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# Harmonics Modeling and Harmonic Activity

## Analysis of Equipments with Switch Mode

Power Supply using MATLAB and Simulink
B. Acarkan, Member, IEEE, K. Erkan
Department of Electrical Engineering
Yildiz Technical University, 34349, Istanbul, Turkey
acarkangyildiz.edu.tr kerkangyildiz.edu.tr
Abstract-Power quality problems are increasing with the * Malfunction of electronic equipment
widespread use of electronic equipments, which cause * Communication interference
harmonic distortion of voltages and currents. Individually, a * Distorted supply voltage
low power single-phase nonlinear load may not pose many * increased power losses
serious harmonic problems but large concentrations of these
loads have the potential to raise harmonic voltages and * Errors inpowermeterig
currents to unacceptable levels and harmonic current * Inadvertent thermal tripping of relays, circuit
"pollution" is a one of the major power quality problem in breakers and protective devices [3]-[4].
electrical power systems. In this study, nonlinear resistance
and harmonic models of the equipments with switch mode Terminal equations of electronic loads cannot be written
power supply (SMPS) are carried out using MATLABg. in form of v=R i or i=G v because of their switch mode
Afterwards, Simulinko single-phase and three-phase power supplies. However, nonlinear characteristics of
simulations are developed for both phase and neutral nonlinear loads can be described as follows:
harmonic activity analysis. The symmetrical components
theory is implemented under balanced nonsinusoidal F(i,v)=O (1)
conditions.
Common nonlinear load characteristics of office
Keywords-Harmonics, power quality, nonlinear equipments are [5]:
modeling, the symmetrical components, MATLABg, * Instant current is not proportional to instant voltage,
Simulink®.
* Current pulses arise on each maximum value of
I. INTRODUCTION * voltage,
Even if terminal voltage waveform is sinusoidal, the
Harmonic producing equipments are found in varied current waveform is nonsinusoidal,
locations from offices to manufacturing plants and they * The ratio between maximum value and rms value of
are becoming inevitable in daily life. Various harmonic the current differs,
producing equipments are. * Terminal equation is represented by a nonlinear
* Personal computers function.
* Electronic lighting ballasts
* Variable and adjustable speed drives
* Industrial process controls
H Electronic test equipment
* Solid state controls
* UPS systems
* Medical equipments
* Electronic household appliances.
Harmonic currents generated by electronic equipments
increase power system heat losses and the power bills of
end users. Nonlinear loads injecting harmonic currents "n 22OsN 2- B3w MAL
create harmonic problems in the low voltage distribution | -------
system. The injected currents are propagated to alll -
distribution circuits and lead to harmonic voltage |-
distortion on the system [1]-[2]. Harmonic currents can A- J > - L |i
cause suchl problems as: . -- ---
* Overheating or derating of transformerl
* Overloading neutral conductors ---e---------"
* Excessive heating of wiring and connections ___tee_e______________________I
* Damaging of capacitor banks
* Resonance Fig. 1. Test rigs and sample waveform measurement screen (PC).

## 1 -4244-0743-5/07/\$20.OO ©2007 IEEE 508

II. NONLINEAR MODELING
Solving a circuit, which contains more than one
nonlinear element, with common analytic methods, is not
'lg4 Current T0nL
possible. If there is a single nonlinear element in a linear
network, construction of a load line permits a simple - a

## graphical solution [5].

Circuits involving nonlinear elements can be solved in Hl..i,N~b,, P

## various ways depending on the nature of the problem and -+CURRENT UU V

the form of the data. Newton-Raphson Iterative Method 2V3 _213 2
and Simulinki models are implemented to solve
(NRIM) 2 AMPERI AMPER2 r AMPER r AMPER4 AMPER5 AMPER6 AMPER7 r AMPEn
single-phase equivalent circuits. Test and measurement R5M1
RM20 S R5M1 S RMM1 7 R5M1 6; R5M1 5 RMi11
R5M7
rigs are shown in "Fig. 1".
Fig. 3. SimulinkR9 model of nonlinear single-phase circuit consisting of
equipments with SMPS.
5 laSerjetVS l5je ~~5~~~~~~~r~--T--,___
l_fitO01

## F55Ed _ D. Harmonic Current Injection Model

1. ------ ------------------ -Electronic equipments inspected in this study, because
%i 6iiiy-1= 1.45 ---n------------------ --,---- ------ --------- of their switch mode or rectifier power supply, have
I-P- 14 ------------I------ T------ I -------------I----spiked current waveform s that contain essentially odd

## 1B4th d.g,.. poly-o

1.35 ------------ -------- harmonics. Consequently, the equipments can be modeled
--------------- I
-- - - as parallel harmonic current sources with definite
125 /------+-------------- --------I-----t------q-------l--- magnitude and phase angle as other electronic loads [8].
_A6 1.Z FUI i 'I i I L_ 'i I nHarmonic current injection model of a single-phase
5200 205 210 215 220 225 23 235 240 circuit is shown in "Fig. 4." Voltage levels of the
harmonic current spectrums varies with the A V= V.
H_lg

i
11N11111111 II

## A. Nonlinear Voltage-Current Characteristics

In order to solve the nonlinear circuit via 1\ATLABI, C
nonlinear voltage-current characteristics of equipments are r I
220 1 2191 219 2 219 3 218 1 218 2 218 3
obtained using Curve Fitting toolbox from real measured
data. Polynomial type functions are implemented for the R -
characteristics of all equipments "Fig. 2." 173

B. Newton-RaphsonIfterative Method ,
Since.the
Newton-Raphson
IterativeMethod forsolvingFig. 4. Single-phase SimulinkR harmonic current injection model.
Since the Newton-Raphson method for solving F(x)=O
which can be a polynomial, or transcendental equation of
one variable is based on the Taylor's series involving the E. Symmetrical Component under nonsinusoidal
derivatives of F(x), it can be extended to the solution of conditions
two-equations FI(x,y)=O and F2(x,y)=O by application of The current in a balanced, three-phase nonsinusoidal
Taylor's series involving partial derivatives of both F1 and system is given by [9],
F2 with respect to x and y [6]. A MATLABR code has
been developed for analyzing nonlinear circuits using
NRIM with the V=F(J) characteristics. ia () = 2 I sin(ot) + 2 'h sin(hot + (h)
ib (t) = 2 I sin(ot - 120) + 2 Ih sin(h(ot - 120) + Ph) (2)
C. Simulink Model ic (t) = 2 I sin(ot + 120°) + 2 Ih sin(h(ot + 1200) + Ph)
Nonlinear modeling with SimulinkR is easier, quicker
and more flexible than developing a code. Because of aninsmerclopnntfr:
using controlled current source in nonlinear model block,
terminal equation must be in form of I=~F( V). According
the circuit solution of Simulink model with nonlinear i tfnaetlfeuny
resistance simulation, the voltage and current distribution 1Il F 1 rIZo0 iFol
is obtained [7]. Nonlinear resistance model and L\$o1 tL- a a2 11IL-10 1= (3)
voltage-current distribution of a single-phase circuit are a1 1 ''
shown in "Fig. 3." LI2 L 2 a iLI10 J L0J

509
ii. At the general harmonic h: equivalent circuits. According to voltage and current
FI 0 1 ± l IFt F' -distributions corresponding harmonic current injection
1 1 1 Ih fh models are implemented for three-phase Simulink®
II =-1 a a IhZ(-h. 120 + fh) (4) models.
3z22LL11
I2i a
a2 a j--Ihl(h. + 2h)
120' +Ph)
LlhZ(h.12O° Three-phase simulations are performed to compare
phase and neutral current values and waveforms for
Three possible cases emerge from this general balanced (3 scenarios) and unbalanced (3 scenarios)
condition, the cases of positive, negative and zero nonsinusoidal conditions. Balanced scenarios are carried
sequence harmonics. Harmonic phase sequences in a out for 4x18 W electronic ballasted fluorescent lighting
balanced three-phase power system are also given in fixtures, PCs and combination of lighting fixtures and PCs
Table I [10]. for eight-equipment on the each phase line and the
TABLE I symmetrical components theory is also applied to verify
HARMONIC PHASE SEQUENCES neutral current analysis. Unbalanced scenarios include all
Harmonic Phase equipments mentioned above, and their combinations are
Order Sequence given in Table II. All measured equipments have
1 + antisymmetrical waveforms to the vertical axis at the
3 origin. Because of their odd function properties only odd
4 + harmonic components are taken into consideration in
5 - models. A three-phase Simulink® model of second
6 0 unbalanced scenario is shown in "Fig. 5." Symmetrical
components values of balanced Simulink® models are
The harmonics h=3n±1, for n integer, e.g. h=4,7,1, , given in Table III-IV-V.
have the same behaviour as the positive sequence
fundamental quantity. TABLE II
EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATIONS OF UNBALANCED SCENARIOS
-Io- 0 Case 1 Case 2 Case 3
IIIh2h
L o'5'(5) Phase A B C A B C A B C
0 ~~~~~Notebook
2 computer
1
I 2 - -

The triplen harmonics h=3n, for n integer, e.g. h=3, 6, Inkjet printer 1 - -
1 - -
1 - -

9,..., have the same behaviour as the zero sequence Data projector 1 - -
1 - -
2 - -

## fundamental quantity. Fax machine 1 - -

1 - -
1 - -

UPS 1 1 1

[Io [Ih Ph
II 0 ~~~~(6)
]_

Hub 1 - - 1 - - 1 - -

I2 0 ~~~~~PC - 8 4 3

4x18Wfluo. - 8 - - 10 - - 4
The harmonics h=3n-1, for n integer, e.g. h=2, 5, 8,...,
have the same behaviour as the negative sequence
fundamental quantity [9].
-Io 0 t t t ;i ;Z

II 0 (7) 1l

## III. NUMERICAL APPLICATION

As a simulation application a sample commercial
building is taken into consideration which comprises
equipments with SMPS such as electronic ballasted
lighting fixtures, PCs, notebook computer, data projector,
laser and inkjet printer, scanner, network hub, ups and fax
machine. The nominal supply voltage is 220 V and the t 3 3 3k 3 3t 3 3x 3 3 3x
fundamental frequency is 50 Hz. Riser line cross-section is tI.
6 mm2 and single-phase conductors' cross-section isA,III ]
2,5 mm2 and conductor length is 5 m between equipments L
in installation structure. From laboratory measurements 110
under sinusoidal voltage supply according to IEC Std. - -|||A +E 8SI
61000-3-2, nonlinear equations of equipments areI C I 1
obtained using MATLAB®/Curve Fitting Toolbox [11].
Nonlinear resistance models are applied to obtain voltage
I tC |TDA TDB T
,
and current distributions in single-phase Simulink® Fig.5. Simulink model of unbalanced three-phase circuit (Case 2).

510
TABLE III expected [9]. According to Table II, current values of
THE SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS VALUES fundamental component and other harmonics are precisely
(CIRCUIT WITH FLUORESCENT FIXTURES) appropriate. Thus, with the proposed models neutral
(A)2 0AFundr3.n.i7
ud 2.23 5. 7 9.rde13 I. 1. current values can be easily calculated using zero
sequence components even under nonsinusoidal
Io'0.12 0 0 0.9156 0 0
cniin.Hroi ciiiso hs eta
I, 2.0052 0 0 1.3308 0 0 0.517 cniin.Hroi ciiiso hs n eta
n

A2 0 0 1.7243 0 0 0.6431 0 conductors for balanced circuits are given in Table VI and
Harmonic order Table VII. Electronic ballasted fluorescent lines (Case 1)
'0 12 and PC lines (Case 2) have extremely high harmonic
-(A) 15. 17. 19. 21. 23. 25. 27.
lvl,wihaegetrta 7% ihhroi
Io 0.4856 0 0 0.3393 0 0 0.274 leeswhc argrartan10.Hih amoc
II 0 0 0.3897 0 0 0.2956 0 content of lighting fixtures can be observed also from
A2 0 0.4433 0 0 0.3061 0 0 Table III; third harmonic's current value is grater than
IO
~~Harmonic order fundamental component's value.
-(A) 29. 31. 33. 35. 37. 39 41. TABLE VI
Io 0 0 0.2281 0 0 0.1929 0 HARMONIc ACTIVITIES OF BALANCED RiSER LINE'S PHASES
II 0 0.2548 0 0 0.2048 0 0 Phase A B C
'2 0.2747 0 0 0.2091 0 0 0.1817
Current THD_[ Current THD_[ Current THD1[
TABLE IV ~~~~~~~cenario (A) N
(O) (A) (Oo -(A) (O)

THE SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS VALUES Case 1 4.0115 173.3 4.0115 173.3 4.0115 173.3

_____________
(CIRCUIT WITH PCS) Case 2 7.2906 172.8 7.2906 172.8 7.2906 172.8
Case 3 7.0586 76.01 7.0586 76.01 7.0586 76.01
'0 12
(A) Fund. 3.
3 5.Harmonic7. order
5 9. II1. 13.
Io 0 3.5705 0 0 2.1705 0 0 Under balanced nonsinusoidal conditions, absence of
I, 3.65 11 0 0 2.7339 0 0 1.0587 fundamental component in neutral conductor of grounded
I2 0

10Harmonic611
0 3236

## star circuits make impossible calculation of THD values.

'0 12 In addition to THD values obtained from simulations
-(A) 15. 17. 19. 21. 23. 25. 27. THDrms values are also calculated which give harmonic
Io 0.6199 0 0 0.2053 0 0 0. 1465 contents ratio to the rms value:
II 0 0 0.1653 0 0 0.1983 0
'2 0 0.3055 0 0 0.215 0 0
Harmonic order22
'0 12 I

## (A) 29. 31. 33. 35. 37. 39 41. THDJ =

=

THD(ms =
=
8
Io 0 0 0.0572 0 0 0.0533 0(ms
II 0 0.0608 0 0 0.0623 0 0
'2 0.0858 0 0 0.0728 0 0 0.0351 TABLE VII
NEUTRAL HARMONIc ACTIVITIES OF BALANCED CONFIGURATIONS
TABLE V Scenario Current (A) Harmonic Distortion
THE SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS VALUES Simulink Calculated THD1 ( o THDJ[(ps)(0)
(CIRCUIT WITH FLUORESCENT FIXTURES AND PCS) Cs .69 720 0
'0 12 Harmonic order Cs 267 267
(A) Fund. 3. 5. 7. 9. 11. 13. Cs 267 267 00
Io 0 1.9523 0 .51 0 0Case 3 7.7624 7.7624 -100
I, 5.6195 0 0 1.7369 0 0 1.2009
'2 0 0 1.553 0 0 1.9778 0
Harmonicore Neutral current waveforms and harmonic current
'0 12 spectrums for balanced scenarios are given in "Fig.6-7-8."
(A) 15. 17. 19. 21. 23. 25. 27.
Io 0.9991 0 0 0.2739 0 0 0.3476_________________________
II 0 0 0.2883 0 0 0.4331 0 10------- ---- ---

## '2 0 0.3843 0 0 0.3769 0 0h

'012 ______ Harmonic_order ~-
____L
(A) 29. 3. 33. 35. 37. 39 41. -
'o 0 0 ~~~~~~~0.2658 0 0 0.1901 0 -10 --I-
'1 0 0.1953 0 0 0.1619 0 0 .1 I00u ii uu01 015 &i
2010 ----I -
o-

~~~~1o I -- 1 L
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~---- --
C CUlJ C0C2 CC0 IC0 CU.0 .( C 0.i 0U2123 .4 M5 IIIO
Time (s Timn s
r harmonic 1R7116 (A) F nilarnzrtital ', a314 (.
o 10] J

80 104,~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~LC

## 2C 41 IJ EYL 03 2u JT W 0CC 200 4111] 0111] EIiJL 1 CCU0 120

C W010 IEOOI 20CU
1
Frequniicy (Hz)~en~

Fig. 7. Neutral current waveform and harmonic spectrum of balanced Fig. 9. Neutral current waveform and harmonic spectrum of unbalanced
three-phase circuit (Case 2). three-phase circuit (Case 1).

10
~~~~~~~I110-
20

--
I I I ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -- -- --

LI-m'-F~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~!7------
I __--

## Z 3rI 1armonifc 5.58 (A) F)indarental. &WY83 (A

0 20 00 60 BF O1 10 1400 1iJO 1 i00 200 200: 4Ci 600U Wi0 1 OIrO 1 200E 14CIO 1 E-0 1 300 210]C
Fre Tenc (Hz Frequency (H:)

Fig. 8. Neutral current waveform and harmonic spectrum of balanced Fig. 10. Neutral current waveform and harmonic spectrum of unbalanced
three-phase circuit (Case 3). three-phase circuit (Case 2).

## Harmonic activities related to unbalanced scenarios are

given in Table VIII and Table IX. Unbalanced connection
of the loads affects significantly neutral waveforms and 6
harmonic current distributions (e.g. magnitudes of the 3rd
harmonics have decreased and magnitudes of the 5th, 7th ------

## and 1 Ith harmonics have dramatically increased inI 0 U01 0.02

L
OM0 U04 OO05 106
unbalanced scenarios). Neutral current waveforms and Time Cs)
harmonic current spectrums for unbalanced scenarios are 1W0 FuJrlna11i?
FrdmrtlL5

## given in "Fig.9-1O -1 1." 8

TABLE VIII
HARMONIc ACTIVITIES OF UNBALANCED RiSER LINE'S PHASES 4

Phase ~~~A B C 20

Scnro
Current
(A)
THD_[ Current
(Oo - (A)
THD_[ Current
(Oo .(A)
THD1[00
(Oo
M 406 BOO IO 12 140 160 IO 2000
Frequency (t)
Case 1 1.3547 41.48 7.2906 172.84 4.0115 173.27 - Fig. 11 Neutral current waveform and harmonic spectrum of unbalanced
Case 2 1.3547 41.48 3.6189 173.28 4.9984 175.75 three-phase circuit (Case 3).
injection model is a most common model used for REFERENCES
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acceptable dioffer balancedsentiation ou s
currnenti alues od
acceptable differentiation. Although rms current values of
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0.

## using matlab and simulink in estimation of city street lighting

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c A
ro nt et
o c
vary [6]
s a
'7 i
A LB-Dcmnain w.ahok.o
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analysis.

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