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Norman Mariun, Samsul Bahari Mohd Noor, Jasronita Jasni, Omar S. Bennanes
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering
Universiti Putra Malaysia
43400 Serdang, Malaysia
Email : norman@eng.upm.edu.my


This paper presents the theory, design and simulation
of a fuzzy logic based controller used for an indirect The indirect vector control method is essentially the
vector controlled three-phase induction motor. The same as the direct vector control, except that the rotor
analysis, design and simulation of the fuzzy logic angle șe is generated in an indirect manner
controller for IVCIM drive system are carried out (estimation) using the measured speed Ȧr and the slip
based on the fuzzy set theory. The FLC algorithm has speed Ȧsl. To implement the indirect vector control
been simulated on Simulink Toolbox in Matlab. The strategy, it is necessary to take dynamic equation into
performance of the proposed FLC has been consideration and the following equations (1-5);
investigated and compared to the results obtained
from the conventional PI controller based drive at
different operating conditions such as sudden change Te ³ Z dt ³ Z
e r  Z sl dt T r  T sl (1)
in load. The simulation results demonstrate that the
performance of the FLC is better than that for the For decoupling control, the stator flux component
conventional PI controller. of current ids should be aligned on the de axis, and the
torque component of current iqs should be on the qe
Keywords axis, that leads to <qr 0 and <dr <r then:
Induction motor drives, Speed control, Fuzzy Logic
controllers, Matlab/Simulink software.
L r d<r
 <r L m i ds (2)
Induction motors have a simple and rugged structure;
moreover, they are economical and immune to heavy As well, the slip frequency can be calculated as:
overloads. However the use of induction motors also
has its disadvantages, mainly the controllability, due Lm Rr R r i qs
Z sl i qs (3)
to its complex mathematical model and its nonlinear <r L r L r i ds
behavior [1].
It is found that the ideal decoupling can be
The vector control or field oriented control (FOC) achieved if the above slip angular speed command is
theory is the base of a special control method for used for making field-orientation. For a constant rotor
induction motor drives. With this theory induction d< r
motors can be controlled like a separately excited dc flux <r and 0 Substituting in equation (2)
motor. This method enables the control of field and
yields the rotor flux set as
torque of the induction machine independently
(decoupling) by manipulating the corresponding field <r Lm ids (4)
oriented quantities [1, 2].
The motor developed torque is directly related to
In this paper, the configuration and design of the *
i as follows:
fuzzy logic controller for indirect vector based control
of induction motor has been investigated. The § 3 d § Lm · * · *
Te ¨ ¨ ¸< ¸i then Te K t* i qs
proposed fuzzy logic controller (FLC) has been ¨ 4 dt ¨ L ¸ dr ¸ qs
© © r ¹ ¹
successfully simulated on a simulink model with the
help of fuzzy logic toolbox. The performance of the
FLC has been successfully compared with the * 4 L r Te
i qs (5)
conventional PI controller. It is found that the 3P L m <r*
proposed FLC is insensitive to load variation and
sudden changes in the speed command.

3. FUZZY LOGIC SPEED CONTROLLER Small, NVS=Negative V. Small, NVB= Negative
PRINCIPLE AND DESIGN very Big, and PVB= Positive very Big.
The universe of discourse of all the variables,
Basically, the fuzzy logic controller consists of four covering the whole region, is expressed in per unit
blocks as shown in Figure 1, Fuzzification, fuzzy values. All the MFs have asymmetrical shape with
inferencing engine, Knowledge base and a more crowding near the origin (steady state). This
defuzzification block. permits higher precision at steady state [1-3].

3.3 Knowledge base and inferencing stage

G1.e Main Block of FLC
e U=G3D
FIS Knowledge base involves defining the rules

G1 Engine represented as IF-THEN rules statements governing

D U the relationship between inputs and output variables

e* FS
œ in terms of membership functions. In this stage the
input variables e(ts) and ce(ts) are processed by the
e G2 inference engine that executes 7x7 rules represented
dt RB
in rule table. Inferencing stage includes also,
G2.e* application of fuzzy operator (AND, OR), implication
and aggregation. An example of rule statements
describing the expert system is:
Fig. 1: Complete Fuzzy Logic Controller Used IF e(pu) (speed error in per unit) = Z (zero) AND
for Vector Induction Motor Control ce(pu) = PS (positive small) THEN du(pu) = PS
3.1 Input/output variables
3.4 Defuzzification stage
The design starts with assigning the mapped variables
inputs/output of the FLC in Figure 2. The I/O must be This stage introduces different inference methods that
clearly defined. In this case the first input variable is can be used to produce the fuzzy set value for the
the speed error “e” and the second is the change in output fuzzy variable ¨T. In this paper, the center of
speed error “ce”=e* at a sampling time “ts”. The two gravity (COA) or centroids method is used to
input variables e(ts) and ce(ts) are calculated at every calculate the final fuzzy value ¨T*(ts).
sampling time as : Defuzzification using COA method means that
the crisp output of ¨T*(ts) is obtained by using the
e(ts) = Ȧr* (ts) – Ȧr(ts) (6) center of gravity, in which the crisp du(pu)0 or ¨T(ts)
ce(ts) = e(ts) – e(ts – 1) (7) variable is taken to be the geometric center of the
output fuzzy variable value μout(¨T) area, where
Where “ce” denotes the change of e, Ȧr (ts) is the μout(¨T) is formed by taking the union of all the
actual rotor speed, Ȧr*(ts) is the reference speed and contributions of rules with the degree of fulfillment
e (ts – 1) is the value of error at a previous sampling greater than 0. Then the COA expression with a
time. discretized universe of discourse can be written as
The output variable of the FLC is the change in follows:
torque, ¨T (Figure 2), which is integrated (in discrete n
sense) to get the reference torque T*(ts) as shown in ¦ 'Ti P out 'Ti
the equation: 'T * i 1
¦ P out 'Ti
Te*(ts) = T*(ts – 1) + ¨T* (8) i 1
Then by integration Te* is obtained as shown by
equation (8). This Torque value is used to calculate
3.2 Fuzzification iqs*, which in turn used to command the induction
motor via 2ĭ-3ĭ block.
The success of this work, and the like, depends on *
2 2 L r Te
how good this stage is conducted. In this stage the i *qs . . . (10)
3 P L m <r
crisp variables of the inputs e(ts) and ce(ts) are
converted into fuzzy variables that can be identified
by the levels of membership in the fuzzy set. Each The overall system is shown in Figure 2 (the
fuzzy variable is a member of the subsets with a specification parameters of the motor are given in the
degree of membership μ varying between 0 (non- appendix) and the constructed Fuzzy Logic Controller
member) to 1 (full member). in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment [4] is shown
The fuzzy sets are defined as Z=Zero, in Figure 3. The block diagram of the drive
PS=Positive Small, PM=Positive Medium, representing the IVCIM with Fuzzy Logic Control is
PB=Positive Big, NS=Negative Small, NM=Negative shown in Figure 4.
Medium, NB=Negative Big PVS=Positive Very

Ids* Calculation

Fig. 2: Indirect Vector Control Based Induction Motor Block Diagram with Fuzzy Logic Control


Input1 (speed error) Input2 (change speed error)
7 MFs 7 MFs Various simulation tests were carried out on both the PI
controller and the FL controller on the indirect vector
control of induction motor (IVCIM). Time response
and steady state error were compared.

Figures 5 and 6 show the PI and FLC response speed

at no load. FLC performed better with respect to rise
time and steady state errors.
Output (change in o/p control du)
7 MFs Figure 7 shows the speed track performance test,
when a sudden change in speed reference is applied in
the form of a look-up table.

Figures 8 and 9 examine the load disturbance

rejection capabilities of each controller when using a
Surface Viewer of the FLC load torque step from 0 to 200 N.m applied at 0.6
seconds. The FL controller at that moment returns
quickly to the command speed within (0.1sec) with a
maximum drop in speed of 0.7rad/sec. whereas the PI
controller was affected by the change on load torque
and sustained a steady state error.
Fig. 3: FIS system (FLC) layout, membership’s
functions and surface viewer for inputs/output of the It is found that the FLC is more robust and follow
controller. the difficult ramp without delay. It was also found that
the FLC did not show significant changes in its response
due to load variation, whereas the PI controller was
¨T* ids* sensitive to changes in load conditions.
T*(ts) VC and
* Error-e * PWM
Ȧr iqs inverter

+ _ de FLC œ Calculi

ce șe

Fig.4: Fuzzy Speed Controller in vector-controlled drive

Fig.5 Speed Response comparison at no-load


An indirect vector controlled induction motor drive

system has been introduced. The drive system was
simulated with both a fuzzy logic controller and a
conventional PI, and their performances were compared.
Simulation results showed that the fuzzy logic controller
is more robust during load changes and eliminates the
transients during sudden changes in speed. Overall
simulation results showed that the fuzzy controller has
Fig 6 Enlarged response comparison higher performance than the PI controller.

Appendix : Motor specification

Machine Type: 3-phase Induction Motor

Rotor Type: Squirrel Cage
Stator and Rotor: Y-connection to an internal neutral
Reference Frame: Stationary
50 hp, 1500rpm, (120 rad/sec), 460V 60Hz 4poles
Rs = 0.087ȍ Rr = 0.228ȍ Ls= 0.8mH Lr = 0.8mH
Fig 7 Speed tracking response comparison Lm = 34.7mH Jn = 1.662Kg.m2 f = 0.1N.m.s


[1] B. K. Bose. Modern Power Electronics and AC

Drives, Prentice-Hill PTR Companies, Inc. Upper
Saddle River, NJ 07458, 2002.

[2] Hoang Le-Huy, Minh Ta-Cao and J.L. Silva

“Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for Induction
Motor Drives” Canadian Conference on Electrical
and Computer Engineering, 1996., Volume: 2 , 26-
Fig 8 Speed Response Comparison during Sudden Load 29 May 1996
[3] M.N. Uddin, T. S. Radwan and M. A. Rahman
“Performance of Novel Fuzzy Logic Based
Indirect Vector Control for Induction Motor
Drive” Proceedings of IEEE 2000 ref, 0-7803-

[4] http://www.mathworks.com (The official site for

MATLAB &SIMULINK as well the Fuzzy Logic

Fig 9 Enlarged results of Fig. 8.