Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 39

PERFORMANCE OF SANGGUNIANG KABATAAN

OFFICIALS AS MANDATED BY THE LOCAL


GOVERNMENT CODE OF 1991:
AN ASSESSMENT


A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the
College of Education, Arts and Sciences
Lyceum of the Philippines University- Batangas


In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the
Degree Bachelor of Arts in Paralegal Studies


By:

Alyssa Clarizze E. Malaluan
Jovel C. Baja
Gilbert G. Carandang
Justin T. Vergara
and
Dr. Ma. Rosario Tamayo


2013


































APPROVAL SHEET


This thesis entitled Performance Of Sangguniang Kabataan
Officials As Mandated By The Local Government Code Of 1991: An
Assessment prepared by Alyssa Clarizze E. Malaluan, Jovel C. Baja,
Gilbert G. Carandang, and Justin T. Vergara in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Arts in Paralegal Studies is
hereby recommended for oral examination.

____________________
Dr. Ma. Rosario Tamayo
Research Adviser

Defended in Oral Examination in a duly- constituted panel with
a grade of _________.

______________________________
Atty. Anunciacion Bernardo
Chairman

________________ ___________________
Dr. Imelda An Ms. Annalie Patea
Member Member
__________________
Dr. Amada Banaag
Member


Accepted and approved in partial fulfilment of the requirements
for the degree of Bachelor of Arts in Paralegal Studies.


___________________
Dr. Amada G. Banaag
Dean,CEAS

































Table of Contents


Page

Abstract 1
Introduction 2
Objectives of the Study 7
Review of Literature 7

Method
Research Design 31
Respondents 32
Instrument 32
Procedures 33
Data Analysis 34

Results and Discussion 35
Conclusions 51
Recommendations 51
References 52

Appendices i- xv

Authors Information

List of Tables
Page


Table 1 35
Table 2 37
Table 3 40
Table 4 48
Table 5 49


List of Appendices

Appendix A. Letter to the Dean i

Appendix B. Letter to the Dean of ii
Different Colleges

Appendix C. Letter to the HRMDO iii

Appendix D. Letter to the Respondent iv
(Administrative Personnel)

Appendix E. Questionnaire Used v

Appendix F. Statistical Output x







Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan
Officials As Mandated By the Local
Government Code of 1991:
An Assessment

Abstract

This paper assessed the performance of SK officials
based on the mandated duties provided by the Local
Government Code (LGC) of 1991 and the perception of the
Lyceum Community on the issue of SK abolition. Two hundred
(200) members, composed of the students, faculty members
and administrative personnel of the community, who were
randomly chosen, served as the respondents. The descriptive
method was used to attain the objectives. The results showed
that the Sangguniang Kabataan has been able to perform their
mandated duties and responsibilities by the LGC being rated as
Good. Moreover, it can be drawn that although there are
defects, the respondents still believe that reformation, not
abolition would correct SK failures and shortcomings.

From the results, there are recommendations that have
been formulated. First, the government, specifically the DILG,
may review the provisions of RA 7160 implementing the duties
and functions mandated to the SK. Second, the DILG may also
evaluate the performance of the SK officials based on their
annual and end-of-term reports. Third, the SK officials may
improve or strengthen the duty to conduct an annual activity
known as the Linggo ng Kabataan through the collaboration of
the Sangguniang Bayan/Panlungsod and the Barangay. Future
researchers may conduct similar study using different variables.

Keywords: performance, SK, Local Government Code
The youth is the hope of the nation. This truism is been
as old as its real source, Gat. Jose P. Rizal, but is still surviving
up to the present.

The future of any nation belongs to the youth. The real
wealth of the nation is not in its natural resources, but in its
youth. A nation makes no greater investment than that made
toward the upbringing of its younger age band. The youth
constitutes the most vivacious, energetic, and prolific segment
of the humanity, they are therefore without any elusiveness, key
stakeholders in any nation. The youth make up the embodiment
of the nations future, the signpost of the nations hopes, and
objective. The youth is the crest of our future, the icon of our
stability, and the veritable catalysts of our national growth and
development. A nation has no superior way to prepare for its
future than to effectively and intentionally equip the upcoming
generations. The distinctive implication of the above declaration
is that a country that neglects its youth, is neglecting its future,
and the cost is often monumental (Ilechukwu, 2011).

However, due to the high-speed changes of the world
brought by modernization and liberalization, a lot of people are
now in doubt if they would still hang on to what Rizal used to
believe before. The modern era has conveyed a lot of changes
that really affects even the young cohort.
Here in the Philippines, the government supports and
believes in the capacity of the youth not just to lead but also to
empower the country. They are confident that these people
have the fresh mind and ideas that will certainly mould a better
future of the country.
Article II, Section 13 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution
states that;
The State recognizes the vital role of the youth
in nation-building and shall promote and protect
their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual, and
social well-being. It shall inculcate in the youth
patriotism and nationalism, and encourage their
involvement in public and civic affairs.

The Constitution expresses that the youth has a very vital
part in refurbishing the nation thus, leading to the creation of the
Sangguniang Kabataan or what all of us know as SK which is
embodied in the Local Government Code of 1991.

Chapter 8, Section 423, Paragraph (a) of the LGC states that;

There shall be in every Barangay a
Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) to be composed of
a chairman, seven (7) members, a secretary,
and a treasurer.

According to the United Nations Educational Scientific
and Cultural Organizations (UNESCO), youth is best
understood as a period of conversion from the dependence of
childhood to adulthoods independence and mindfulness of our
interdependence as members of a community. It added that for
statistical consistency across regions, youth has been
demarcated as those persons between the ages of 15 and 24
years, without prejudice to other description by Member States.
All UN data on youth are based on this depiction, as clarified by
the annual yearbooks of statistics published by the United
Nations system on demography, learning, employment and
health.

Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 2 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 3

The Sangguniang Kabataan or Youth Council is the
principal body of the youth assembly of every barangay. The
Katipunan ng Kabataan is a congress of youth in every
barangay whose prime objective is to augment the social,
political, economic, cultural, intellectual, moral, spiritual, and
physical development of the youth in the country. It is a
testament to the Philippine Government recognition of the
potential of children and youth to play a part in national
development. The Philippines has always engaged paramount
importance on the substantial role of the youth in nation
building.(http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Sangguniang
_Kabataan)
The creation of SK marked to create a venue where the
youth involvement in governance can be exercised and
enhanced. It has been envisioned to be the training ground of
the youth to be the future leaders of the country. Former
Senator Aquilino Pimentel, author of the Local Government
Code (LGC) where Sangguniang Kabataan provisions were
integrated, which imagined that it will be the best avenue for the
youth to participate in the leadership and governance in the
baranggay. The 1991 LGC or Republic Act 7160 formally
abolished the Kabataang Barangay (KB) then created by the
former President Ferdinand Marcos and provided the youth
another chance to directly participate in governance from the
mass level to the national level.
Through the years, the youth has been an active chunk in
the baranggay holding important and worthwhile activities that
aims to develop the potentials of the youth and their capabilities.
Officers of the Sangguniang Kabataan are icons for their youth
constituents in terms of good governance, leadership and moral
values. They are epitomized as role models in their community
that leads to the zeal of the other people to contribute to the
development of the baranggay and the municipality as well.
However, in this recent time, the trust and confidence given to
this organization seemed to decline because of various issues
thrown to them. Issues of inefficiency, ineffectiveness, abuse,
and worse, corruption are the queries on the mind of the public.
Is SK still needed or should it be abolished?

It really bothers that the youth of today are tagged with
different anomalies on their young age. On the age on when
they should only start realizing social responsibility, maturity,
leadership, integrity and governance, they were already
bombarded by these actions that try to remove them to the
direct control and authority in the community.

At present, the Senate and House of Representatives are
jam-packed by bills proposing the abolition and reformation of
the Sangguniang Kabataan. On an article entitled The Great
SK Debate: Do we Really Need the SK by Bringas in 2010, he
stated that ironically, the very author of RA 7160 or the Local
Government Code of 1991, former Sen. Aquilino Pimentel,
which created the SK in1991, is also pushing for SKs demise.
On his last term, he filed a bill intending its elimination. Former
Cavite Rep. Gilbert Remulla filed a similar bill in 2004. Tersol
and Domingo (2012) conveyed that House Bill 2770 introduced
by Marikina 1
st
District Representative Marcelino R.Teodoro
moved for the reformation of the sanggunian stating that it has
been mired with allegations of corruption and inefficient
governance. Another bill handed for the reformation was House
Bill 2845 or the SK Reform Act of 2010 by Congresswoman
Rachel B. del Mar of the 1
st
District of Cebu. Senator Francisco
N. Pangilinan also introduced the Senate Bill 2429 otherwise
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 4 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 5

known as an Act Strengthening and Reforming the SK
Amending for that Purpose Certain Provisions of RA 7160 and
RA 9340 and Resetting the Baranggay and SK Elections.
The researchers chose the Lyceum Community as the
respondents of the study since it is indeed a community on its
own. It has the students who of course are mostly cogitated as
youth who were directly affected by the governance of the
Sangguniang Kabataan and the faculty staff and administrative
personnel who stand as the older members of the community
who can assess the work and exertion given by the SK officers
on their respective places.
The motive that drives the researchers for conducting this
study is the curiosity to identify whether or not the Sangguniang
Kabataan is carrying out its powers and functions as provided
by the Local Government Code and other pertinent laws and to
see to it if they are performing what they are expected to do.
This year is supposed to hold another significant election for
youth representatives in government. However, the authority
seemed to choose to postpone the said election either for a year
or a term without holding the officials in position which means
that there will be no SK for a meantime. The researchers sought
to know if it is worth it to give SK another try to serve their fellow
youth constituents. It also aims to recognize the perception of
the general public about the performance of the said
organization. In this way, our youth leaders will know their level
of performance regarding their duties through youths evaluation
and that of the older members of the community and be made
aware of it so as to resolve the same for the benefit of the youth
in the locality. Also, this study will determine the effectiveness of
the SK and may serve as guideline for the State legislators to be
acquainted whether the Sangguniang Kabataan must be
abolished or not. Most importantly, as paralegal students and as
youth in the community, this study will serve as an informative
knowledge of the vast world of law in our country that primarily
affects us. Being involved in the study of law, this study will give
more acquaintance of its rules and procedures. Likewise, it will
enlighten not just us, but the entire community of the condition
of todays SK. It will help us know the key functions and duties
of the organization in the locality so as to rouse our
consciousness whether the SK in our locality is doing these
vested duties, therefore proper for us to evaluate them
personally based on their performance.
Objectives of the Study
The study generally aims to determine the perception of
the Lyceum Community in the proposed abolition of the
Sangguniang Kabataan. More specifically, to describe the
profile of the respondents; to assess the performance of the SK
officials with regards to mandated duties and responsibilities by
the Local Government Code (LGC); to determine the perception
of the respondents regarding the abolition of the SK; to test the
difference in the perception of the respondents when grouped
according to profile variables and to propose an action plan to
improve the performance of SK officials.
Hypothesis
There is no significant difference on the perception of the
respondents regarding the abolition of SK when grouped
according to profile variables.



Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 6 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 7

Review of Literature
Laws Creating/ Mandating Sangguniang Kabataan
The Sangguniang Kabataan, which is frequently known
as SK, is the youth council in each barangay and its members
voted from among the members of the Katipunan ng mga
Kabataan. The Katipunan ng Kabataan as mandated by the law
is composed of those youth aging from 15- 21 years of age in
the community. It is the youth legislature in every local village or
district. It also instigates policies, programs and projects for the
development of youth in their respective political territories.
The youth have been exceedingly encouraged to partake
in politics and governance, and the Philippine government is the
lone realm in the world that has a mechanism of encompassing
the youth sector in governance. This is in answer to the United
Nations Convention on the rights of children to create an
avenue wherein they are engage and signify their sector
towards active partaking in the affairs of the government and in
the nation as a whole.
(http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Sangguniang_Kabata
an)
Article II, Section 13 of the 1987 Constitution provides:
The state recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation
building and shall promote and protect their physical, moral,
spiritual, intellectual, and social well-being. It shall inculcate in
the youth patriotism and nationalism, and encourage their
involvement in public and civic affairs.

Tersol and Domingo (2012) stated that in this portion of
the Constitution, it can be grasped that youth have a very vital
part in developing the nation thus, this has been the groundwork
of creating the Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) a body where the
youth will be able to exercise their rights provided by our
Constitution. Moreover, this part of the Constitution is the
foremost basis of including youth in the politics of local
government. This vital role of the youth in governance was
pushed through the inclusion of youth leaders in the Republic
Act (RA) 7160 also known as the Local Government Code.
Based on Chapter VIII, Section 423, Paragraph (a) of
The Local Government Code; there shall be in every Barangay
a Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) to be composed of a chairman,
seven (7) members, a secretary, and a treasurer. In addition,
the officials of SK shall come from the Katipunan ng Kabataan
(KK). Section 424 of the LG Code says that the Katipunan ng
Kabataan shall be composed of all citizens of the Philippines
actually residing in the Barangay for at least six (6) months, who
are 15 but not more than 21 years of age, and who are duly
registered in the list of the Sangguniang Kabataan or in the
official Barangay list in the custody of the Barangay secretary.
The conception of the organization aimed to create a venue
where the youth participation in governance can be exercised
and enhanced.

Chapter VIII, Section 430 further provides that the
registered voters of the katipunan ng kabataan shall elect the
chairman of the sangguniang kabataan who shall automatically
serve as an ex- officio member of the sangguniang baranggay
upon his assumption to office. As such, he shall use the same
powers, discharge the similar duties and functions, and benefit
from the same privileges as the regular sangguniang baranggay
members, and shall be the chairman of the committee on youth
and sports development in the said sanggunian. The following
section, 431, presents the powers and duties of the
Sangguniang Kabataan Chairman which are to call and preside
over all meetings of the katipunan ng Kabataan and the
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 8 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 9

sangguniang kabataan; implement policies, programs, and
projects within his jurisdiction in coordination with the
sangguniang baranggay; exercise general supervision over the
affairs and activities of the sangguniang kabataan and the
official conduct of its members, and such other officers of the
sangguniang kabataan within his jurisdiction; with the
concurrence of the sangguniang Kabataan, appoint from among
the members of the sangguniang kabataan, the secretary, and
treasurer, and such other officers as may be deemed
necessary; and exercise such other powers and perform such
other duties and functions as may be prescribed by law or
ordinance.

Section 436, Chapter IX, in connection with the preceding
chapter of the same code, states that there shall be an
organization of all the Pederasyon ng mga Sangguniang
Kabataan. Also, the Pederasyon ng mga Sangguniang
Kabataan shall, at all levels, elect from among themselves the
president, vice-president and such other officers as may be
necessary. The elected presidents of the Pederasyon at the
provincial, highly urbanized city, and metropolitan political
subdivision levels shall constitute the Pambansang Katipunan
ng mga Sangguniang Kabataan.

The law creating the SK, however, is now more than a
decade old. According to Camporazo (2013), the Philippine
government is the only nation in the world that has a
mechanism of involving the youth sector in governance. This is
in response to the United Nations Convention on the rights of
the children to create an avenue wherein they can engage and
represent their sector towards active participation in the affairs
of the government and in the country as whole. In 1975, the first
youth council, Kabataang Barangay (KB) was created by virtue
of Presidential Decree 684 issued by former President
Ferdinand Marcos to give the youth a chance to be involved in
community affairs and provide the government means to inform
the youth of its development efforts. The KB had accomplished
various projects and programs for livelihood, sports education,
and culture including the Youth Development Training program
which aims to develop principles of service, patriotism, and
leadership among the youth to make them productive leaders.
Later in 1986, it was changed to Sangguniang Kabataan (SK)
as to governing body of Katipunan ng Kabataan to represent the
youths and deliver youth-focused services in the barangay. A
series of SK elections were held. Primarily in December 2,
1992, then in May 6, 1996, in July 15, 2002, in October 29,
2007, and the recent election were in October 25, 2010. The
1991 Local Government Code (LGC or known as Local
Autonomy Law or Republic Act 7160) governs the Katipunan ng
Kabataan and the SK.

Functions of the Sangguniang Kabataan

Article 426 Chapter VIII of the Local Government Code
provides the powers and functions of the SK specifically are to
promulgate resolutions necessary to carry out the objectives of
the youth in the baranggay in accordance with the applicable
provisions of this code; Initiate programs designed to enhance
the social, political, economic, cultural, intellectual, moral,
spiritual, and physical development of the members; Hold fund-
raising activities, the proceeds which shall be tax-exempt and
shall accrue to the general fund of the Sangguniang Kabataan:
Provided, however, that in the appropriation thereof, the specific
activity fir which such activity has been held shall be first
satisfied; Create such bodies or committees as it may deem
necessary to effectively carry out its programs and activities;
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 10 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 11

Submit annual and end-of-term reports to the Sangguniang
baranggay on their projects and activities for the survival and
development of the youth in the baranggay; Consult and
coordinate with all youth organizations in the baranggay for
policy formulation and program implementation; Coordinate with
all appropriate national agency for the implementation of youth
development projects and programs at the national level; and
exercise such other powers and perform such other duties and
functions as the Sangguniang Baranggay may determine or
delegate, or as may be prescribed by law or ordinance.
The Sangguniang Kabataan shall meet regularly once a
month on the date, time, and place to be fixed by the said
sanggunian. Special meetings may be called by the
sangguniang kabataan chairman or any three (3) of its members
by giving written notice to all members of the date, time, place,
and agenda of the meeting at least one day in advance (Sec
427, Chapter 8 of the LGC).
Furthermore, Section 439, Chapter X of the same code
provides that every barangay, municipality, city and province
shall, in coordination with the Pederasyon ng mga Sangguniang
Kabataan at all levels, conduct an annual activity to be known
as the Linggo ng Kabataan on such date as shall be determined
by the Office of the President. The observance of the Linggo ng
Kabataan shall include the election of the counterparts of all
local elective and appointive officials, as well as heads of
national offices or agencies stationed or assigned in the
territorial jurisdiction of the local government unit, among in-
school and community youth residing in the local government
unit concerned from ages thirteen (13) to seventeen (17).
During said week, they shall hold office as boy and girl officials
and shall perform such duties and conduct such activities as
may be provided in the ordinance enacted pursuant to this
Chapter.

The 2001 Katipunan ng Kabataan and Sangguniang
Kabataan Constitution and By-Laws Article 5, Section 1
bestowed the powers and function of the Pederasyon ng
Sangguniang Kabataan which are to formulate policies as may
be necessary for the pursuit or realization of the aims and
objectives in accordance with this
Constitution and By-Laws;
initiate and implement programs designed and enhancing the
social, political, economic, cultural, intellectual, moral, spiritual
and physical development of the KK and SK members;
appropriate and administer its own funds;
create such other bodies or Committees as it may deem
necessary to effectively carry out programs and activities;
call or convene the Katipunan ng mga Kabataan (Barangay
Youth Assembly) or the Pederasyon ng SK of the next lower
level as may be necessary; discuss and decide vital issues
affecting the Pederasyon and the Katipunan; exercise such
others duties and functions as the Pambansang Pederasyon or
SKNEB may provide and direct.

Article XVIII, Section 1 of the preceding law imparted the
designated task force of every member of the sangguniang
kabataan which are organized as Green Brigade which shall be
headed by the First SK Kagawad and shall have a membership
of ten percent (10%) of the KK Members;
Livelihood and Entrepreneurship Task Force that shall be
headed by the Second SK Kagawad and shall have a
membership of ten percent (10%) of the KK Members; Disaster
Coordination and Health Task Force and thereby be headed by
the Third SK Kagawad and shall have a membership of twenty
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 12 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 13

percent (20%) of the KK Members; Education Services, Morel
Recovery Activities and Anti-Drug Abuse Campaign to be
headed by the Fourth SK Kagawad and shall have a
membership of twenty percent (20%) of the KK Members;
Sports Program and Community Immersion Activities Task
Force and shall be headed by the Fifth SK Kagawad and shall
have membership of twenty percent (20%) of the KK Members;
Infrastructure Task Force to be headed by the Sixth SK
Kagawad and shall have a membership of ten percent (10%) of
the KK Members; and Legislative Works Task Force and thus,
be headed by the Seventh Kagawad, and shall have a
membership of ten percent (10%) of the KK Members.


Performance of the Sangguniang Kabataan

Tersol and Domingo (2012) also mentioned that there
have been numerous projects organized by SK that have greatly
affected communities and barangays. It has been a big aide in
executing the functions of the barangay council. The current SK
constitution and by-laws oblige the youth council to be
encompassing. It has divided the SK into a multi-faceted
organization which is able to accommodate the major needs of
the youth. Section 192 of the Republic Act No. 7160 which
tackles about Barangay Funds states that a 10% of any sum
entered into the budget of the barangay shall be given to the
SK. It covers the barangays IRA (Internal Revenue Allotment),
collection, donations received, etc. These have been according
to the amended constitution and by-laws that have been ratified
though a plebiscite last March 16, 2001.

SK has been expected to mould and enhance the youth
as the next leaders of the nation. It should serve as a training
ground for the youth where they can learn and improve their
leadership skills through the hands-on governance with their
fellow youth constituents.
Various accomplishments are cited by the Sangguniang
Kabataan National Federation (SKNF) as their proof that the
institution should be retained. Young politicians and leaders are
said to be developed and started their leadership careers
through the SK council. The national federation also cites their
contribution on raising the environmental awareness of the
youth and society through their projects. In addition there have
been success stories that show its potential as an important
organization. Like the KB, the SK has produced a crop of local
government officials, as well as national legislators. SK
Federations at all levels have also been consistent in
celebrating the annual Linggo ng Kabataan (Youth Week), a
yearly weeklong event when youth members get the opportunity
to act as officials of all local government and national agencies
for a week.

In an article of Sangguniang Kabataan Explained (June
18, 2013), they acknowledge that the best example of SK is
SK Bohol which accomplished the following:

Linggo ng Kabataan 2002. Article 209 of the SK
Constitution and By- Laws mandated that the Pederasyon ng
Sangguniang Kabataan shall conduct the celebration of the
Linggo ng Kabataan. The participant of this congress are the SK
chairman of the 1, 109 barangay of the province. For two
consecutive years the participants successfully carried out the
activity. Linggo ng Kabataan 2002 highlighted the call for the
commitment of the youth in their role in nations quest for peace
with the theme Solidarity of the Youth: A Key towards nations
quest for peace.
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 14 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 15

The ISKOLAR BOS. To provide the newly elected young
leaders of Bohol with the skills and knowledge necessary to
become effective, efficient and responsive leaders, the
Sangguniang Kabataan Provincial Federation conducted the
Integrated Sangguniang Kabataan Organizational Leadership
and Reorientation Program Basic Orientation Seminar
(ISKOLAR- BOS) last February 28- March 2, 2003 with the
support of the Provincial Office of the Department of Interior and
Local Government (DILG). Of the 48 SK Presidents in Bohol, 47
SK Presidents attended the said seminar training. These
activities helped develop the SK Presidents to become
independent, dynamic and creative community leaders and
strengthen the moral values of the Sangguniang Kabataan with
four pillars of the politics of service- Maka-Diyos, Maka- Tao,
Maka-Bayan, Maka-Kalikasan.

Lakbay Aral. The exposure of the youth leaders of Bohol
was not limited to Bohol alone. A 16-man delegation composed
the Lakbay Aral 2003 last June 2 to June 8, 2003.

The 16 youth leaders visited the significant political
institutions and important landmarks in the history of Philippine
governance, as well as the natural bounty and tourism hobs in
Luzon. Youth leaders went to the Philippine Congress, Senate
and the Malacaang Palace and made a courtesy call with the
President Arroyo. The war memorabilia in Corregidor, the
botanical Garden and the Philippine Military Academy of
Baguio, the Rizals House and hot springs in Laguna, and the
special appearance in Debate with mare and Pare of GMA
network, were among the indelible sights and moments
experienced by group.

SK Eco-Adventure Challenge Race. Designed to
challenge the fittest of competitors under the heat of the sun,
this was the Sangguniang Kabataan Eco-Challenge Adventure
Race last September 28, 2003. The Adventure Race is
christened as Experience Bohol, wherein the ecological
blessings that abound the province will be promoted by allowing
tourists to explore, run and bike in the countryside, trek the
wilderness, paddle on kayaks in tropical waterways, go
spelunking the hidden wonders and come in contact with its
people. The government came up with the First Bohol Eco-
Challenge Adventure Race, which will be a 12 to 18 hour multi
discipline race that combines paddling (kayak), running, hiking,
biking, orienteering, swimming and other special skills.

Student Government Management Training Program.
The SKPF in it earnest desire to provide enriching exposure and
experiences to young people gave an all-out support for the
realization of the Student Government Management Program on
November 8-9, 2003. The program materialized with the support
of the National Youth commission, Bohol Alliance of Student
Councils, Office of the Vice Governor, and Commission on
Higher Education VII.

From the records of the National Youth Commission
(NYC) as cited in the study conducted by Lara (2008), another
good example is Councilor Allen Reodanga of Naga City. He
urged his colleague SK officers to celebrate the Linggo ng
Kabataan in every community. Furthermore, Councilor
Reodanga conducted youth consultations to understand the
present situation of the youth in Naga City. The outputs of these
sessions shall be used in crafting the youth agenda of Naga
City. One more example is Councilor April Dayag of Davao City.
When she discovered that only 19 percent of Davao Citys forest
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 16 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 17

is conserved, she initiated activities by tapping the SK to
support the ecological environment. She said her fellow SK
leaders grasp that the efforts to protect the environment should
involve the youth since they will eventually inherit the national
patrimony. An addition is Joshua Ybaez of Barangay Luz
Cebu. His official role to lead the youth was hindered by is
unfamiliarity with the tenets of governance. Fortunately, Ronnia
Sab-a, a barangay administrator, served as his teacher. Sab-a
taught him in the complexities of governing. He also exposed
Ybaez and his fellow councilors to expanded possibilities
beyond the holding of summer sports fest for the youth. Through
this, a concrete plan of action for Barangay Luz was fabricated
by the Sangguniang Kabataan.

However, the number of these good youth leaders is
relatively small compared to the population of the Sangguniang
Kabataan officials. They are not adequate to serve as tangible
reasons for the government not to abolish the Sangguniang
Kabataan for the SK has coated itself with dirt with its 17 years
of existence.The debate about the Sangguniang Kabataan goes
on. Should it be abolished and substituted with another youth
organization or could reforms be enough to strengthen it?

According to Bringas (2010), allegations of corruption by
incompetent, ineffective, and non-performing Sangguniang
Kabataan (SK) officials have caused mounting calls for its
abolition from various sectors and officials, counting no less
than President Benigno Aquino, Jr. himself, and the former
Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) Secretary
Jesse Robredo. Furthermore, he stated that ironically, the very
author of Republic Act No. 7160 or the Local Government Code
(LGC) which created the SK in 1991 is also pushing for SKs
end. Former Senator Aquilino Pimentel, on his final term, filed a
bill proposing its abolition. Previous Cavite Rep. Gilbert Remulla
filed a similar bill in 2004.

Katigbak (2013) cited that the Sangguniang Kabataan
serves a very dignified purpose. It was created to be a training
ground for the countrys future leaders. It was a place where
those who desire to learn about politics might enter to enrich
their skills and learn what it would take to become a future
leader of the nation. Over the years though, as what often
occurs with a once-dignified purpose, the Sangguniang
Kabataan has been twisted and turned into something that is
no longer in unison with its original purpose. It has become as
unlock to graft and corruption as the government itself, and
instead of nurturing future good leaders, it only seems to
educate the youth about the corruption that exists in the
government at a very early age.

However, in an article of Castillo (2010), Rep. Raymond
V. Palatino (Party-list, Kabataan) mentioned that the aim of the
Sangguniang Kabataan is to encourage the youth to take
active part in governance and to serve as an educational
experience for them. It should add to the political education of
the youth. If corruption is the issue here, then we should
abolish barangays and other LGU units too. SK members can't
access finances without approval of local officials. Abolishing
SK does not get rid of corruption. If there are corrupt SK
members, charge LGU leaders and even state leaders for
being bad role models. In the same article, Rep. Marcelino R.
Teodoro (1st District, Marikina City) said the mandate of the
Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) should be carefully reviewed but
not entirely abolished. Since there are cases of corruption as
stated by the President, the system needs to be evaluated if
not strengthened. Teodoro said it is not the SK that is corrupt
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 18 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 19

but the system itself. The SK dropped as prey and is taken
advantage of by unwieldy and unscrupulous contractors. The
youth should play an important part in nation-building and
should not be immediately dismissed without reviewing their
mandate and finding ways to reform the SK system.
Moreover, according to Bautista (2010), many critics
describe the SK as futile and useless because the officials are
merely after the benefits and honoraria and do not really serve
the youth. True enough, many SK chapters are only
implementing dance parties, beauty pageants, and singing
competitions. Though such events may promote youth
socialization, these are inadequate in serving the best interests
of the youth. But not all SK are limited to pageants and parties.
Some SKs have served their communities by funding the
establishment of day care centers, livelihood and tree planting
projects. Some have passed no-smoking ordinances, curfew on
minors, ban on waste chemical dumping, and sports facilities for
the youth.

In an article of Howard (2010), President Benigno Aquino
is also calling for the abolition of the Sangguniang Kabataan
(SK), saying it has not proven itself to be effective. The move
will also save the government billions of pesos in expenses,
officials say, adding that the youth could have a voice through a
seat in the baranggay council instead. Speaking on ANC's "The
Rundown", Davao First District Representative Karlo Nograles
said some lawmakers are supporting the president's
recommendation to abolish the SK based on three points: those
who are 15 to 18 years old may not be mature enough to hold
public money; their youth makes them prone to abuse and
subject to the undue influence by politicians; and, they should
concentrate more on their studies.

Tersol and Domingo (2012) also said that since the first
SK elections in 1992, the institution had already conducted 5
elections on its entire history. However, the change of the set of
officers also brought various controversies. As the years
passed, SK has also undergone amendments to ensure its
effectiveness. Some of these are the age and term adjustment
of the officials.

Loyola (2013) stated that the Sangguniang Kabataan,
though having its merits and on paper is a testament to the
desire of the youth in nation building, obviously has problems,
and one such problem is the minimum age requirement to be
deemed eligible to run for a position in the federation. For one
thing, the fact that it is a major task to handle could render the
youth official, especially the younger ones, overwhelmed. It has
happened before and it could render the very foundation and
objectives of the SK moot. Running away from the said
responsibility may also stem from this. Teenagers would tend to
avoid responsibility and go for comfort and pleasure. This is
dangerous when what they have to do require the utmost
attention, dedication and passion. Another dilemma these young
officials have to think about would be balancing their education
or their work with being a barangay official. Education, at this
time and age, is considered very important, especially in a
developing country like the Philippines. She also added that the
parents would send their children to school in the hopes that
one day they will be successful or at the very least be able to
secure a job. The government is obviously a viable area of
employment but the problem being that they should concentrate
on getting an education first before thinking of joining the
government. The possession of power can make one prone to
abusing it, a fairly apparent problem. Teenage officials with a
significant amount of money are quite possibly a recipe for
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 20 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 21
21
disaster. Funds could easily be used in inappropriate ways: for
projects only benefiting those in office, programs for friends, and
maybe even giving solicitations that arent part of the objective
of the federation.

Yumul (2010) declared that the clamour for the abolition
of the Sangguniang Kabataan crops up every so often and
intensifies before barangay elections, but alas, the SK has
stayed and slanged on like sticky phlegm lingering on the
nations throat. The organization was meant to give young
individuals, who make up an immense chunk of the countrys
population, the chance to contribute to nation building. It was
pictured out to be a breeding ground for future leaders, an
avenue for youth empowerment. He further stated that the
young people do not need a parallel government so they can
be heard. In this age of rapid advances and technology and
communication, there are already many avenues for the youth
to voice out their concerns without dipping their hands in the
murky waters of politics-as-usual. Even the United States,
where popular participation in government affairs is high, does
not have anything close to the Sangguniang Kabataan, and they
score higher in child protection and youth welfare indexes.

Thus, several reform and abolishment bills on SK were
passed both on the congress and on the senate. Tersol and
Domingo said that abolition bills were authored by lawmakers
who believe that it is a necessary act to redeem the image of
the SK as a system. Atty. Magtanggol Gunigundo I,
representative of the 2
nd
District of Valenzuela City authored the
House Bill 2534, which was a re-file of the HB 1243. The two
bills seeks to abolish the SK, because the abolishment is a part
of the new Aquino governments reform agenda. The bill also
responds to the criticism that abolishment bills are anti-youth,
for it prevents the youth to be part to the nation-building.
According to them, in opposite, they believe that youth should
be given more time to prepare and gradually realize whats
behind the world they are entering. They further stated that
youth are expected to devote more time to their studies.The
HB 3732, by Davao del Sur 1
st
District Representative Marc
Douglas IV C. Cagas of the, also wants to abolish the SK.
According to him, no noted major satisfactory contribution to
nation building has so far been made by the SK. He further said
that SK even became rich haven for the commission of graft and
corruption. One more abolition bill was introduced by Surigao
del Sur 2
nd
District Rep. Florencio C. Garay, known as HB
2114. It suggests the creation of Youth Sector Representative
(YSR) in exchange of the will-be-abolished SK. In every
baranggay there shall be an YSR who shall be aged 18-25. The
term of the elected YSR shall last up to five years.

Tersol and Domingo unveiled that Senator Francisco N.
Pangilinan introduced his Sangguniang Kabataan Reform Act of
2010. The Senate Bill 2429 is An Act Strengthening and
Reforming the SK Amending for that Purpose Certain Provisions
of RA 7160 and RA 9340 and Resetting the Barangay and SK
Elections. This reform act aspires to make the SK more
independent and self-reliant. It further proposes to give fiscal
autonomy over the SK fund and give SK their discretion to run
their affairs and operations. One more is the Senate Bill 2155
proposed by Senate Minority Leader Aquilino Nene Pimentel,
Jr. in view of the general observation that it has lost its
usefulness as a mechanism for getting the youth involved in
community development. Under the bill that he just filed, the
organization will be dissolved but the youth will continue to be
represented in the Sangguniang Bayan, Sangguniang
Panlungsod and Sangguniang Panlalawigan.
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 22 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 23


Another reform bill was introduced by Marikina 1
st
District
Representative Marcelino R. Teodoro, which was also known as
the House Bill (HB) 2770. He said that the SK has been mired
with allegations of corruption and inefficient governance.
Allegations include vote-buying, gathering kickbacks from SK-
initiated projects and programs. On the other hand, he
considers that this institution needs to be carefully re-assessed
but not abolished. Congresswoman Rachel B. del Mar, of the
1
st
District of Cebu also filed her version of the SK Reform Act of
2010. It was known as the HB No. 2845. It points out the
formation of a Local Youth Development Council in every
barangay, which is a corresponding body to facilitate the check
and balance of SK activities and financial transactions. It also
aims to create better youth leaders and it can be done through a
mandatory integrated SK organizational leadership and re-
orientation-basic orientation seminar (ISKOLAR-BOS). The bill
also aspires to adjust the age of the officials, and to give due
compensation to the Kagawads and the elected secretary and
treasurer. It says that SK kagawads shall receive a monthly
honorarium of not more than P1,000 and P1,500 for the
secretary and treasurer.

It can be noted that the SK has already made a bad
image and reputation throughout the country since many
representatives in the congress push for its abolition. However,
according to Senator Bongbong Marcos (2012), he sees the
need for strengthening SK rather than abolishing it. He stands
for the reform of the Sangguniang Kabataan rather than the
abolition. Youth participation is persuaded in Sec. 13, Article 2
of the Philippine Constitution. Clearly, abolition will deprive the
youth of their right to participate in nation building that is
enshrined in our Constitution, he said.

A University of the Philippines- Center for Integrative and
Development Studies (UP-CIDS, 2007) study entitled The
Impact of Youth Participation in the Local Government Process:
The Sangguniang Kabataan Experience in 2007 rated the
youth bodys performance as weak. The findings led to the
conclusion that the potentials of the SK are not being exploited,
resulting in projects that are largely restricted to sports,
infrastructure development and environmental protection.
Paramount practices showed that while negative perceptions
and inherent weaknesses ponder it down, the SK has great
potential to become a true venue for youth participation in
governance. Providing the youth a seat in local governments,
giving them with a budget mandated by law, listening to them
and providing settings for them to meaningfully take part in
shaping local policies and programs could transform young
people into significant members of the community.

The study gauges the effectiveness of SK participation
based on its functions, as mandated by law. Section 426 of the
Local Government Code states that the SK is expected to
promulgate resolutions necessary to carry out the objectives of
the youth in the baranggay in accordance with the applicable
provisions of this Code. The study found out that the SKs
performance of its legislative function is weak. However, the
outputs also showed SK representatives are capable of coming
up with highly relevant ordinances. Another power is to initiate
programs designed to enhance the social, political, economic,
cultural, intellectual, moral, spiritual, and physical development
of members. The study proves that there is a mismatch between
SK projects and what the youth really need. Based on the
survey, the top three SK projects deal with sports concerns,
environmental issues, and infrastructure. Programs on
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 24 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 25

education and training, health and nutrition, anti-drug abuse and
livelihood were hardly mentioned. SK councils have also failed
to follow the required budget allocations mandated by the 2001
SK Constitution and By-Laws.
The review of accomplishment reports shows SK
councils had spent their funds mostly on sports-related,
environmental, and infrastructure projects. They also focused on
beauty pageants, talent shows, dances, social gatherings,
music band contests and the like. Participants in the study state
that projects that address the vital problems of the youth, such
as education, health, livelihood, and vices, were lacking.
Holding of fundraising activities, proceeds of which shall be tax
exempt and accrued to the general fund of the SK is also a
mandated obligation. When asked if the SK budget was
adequate, majority said they had just enough funds. The
subsequent mandated responsibility is to submit annual and
end-of-term reports to the Sangguniang Barangay on their
projects and activities for the survival and development of the
youth in the barangay. One glaring finding in the study is that
SK councils do not submit reports, or these reports fall short to
reach the NYC. There was no standard format used in the
reports as SK councils do not get guidelines on preparing them.
Also a duty is to consult and coordinate with all youth
organizations in the baranggay for policy formulation and
program implementation. Surveys and interviews in the study
revealed there was very little consultation with the youth in
situational analysis, planning, monitoring, and evaluation. It
should be pointed out that the SK is not an organization in itself.
It is the council of officers that represents the KK which is a
larger youth contingent. Coming close is to coordinate with the
concerned national agency for the implementation of youth
development projects and programs at the national level.
Majority of SK survey respondents reported having partnerships
with national government agencies and LGUs. The SK usually
coordinates with LGUs to ask for financial assistance. For their
part, government agencies provide SK councils with technical
support (training, materials, and human resources) during
project implementation. However, the research team of UP-
CIDS believes that abolishing the SK will not serve the best
interest of children and young people. It will not shield them
from the negative influences of politics and politicians, but would
only destroy a unique system and a mechanism that has great
potential for youth participation in governance and community
service. Providing the youth a seat in local government and a
budget mandated by law, and consenting them to take part in
shaping local policies and programs make them an important
part of the community. While some regard them as a burden,
the youth can be productive allies in seeking to solve societys
ills. After all, they are authorities on the challenges faced by
their peers in the community.
Another study, entitled The Abolition of the Sangguniang
Kabataan as a Reinvention of Youth Representation conducted
by Lara (2008) shows that through the years some politicians
eye the Sangguniang Kabataan as an ineffective way for the
youth to stand for themselves. Several bills have been passed
aiming for its reform or, majority of the time, its abolition. The
problems encountered by the Sangguniang Kabataan were
never denied by anyone for it is highly evident. On the other
hand, some say that it is just a matter of dealing with the
problem. Abolition is not the lone way. The Sangguniang
Kabataan could still be reformed. There are two options given
by legislators to conceal the problems faced by the
Sangguniang Kabataan. One is reform and the other is
abolition.
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 26 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 27

In a study conducted by Cornelio (2008), it was found out
that despite the many challenges, the SK, an embodiment youth
participation in nation building enshrined in the constitution and
supported by many laws, is an body worth continuously
developing. Thus, the SK Reform Coalition perceives the recent
proposals from the government to abolish the SK institution and
replace it a youth representative to the Baranggay (Village)
Council wanting of these understanding. The proposed SK
abolition is a road to perdition. The debate between SK abolition
and reform has long been foreclosed. SK abolition, and/or
subsequent replacement of another mechanism, does not solve
any problem faced by the institution. First, in educating the SK
about their roles and responsibility, which is a function of the
DILG, the baranggay officials should also be informed and
capacitated in dealing and supporting their SKs. Second, the
strengthening of the Katipunan ng Kabataan (KK) or the village
youth assembly to ensure participatory planning and greater
accountability should be a task taken more proactively by the
local DILG officer with the support of other local youth
organizations. Third, an autonomous fiscal mechanism with
accountability measures should be put in place to train young
people to manage and allocate resources subject to government
auditing rules and a lot more. The only way for the SKs to stop
the mounting calls for abolition, is for them to start working and
working good, removing reasons for abolition one by one. And
the SKs need support and guidance from their communities in
doing so.

Foreign Youth Organizations

From an article of the National Youth Council (NYC,
2011) the NYC of Singapore set up by the Singapore
Government on 1 November 1989 as the national coordinating
body for youth affairs in Singapore and the focal point of
international youth affairs. The Council comprises members
from diverse backgrounds such as the youth, media, arts,
sports, corporate and government sectors. At NYC, they believe
in a world where young people are respected and heard, and
have the ability to influence and make a difference to the world.
Together with our partners, we develop a dynamic and
engaging environment where young people are inspired to
dream and committed to action. Some of their local programs
include Young Change Makers (YCM), Youth Expedition Project
(YEP), Shine Youth Festival, Inspirit and National Youth Council
Academy. They have also international programs like the
Singapore-Malaysia Youth Camp, International Association of
Traffic and Safety Sciences (IATSS) Forum and Ship for
Southeast Asian Youth Programme (SSEAYP).

An article of the National the Youth Council of Ireland
(2011) shows that the National Youth Council of Ireland (NYCI)
is the representative body for voluntary youth organizations.
NYCI functions to represent the interests of young people and
youth organizations. NYCIs role is recognized in legislation
(Youth Work Act) and as a Social Partner. The NYCI aims
through its member organizations and its representative role to
empower young people to participate in society as fulfilled
confident individuals. The work of the Youth Council is based on
principles of equality, social justice and equal participation for
all. In achieving these aims the NYCI seeks the emergence of a
society in which young people are valued citizens who can
make a meaningful contribution to their community.



Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 28 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 29

Method
Research Design
The researchers made use of descriptive research
method, which, according to Lomax and Li (2013), describes the
phenomena being studied. Data are gathered and descriptive
statistics are then used to analyze such data. Thus descriptive
research considers one variable at a time (i.e., univariate
analysis), and is typically the entry-level type of research in a
new area of inquiry. Descriptive research typically describes
what appears to be happening and what the important variables
seem to be.
This method was used by the researchers on their
attempt to assess the performance of the SK officials with
regards to their mandated duties and responsibilities and at the
same time, to know how the public perceive on the issue of
abolishing the institution. It is used to define what are the
problems and situations surrounding the institution and tries to
explain why there are calls for its reformation / abolition.
Participants of the Study
The sample of the study is composed of 200 members
from the student, faculty and administrative personnel of LPU-
Batangas with a margin of error of 7 percent.
Instrument
The study made use of a researcher- made questionnaire
based from the mandated functions of the Sangguniang
Kabataan vested by the Local Government Code.
The researchers gathered facts in regard to the proposed
abolition of the Sangguniang Kabataan. They used the Local
Government Code itself specifically Chapter VIII- X to know the
mandated powers and functions of the organization. They also
made used of the opinions gathered which are composed of
reasons why or why not the organization must be abolished in
order for them to come up with the questionnaire that they used
to attain their objectives and to solve the problem.
The data- gathering instrument is consists of two parts.
Part I deals with the demographic profile of the respondents in
terms of age, gender, educational attainment, and category in
school. Part II is further subdivided into two division. The first
part deals with the mandated duties and functions by the LGC
as stated in Chapters VIII- X of the Code which are made up of
seven (7) items and the second part is consists of the reasons
for SK abolition which are composed of twenty- four (24)
positive and negative reasons and perception.
Procedure
The researchers gathered facts about the performance of
the SK officials of their mandated duties and functions and the
perception of the public on the issue of abolishing/ reforming
SK. Data are gathered through the combined efforts of the
researchers to look on matters relating to the topic. After
gathering the data, a questionnaire was prepared. The
questionnaire was submitted to the adviser for comments and
suggestions regarding the format and item content and after the
approval of the adviser, the said questionnaire was validated by
Atty. Anunciacion C. Bernardo, the Department Head for Social
Science and for the Paralegal Studies program. The
researchers then asked permission to the Officer- In- Charge of
College of Education, Arts and Sciences, through a found letter,
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 30 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 31

to allow them to administer the questionnaire to respondents.
Upon her consent, the researchers distributed the questionnaire
to the respondents and immediately collected it for efficient
process of data- gathering.
After the information was gathered, the quantitative result
were computed by the statistician while qualitative data were
first transcribed, analyze and then categorized to derive the
significant information. For further supports of the results of the
study, the researchers decided to conduct interviews to some
Sangguniang Kabataan officials about their opinions on the said
study. They are SK Regional Federation President Mark
Laurence Alvarez and an SK chairman of Bauan, Batangas,
Hon. Myra A. Manalo.
Data Analysis
All data were encoded, tallied, and interpreted using
descriptive statistics. Frequency distribution was used to
describe the profile of the respondents; weighted mean was
used to determine the performance of the duties and functions
mandated by Local Government Code and the perception
regarding SK Abolition; and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was
utilized to assess the significant difference on the reasons for
SK Abolition when grouped according to profile variables. The
data were also supported using PASW version 18 using 0.05
alpha level.
Results and Discussion

1. Profile of the respondents

Table 1 presents the profile of the respondents. Majority
belong to the 15 to 21 years old age bracket (84 %), female
(69.50 %), college undergraduate which comprised of 171
(85.5%).
In addition, majority of the respondents are students which
comprised of 172 (86%), followed by administrative personnel
(10%), and faculty (4%). Students are the majority respondents
since they are composed of the youth who are experiencing the
kind of governance the SK provides.
Table 1
Percentage Distribution of the Respondents Profile
N = 200


2. Assessment of the performance of the Sangguniang
Kabataan officials with regards to mandated duties and
responsibilities by the Local Government Code

Table 2 shows that the over-all assessment of the
respondents on the performance of the SK Officials with regards
Profile Variables Frequency Percentage (%)
Age
15- 21 years old 168 84.00
22-28 years old 15 7.50
29- 35 years old 10 5.00
36- 42 years old 5 2.50
43-49 years old 2 1.00
50 years old and above - -
Gender
Male 61 30.50
Female 139 69.50
Educational Attainment
College Undergraduate 171 85.50
College Graduate 12 6.00
With Masteral Unit 4 2.00
Masters Degree 11 5.50
With Doctoral Unit 1 0.50
Doctoral Degree 1 0.50
Classification
Student 172 86.00
Faculty 8 4.00
Administrative Personnel 20 10.00
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 32 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 33

Table 2
Assessment on the Performance of the SK Officials With
Regards to Mandated Duties and Responsibilities by the
Local Government Code (LGC)
N = 200

Legend: 3.50- 4.00 =Strongly Agree; 2.50- 3.49= Agree; 1.50- 2.49= Disagree; 1.00- 1.49=
Strongly Disagree

to mandated duties and responsibilities by the LGC was rated
Good (3.01). Among the items mentioned, initiation of programs
designed to enhance the social, political, economic, cultural,
intellectual, moral, spiritual, and physical development of the
members ranks first with weighted mean of 3.12 and rated
Good. The SK officials indeed become successful in initiating
programs that enhanced the skills and morals of its youth
constituents like having environmental protection activities,
infrastructure development, sports development activities and
different competitions on their respective barangay. An interview
with an SK chairman, Myra Manalo of Bauan, Batangas
supports the finding stating that Sangguniang Kabataan has its
own power distinct from the power of the Sangguniang
Barangay (SB). The projects implemented depend upon the
capacity and initiative of the youth officials. However, the study
conducted by University of the Philippines- Center for
Integrative Development Studies (UP- CIDS) negates the
aforementioned result since it reveals that there is a mismatch
between SK projects and what the youth really needs. Programs
on education and training, health and nutrition, anti-drug abuse
and livelihood were hardly mentioned.

It is followed by implementation of policies and programs
within his jurisdiction in coordination with the sangguniang
baranggay by the SK Chairman followed by submission of
annual and end- of- term reports to the sangguniang baranggay
on their projects and activities for the survival and development
of the youth in the baranggay with 3.07 and 3.05 mean value,
respectively. The SK chairman usually undergoes different
trainings and seminars in implementing policies and programs.
An interview with the Sangguniang Kabataan Regional
Federation (SKRF) President, Hon. Mark Laurence Alvarez,
supports this finding since the SK Chairman really ensures that
the policies and programs they are going to implement are very
much needed and that it would enhance its youth assembly
Duties and Functions
Weighted
Mean
Verbal
Interpretation
Rank

1. Promulgation of resolutions necessary
to carry out the objectives of the youth in
the baranggay.
3.03 Good 4
2. Initiation of programs designed to
enhance the social, political, economic,
cultural, intellectual, moral, spiritual, and
physical development of the members.
3.12 Good 1
3. Submission of annual and end- of- term
reports to the sangguniang baranggay on
their projects and activities for the survival
and development of the youth in the
baranggay.
3.05 Good 3
4. Meeting regularly once a month on the
date, time, and place fixed by the said
Sanggunian.
3.00 Good 5
5. Consultation and coordination with all
youth organizations in the baranggay for
policy formulation and program
implementation.
2.98 Good 6
6. Implementation of policies and
programs within his jurisdiction in
coordination with the sangguniang
baranggay by the SK Chairman.
3.07 Good 2
7. Coordination with the Pederasyon ng
mga Sangguniang Kabataan in the
conduct of an annual activity known as the
Linggo ng Kabataan.
2.81 Good 7
Composite Mean 3.01 Good
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 34 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 35

through proper guidance and consultation with the SB. This is
also supported by an article posted in Sangguniang Kabataan
Explained (June 18,2013), young leaders of a certain province
conducted leadership seminar that help SK presidents to
become self- reliant, dynamic and creative community leaders
and strengthen the moral values of the SK.

Even though all were positively assessed, items such as
consultation and coordination with all youth organizations in the
baranggay for policy formulation and program implementation
which has a weighted mean of 2. 98 with a verbal interpretation
of Good and the coordination with the Pederasyon ng mga
Sangguniang Kabataan in the conduct of an annual activity
known as the Linggo ng Kabataan got the lowest ranks with a
weighted mean of 2.81 and an interpretation of Good. Although
they are all rated Good, they still garnered low weighted mean
which shows that the respondents or some of them do not
consider these functions as effectively performed by the
officials. It should be noted, however, that the same study
conducted by UP- CIDS supports this finding which shows that
there was very little consultation with the youth in situational
analysis, planning, monitoring, and evaluation. Hon. Alvarez
also supports this finding by admitting that the SK officials have
activities separate with that of other youth organizations in the
barangay thus the youth participation in the barangay activities
and programs are also separated. As a remedy, he is planning
to unite all youth organizations in the province of Batangas by
creating what he called Provincial Youth Organization (PYC)
that will serve as their partners in performing their functions in
the barangay. However, Manalo negates the finding saying that
in their barangay, they are ensuring that they are coordinating
with other organizations for the welfare of the youth.
Furthermore, the Pederasyon ng mga Sangguniang Kabataan,
in its plan of action includes the annual celebration of the
Linggo ng Kabataan as a major project. Though it was rated
Good, it garnered low weighted mean which means that the
respondents are not at all convinced on this action by the
Pederasyon. This finding is supported by Hon. Alvarez who also
mentioned that the implementation of conducting this annual
activity is very low. He added that there is also lack of
communication between the SK officials themselves and with its
youth constituents in informing this matter while the other SK
officials contentions are due to lack of budget.

If there would be failure to meet regularly on terms fixed
by the Sanggunian, it may result to vague and formless plans
for the youth. Even though they have great objectives at the
start of their term, such were not realized since subsequent
planning are not being attained and activities are not being
prepared well due to lack of efficient communication. Interviews
show that due to conflict of schedule of the officials since most
are students having their priorities, this function are not at all
being observed. The study also revealed that though rated
Good, the duty of consulting and coordinating to other youth
organizations for policy formulation and program implementation
got low reception. Brought by their young hood and immaturity,
their lack of coordination and consultation as well as with the
Sangguniang Barangay itself, may in effect make wrong plans
and actions that may result to problems such as not thoroughly
planned activities, inconsistent and irrelevant objectives,
insufficient funds and uncomplimentary projects with other
organizations. Furthermore, the mandated annual activity of
conducting a Linggo ng Kabataan is not given enough
attention by the Sangguniang Kabataan and even by the
Pederasyon ng Sangguniang Kabataan. And because of this,
the true essence of the purpose of the youth in the community is
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 36 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 37

Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 36 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 37

not being realized. A lot of the youth does not know that there is
such an activity since they do not feel that it exists. Interviews
with several youth in the community proved that this was not
being implemented well since they are not in cognizance with
the said task. All this mandated duties that gained low reception
lead to the awareness that the organization must really be
vigilant in performing their functions especially because some of
their constituents are not at all convinced that they are really
serving their purpose in the community.
3. Perception of the respondents on the abolition of the
Sangguniang Kabataan

Table 3
Perception of the Respondents Regarding the
Reformation /Abolition of the SK
N = 200

Weighted
Mean
Verbal
Interpreta
tion
Rank
1. The SK officials are too young (aged 15-18)
to handle government positions and be given
responsibilities for a town or a citys young
population
2.79 Agree 14
2. The SK officials, being mainly students
cannot balance their education or their work
with being a barangay official.
2.67 Agree 17
3. If a youth is elected as SK, he needs to give
up or surrender his studies.
1.81 Disagree 24
4. SK officers must be exposed to education
and training to come up with better projects.
3.46 Agree 1
5. The SK fund has been used to important,
efficient and meaningful projects and activities
for the youth.
3.16 Agree 4
6. The SK has been a very good and efficient
venue for youth participation in local
governance.
3.11 Agree 6
7. SK contributes much in the holistic
development of the youth, molding them at a
very young age in leadership and managerial
skills, for the youth are deemed to be the Cont.
3.05 Agree 8
Cont. Of Table 3...
successors of todays leaders.
8. SK officials are actually implementing
projects that benefit both the youth and adults
in the barangay.
2.97 Agree 10.5
9. SK has been a good role model for their
youth constituents.
3.07 Agree 7
10. Despite the weaknesses of the SK, there
have been success stories that show its
potential as an important organization.
3.13 Agree 5
11. With SK, the youth sector has been given
an active opportunity to become real partners
in all levels of governance.
3.04 Agree 9
12. The SK officials have gained experiences
and learned new skills; and have become
responsible and accountable individuals.
3.18 Agree 3
13. The SKs possession of power makes them
prone to abusing it.
2.74 Agree 16
14. The SK has been the gateway to the
propagation of political dynasty.
2.90 Agree 12
15. The SK has been a breeding ground for
corruption.
2.56 Agree 22
16. Only the SK officials benefit from their
project.
2.58 Agree 20
17. The youths interests have not been
captured by the SK governing them and its
activities.
2.76 Agree 15
18. The SK projects are mere waste of money
and should be diverted to other projects
beneficial to the barangay.
2.59 Agree 19
19. SK officials do not perform their functions
effectively.
2.57 Agree 21
20. To be heard in the community, the youth
sector needs a parallel government like the SK.
2.97 Agree 10.5
21. The abolition of the SK is impractical. 2.64 Agree 18
22. The abolition of the SK is necessary. 2.52 Agree 23
23. The abolition of the SK would have a
negative effect on youth participation in local
governance.
2.82 Agree 13
24. Reformation, not abolition of the SK
organization would correct its failures and
shortcomings.
3.23 Agree 2
Composite Mean 2.79 Agree
Legend: 3.50 4.00 = Strongly Agree; 2.50 3.49 = Agree; 1.50 2.49 = Disagree;
1.00 1.49 = Strongly Disagree
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 38 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 39

From Table 3, it could be observed that the over- all
perception of the respondents on the abolition of the
Sangguniang Kabataan has a verbal interpretation of Agree (2.
79). Topping the list is the SK officers must be exposed to
education and training to come up with better projects with the
rank of first and weighted mean of 3.46 and interpreted as
Agree. This explains why SK officials, in order for them to be
more responsible and competitive, must undergo several
trainings and be more educated with the mandated duties so
that improved activities shall be initiated in the community.

The national SK Study funded by UNICEF and
spearheaded by DILG NBOO and NAPC Youth and Students
Sector supports the above finding which provides that the SKs
need support and guidance for them to succeed. They need
proper orientation on their functions and how to go about with
them. However, Manalo once stated that the trainings provided
by the DILG are not at all efficient and the SK officials
themselves are mostly not serious with the objectives of the
seminars. Some have their personal motives on attending other
than learning things to enhance their performance in the
barangay.

Coming in as close is reformation, not abolition of the SK
organization would correct its failures and shortcomings, which
has a weighted mean of 3.23 similarly interpreted as Agree.
Although it is evident in the study that SK has its defects and
shortcomings, the respondents assessed that through
reformation, it may be corrected. This finding is supported by
Marcos (2012) who avowed that he sees the need for
strengthening SK rather than abolishing it. He further stated that
he stands for the reform of the Sangguniang Kabataan rather
than the abolition. Hon. Alvarez is also for reformation since the
SK is already institutionalized and in fact, last April they have
already made the necessary amendments with the SK
Constitution and By-laws.

SK officials have gained experiences and learned new
skills; and have become responsible and accountable
individuals followed by the SK fund has been used to important,
efficient, and meaningful projects and activities for the youth
rank third and fourth having a weighted mean of 3.18 and 3.16
respectively. Through successive seminars and activities that
truly enhanced not just the proficiency, capacity and aptitude of
their constituents and also that of their officers, this institution
progressively become responsible and accountable. As
supported by Bautista (2010), some SKs have served their
communities by funding the establishment of day care centers,
livelihood and tree planting projects. Some have passed no-
smoking ordinances, curfew on minors, ban on waste chemical
dumping, and sports facilities for the youth. Manalo also said
that their funds are not just devoted on sports league or other
petty competitions but to valuable projects like giving of school
supplies to students and infrastructure endeavours. In addition,
Hon. Alvarez said that before they execute projects and
programs, he sees to it if it will benefit the youth at large and
what they will be doing are among their mandated duties or
under the SK Constitution and By-laws in order to save the
governments funds from insignificant projects.
Trailing the rank is despite the weaknesses of SK, there
has been success stories that showed its potential as an
important organization with a weighted mean of 3.13 rated as
Agree. Although there were weaknesses; still, there are projects
and programs spearheaded by the SK not just to improve their
leadership skills but also to involve the youth into meaningful
programs that would benefit them and their community. This
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 40 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 41

finding is sustained by the study conducted by Lara (2008) who
states that one good example is Councilor Allen Reodanga of
Naga City. He urged his fellow SK officers to celebrate the
Linggo ng Kabataan in every community. An addition is Joshua
Ybaez of Barangay Luz, Cebu. His official role to lead the
youth was hindered by is unfamiliarity with the tenets of
governance. Fortunately, Ronnia Sab-a, a barangay
administrator, served as his mentor. Sab-a tutored him in the
complexities of governing. He also exposed Ybaez and his
fellow councillors to expanded possibilities beyond the holding
of summer sports fest for the youth. Furthermore, Councilor
Reodanga conducted youth consultations to understand the
present situation of the youth in Naga City. The outputs of these
consultations shall be used in crafting the youth agenda of Naga
City. Furthermore, Sangguniang Kabataan Explained (June 18,
2013) supports it. It stated that the best example of SK is SK
Bohol which accomplished several programs such as Linggo
ng Kabataan 2002, The ISKOLAR- BOS, Lakbay- Aral, SK-
Eco Adventure Challenge Race, and Student Government
Management Training Program.

However, even as rated Agree, only the SK officials
benefit from their projects only got a 2.58 weighted mean
making it 5
th
to the lowest rank. This means that some of the
respondents are not all convinced that projects and policies
implemented by the officials are only for their respective
convenience. The study of Loyola (2013) on the other hand,
negates the finding saying that the possession of power can
make one prone to abusing it, a fairly apparent problem.
Teenage officials with a significant amount of money are quite
possibly a recipe for disaster. It is followed by SK officials do not
perform their functions effectively with a weighted mean of 2. 57
rated as Agree. Some of the respondents still believe that SK is
carrying out what they are expected to do. Furthermore, this
finding is in support of the general finding of the second
objective which is the respondents assessed the performance of
the SK officials with its mandated functions by the LGC as
Good. Tersol and Domingo (2012) support this by mentioning
that there have been numerous projects organized by SK that
have greatly affected communities and barangays. It has been a
big aide in executing the functions of the barangay council. The
current SK constitution and by-laws oblige the youth council to
be encompassing. It has divided the SK into a multi-faceted
organization which is able to accommodate the major needs of
the youth.

And because of the aforementioned results, the SK has
been a breeding ground for corruption was rated Agree having a
low 2. 56 weighted mean. Each project of the Sangguniang
Kabataan has an equivalent statement of account/ budget that
contains the list of all the expenditures that preclude the
exploitation of funds. Hon. Alvarez and Manalo also said that
their budget is being audited by the Commission on Audit
(COA). The article of Castillo sustains the finding. It is stated
that Rep. Teodoro of Marikina said that if there are instances of
corruption as stated by the President, the system need to be
reviewed if not strengthened. He further stated that it is not the
SK who is corrupt but the system itself. The SK falls prey and is
taken advantage of by unwieldy and unscrupulous contractors.
The youth should play an important part in nation building and
should not be immediately dismissed without reviewing their
mandate and finding ways to reform the SK system.
Likewise, the call for abolition of the said institution
gained low response since the abolition of the SK is necessary
got the 2
nd
to the lowest rank which garnered 2.52 weighted
mean rated as Agree. The SK, though has problems, need not
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 42 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 43

be abolished. It still plays a vital role on youth development and
is still considered by the youth as their voice in the government.
The study conducted by Cornelio (2008) complements the
finding. It was found out that despite the many challenges, the
SK, an embodiment youth participation in nation building
enshrined in the constitution and supported by many laws, is an
institution worth continuously developing.
Although most items are assessed as Agree,
interestingly, only one item turned out to be rated Disagree
which is if a youth is elected as SK, he needs to give up or
surrender his studies which has a weighted mean of 1.81 and
ranked as the lowest item. Once you become an SK official, it
presupposes that you have a good standing as a person and
most of the time performing well in school. In support of the
finding, Tersol and Domingo (2012) says that from the House
Bill 2534 the author believes that youth should be given more
time to prepare and gradually realize whats behind the world
they are entering. On the other hand, Hon. Alvarez mentioned
that you cannot master two things at the same time. Though
there are sacrifices, he believes that it would be better to focus
oneself as a public servant since it is a duty and a privilege. One
can choose to merely focus on studies; however, if one engages
himself into something, like as a public servant, he must take it
seriously. Sometimes it cannot be avoided that you will have
more time in performing your duties as a public servant.

The study shows that the respondents agree that
abolishing SK is impractical and it will have a negative effect on
the youth participation in local governance since the SK is a
necessary mechanism to uphold the interest and welfare of the
youth sector through a democratically established institution for
governance. Abolishing the SK is equivalent to repression of the
democratic rights and welfare of the youth. What the SK needs
right now are reforms, not abolition. Problems and issues
identified have appropriate reforms to address such problems
that would cure its defects. Bills must prosper aiming for the
enhancement and betterment of the only government youth
sector in the world. On the other hand, the Sangguniang
Kabataan itself and those individual composing it must take a
little stop and think of why all of this clamor of removing them
into existence are filling up the news and the bucket list of the
legislators. They must take into account that the organization
really is ill; and it must be healed, as soon as possible.
4. Difference in the perception of the respondents when
grouped according to profile variables

Table 4
Difference of Responses on the Perception Regarding the
Abolition of the SK When Grouped According to Profile
Variables
= 0.05
Legend: Significant at p-value < 0.05; HS = Highly Significant; S = Significant; NS
= Not Significant.
A look on the table shows that all computed F-values
were all less than the critical value and the resulted p-values
were all greater than 0.05 level of significance, thus the null
hypothesis of no significant difference on the perception
regarding the abolition of SK when grouped according to profile
variables is accepted. This means that no difference exists and
implies that all of the respondents have the same perception on
Profile Variables F
c
p-
value
Decision Interpretation
Age 1.402 0.076 Accepted Not Significant
Gender 1.361 0.096 Accepted Not Significant
Educational
Attainment
1.444 0.060 Accepted Not Significant
Classification 1.165 0.253 Accepted Not Significant
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 44 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 45

the abolition of SK. Regardless of their profile variables, what
are deemed important are merely their views about the
performance of the organization. Either they belong on the
youth group or the older member of the community, or they are
male or female, or they have reached different levels of
educational attainment or either they belong to any of the
classifications as part of the Lyceum Community, their
perception does not vary.

5. Proposed Action Plan to improve the performance of SK
officials
Table 5
Proposed Action Plan
Conclusion
1. Majority of the respondents are from the age ranging
from 15- 21 years old, female, undergraduate and
students.

2. The respondents assessed the performance of the SK
officials with its mandated functions by the LGC as Good.

3. Instead of abolition, the respondents perceive that
reformation would correct SKs failures and
shortcomings.
4. There is no significant difference in the perception of the
respondents with regards to the abolition of the SK when
grouped according to profile variables.

5. An action plan was proposed to further improve the
performance of the SK officials.

Recommendations
1. The government, specifically, the DILG may review the
provisions of RA 7160 implementing the duties and
functions mandated to the Sangguniang Kabataan and
seek for its stronger implementation.

2. The SK officials may strengthen the implementation of
the activity Linggo ng Kabataan through stricter rules
and collaboration with other LGU in the locality and
disseminate information especially between officers.

Specific Objectives Program Responsible
Persons
1. To improve and ensure
that the annual activity
known as the Linggo
ng Kabataan is being
performed so as to
inform the youth
assembly and be
participative of it.
Sangguniang Bayan,
Panlungsod and Barangays
collaboration with the annual
activity of Linggo ng Kabataan.

Information- Dissemination
Local Government
Unit Officers

SK Officials
2. To improve the duty of
the SK officials in
consultation and
coordination with other
youth organizations in
the barangay for policy
formulation and
program
implementation.
SK and other youth
organizations quarterly meetings





SK Officials
3. To ensure that the SK
officials are conducting
a monthly meeting on
the terms fixed by the
said Sanggunian.
Implementation of monthly
meeting through a systematic
schedule which will not be
prejudicial to any of the officers

Barangay and SK
officials
4. To disseminate the
learning acquired by
the SK officials from
various seminars and
conferences that they
are attending.
Echoing of Seminars in the
Barangay and Municipality
SK Officials
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 46 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 47

3. The SK officials may meet at least quarterly with other
youth organizations so as to consult and coordinate with
them on issues of policy formulation and program
implementation.

4. The SK officials may re- echo seminars to their youth
constituents in the barangay or in the municipality on
where they attended to disseminate the learning they
acquired from various seminars and conferences.

5. The SK officials must be more serious with this
endeavour that they entered. They must imbibed all the
learning and skills taught to them by the higher officials
so that they would really live up on the purpose on why
they are created.

6. The DILG may also evaluate the performance of the SK
officials based on their annual and end- of- term reports
to see to it if they are performing what they are expected
to do.

7. Lastly, the action plan proposed by the researchers may
be used to make the SK a more effective organization for
local youth participation.










































Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 48
References

Abolition of Sangguniang Kabataan Sought (2008). Retrieved
June 20, 2013, from
http://www.senate.gov.ph/press_release/2008/0413_pim
entel1.asp
Balanon, F., Ong M., Torre, B., Puzon, M., Granada, J. and
Trinidad, A. (2007).The Impact of Youth Participation
in the Local Government Process.
Bautista, J. R. (2010). Reforming a Unique System: What has
Gone Wrong with the SK?
LormaHighlights.Retrieved July 18, 2013, from
lormahighlights.com/2010/12/reforming-a-unique-system-
what-has-gone-wrong-with-the-sk/.
Bringas, T. (2010).The Great SK Debate: Do we really need
the Sangguniang Kabataan?SK Reform and
Empowerment Coalition. Retrieved June 21, 2013
fromhttp://skreformcoalition.wordpress.com/2010/08/26/t
he-great- sk-debate-do-we-really-need-the-
sangguniang-kabataan/
Camporazo, G. (2011). SK Aboiliton: To be or not to
be?Random Thoughts of GilCamporazo.Retrieved June
20, 2013,
fromhttp://www.gilcamporazorandomthoughts.info/2011/0
7/sk-abolition-to-be-or-not-to-be.html.
Chan Robles Virtual Law Library.The Local Government Code
of 1991.
Cornelio, M. (2010).The Right Road to Meaningful Youth
Participation. Retrieved June 18, 2013, from
akbayanyouth.wordpress.com/.../the-right-road-to-
meaningful- youth-par...
Castillo, L. V. (2010). Lawmakers hit P-Noy for SK abolition.
Retrieved June 20, 2013,
fromhttp://www.congress.gov.ph/press/details.php?pressi
d=4354
Howard, C. J. (2010). Weighing the future of the SK. Retrieved
June 23, 2013, fromhttp://www.abscbnnews.com/-
depth/08/17/10/weighing-future-sk
Katigbak, T. (2013).Time to abolish the Sangguniang
Kabataan.The Philippine Star. Retrieved July 29,
2013,from http://www.philstar.com/opinion/2013/07/10/96
3744/time-abolish- sangguniang-kabataan.
Lara, J.M. C. (2008). The Abolition of the Sangguniang
Kabataan as a Reinvention of Youth Representation.
Loyola, R. (2013). 25 Centavos Worth the SK dilemma:
Abolish or amend? The Lasallian. Retrieved June 29,
2013, from http://thelasallian.com/2013/06/11/25-
centavos-worth-the-sk-dilemma-abolish-or-amend/.
Lomax, R., Li, J. (2013). Correlational Research. Retrieved
June 20, 2013, from
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 49 Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 50

http://www.education.com/reference/article/correlational-
research/
National Youth Council (NYC) Singapore (2011).Retrieved
July 27, 2013, from
http://www.nyc.pa.gov.sg/index.php/about-us.
National Youth Council of Ireland (2011).Retrieved July 27,
2013,
fromhttp://www.welfare.ie/en/downloads/national_youth_
council_of_ireland.pdf.
Sangguniang Kabataan Explained. Retrieved June 18, 2013
fromhttp://everything.explained.at/Sangguniang_Kabataa
n/.
Strengthen the SK, not abolish. (2012). Retrieved July 21,
2013, from
http://www.bongbongm.com/2012/06/strengthen-sk-not-
abolish/.
Tersol M., Domingo H. (2012). SK: on the verge of abolition.
Retrieved June 18, 2013, from
http://heinrichmarkfil.wordpress.com/2012/03/12/sk-on-
the-verge-of-abolition/.


Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan 51

Appendix A
Letter to the Dean

July 2013

Dr. Imelda An
Officer- In- Charge
College of Education Arts and Sciences

Dear Maam:

We, the AB Paralegal IV are conducting our study entitled
Performance of the Sangguniang Kabataan Officials as Mandated by
the Local Government Code of 1991: An Assessment, which is a
course requirement in AB Paralegal IV in this university.

Given that premise, we are humbly asking for your permission to allow
us to distribute our questionnaires to our respondents during their
most convenient time.

Hoping this will merit your kind approval.

Thank you so much for your incessant support.

Sincerely,
Jovel C. Baja
Gilbert G.Carandang
Alyssa Clarizze E. Malaluan
Justin T. Vergara

Noted by:


Dr. Ma. Rosario Tamayo
Adviser, Research 2

Appendix B
Letter to the Dean of Different Colleges

July 2013
Dean
College

May your day be blessed!
The undersigned are currently conducting a study entitledPerformance of
the Sangguniang Kabataan Officials as Mandated by the Local
Government Code of 1991: An Assessment, which is a course
requirement in AB Paralegal IV in this university. In connection with this
academic endeavour, the undersigned humbly seek permission from your
good office to please allow us to disseminate questionnaires in your
respective college which will serve as the primary source of data for the said
study. Rest assured that confidentiality will be exercised in this data-
gathering procedure.
Your approval regarding this matter will be highly appreciated.
Thank you and more power.

Sincerely,
Jovel C. Baja
Gilbert G. Carandang
Alyssa Clarizze E. Malaluan
Justin T. Vergara

Noted by:

Dr. Ma. Rosario Tamayo
Adviser, Research 2
Atty. Anunciacion C. Bernardo
Dept. Chairman, Paralegal Studies
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan i Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan ii


Appendix C
Letter to the HRMDO

July 3, 2013
Sir/Madame:
May your day be blessed!
The undersigned are currently conducting a studyPerformance of the
Sangguniang Kabataan Officials as Mandated by the Local
Government Code of 1991: An Assessment, which is a course
requirement in AB Paralegal IV in this university.

In connection with this academic endeavour, the undersigned humbly
seek permission from your good office to have a copy of the names
and total number of faculty staff and administrative personnel in this
university. Rest assured that confidentiality will be exercised in this
data- gathering procedure.

Your approval regarding this matter will be highly appreciated.
Thank you and more power.
Sincerely,
Jovel C. Baja
Gilbert G. Carandang
Alyssa Clarizze E. Malaluan
Justin T. Vergara

Noted by:

Dr. Ma. Rosario Tamayo
Adviser, Research 2

Appendix D
Letter to the Respondent
July 2013

Dear Respondents:

We, the AB Paralegal IV are conducting our study Performance of
the Sangguniang Kabataan Officials as Mandated by the Local
Government Code of 1991: An Assessment, which is a course
requirement in AB Paralegal IV in this university.

Cognizant to this matter, we have chosen you to be one of the
respondents of our study. We are humbly asking for your most
convenient time to answer our questionnaire.

Your support will be highly appreciated.

Sincerely,
Jovel C. Baja
Gilbert G. Carandang
Alyssa Clarizze E. Malaluan
Justin T. Vergara

Noted by:

Dr. Ma. Rosario Tamayo
Adviser, Research 2







Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan iii Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan iv


Appendix E
Questionnaire Used

PERFORMANCE OF THE SANGGUNIANG KABATAAN
OFFICIALS AS MANDATED BY THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT
CODE OF 1991: AN ASSESSMENT
I. PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS

NAME: (Optional)
AGE: __15- 21
__22-28
__29- 35
__36- 42
__43-49
__ 50 and above


GENDER: Male __Female
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT: __ College Undergraduate
__ College Graduate
__ With Masteral Unit
__ Masters Degree
__ With Doctoral Unit
__ Doctoral Degree

CATEGORY: __Student
__ Faculty
__ Administrative Personnel

II.RESPONDENTS PERCEPTION TO SK ABOLITION
DIRECTION: PLEASE CHECK THE APPROPRIATE COLUMN OF
YOUR CHOICE USING THE FOLLOWING DESCRIPTION.
ANSWER TRUTHFULLY AND HONESTLY.

VERY GOOD- 4
GOOD- 3
FAIR- 2
POOR - 1

I. DUTIES AND FUNCTIONS MANDATED BY LGC



4 3 2 1
The Sangguniang Kabataan has been
able

1. To promulgate resolutions necessary to
carry out the objectives of the youth in the
baranggay.

2. To initiate programs designed to enhance
the social, political, economic, cultural,
intellectual, moral, spiritual, and physical
development of the members.

3. To submit annual and end- of- term reports
to the sangguniang baranggay on their
projects and activities for the survival and
development of the youth in the baranggay.

4. To meet regularly once a month on the
date, time, and place fixed by the said
Sanggunian.

5. To consult and coordinate with all youth
organizations in the baranggay for policy
formulation and program implementation.

Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan v Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan vi


II. PERCEPTION ON SK ABOLITION

STRONGLY AGREE-4
AGREE- 3
DISAGREE- 2
STRONGLY DISAGREE- 1
4 3 2 1
1. The SK officials are too young (aged 15-18)
to handle government positions and be
given responsibilities for a town or a citys
young population

2. The SK officials, being mainly students
cannot balance their education or their work
with being a barangay official.

3. If a youth is elected as SK, he needs to give
up or surrender his studies.

4. SK officers must be exposed to education
and training to come up with better projects.






6. The SK Chairman has been able to
implement policies and programs within his
jurisdiction in coordination with the
sangguniang baranggay.

7. The SK, in coordination with the
Pederasyon ng mga Sangguniang
Kabataan, has been able to conduct an
annual activity known as the Linggo ng
Kabataan.

5. The SK fund has been used to important, efficient
and meaningful projects and activities for the
youth.

6. The SK has been a very good and efficient venue
for youth participation in local governance.

7. SK contributes much in the holistic development of
the youth, molding them at a very young age in
leadership and managerial skills, for the youth are
deemed to be the successors of todays leaders.

8. SK officials are actually implementing projects that
benefit both the youth and adults in the barangay.

9. SK has been a good role model for their youth
constituents.

10. Despite the weaknesses of the SK, there have
been success stories that show its potential as an
important organization.

11. With SK, the youth sector has been given an active
opportunity to become real partners in all levels of
governance.

12. The SK officials have gained experiences and
learned new skills; and have become responsible
and accountable individuals

13. The SKs possession of power makes them prone
to abusing it.

14. The SK has been the gateway to the propagation
of political dynasty.

15. The SK has been a breeding ground for corruption.
16. Only the SK officials benefit from their project.
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan vii
Cont... Cont...
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan viii
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan ix
Cont...
























17. The youths interests have not been
captured by the SK governing them and its
activities.

18. The SK projects are mere waste of money
and should be diverted to other projects
beneficial to the barangay.

19. SK officials do not perform their functions
effectively.

20. To be heard in the community, the youth
sector needs a parallel government like the
SK.

21. The abolition of the SK is impractical.
22. The abolition of the SK is necessary.
23. The abolition of the SK would have a
negative effect on youth participation in
local governance.


24. Reformation, not abolition of the SK
organization would correct its failures and
shortcomings.

Cont...
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan ix



Appendix F
StatisticalOutput


Frequencies


Statistics


AGE GENDER EDUCATION CATEGORY
N
Valid 200 200 200 200
Missing 0 0 0 0



Frequency Table

AGE


Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid
1.00 168 84.0 84.0 84.0
2.00 15 7.5 7.5 91.5
3.00 10 5.0 5.0 96.5
4.00 5 2.5 2.5 99.0
5.00 2 1.0 1.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0




GENDER


Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid
1.00 61 30.5 30.5 30.5
2.00 139 69.5 69.5 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0


EDUCATION


Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid
1.00 171 85.5 85.5 85.5
2.00 12 6.0 6.0 91.5
3.00 4 2.0 2.0 93.5
4.00 11 5.5 5.5 99.0
5.00 1 .5 .5 99.5
6.00 1 .5 .5 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0


CATEGORY


Frequency Percent
Valid
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Valid
1.00 172 86.0 86.0 86.0
2.00 8 4.0 4.0 90.0
3.00 20 10.0 10.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0

Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan x Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan xi

Descriptives

Descriptive Statistics


N Minimum Maximum Mean
Std.
Deviation
D1 200 1.00 4.00 3.0250 .67576
D2 200 1.00 4.00 3.1200 .72680
D3 200 1.00 4.00 3.0500 .78138
D4 200 1.00 4.00 3.0000 .75688
D5 200 1.00 4.00 2.9800 .78273
D6 200 1.00 4.00 3.0650 .77055
D7 200 1.00 4.00 2.8050 .94416
DUTIES 200 1.00 4.00 3.0064 .62283
Valid N
(listwise)
200


Descriptives

Descriptive Statistics


N Minimum Maximum Mean
Std.
Deviation
P1 200 1.00 4.00 2.7900 .86000
P2 200 1.00 4.00 2.6650 .84638
P3 200 1.00 4.00 1.8100 .94252
P4 200 1.00 4.00 3.4550 .62444
P5 200 1.00 4.00 3.1550 .79633
P6 200 1.00 4.00 3.1100 .72146
P7 200 1.00 4.00 3.0500 .74853
P8 200 1.00 4.00 2.9700 .80769
P9 200 1.00 4.00 3.0650 .77055
P10 200 1.00 4.00 3.1300 .63649
P11 200 1.00 4.00 3.0350 .68272
P12 200 1.00 4.00 3.1800 .70718
P13 200 1.00 4.00 2.7350 .87671
P14 200 1.00 4.00 2.8950 .78553
P15 200 1.00 4.00 2.5550 .92262
P16 200 1.00 4.00 2.5800 .93163
P17 200 1.00 4.00 2.7600 .79090
P18 200 1.00 4.00 2.5850 .87556
P19 200 1.00 4.00 2.5650 .80562
P20 200 1.00 4.00 2.9700 .76945
P21 200 1.00 4.00 2.6400 .80226
P22 200 1.00 4.00 2.5200 .87947
P23 200 1.00 4.00 2.8200 .78144
P24 200 1.00 4.00 3.2300 .80019
PERCEPTI 200 1.54 3.79 2.8446 .33777
Valid N
(listwise)
200





Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan xii Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan xiii


Oneway


ANOVA
AGE


Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 29.340 39 .752 1.402 .076
Within Groups 85.840 160 .536

Total 115.180 199





Oneway


ANOVA
GENDER


Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 10.558 39 .271 1.361 .096
Within Groups 31.837 160 .199

Total 42.395 199










Oneway

ANOVA
EDUCATION


Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 38.739 39 .993 1.444 .060
Within Groups 110.041 160 .688

Total 148.780 199




Oneway

ANOVA
CATEGORY


Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 16.919 39 .434 1.165 .253
Within Groups 59.561 160 .372

Total 76.480 199







Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan xiv
Performance of Sangguniang Kabataan xv
AUTHORS INFORMATION
ALYSSA CLARIZZE EBETE- MALALUAN is a 20- year old lady who
finished a Bachelors Degree in Paralegal Studies in Lyceum of the
Philippines University- Batangas. She has her permanent residence in
Brgy. San Isidro, Taysan, Batangas. During her college years, she has
been given with various scholarship programs such as Academic
Scholarship as Class Valedictorian in high school, LGU Scholarship of
Taysan, and Resident Scholarship of LPU- Batangas. She has been a
Vice President of the Paralegal Society and Secretary of the CEAS Honor
Society, both for AY 2013- 2014, and at the same time, a consistent deans lister. This well-
motivated and keen woman aimed high to be a litigation lawyer in the near future and at the
same time help her family. After graduation, shell scheme out her pursuit of law career.
JOVEL CASTILLO- BAJA is a 20- year old gent who took up Bachelor
of Arts in Paralegal Studies in Lyceum of the Philippines University-
Batangas and who currently resides in Ferry, KumintangIbaba,
Batangas City. In college, he spent his first three years as a student
assistant in the said university. This hardworking and efficient man
aspires to be a lawyer, and at the same time, a politician in the near
future. After graduating, he planned to look for a good job and pursue
his studies to become a lawyer.
GILBERT GARAA- CARANDANG is a 21- year- old gent who
finished a Bachelors Degree in Paralegal Studies in Lyceum of the
Philippines University- Batangas. He currently lives in Brgy. Bigain
South, San Jose, Batangas. As a Class Valedictorian in high school
and a consistent deans lister in college, he has been awarded a full
scholarship by the Batangas Province Scholarship Program (BPSP)
and became an auditor of the Paralegal Society (AY 2013- 2014) and a
member of the CEAS Honor Society. Being an enthusiasts and well-
focused man, he intends to be a lawyer someday and he will be in pursuit of that plan after
graduation.
JUSTIN TAMAYO- VERGARA is a 19- year- old gent who took up
Bachelor of Arts in Paralegal Studies in Lyceum of the Philippines
University- Batangas. He has his residence in Brgy. Coral naMunti,
Agoncillo, Batangas. This God- fearing and gleeful man loves to work
with others since he enjoys others company. He is also a sport-
enthusiast, being a college player for four years. After graduation, he
planned to enter the Philippine National Police Academy (PNPA) and
finally fulfill his goal of being a high- ranking police officer.

Похожие интересы