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Application of Artificial Neural Network in Voltage Regulation in

Distribution Systems.
Dr A.S.Thoke*1, Keerti Kumar Agrawal*2, Sunil Bhuarya*3, Chandra Kant Mesharam*4
,Arun Kumar Sahu*5
Authors affiliations :
Head, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Raipur
M.Tech (CT), IIIrd Semester, NIT, Raipur (CG), India
Corresponding Author :
Keerti Kumar Agrawal, ShriRam Chowck, Hirapur Road, Mahoba Bazar, Raipur
(CG), India 492001, 9424230623, keertikumar@yahoo.com

ANN, Distribution Line, Transmission Line, Voltage Regulation, Distribution Systems


The aim of this paper is to introduce an intelligent technique i.e. Artificial Neural Network
(ANN)[1] based system in Voltage Regulation (VR) in Distribution Systems. ANN models are
applied in several commercial and scientific/engineering applications like Integrated Taxation
Monitoring System[2], Enterprise Network Application [3], Bankruptcy Forecasting[4] etc. Load
Taping flows through out the feeder is never constant due to heterogeneous load tapings in its
periphery. KW-KM or HP-KM or KVA-KM needs to be worked out from section to section, in
which appropriate constant is applied to calculate percentage V.R. On case-to-case basis
Diversity Factor (DF) is applied to calculate event-moment based load factor. DF is an important
parameter for calculation of VR, which solely depends on the feeder data available with the
Distribution Centre (DC). These factors also help for decision makers to analysis need of new
Sub Station (SS) DC. The entire process is passed through large data crunching. An intelligent
analysis is always preferred to derive a good reliable result. Due to its able intelligent analytical
power, ANN has been applied in the process of analysis in the present paper. Feed-forward ANN
has been applied with Back Propagation training algorithm [5] with the help of legacy data.

1. Introduction
In 1943, McCulloch and Pitts presented the first Neuron Model. In 1949, hebb suggested
systematic rules in controlling linkage intensity. ANN was then applied in diverse fields,
Rosenblatt showed the ANN algorithm in 1958. Attempts of modeling the functioning of
biological neural systems can be traced back to the period of World War II. ANN did not become
a viable method until the 1980s when the new learning algorithms and a good theoretical frame
work were developed.

ANN is non-linear mapping structures analogous to the functioning of the human brain, which
also mimic the functioning of the human brain. It is an algorithmic theory of machine learning
imitating human brain actively based on its experiences and knowledge.

ANN which can also be termed[] as physical cellular systems can acquire, store and utilize
experiential knowledge. Another way to express ANN[haykins] is A neural network is a
massively parallel distributed processor that has a natural propensity for storing experiential
knowledge and making it available for use. It resembles the brain in two respects: knowledge is
acquired by the network through a learning process, interneuron connection strengths known as
synaptic weights are used to store the knowledge.

A multidisciplinary view of ANN can be represented in the following figure 1:

Figure 1

Basically, ANN consists of input layer, hidden layer and output layer having a processing
element, which is modeled on neuron. Linkage weighting between the processing elements can
be calculated through the rotation of the input layer, hidden layer and output layer. Sigmoid
function in ANN is the most frequently used activation function. The operation of NN is given in
figure 2.

Figure 2

  
- 

 
 

  ∑ f
  Output y
 

Input Weighted Activation

vector x Weight sum function
vector w

The advantage of using ANN is that it provides the best result for defining the relationship
between independent variables and dependent variables Despite some minor problems, ANN
seems to offer superior performances over the logistic regression analysis or MDA. There are
several approaches, which deal with applying ANN techniques for various business applications.
Many research studies are in the process of using ANN [4] [6] to improve the performance of
forecasting with fuzzy membership function, genetic algorithms, and CBR. Probabilistic Neural
Networks using neural networks in forecasting a bankruptcy are more useful than the existing
simple Back Propagation Neural Network [12] or MDA . ANN has also been applied in
Integrated Taxation Monitoring System [1], forecasting based business and financial application
[5] [6], security management in complex network [18], knowledge representation methodology
[5] etc. ANN are applied in several areas such as Handwriting Recognition, Image Processing and
Data Compression, Automotive Systems and Manufacturing, Decision-support Systems,
Application in Power Systems, Machine Learning Applications, Speech and Vision Recognition
Systems, Banking and Financial Applications, Enforcement and Fraud Detection, Process Control
and So On.

Adaptive Linear Neuron (ADALINE) shown in figure 3 below. The three tier functioning of
ADALINE consists of Initialisation, Training and Thinking which are explained below :

Figure 3

Initializing : Assign random weights to all links

Training : Feed-in known inputs in random sequence, Simulate the network, Compute error
between the input and the output (Error Function), Adjust weights (Learning
Function), Repeat until total error
Thinking : Simulate the network, Network will respond to any input, Does not guarantee a
correct solution even for trained inputs

  
  
      
      
 

Select a suitable NN model based on the nature of the problem, Construct a NN according to the
characteristics of the application domain, Train the neural network with the learning procedure of
the selected model, Use the trained network for making inference or solving problems.


Some other methodologies to calculate Voltage regulation are proposed. . Past
work focused on calculating V.R. especially for Transformers. Results obtained,
from different research groups are Satisfactory.But in the case of comlicated power
distribution system approaches are not consistent. This is because of an increase in
load demand causes demand the number of parameters to increase. Therefore,
simulation scenarios used in past studies are not fair for all protocols and their
conclusions cannot be generalized. Furthermore, it is difficult for one to choose a
proper path to reach the tail end at which voltage drop is required.The
aforementioned problems can be aided by a framework that characterizes Voltage
Regulation. However, there has been little research on this kind of framework.

. Some terminologies regarding VOLTAGE REGULATION

Voltage regulation of a line is defined as the percentage increase in voltage at the receiving end
when full load is thrown off, the sending end voltage being kept unchanged.

In case of sub transmission & distribution lines with length of 30 to 40 miles,the capacitance can
be neglected and the electrical eqivalent circuit can be represented as follows:


Fig 4 a shematic of a line having resistance & reactance


Er Ir

Fig 5 phasor diagra

Es – Er
%VR = ------------ X 100%

Where Es = Sending End Voltage

Er = Receiving End Voltage

Let in adistribution system, a request being submitted by any consumer for a new service
connection having load of 3HP.

  
 
  
   .06KM

   

Figure 4 Single line diagram of an existing line when new load of 3 HP is proposed

mer 0.18KMC 0.12KMC 0.12KMC 0.18KMC

(2+5+3+2+7.5)HP (2+3+7.5)HP (2+7.5)HP (7.5)HP

Figure 5 load distribution at different points of load

To calculate % V.R. in distrtibution systems,we use formula given by

%VR = ------------------

Where KM = length of the line in Kilo Meters

KW = load in Kilo Watts
DF = Diversity Factor (which is normally 1.5)
C.C. = Conductor Constant (varies from conductor-to-conductor,
normally 1.21 for conductor used in
distribution system)

As per Indian Electricity Rule 1956, No. 54 a supplier shall not permit the voltage at the point of
commencement of supply to very from the declared voltage :

i. in the case of low or medium voltage by more than 6%

ii. in the case of high voltage by more than 6% on the higher side or by more
than 9% on the lower side
iii. in the case of extra-high voltage by more than 12.5%

It is therefore, necessary that whenever a proposal for extending a new line with proposed load or
addition load on the existing line is made; the proposal or estimate should always
be accompanied with a calculation sheet for voltage regulation to ensure the
voltage drop within limit.


The study has been expanded for three-tier connectivity and power supply system as follows :

1. The demand comes from various locations by various types of consumers

which is based on the concerned electricity line (Xi) : Input Layer
2. These lines cumulatively get connected with transformers (Zj) : Hidden Layer 1
3. These transformers gets connected with the concerned Distribution Centre i.e.
Sub-Station (Fk) : Hidden Layer 2
4. These Distribution Centres are connected with the Load Despatch Centre (Ym) :
Output Layer

During study, these components have been considered as Input Layer, Hidden Layer and Finally
the Output Layer of the Neural Network to generate the desired result.


3. Conclusions

With the objective of introducing an intelligent technique i.e. Artificial Neural Network
(ANN) based system for Voltage Regulation (VR) calculation in the Distribution Systems, this
study was initiated. In general, Load flows through out the feeder varies due to heterogeneous
load tapings in its periphery, therefore kilometer kilo watts needs to be worked out from section
to section. Diversity Factor (DF) is applied to calculate event-moment based load factor which is
an important parameter for calculation of VR. This depends on the feeder data available with the
Distribution Centre (DC). The analytical view about necessity of New Transformers and Sub
Station (SS) requirement is also part of the process. The entire information flows from end-to-end
and reaches to the decision maker at load dispatch centre. In the study, efforts have been made to
introduce the possibility of applying ANN for this purpose. After study, we conclude that three-
tier neural network can be easily implemented. Further study is required to refine the process of
implementation of ANN in this application.

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