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2004 35th A n n u l IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference Aachen, Germong.


A Novel Direct Torque Control Scheme for Induction Machines With Space Vector Modulation

JosB Rodriguez, Jorge Pontt, CBsar Silva, Samir Kouro and Hemin Mirandat

Departamento de Electr6nica.
Universidad T h i c a Federico Santa Man'a,
Valparaiso, CHILE
t heman.miranda@elo.utfsm.cl

Abstract-In this paper a new method for Direct Torque In [7],[8] and [9] a second degree equation with parameters
Control (DTC) based on load angle contml is developed. The use depending on machine operating point must be solved to
of simple equations to obtain the control algorithm makes it easy obtain the stator vector reference. In [IO] and [ I I ] an inverse
tu understand and implement. Fixed switching frequency and
low torque ripple are obtained using space vector modulation. machine model is used for stator flux (&) calculation. The
This control strategy overcomes the must important drawbacks use of P I controllers for torque and stator flux in a rotating
of classic DTC. reference frame is proposed in 1121, leading to a control
Results shows the feasibility of the proposed method, obtaining scheme that is similar to field oriented control.
good speed control bandwidth while overcoming classic DTC The technique proposed in this paper is similar to that used
in [13],[14] for permanmt magnet synchronous motors and is
Index Terms-Electric Drives, AC Machines, Direct Torque not clearly explained in 1151, and[l6].
Contml, Space Vector Modulation. The main contribution of this work is to use a new and
very simple one step flux control algorithm for induction
1. INTRODUCTION machine control using DTC and SVM (DTC-SVM) and few
controllers, avoiding c.>ordinale rotations and complicated
In recent years much research has been developed in order predictive controllers.
to find simpler control schemes for induction motors that meet Results for the proposed strategy are presented for a 5.5
the most demanding requirements, such as low torque ripple, [kW] induction mutor and are compared with FOC and classic
low harmonic distortion or quick dynamic response. DTC in terms of torque transient response, torque ripple and
Today Field Oriented Control (FOC) [I] and Direct Torque switching frequency. Finally it is concluded that improved
Control (DTC) [2].[3] are considered the most important tech- results are obtained with a simple algorithm based on an easy
niques to achieve high dynamic performance in AC machines. to understand theoretical principle.
The use of current control loops in a rotating reference
frame to decouple torque and flux control is the main charac-
teristic of FOC. The use of these controilers adds an additional 11. THEOIIETICAL
time delay making torque dynamic response slower. Space Applying the usual space vector transformation to a three
vector modulation (SVM) has been frequently used in FOC phase voltage system, a single space vector is defined by
to generate the gate pulses for the inverter semiconductors.
Classic DTC makes use of hysteresis comparators with 3,
torque and stator flux magnitud errors as inputs to decide
2). = ; (U" + az)b f a2Uc) , (1)
which stator voltage vector is applied to motor terminals. The
complex plane is divided in six sectors, and a switching table is where a = -112 i j f i f 2 , and ua,UT, and uc are stator phase
designed to obtain the required vector based on the hysteresis voltages, it is possible to obtain a simple equations set that
comparators outputs. Due to fast time constants of stator describe the AC machine dynamic behavior in a stator fixed
dynamics it is very difficult to keep machine torque between coordinate system 1181. These equations are:
the hysteresis bands. This can he done either by increasing
the sampling frequency as in [4], thus increasing switching
frequency, commutation losses and computation requirements,
or using multilevel power converters [5].[6].
The use of hysteresis comparators in classic DTC imple-
0 = R,i, +-
- j~,+,. (3)
mentations give rise to variable switching frequency, which = L,i, + L , i , (4)
depends on rotor speed, load, sample frequency, etc. This
variable switching frequency may excite resonant dynamics
$+ = L,i, +
LA, (5 )

in the load and hence constitute a serious drawback of DTC. where R, and R, are the stator and rotor resistances, L,,
The use space vector modulation in conjunction with DTC has L, and L , are the stator, rotor and mutual inductances and
heen proposed as a solution to overcome the above mentioned w, is the rotor speed. The basic relation between torque and
problems [7]-[ 171. machine fluxes is:

0-7803-8399-0/04/$20.M)02004 IEEE. 1392

2004 351h Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference Aachen. Germany. 2004

P k, = L,/L,, and a = 1 - L L / ( L , L , ) . Based on (6) it is

t clear that it is possible to achieve machine speed and torque
control directly by actuating over the load angle.
I +; Isin( 6 ) _-.......____...

111. FIELD
~ ccvij-
A. Field Orienred Conrrol
Field Oriented Control is based on the decomposition of the
instantaneous stator current i, into two orthogonal components
in rotor flux oriented coordinates: one proportional to the flux
(Zaz) and the other proportional to the torque (&). Since both
+T current vectors are perpendicular to each other, a decoupled
dynamic system is obtained so that both variables can be
controlled separately, achieving a similar operation principle
*a as in DC-drives.
I +t,* Icos(6) Fig. 2 illustrates a simplified control diagram of FOC.
Both current comDonents are controlled bv individual PI

I,,verter current control loop. Then a coordinate rotation is performed

to orient the variables respect the stator (a,O). Finally the
desired stator voltage vector is generated using space vector

B. Direct Torque Control

Due to slow rotor flux dynamics, the easiest way to change
the load angle is to force a change in the stator flux vector by
the application of the appropriate stator voltage vector vs.
Neglecting the effect of the voltage drop on the stator
resistance in (2), the stator flux vector is the time integral
Fig. 2. Field Onented Control block diagram. of the stator voltage vector. For sampling time At sufficiently
small, (2) can be approximated by (7)

A@.. x At U, (7)
In classic DTC the stator voltage selection is made by
hysteresis comparators as shown in Fig. 3, with torque and flux
magnitude errors as inputs and a predesigned gate-pulses look-
up table that selects the stator voltage vector corresponding to
the desired action.
I I This control strategy leads to changes from full negative
torque to full positive causing high torque ripple. A5 demon-
strated in [4], the capability to actuate on torque greatly
W depends on the emf w,+,,. This means that ripple frequency
Fig. 3. Classic DTC control blwk diagmm. varies with rotor speed obtaining variable switching frequency
and a wide spectrum for torque and stator current.


Te = - ~ - + e X $ r In the proposed method, the control objective is to select
2 uLs
the exact stator voltage vector (U,) that changes to meet
the load angle reference, and so the desired torque while
3 k,
= -P-I&I. l$Tlsin(6), keeping flux amplitude constant. A space vector modulation
2 uLa
algorithm is used to apply the required stator voltage vector. It
where 6, known as load angle, is the angle between stator and is expected that torque ripple is almost eliminated, while zero
rotor fluxes as shown in Fig. I , p is the number of pole pairs, steady state error is achieved with fixed switching frequency.

2004 35th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference Aachen. Germany. 2004

- - -

and Flux

Fig 4 Proposed DTC-SVM control scheme

, ._ - .. .... ... . ... .. .. . . .. ... . . . . .. . ... ... ... . ... .. .

. . ...

4,= -1 Tr
1 (-LA- ( 1 - r rj4 &) d t , (9)

and the stator flux derided from

Qs := uLsia + LL,,
- ~ ? .
- (10)

From these equatioris the flux estimator block gives the

required rotor flux angle to be added to the reference stator
flux signal. And the eslimated stator flux needed to calculate
4 8 .

Torque estimation is made from (6). Where the cross

product can also be written as

The presented strategy uses one PI torque regulator, a simple

flux calculation block and no rotating coordinate transforma-
{QS x d b } = &.&c, - $J&<.. (11)
tion making the control strategy a straightforward application Flux and torque estimator block diagram is shown in Fig.
of (6). This is illustrated by the control block diagram of 5 , where K = 3 / 2 p . The feedback loop in the integration of
Fig. 4. Here torque controller actuates over the load angle 6 the rotor model can cornpensate for finite time disturbances in
to meet torque reference tracking. The stator flux calculator the input .i and unknown initial conditions.
block output is given by
&' =I W cos(6 + 4%)
+jlQ81*sin (6 + W,), (8) Closed loop performance of the proposed method is tested
and compared to classic direct torque control and field oriented
where IQ./* is an arbitrary reference value. The use of rotor
control by means of speed reference tracking, torque dynamic
flux angle to obtain stator flux reference means that the
response, flux control and signal spectrum.
proposed method is rotor oriented. The use of a rotatory
reference frame aligned with rotor flux allows better torque- A S.S[kW], 380[l'.r], two pole pairs induction machine
is considered with 10[.CHz]sampling frequency and SOO[V]
flux decoupling, leading to faster transient response.
DC link voltage. A step change up to rated speed on the
According to the flux calculator output, the stator flux
reference signal is applied in t = 200[rns] at rotor speed
reference signal is compared with the estimated flux obtaining
W, = -lSO[rad/sec]. The results are shown in Fig. 6.
A$*, that is needed to follow the torque reference, as it can
be seen in Fig. I . This value is divided by At to calculate 2). In Fig. 6(a) the dynamic response using classic field oriented
control is shown. Similarly, Fig. 6(b) shows the response with
as in (7). The SVM block performs the classical space vector
classic DTC. At the top of each figure the speed tracking
modulation of va to obtain the gate drive pulses for the power
reference is shown, toique response in the middle and stator
flux magnitude at the bottom. Finally, similar results are
presented for the proposed method in Fig. 6(c).
V. FLUXA N D TORQUE ESTIMATOR Figure 6 illustrates that field oriented control and the pro-
To implement the stator and torque estimator block shown posed method have similar dynamic responses, good speed
in Fig. 5 a rotor flux estimator based on the rotor model is reference tracking while keeping constant rotor flux amplitude
implemented in stator coordinates by for FOC and stator flux amplitude for the proposed DTC-SVM


2004 35th A n n u l IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference Aachen, Germany, 2004
5 7""
3 ---
... ..........

0.5 1 1.5

- 50

0 0.5 1 1.5

........ ......... ...... . .,..

E ' ............. ......... ............ ., ..

-h?l85 0.19 0.195 0.2 0.205 0.21 0.215

time [SI


601 ........ .......... ...........

............ .~
5o ...... ...............

' 1 1.5 4o . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

t ......
I.... ..........
............ ........
........ . . . . . . . . .
0 0.5 1 1.5


o,5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ ..........


time 161

L.. 1



...... .~ I/
4o ...... ...............

a ..... ......
............. .... ~ ........
L o
+ -50.. . . . . . . . . ..:.. . . . ..... 20 . . . . . . . . . . .: . . . . . . . . . . .
................. ........

L '
-' "' '' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :



lime [SI



Fig. 6. Comparison of dynamic response klween DTC-SVM.Field Oriented Fig. 7. Torque response comparison between DTC-SVM and classic DTC.
Control and Classic DTC. (a) Field Oriented Control. (b) Classic Direct (a) Field Onenled Control, (h) Classic Direct Torque Control, (c) Proposed
Torque Control. (e) proposed Method. Method.

method. Classic DTC shows high torque and flux ripple and fast as classic DTC. In Fig. 7(a) FOC torque step response
similar rotor speed dynamic response as DTC-SVM and FOC. is shown. It can be seen that the inner current loop dynamics
To compare the fast dynamic torque response between the have an important role in the torque response.
proposed method, FOC and classic DTC, the torque response It is important to remark that in classic DTC torque ripple
to a step change in speed demand from negative to positive as big as in Fig. 7(b) can not be reduced by simply reducing
rated speed is analyzed. The results are shown in Fig. 7. torque hysteresis band. The high torque change rate hinders the
It is clear that the DTC-SVM improves classic DTC torque detection of the hysteresis hand crossing unless high sample
reference tracking, reducing torque ripple, achieving zero frequency is used. The effect of a reduced hysteresis band
steady state error and obtaining a torque response almost as in the torque ripple can be observed in Fig. 8 top, where a

2004 35th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Speciulisrs Conference Aachen, Gennany, 2004

Ht = 1t ;Ttr
............... ;
z- 20
+* 1 ..: ............ ;. ..'I..

..: .............

0 .............

0.185 0.19 0.195 0.2 0.205 0.21 0,215

70' 10' 10'

Frequency [Hz]
0.185 0.19 0.195 0.2 0.205 0.21 0.215
time 1st

Fig. 8. Size of hysteresis band and sampling frequency effects on torque

ripple for clasic DTC.

band of 1% rated torque has been used maintaining the same

sample frequency as before. It can he seen that there are not ...........
important differences with figure 7(h). On the other hand, in
Fig. 8 bottom increased sampling frequency was used while . . . . .
keeping the band to its original 5% value, effectively reducing
the torque ripple. It may be concluded then, that the only way
to improve classic DTC performance is to increase sampling
frequency, this is normally not possible due to constraints
on the switching frequency and minimum computational time
A major advantage of the proposed DTC-SVM method over
classic DTC is that the use of a voltage modulator leads to
fixed switching frequency, equal to sample frequency. Fig. 9(a)
shows torque spectral analysis with the proposed method and Fig. 9. Torque spectral analJsiscornpanson. (a) DTC-SVM torque spectrum,
Fig. 9(b) shows a typical spectral content using classic DTC. (b) Clwsic DTC torque spectrum.
The energy of torque harmonics in classic DTC is distributed
in a wide range of frequencies. This can generate resonances
and undesirable acous& noise. In the proposed method the
spectral energy is concentrated at sample frequency harmonics.
Although, the proposed method controls stator flux, Figure
10 shows three-phase stator currents response during the speed
change, here the sinusoidal current waveform is clear, showing S
that good current control is inherent to the algorithm.


The DTC-SVM strategy proposed in this work to con-

trol flux and torque is based on few induction machine
fundamental equations. Consequently, the control method is
simple and easy to implement. No coordinate rotation and
less PI controllers than in field oriented control are needed. 0.1 (1.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
In addition, the proposed DTC strategy is well suited for use lime Is]
in conjunction with space vector modulation resulting in a
Fig. IO. Stator Current during speed reversal.
powerful alternative to overcome the well known drawbacks
of the original DTC solution: variable switching frequency and
high torque ripple.

2004 35th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference Aochen. Germany, 2004

APPENDIX 1141 L. Tang, L. Zhong. M. Rahmn. Y. Hu.“A Novel Direct Torque Conml
for Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine Drive With Low
Motor parameters used to test and compare the proposed Ripple in Torque and Flux - A Speed-Senseroless Approach. IEEE
control strategy are given in table 1. Trans. on Industry Applications. 39(6):1748-1756, NovlDec 2003.
L. Tang, L. B o n g , F. Rahman. “Modeling and Experimental Approach
TABLE I of a Novel Direct Torque Control Scheme for Interior Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Machine Drive”. IECON 02, Industrial Applicotbnr
M o r o n PARAMETEUS Society. 1:235-240, 5-8 November 2002.
L. Tang. M.F. Rahman. “A New Direct Torque Control Smtegy for
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Space Vector Modulation”. IEEE PESC 3Znd Intemotionrrl Confirenct.
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[Hyl 0.337 C. Lascu, I. Boldea, F. Blaabjerg. “A Modified Direct Torque Control
for Induction Motor Sensorless Drive”. IEEE T r a m on Industry
L , [Hyl 0.322 Applicorims, 36(1): 122-130, JanuarylFrebruaty 2000.
1. Boldea, S.A. Nassar. “Electric Drives”. CRC Press LLC. 1999.

power [KWI

The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support
provided, under grant no 1040183, by Fondo Nacional de
Desarrollo Cientifico y Tecnol6gico (FONDECYT) of the
Chilean Government.

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