful in (at) smth , -.
sufficient for smth -.
suitable for smb / smth -. / -.
superior to smb -. / -.
sure of, about smth -. ( ), -. ( )
surprised at (by) smth / smb -. / -.
suspicious of smb -., suspicious about smth -.
thankful to smb -.
thrilled about smth -.
tired of smth -.
typical of smth -.
used to smth -.
useful for smth -.
white with smth / -.
worried about smth -., -.
worth V-ing -.
worthy of smth , -.
wrong with smth -.

189

190
, .

ability at smth -., -.


difficulty with smth, in V-ing / -.
discussion about smth -.
example of smth -.
explanation of (for) smth -.
the idea of smth / V-ing / -.
independence of (from) smth -.
influence on smb / smth -. / -.
interest in smth -. -.
lack of smth , -.
marriage to smb -., -.
the matter with smth -.
proof of smth -.
reason for smth -.
responsibility for smth -.
success in (at) smth -.
the thought of smth / V-ing -. / -

, , .
. .
. , . . ,
. ,
.
, .

22

.
!
, .

,
. .
.
. ,
. .

192


,
,
(!) , , -, . ?
. ,
, . , .
, , .
, , , . .

dis-, mis-, un-:
to disagree
to dislike
to disarm
to misuse
to mistake / ,
to misunderstand
to unbutton ()
to undo ,
to untie

re-:
to redo ,
to remake
to reread

(-)
(-) under- over-:
to underestimate
to underdo
to undercharge
to overwork ,
to overestimate
to overdo ,


, , .
- under-, - over-. to underoverdrink.
, ?
in-, im- ( m, p), ir- ( r), il- ( l), un- (
):
incorrect
independent
intransitive
insane ,
imperfect
impolite
immovable
immortal
irregular ( )
irrational
irrelevant
illegal ,
illogical
illiterate
unjust
untidy
unreal

,
-, - / -.
.
.
. . . , . ?
- .
? -er / -or,
-ress, -ment, -sion, -tion, -ance.

193

194

V1 + -er / -or = , , :
driver (to drive )
operator (to operate , , )
actor , (to act )
swimmer (to swim )


-ress: actress , .
V + -ment = , : -, -, -,
-. :
government (to govern , )
development (to develop ()
establishment (to establish )
agreement (to agree )

V + -sion / -tion = .
-, -, -, -. , :
to decide decision ( )
to impress impression ( )
to revolve revolution ((), , )
to inform information (, , )
to explain explanation ( )
to provide provision (, , ,
)

V + -ance / -ence = , .
, ,
.
1

, V (verb ).


admittance , (to admit , )
acceptance (to accept )
deliverance , (to deliver , )
correspondence (to correspond )
dependence (to depend )

.
-able / -ible.
, .
V + -able / -ible = + ,
-:
drinkable / (to drink )
edible / eatable (to eat , )
readable / (to read )
suitable (to suit )

,
-ing. ? , :
interesting (to interest )
exciting , (to excite ,
)
building (to build )
catching , , (to catch , )
leading , (to lead , )

. : . :
-ty, -th, -ness, -cy.
A1 + -cy / -ty / -ness = , ,
- / -:
1

adjective .

195

196


delicate delicacy (, , ,
, )
private privacy (, , )
certain certainty ( )
stable stability (, , )
rude rudeness ( )
polite politeness ( )
calm calmness ( )

A + -th = , . ,
-, -:
strong strength ( )
wide width ( , )
warm warmth ( , )
broad breadth ( )
long length ( )
deep depth ( )

.
, .
? ,
: -ic(al), -ly, -ous, -y, -ant / -ent, -al, -less.
. + + . - , , :
democracy democratic ( )
economy economic(al) (, , )
history historic(al) ( )
friend friendly ( , )
fame famous (, , , )
mystery mysterious ( )
taste tasty ( )


salt salty ( )
independence independent ( )
nation national (, )
fate fatal (, , )
home homeless ( + + = )
rest restless (, + + = , )

( )
-en -ise (Br.) / -ize (Am.):
wide to widen ( )
white to whiten ( )
strength to strengthen ( , )
real to realize ( , )
modern to modernize ( , )
public to publicize (, , , , , )
sympathy sympathize (, , )
organ to organize (, )
harmony to harmonize ( )

,
, . . . . .
,
. to .
water to water ( )
crack to crack (, , )
stand to stand ( )
work to work ( )
rise to rise (, , )
dress to dress (, )
iron to iron ( , )

197

198


, , / :
rcord to recrd ( )
xport to exprt ( )
prduce to prodce ( )
prgress to progrss (, ,
)
advice [dvas] to advise [dvaz] ( )
excuse [kskju:s] to excuse [kskju:z] (, )

, , ,
, : -dom, -hood, -ship. ,
,
:
kingdom (king )
earldom (earl )
brotherhood (brother )
childhood (child , )
friendship (friend )
citizenship (citizen )
leadership (leader , )

, , . ,
, . , ,
,
, ? , ;
, ; ,
.
weightlessness? Weight
. Weightless + + = , , ,
. + -ness = -.


, + - = . overestimation. To estimate . : to overestimate .
, -
. .
- , , , ,
, . , . , , ,
.

199

23

. : !
-ed. ,
, ,
, , .
,

, ,
- . . . .
- . , .
. , . ,
, . bet (,
), cost (), cut (), hit (), hurt ( , ), let (, ), put (), quit (, ),
set (, ), shut (), split (, ).
? . , .
. , , ,
. ,
, , . ,

201

,
.
.
, , .

. : send sent sent.
. . .
, , ,
Past Simple ( ) Participle II
. ? ! . , , ,
.
be

was / were

been

beat

beat

beaten

become

became

become

begin

began

begun

()

bend

bent

bent

()

bet

bet

bet

bite

bit

bitten

blow

blew [blu:]

blown

break

broke

broken

()

bring

brought [br:t]

brought

, ,

build

built

built

burn

burnt

burnt

burst

burst

burst

()

buy

bought [b:t]

bought

catch

caught [k:t]

caught

choose

chose

chosen

come

came

come

cost

cost

cost

202
cut

cut

cut

deal

dealt [delt]

dealt

,
-.

dig

dug

dug

do

did

done [dn]

draw

drew [dru:]

drawn [dr:n]

dream

dreamt [dremt]

dreamt

drink

drank

drunk

drive

drove

driven

eat

ate [et], [et]

eaten

fall

fell

fallen

feed

fed

fed

feel

felt

felt

fight

fought [f:t]

fought

find

found

found

fly

flew [flu:]

flown

forbid

forbade

forbidden

forget

forgot

forgotten

forgive

forgave

forgiven

freeze

froze

frozen

get

got

got / gotten Am.

, ,
,

give

gave

given

go

went

gone

grow

grew [gru:]

grown

()

hang

hung

hung

have

had

had

hear

heard [h:d]

heard

hide

hid

hidden

()

hit

hit

hit

hold

held

held

hurt

hurt

hurt


keep

kept

kept

know

knew [nju:]

known

lay

laid [led]

laid

lead

led

led

lean

leant [lent]

leant

()

learn

learnt [l:nt]

learnt

leave

left

left

lend

lent

lent

let

let

let

lie

lay

lain

light

lit

lit

lose

lost

lost

make

made

made

mean

meant [ment]

meant

meet

met

met

pay

paid

paid

put [put]

put

put

quit

quit

quit

read [ri:d]

read [red]

read [red]

ride

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen

run

ran

run

say

said [sed]

said

see

saw [s:]

seen

seek

sought [s:t]

sought

sell

sold

sold

203

, .
. lay layed,
.
2
.

204
send

sent

sent

set

set

set

sew [s]

sewed

sewn / sewed

shake

shook

shaken

()

shine

shone

shone

shoot

shot

shot

show

showed

shown

shrink

shrank

shrunk

, ()

shut

shut

shut

sing

sang

sung

sink

sank

sunk

sit

sat

sat

sleep

slept

slept

smell

smelt

smelt

speak

spoke

spoken

spell

spelt

spelt

spend

spent

spent

spill

spilt

spilt

split

split

split

spoil

spoilt

spoilt

spread

spread [spred]

spread

()

spring

sprang

sprung

stand

stood

stood

steal

stole

stolen

stick

stuck

stuck

, ,

sting

stung

stung

stink

stank

stunk

strike

struck

struck

swear

swore

sworn

sweep

swept

swept

swim

swam

swum

205

swing

swung

swung

()

take

took

taken

teach

taught [t:t]

taught

tear

tore

torn

tell

told [tld]

told

think

thought [:t]

thought

throw

threw [ru:]

thrown

understand

understood

understood

wake

woke

woken

wear

wore

worn

win

won [wn]

won

: bet betted,
burn burned, dream dreamed, lean leaned, learn learned, quit quitted, smell smelled, spell spelled, spoil spoiled. , . , .
- . , ,

. . .

24


Tutti frutti, tutti quanti.

,
,
,
- . ,
, , ,
, .

Future
.
. -


,
. . ,
.
be going to V

, ; , . ( will V.)

be V-ing

; , .

V / V-(e)s

, , . after,
when, while, if, before, until, as soon as, unless, in case etc.,
.

will V

,
, -.
, : ,
*, , , , .

will be V-ing

,
, , - . ,
, , , , ,
.

will have been


V-ing

,
, .

will have V3

, -
.

* , , , : think, believe, guess, suppose, presume, be sure / certain . .; , : maybe, perhaps, probably .

, . ,
, . . , . ,
, , (will V) be
going to V.

207

208

? . Will
. , ? Will
.
.
The glass is going to fall. . ( , ,
. ,
.)
The glass will fall. . ( . . ,
. .)
The Dinamo are going to win the match. . (, , 5:0 . .)
The Dinamo will win the match. . (,
, 5:0 .
. , .)

, .
I am sure it will rain / is going to rain. , .

, , ( ),

, .
,
!.

.
, ,
, , ,
. :


The seventh of November 2010 2010 .
November the seventh 2010 , . (
: November seven / seventh 2010.)

, , ,
, on.
?
On the first of January we got a strange headache.
. ( .
.)

: 07.11.2010 (Br.), 11.07.2010 (Am.),


7 Nov 2010, Nov 7th 2010, Nov 7 2010, 7 Nov 2010 etc.
, 2000 . , . 0 [].
, , hundred. , .
th

1998 nineteen ninety-eight ( )


1909 nineteen [] nine ( )
1900 nineteen hundred ( )
1600 sixteen hundred ( )
2000 two thousand ( )
2005 two thousand (and) five ( () )


,
( ? ?) ( ? ?). , : to give (,
), to send (, ), to write (), to read (),
to present (, ), to introduce () . .
, ,

209

210


.
, , to: 1) V smb smth, 2) V smth to smb.
, .
.
Give me it.
Give it to me. / / .
Send the editor them.
Send them to the editor. .

, . , , , . , .
I asked him to send me a letter, not a telegram.
, .
I asked him to send a letter to me, not to her. , .

.
. , , ,
to: to explain , to describe , to dictate
. .
.
The boss dictated the message to the clerk.
.
A good teacher explains a lot of things to pupils, and sometimes they have to
do it again and again until everything is clear.
, ,
. ( , ,
.)

Across, over, through, in


Across , (, , . .); .
Over , , , , , , , .
Through , .
- , , .
In , :
, .
The boy swam across the river, had a little rest and swam back. () , . (
. ?)
We went across the street and turned left at the corner. ()
. ( !)
The dog jumped over the fence and ran to the river. . (, ,
.)
It was hard for the tourists to make their way through the thick forest. . (
, .)
They are coming back in 3 days. . (
, , .)

Also, too, either, as well ,


Also , . . , also
. . , ,
, .

211

212

Too . , , . .
As well , , , . .
Either . .
.
I speak English and French. I also speak Italian. -
-. -. ( ,
-, .)
Also, they helped many other poor people. ( ) .
I have a son. .
Me, too. . ( 1.)
Did you go to the seaside, too? ?
I dont like milk, either. .
They visited the suburbs and the centre as well. ,
.

Accept, admit, agree, consent


Accept (, ).
Admit , , ( ).
Agree ( - / -, -), , .
Consent (- ).
Have you accepted the pop stars invitation? ? ( ?)
I admit that you have expressed a very interesting idea. ,
.
1

? , , .


The company agreed on the conditions of their suppliers. .
Do you agree with me, or do you have any cons? ,
- ?
The friends agreed to meet in front of the palace.
. ( .)
At last, our aunt consented to move into a new apartment.
.

Allow, permit, let ,


Allow permit , let
.
Allow permit to, let
to.
Allow permit , let .
it permit.
Let , , .
let allow.
I let you use my car, and you broke it.
, . ( 32 .)
The children were allowed to play in the yard till 9 pm.
9 . ( , .)
The journalists werent permitted to be present at the ceremony. .
Let me see. . ( .)
Let me know when he comes. () , . (
, , .)
Lets go to see the Johnsons. .
Let him go. .
It isnt permitted to smoke here. .

213

214


People arent allowed / permitted to drink alcohol here. . ( ?)

, , .
Drinking alcohol isnt allowed / permitted here. . (.)
I am not allowed out until I have done homework. , .
We let / allowed them in. . (
. , , .)

Almost, nearly
Almost nearly . nearly , , almost , . .
almost.
( ) almost hardly.
He is nearly / almost 60. 60 .
She almost / nearly fell off the horse. . (
.)
I am almost / nearly as wise as that genius is. ,
. ( .)
The dog is almost reasonable. .
The government acts almost humanely. . ( - ...)
Almost never, almost nobody, almost no food, almost no fun. ,
, , .
Hardly ever, hardly anybody, hardly any food, hardly any fun. ,
, , . (
. , .)

Already, now, yet


Already , .
.
Now , . , 70 already, , 70 , . ( , ,
).
Yet , (
).
The designer has already finished his work, and it looks perfect. , . (
.)
We have invited everybody to the picnic already.
.
He is 70 now. () 70 .
They are working at the project now. () . ( ,
already.)
Has the nanny fed the kids yet? ? (, ?)
Have you run out of ink yet? ?

Always
, , .
. , ,
, . ? , - ,
. .

215

216


Always . , , , .

, .
She always comes to the office in time. .
I have always lived in my hometown. .
They always go on holiday. . ( .)
They are always going on holiday. . ( . , ,
.)
He always has a shower. . (
.)
He is always having a shower. . ( , .)
She always does the shopping. . (
, , .)
She is always doing the shopping. .
( . , .)

Among, between ,
, .
You must be honest among friends. .
He cannot decide between them. .
The scouts hid among the trees. .
( , .)
What is the distance between the cities? ?

Another, else, more, other,


stil, yet
Another .
Else .
More . , .
.
Other what (), how
many (). , .
Still . , , .
Yet .
.
Please give me another cup of tea. , .
( .)
What else do you want to know? ?
No doubt, Ive got something else. , - .
The woman offered the poor children three more apples. .
What other cities of France have you been to this year? ?
How many other languages do you know?
?
Dont bother him, hes still working. , () .
When we returned home, our grandmother was still cooking in the kitchen.
, () .
I havent washed my hair yet. .
The Ukrainians havent taken a final decision yet.
. ( ,
, .)

217

218

Arise, rise, get up


Arise ( , ,
), rise , , get
up ( , . .
).
Whats up? Has a problem arisen? ? - ?
In case any disagreement arises between the partners, it should be settled by
means of negotiations. -
.
Prices keep rising. .
The mountain climbers went on rising even after the sun had set.
. ( ,
, .)
What time do you usually get up on weekdays? ?

Around, round, about


Around round .
Around ( ) about ( )
, . Around , , - . ,
, ,
around. ,
around about.
The Earth turns (a) round the sun. .
Its quite near. Just round the corner. . .


The whole family was sitting around the table. / .
Could you show our visitor round the factory, please? ?
Can I help you? No, thanks. Im just looking (a) round.
(-) ? , . .
Why are you running about? Are you nervous? ?
?
Is Mary anywhere round (here)? - ?
That guy was hanging about / around near our house for an hour. / . ( , .)
He must be around / about 40 now. / .

Arrive, come ,
/
Arrive :
. at in. ,
, at, ,
in. . ,
arrive . ,
-.
Come - , . to, into
from. .
The famous actors arrived in Paris late at night. . ( .)
The famous actors came to Paris to give a series of concerts on the occasion of
the national French holiday. ,
.

219

220

The carriage arrived at Vanyukino at 3 am.


3 . ( .)
The Special Forces arrived in Iraq last Monday.
. ( .)
My friends came into my room, and we started celebrating the beginning of our
vacation. ,
. ( ,
.)
When did you come from college? ?

As, like
As -, -.
Like , , .
like as .
Like this that .
as: as you see , as
you like , as you know .
I have been working as a waiter for nearly 10 years.
.
He is very like / looks very much like his father.
.
We arent like our parents. .
You speak English like an Englishman. - . ( - .)
He behaves like a child. . (, .)
She plays the piano as / like I do. , . (
, .)
I cant wear a suit like this / that. .
Do it as you like. , .
As you see, I am right. , .

As, because, for, since


As since , because , for , ,
.
As since , .
Because 1, .
, for ,
, .
As you know, all politicians are ambitious and always want something for their
titanic labor in favor of unreasonable people they fight for. ,
- , .
Since the oceans are full of natural resources, there are numerous projects concerning their exploitation. , .
He failed the exam because he hadnt studied properly for it.
, .
Because its very hot, well switch on the air-conditioning unit.
, .
You mustnt rely on Gertrude, for I know her too well. , .

As if, as though ,
. , (Past Simple), , (Past Perfect).
1

,
because ,
.

221

222


As if as though , , , , as though
, . :
, . , , , .
: , . as if, as
though. I.
He speaks as though he were an Englishman. . ( .)
He made so many mistakes as if he had never attended school.
, .
She is screaming as if she had seen a ghost. ,
. ( , .)
We argue as if we didnt know that he who has more rights is right. , , , .
You look as though you had won a million (of) bucks. ,
. ( , .)

As as
. .
not so as ( .., ). (
.) as as possible.
I am as strong as a tiger. , .
You should come as soon as possible. . (: , .)
Run as fast as possible. . (: ,
.)
Take as much as possible. . (: ,
.)


He isnt so clever as me (I am). , .
Yesterday it wasnt so cold as it is today. ,
.

At all, quite
At all , quite . , quite
. At all . . , at all ( ), if hardly.
It is quite clear. .
The other day I saw quite an interesting film.
.
I dont quite understand you. . (.)
I dont understand you at all. . ( .)
He wasnt at all disappointed. .
Did he understand at all what we had been discussing? /
, ?
Can you ski at all? - / ?
( - .)
We wont go to any party, if we celebrate the New Years Eve at all.
, .
I hardly speak Italian at all. -. (
-.)

At the end, in the end


At the end (-).
In the end , , .

223

224


At the end of the match everybody was happy.
. ( .)
At the end of the street you can see a museum.
.
Well win the game in the end. , .
All revolutions come to an end in the end.
.

Bank, beach, coast, shore


Bank .
Beach , .
Coast .
Shore , .
On the right bank there is a forest, and on the left bank there is a village.
, .
There were a lot of holiday-makers lying on the beach in August.
. (, , ,
.)
The coast of the Pacific Ocean is full of harbors and bays.
.
All the passengers of the ship reached the shore safely, and it was the captain
that made it possible.
, .

Because, because of
Because . .
Because of - . .


I cant go to the movies because I have got a lot of work now. , .
Because of the rain, we were unable to go for a walk. -
.

Become, fall, get, go, grow, turn


,
Become , , , :
to become an actor .
Fall , . : to fall ill ; to fall
asleep .
Get , : to get dark ; to get well ; to get angry ; to get used .
Go ,
: to go mad , ; to go crazy ; to go
bankrupt ; to go dead ; to go sick ; to go
pale .
Grow : to grow grey ; to grow old ; to grow rich .
Turn : to turn blue , to turn
green , to turn black .
He became a good engineer. .
On getting to bed, he at once fell asleep. , .
The parrot fell ill and died. .
It is getting dark. .
It is going to get cold at the weekend. .
He went bankrupt, crazy and dead. , .
( .)

225

226

Look at yourself, you are growing grey and old day by day.
, .
Turn pale, white, pink, red , , / ( ), / ( , ).

Beside, besides
Beside , , , , .
Besides , ,
.
I would like to have a loyal friend beside me. ,
.
Besides poetry, he is fond of detective stories and science fiction. , .
I dont feel like going out as I am exhausted. Besides, I am waiting for a very
important call. , .
, .

Big, large, great


Big large : , . Big , large . Big .
Great , , ,
.
Big great .
Great , , .
You are big now, you can decide yourself. . ( .)


This coat is too large for me. Please give me another one.
. , .
That is a big problem weve got to solve right now. ,
.
Dont you know that great composer?
?
You should take great care of the wounded.
. ( .)
What was the film like? Great! ? !

Borrow, lend
Borrow , .
Lend , .
I would like to borrow that magazine of yours for a couple of days. .
Could you lend me five dollars until Sunday?
?

Both and
. , , , .
Both the old and the young took part in the celebrations. ,
.
He knows both mathematics and physics very well.
, .
My daughter both reads and speaks Japanese. ,
-. ( , .)

227

228

Bring, fetch, take


Bring , , . - ,
.
Take , , , , , , .
- , .
Fetch -, - -
. .
Please bring me a bottle of beer. , .
The mother took the boy to the movies. .
We often take our friends to the caf.
. ( .)
Come on, fetch a couple of steaks. , .

Cant help
cant help V-ing ( ), cant help but V
( ), cannot but V ( ).
I cant help telling you the news. .
The spectators couldnt help but burst laughing. . ( !)
The board of directors cannot but agree to the offer.
.

Care about, care for, take care of


Care about , , ,
- -.


.
, , .
Care for ; , ( ).
Take care of ( ) , 1, ( -.).
I dont care about your opinion.
.
We dont care whether you are in pain. , .
(- .)
Do you care for chocolate? ?
A man has to care for his wife and family.
.
Please take care of my pets while I am away on holiday. , / ,
. ( - .)
Did the nurses take care of your grandmother properly while she was in hospital? ,
? (-, , - .)
Mr. Douglas, you should take care of the junior students, and Ms. Winnifred
shall take care of the senior ones. ,
, .
Im off. Take care. . .

Close, closely , ;
,
Close , ; , .
Closely ; ,
.
1

, , , , .

229

230

.
: hard hardly, near nearly, late lately.
We were standing close to the cottage, but couldnt see the Indian. , . ( ,
.)
You should consider the project very closely.
.

Close, shut
Shut .
Close .
Please shut / close the door. , .
The mayor made the Tramps close their shop. . ( .)

Come, go
Come , , . , .
Go , , , , . , , .
Come here! () !
Go there! () !
My daughter goes to school at 7.30 and comes to school at 7.45.
() 7.30, () 7.45.
What time does the train come? ?
A stranger came up to the police officer and asked the way to Green Street.
,
.


There is always busy traffic at the railroad depot. Some passengers come, some
go; and it goes so continuously.
. , ,
.
Here comes our bus. ( ,
). ( .)
There goes our bus. (
). ( .)

Convince, persuade
Convince ( - , ), persuade
( - ). try to convince try to persuade.
They convinced him of the truth of the story.
.
I was convinced that the expedition had disappeared forever. , .
We persuaded her to read the article. .
The whole family was trying to convince the grandpa that he had to see the
doctor but in vain. ,
, . ( ,
.)
My friends are trying to persuade me to marry my secretary, but they do know
my opinion too well. , .

Dismiss, fire, give the sack, retire


Dismiss , , , give the sack ( ), fire (), retire / .

231

232

The bell rang, and the teacher dismissed the pupils. ,


/ .
Why did they give him the sack? ?
Did you get the sack, too? ?
All the supervisors were fired, and new ones were taken on. , . ( .)
The president retired because of a serious illness.
.
When did you father retire? ?

Die, dead, death


Die , .
Dead , .
Death , .
I am upset; my cat is dying. : . (.)
When did Arkadiy Vainer die? ? ( .)
When we arrived at the front line, the general was dead.
, . ( .)
Our chiefs death made a negative impression on everybody in our department.
.

( .)

Do, make
Do : , , ,
.
Make : , , , .
do, make. , -


: do / make km / m / miles per hour / min /
/ / / .
do:
to do ones homework / lessons
to do business with smb -., -.
to do nothing ,
to do without -.
to do housework
to do smb a favor -. ,
to do ones room -.
to do the shopping ,
to do the washing
to do the washing-up
to do the V-ing ,
to do ones best ,
to do smb good -.
to do harm
to do well , , ,
to do with , -.

make:
to make friends with smb -.
to make up ones mind (),
to make a will
to make a complaint ,
to make a decision
to make money
to make tea / coffee /
to make a fire
to make a pause ,
to make a mistake
to make progress
to make smb do smth - -
to make a noise ,
to make a film
to make ones living
to make war ,
to make love
to make sure (that) ( , )

233

234

During, for, while


During ( , ) , , , . .
For ( , ) , , . , , .
While ( , ) , .
During the lesson, the teacher asked me a lot of questions on English history.
(?) .
We lived in Hong Kong for 4 years.
( ?).
I have been working on the article for 3 hours, and I havent finished it yet.
, .
While I was working in Paris, I made friends with some good people.
, .

Each other, one another


each other ,
, one another , . , .
We told each other the latest news.
.


The boys were trying to help one another, but all their attempts were in vain,
and they were sinking in the raging waves.
, ,
. ( , .)

Either or , neither nor


Either or neither nor , , .
, , , .
In his free time, my brother either reads or watches TV.
, .
Neither Jackie nor his friends saw the masked men. ,
.
You should choose either wine or food. ,
.
I like neither American food nor American films. , . (
.)
The student didnt either answer the teachers questions or solve the problem. , .

Expect, wait for


Expect , , - , wait for
, , - - . Expect
, .
Im expecting an e-mail from my friend Fred. .
I expect youll be back in time. / , .

235

236


They waited a little, then a little more, and went away. , .
The designer had to wait for his customer for an hour.
.
We cant wait to see the hit that was directed by Spielberg. , , .

Fairly, pretty, quite, rather


Fairly (
,
), quite ( ), rather , pretty , .
very.
, fairly well , , - , . Quite well ,
, -, . rather well .
, quite rather ( )
, quite : , , . ,
,
, . : tasty delicious (
), big huge . . , , . quite huge
.
Yes, I have seen his last movie. Its fairly interesting, but I wouldnt like to see it
again. , . ,
.


My safety belt is quite reliable, and I can even recommend it to you.
,
.
It is rather cold in the street today. Put on your coat and cap. . . ( .)
Buddy, taste this beer. Youll find it pretty good. , .
.
Suddenly I got quite an interesting idea. . (, .)
I am quite exhausted. .
The great artist was very poor and quite alone.
. (
.)

Far, a long way


Far ,
a long way , .
Do you live far from the office? ?
The new hospital is situated a long way from the center.
.

Far, very, much


Far much , ,
. .
a lot. Far , much (: far too little). Very ()
. , , .

237

238


You can work much faster, I know. ,
. ( .)
Last year I had far fewer friends than I have now.
, .
Very many people believe in superstitions. .
The very first person I have met today is George Lucas. , , . ( . .)
The very idea of that scares me out of my wits.
.

Few, little; a few, a little


Few , , little , .
A few , , , .
A little , .
, , , .
? . , , .
Few people know those facts. .
We have little bread. We must go to the bakers. .
. ( , .)
I have got a few friends. Therefore, I am not alone.
. . ( , .)
You dont have to hurry. We have a little time. .
. (, ,
.)


I speak Russian well and German a little (or a little German). - -. (, ,
.)

Find out, get to know, learn, recognize

Find out ( ), get to know , , learn (), recognize


( , ).
Can you find out the conditions of the contract? ?
When you get to know him better, youll understand that he is a very good person. , , .
Ive just learnt very interesting news.
.
At first I didnt recognize the woman. .

Fit, match, suit


Suit , , .
Fit , .
Match , .
That dress suits me very well. .
The shoes fit me, but I dont like the color. , .

239

240

These colors dont match. /


.
I will take this coat and gloves to match.
.

Get married, marry ,



Get married , , , marry .
They got married late in September. .
Michael married a very nice girl. Hes always been lucky.
. .

Hard, hardly
Hard , ,
, . , .
Hardly, hard, , (), .
.
Egyptians had to work hard in order to build such giants of architecture.
,
.
You look hard, but Id like to know if it is true. ,
, .
Our country was getting through hard times then.
.
I can hardly skate. . (
.)


They hardly understood us, as their language was quite different from
ours. ,
.

Hardly, scarcely, no sooner


Hardly scarcely (), . No sooner .., . than.
, .
I had hardly / scarcely come home when my boss called me up.
, .
We had no sooner occupied our seats in the compartment than the train started. , . ( , , .)

Holiday, vacation
Holiday , ,
.
, , a holiday
holidays.
Vacation ( )
.
The citizens of the RF still have holiday early in May.
.
Have you had a holiday this year yet? ?
Where are you going on holiday? ?
My vacation is going to begin late in November. .

241

242

Ill, sick
Ill /, .
Sick ,
, (to be sick
, ), ( -),
(-).
sick / .
Wheres Nina? She is ill. ? .
Are you sick after that dish? Its impossible. ?
.
The baby is sick. Please bring a towel. / . ,
. ( .)
All the passengers were seasick after the storm.
. (
, .)
The president is sick; he cant receive you. .
. ( , , - .)
The doctor was examining the sick person very carefully. . ( : ?)
Im sick and tired of that music. /
.

In, at, on (place)


In ,
.
At - , ( ) ,
.
On .


At , , ; ,
, , , ;
- (at school
, at university , at the office , ,
). : - , , (at Vanyukino,
at Marusinsk . .). , ,
, , , in.
at ,
(at the meeting , at the lecture , at the
party ). ,
- , , ( at my
grandmothers, at the hairdressers).
In , , , , ,
. , ,

, in. , .
, : in the street , in the picture / , in the tree . .
, . , , . . , .
, .
/ . , ? .
- . ?
. ! , ,

243

244


, , , .
?!
, . : ? . - ,
, , , . ,
?
, . in.
, - , . , .
on.
,
(on the desk , on the wall ), (on the sole
). ,
on (on the river , on the road ). , , (in the second line , in
the first row ).
I live in Oxford. .
I study at Oxford. .
The train stops at Oxford at 3:00. (
) 3 .
Is he at home? No, hes at work. ? , .
The manager is engaged at the conference now.
.
My sister works at Barclay & Schwarzenegger. .
My wife is at the hairdressers now. .
What can you see in the picture? ?
Whom can you see in the street? ?
The sun was shining brightly in the sky. .
There are many travel agencies in London.
.


Look at the clock on the wall. What do you think of it?
. ?
The boat was gliding on the lake like a butterfly. ,
.
The town is situated on the Volga. -.
The most dangerous pupil sits in the front row. Keep an eye on him.
. .

In, at, on (time)


At : at
night , at noon , at dawn / , at midnight , at the weekend , .
In (in the morning , in
the afternoon , in the evening ), (. at).
On .
In ,
, , ,
.
at 3 pm 3
at 7.30 in the morning 7:30
late at night
on Sunday
on Thursday morning
on Saturday afternoon
on the 1st of May 1-
on the 23rd of February 23-
on March the 8th 8-
in April , in January
in summer , in the fall
in 2005 2005 ., in 1998 1998 .
in the 17th century XVII
in the 2nd millennium II

245

246

Its no use V-ing


Its / theres no use V-ing , , , - . any no.
Its / theres no use trying to convince him. .
Is it / there any use asking him the way? He never knows anything.
? .

Its since
Its since ,
, .
Its twenty years since I was in Moscow for the last time. ,
.
Its a long time since I read that novel. .

Its time
Its time to V -. -,
for smb: Its time for you to go home.
Its time smb + Past Simple , -
-. , .
Its time to turn over a new leaf. .
Its time for you to go to bed. .
Its time you switched off the television and started doing your homework.
, . (
, -


. . .)
Its time you answered the questions. , . (, , .)

Journey, travel, trip, voyage


Journey ,
.
Travel ( ), , , .
Trip , .
Voyage ,
.
travel.
. ,
?
Travel extends your outlook. .
I made a wonderful journey last week. .
Our manager has just returned from his trip to Chicago. .
We went on a voyage to the Caribbean three years ago. .

Last, latest
Last ( ), , .
, .
Latest .

247

248


The last snowfall was at the beginning of April.
.
I used the last cartridge last week.
.
Where did you go on holiday last year?
?
Have you heard the latest news? ?
When did B. Akunin write his last novel about Fandorin? . ? (
latest, , .)

Late, lately , ;
,
Late , , .
Lately , ,
, . .
She comes home late and says nothing. .
Lately I have read a fascinating novel.
.
Where have you been lately? ?

Learn, pick up, study


Learn (, , - ),
- ( ), pick up , , , study (-), (, , ).


Have you learnt the new words yet? ?
When did you learn to swim? ?
Liz picked up a little Russian while working at the embassy in Moscow.
, .
My brother-in-law is a journalist but I dont know where he studied. ( , ) , , .
What subjects do you study at university?
?

Leave
Leave , , , .
Leave school .
Leave for (some place) - .
I left my hometown in 1995 and settled in the Far East.
1995 .
Are you leaving all your relations? What makes you do so?
? ?
He left the room without saying a word. ,
.
Our relations are leaving for New Zealand next month.
. ( , .)

Like
Like , . .
, - , -
, like . ,
- , to. , : - , , .

249

250

I like drawing. ().


I like drawing in the garden after lunch.
. ( - : .
.)
He likes to pay bills in time. .
( .)
He likes to see the dentist twice a year. . (, .)

Long, for a long time;


long ago, a long time ago
(For) long for a long time , , - , - .
Long ago a long time ago ,
, - , .
Long . a long time, .
I have been studying law (for) long / for a long time, but I havent made much
progress. , .
We last met our classmates long ago / a long time ago.
.

Look, see, watch


Look (at smth -); (
).
See , ( ); , .


Watch , ().
see watch . look
. (, ) look, see.
Look at him! What is he doing? ! ?
Your girl-friend looks great today!
!
Have you seen the last film by N. Mikhalkov?
?
I am watching TV. Dont bother me with your silly questions! . ! (
.)
The grandmother was watching her grandson playing in the yard.
, .

Many, much
Many , much
.
Many much :
1) ;
2) ;
3) , ;
4) ;
5) very, too, so.
a lot (of),
,
.
I havent got many Italian books. .
( .)
Did you spend much time on your math yesterday? ? ( , , .)

251

252

Many veterans came to the central square on Victory Day.


.
I have been working on the invention for many months. .
The theatre was designed for many spectators, but it isnt so popular nowadays. ,
.
Thank you very much. .
You have done so much for me and my family.
. ( .)
Hes been drinking too much lately. .
( .)

Number
A large (great, small) number of () ( ), a large (great, small) amount of
, .
A number of , ; the number of . ,
, ,
.
A number of children know the rules of rugby. .
The number of children playing ice hockey is increasing. ()
, , .

Near, nearly
Near , .
Nearly , .


I will be waiting for you near the supermarket. .
She is nearly 50. 50 .
I nearly hit the point. / .
The local team nearly won the match.
.

Need, want
Need -., -.
Want , .

- .
We need a spacious house for our family. .
Wanted a cleaner. . ( 30 , .
3
.)
Your shoes need polishing. . (
.)
My trousers want ironing. . ( - .)
The room needs whitewashing. . ( , .)

Next, nearest
Next , .
, .
Nearest .

253

254

We are going to discuss the next chapter next Thursday. .


Where is the nearest drugstore? ?

No, none
No ; , , .
None ; ,
, .
I have no time. .
We have no timber, we have no minerals, we have no oil, but we have knowhow. , , , -. ( .)
I have no sister, but I have three brothers. ,
.
There is no butter in the fridge. . ( ,
, , , , .)
How many kids do you have? None. ? .
None of them could solve the puzzle. .

Of
, ,
,
, , ,
.
. , ,
.


of .
. ,
( ? ?). .
. :
1) , ;
2) , , ;
3) out;
4) ,
, , , .
a bar of chocolate
a slice of sausage ()
a piece of chalk
a sheet of paper
a lump of sugar
a bit of information ()
a pair of gloves
a can of meat (.: )
a tin of fish (.: )
a box of cereal
a bottle of milk
a pint of beer
a bunch of grapes
a loaf of bread
a jar of honey ()
a tube of mustard
a pound of potatoes
a kilo of apricots
a cup of coffee
a glass of water
a group of students
a pack of wolves
a team of workers ()

, . of.
. , .

255

256

a great (good) deal of (.)


a lot of, lots of (. .)
a great (large, small) amount of () (.)
a great (large, small) number of () (.)
plenty of (. .)
a couple of (.)


.
of:
hundreds of men and women
thousands of slaves
millions of books
billions of years
Which of them is our president? ?
None of Germans likes frost. We learnt that a long time ago. . .
Any of the kids can solve such a simple problem. .
The driver got out of the car and started running round it. .
A wave of screaming schoolchildren ran out of the school.
.
I know that noble knight. He is Sir Charles of Perigor and Lavendor. One day
we crushed a couple of cups with him. . . (, .) . ( .)
Let morrow take care of itself. .
The old man died of a heart attack. .

Older, elder
Older , .
Elder (, , , ).


, , .
My father is 10 years older than my mother is. 10
.
Which of you is older? ?
Steve is his elder brother and Ann is his elder sister.
, .

Once, one day, some time


Once one day
.
Some time , - .
Once once that .
Once / one day our class went on an excursion to the Black Castle.
.
Some time I will invite you to my place and show you my library. -
. ( .)
Once that you are here, tell us about your adventures in Africa.
, .

Pass an exam, take an exam


Pass an exam , take an exam .
, ,
, .

257

258

I passed the last exam two days ago.


.
I took the exam, but I failed it, as I could not solve the problem with integrals.
( ), , .
My friend had to take the driving exam thrice, and he only passed it last week.
,
.

People
People . , . , .
There are many people in the park. It is Sunday. . .
Russians are a great people and most people realize that.
, .
Many peoples in the world have not discovered their own capacities.
. ( ,
).

Point
Point , , , . .
Theres no point in V-ing - .
The point is that you dont want to accept my point of view. ,
.


There is no point in kicking up a row. . ( .)
I dont see your point. , / .
His strong point is his sense of responsibility, and his weak point is that he always doubts. ,
, .

Proper
,
proper . proper (), ,
, .
First we examined the picture proper, and only then the frame.
. (
.)
We found a precious stone, a proper diamond. , .

Raise, rise
Raise ( );
.
Rise ; .
It was Peter who raised the item. .
The aim of the campaign was to raise funds.
. ( raise .)
We rose to the summit at dawn. .
( .)

259

260

Say, speak, talk, tell


Speak , . ,
, - - , - . , . , , , speaker
(, ).
, , , talk.
talks.
: to with
, , about
.
Tell , , , , . , . , , , . : to tell smb (about) smth.
: to tell a story ,
to tell the truth , to tell a lie / lies / .
, say.
, , tell say to.
: - ,
Who can speak English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Russian and a little
Japanese? -, -, -,
-, - -?
The Chairman spoke to the public about the economic situation. .
Many deputies spoke at the session yesterday. .
At the party we talked a lot about our problems and our future plans.
/
.


Please tell me about your hometown. ,
.
We told them to visit their old teacher who was in hospital.
, .
You are always telling lies. Its impossible. . .
The girl told the policeman her phone number. .
The witness says that he saw nothing. ,
. ( , .)
The little boy said a word he had invented himself and laughed.
, , . ( , , . ,
.)

Shade, shadow
Shade , ,
.
Shadow , ,
. , .
Youd better wait for me in the shade. .
Strange shadows were rushing above the ground.
.
The shadow of the table was clearly visible on the light floor.
.

Shake, shiver, shudder, tremble


Shake , , , ( ). , , .

261

262

Tremble , ( , , , , , ).
Shiver , , , ( , ).
Shudder ( , ,
).
My dad and I shook all the rugs in the yard to please Mum. , .
He shook hands with his partner, and they got down to business.
, .
The table shakes, and we cant write. / , .
When he first got up after his illness, he was trembling with weakness.
, .
A man came into the tavern, shivering with cold. , / , - .
I shuddered at the sight of a big spider that came out of the hole. , .

Since, for, from, ago


Since , -
.
For , -
.
From (- ).
, from to till (
).
Ago . Ago
.
We have been married since December 1992.
1992 .
Since then I have been working for the BBC. .


I have made many friends in Petersburg since I came here.
, .
How long have you been driving? For three years.
? .
He worked for 4 years as a translator, and then he went to work in Australia. 4 ,
.
As a rule, my son does his lessons from 6 till 8. ,
6 8.
He started learning French from the age of seven. .
Our country became independent 25 years ago. 25 .

So
so + +
, .
: neither / nor + + .
So ,
, . .
So . .
So : , , .
I like cooking. So do I. . .
We hate hot weather. So do I. .
.
I cant ride a bike. Neither can I. .
.
Is he a doctor? I believe so. ? , .
She is so young. .
So she had to go to kindergarten.
.

263

264

Some time, sometimes


Some time ( ), -, -. Sometimes .
Some time well cope with all problems. - / .
Sometimes I go out for a walk in the forest. It makes me closer to nature. . . (
, .)

Surprise, astonish, amaze


. Surprise
, astonish , amaze .
I was surprised to find the house empty. , ,
.
I was astonished to see my wife in such a chic dress. ,
.
I was amazed to meet an alien in the street. ,
.

. , .

There is / are
, ,
.
, - . , , . -


, , . ,
to have
.
.
1. There is a cup on the table. () .
2. The cup is on the table. () .

, . . . . . ,
.
"Analyze This". , .
1. What is there on the table? : ( / ) ?
2. Where is the cup? : () ?

. , .
: - ? : ?
. ? . ,
, . , . .
- , .
.
, there . ,
.
, .
to be
.
There is a huge building in our street. That is the central post office. . .

265

266


There are no desks in the classroom. .
Is there a caf near our house? ? ( ,
.)
How many armies were there in the north of France at the beginning of the
war? ?
Will there be any sailors on board the ship? ?

. , there is, there are.


.
Is there a mistake in your test? Yes, there is. / No, there isnt. ? , . / .
Are there any chairs in the living room? Yes, there are. / No, there arent.
? , . / .

. no, arent any


isnt a / any. , .
There is no way out. .
There wasnt a football team in our school. .
There isnt any bacon in the fridge. .
There were only two persons Johnson & Johnson who took care of our kids.
, .
There was a pen, a pencil, an album and paints. Those were all the necessary
things for the famous master. , , .
.

, , , .
, . -


,
.
There is the White House in Washington. .
( there is.)
There is Trafalgar Square in London where there is the column to Admiral Nelson. ,
.

, .
There exists an unusual animal that looks very much like a bear, but it is not.
That is the panda. , , . .
There arose a problem with your car, but we repaired it rather fast.
, .

Trouble, worry, bother


Trouble , , ; , .
Worry , , ( -); ,
( ).
Bother , , .
Your coming late troubles me a lot. , ,
.
Dont trouble / bother him with your silly questions. .
Dont worry about me. Everything will be OK. .
.
Does the wound worry / trouble you much? ?
Dont trouble trouble until trouble troubles you. ,
.

267

268

Used (to)
Used (to) ().
Be used to V-ing - ().
Get used to V-ing - ().
:
be / get accustomed to V-ing.
I am used / accustomed to getting up early. .
We got used / accustomed to washing with cold water in the camp. .
Getting used / accustomed fast to different conditions is a strong point. .

Used to V, would V
. . ,
( ) .
, would ,
to be, to have . Would .
I used to smoke a lot when I was young. , , . ( , .)
Hordes of nomads would attack the rich towns of China in ancient times.

. ( , .)
They used to visit us very often. .
He used to be a very reckless driver. . ( , .)


He used to have some bad habits.
. ( , , .)

used to V, ,
. , . (. .)
used to
to do ( ) used to ( ). .
use : used [ju:st].
Did you use to play dolls? Used you to play dolls? ?
We didnt use to like sushi. .
They used not to know the word "cadet". . ( , .)

Weep, cry, shout


Weep cry , . : cry ,
shout . .
The lady was weeping over the tombstone of her beloved knight. .
Stop crying! Youll get the toy! ! !
We saw the chief shouting at our new accountant. ,
.
Dont shout! I can hear you! ! !

, ? ? . . , , ,
,
.

269

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.
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, : oleg-dyakon@rambler.ru.
: http://olegramm.narod.ru.


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15.04.2011. 70901/16.
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