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1. Question(1.0 mark):Identify and explain briefly the five components of a data

communications system.
Five components of data communications system are:
Message: is the information (data) to be communicated. The message can be text,
numbers, pictures, audio and video.
Sender: is a device that sends the data message. It can be computer, workstation,
telephone handset, video camera, and so on.
Receiver: is a device that receives the data message. It can be computer, workstation,
telephone handset, television, and so on.
Transmission medium: is the physical path which a message travels from the sender to
the receiver. Some examples of transmission media include twisted-pair wire, coaxial
cable, fiber-optic cable, and radio wave.
Protocol: is a set of rules that govern data communications. It presents an agreement
between the communicating devices.

2. Question(1.0 mark):Distinguish simplex, half-duplex and full-duplex transmission
Simplex: the communication is unidirectional (theo mt hng), as on a one-way street.
Only one of the two devices on a link can transmit; the other can only receive.
Half-Duplex: each station can both transmit and receive, but not at the same time. This
means, when one station is the transmitter, the other one must be the receiver and vice
Full-Duplex: both stations can transmit and receive simultaneously.In this mode,
signals going in one direction share the capacity of the link with signals going in the
other direction.

3. Question(1.0 mark):Distinguish unicast, multicast and broadcast communications
Unicast: is communication where a piece of information is sent from one point to the
another point. In this case, there is just one sender, and one receiver.
Multicast: is communication where a piece of information is sent from one or more
point to a set of other points. In this case, there is one or more sender and the
information is distributed to a set of receivers.
Broadcast: is communication where a piece of information is sent from one point to all
the other points. In this case, there is just one sender, but the information is sent to all
connected receivers.

4. Question(1.0 mark):Describe briefly the differences between three technical
terms: (channel) bandwidth, transmission rate, throughput ?
In networking, we use the term bandwidth in two context:
- The first, bandwidth in hertz, refers to the range of frequencies in a composite
signal or the range of frequencies that a channel can pass.
- The second, bandwidth in bits per second, refers to the speed of bit transmission
in a channel or link.In this case, bandwidth refers to the data-carrying capacity of
a network or data transmission medium. It indicates the maximum amount of
data that can pass from a point to another in a unit of time. The bandwidth of a
channel is unchanged. For example, we say we have a slow 9.6Kps dial-up line.
Throughput is the measure how fast we can actually send data through a network.
Throughput is never a constant, it fluctuates and is obviously lower than the bandwidth
of the channel.
Transmission rate:
Transmission Rate is the total amount of data that can be sent from one place to another
in a given period of time.

5. Question(1.0 mark):Name the four basic network topologies and illustrate them
by figures.
Mesh: Ring

Star Bus


6. Question(1.0 mark):What are the differences between physical, logical, port and
specific address?
Physical address:
- It is also known as link address, is the address of a node as defined by its LAN or
WAN.It is used by Data Link layer to deliver data from one node to another within
the same network.It is generally the MAC address and is the lowest-level address.
- The size and format vary depending on the network (it changes from hop to hop).
Most local-area networks use a 48-bit (6-byte) physical address written as 12
hexadecimal digits; every byte is seperated by a colon, as shown as:
Logical address:
- Is address at the Network layer and generally IP address.
- A logical address in the Internet is currently a 32-bit address that can uniquely
define a host connected to the Internet. It remains the same from hop to hop. An
example of logical address is shown as:
Port address:
- Is address at Transport layer, used to identify the particular application running on
the destination machine.
- It remains the same from hop to hop.
- A port address in TCP/IP is 16 bits in length.
Specific address:
- Is address at the Application layer and is user-friendly address. For example, the
email address ( and the Universal Resource Locator (URL)

7. Question (1.0 mark): List the roles of the data link layer in the TCP/IP model.
- Framing: the data layer divides the stream of bits received from the network layer
into manageable data units called frame.

- Physical addressing: if frames are to be distributed to different systems on the
network, the data link layer adds a header to the frame to define the sender and/or
receiver of the frame.
- Flow control: if the rate at which the data are absorbed by the receiver is less than
the rate at which data are produced in the sender, the data link layer imposes (tc
ng, cng ng) a flow control mechanisms to avoid overwhelming (trn, ln t)
the receiver.
- Error control: the data link layer adds reliability to the physical layer by adding
mechanisms to detect and retransmit damaged or lost frames. It also uses a
mechanism to recognize duplicate frames.
- Access control: when two or more devices are connected to the same link, data link
layer protocols are necessary to determine which device has control over the link at
any given time.

8. Question (1.0 mark)What are the responsibilities of the network layer in the
TCP/IP model.
- Logical addressing: If a packet passes the network boundary, we need another
addressing system to help distinguish the source and destination systems. Address
in this case is logical address.
- Creating a connection between the source computer and the destination com-
puter, and routing the packet through possible routes. The communication at
the Network layer is host-to-host. However, there are several routers from the
source to the destination, the routers in the path are responsible for choosing the
best route for each packet.
- Defining the format of the packet.The Network layer in the Internet include the
Internet Protocol (IP), that defines the format of the packet, called a datagram.

9. Question (1.0 mark)What are the responsibilities of the transport layer in the
TCP/IP model.
- Process-to-process delivery of the entire message. A process is an application
program running on the host. The Transport layer ensures that the whole message
arrives intact (nguyn vn) and in order, overseeing both error control and flow
control at the source-to-destination level.
- Service-point addressing. Computers often run several programs at the same time.
For this reason, source-to-destination delivery means delivery from a specific
process (running program) on one computer to a specific process on the other. The
transport layer must therefore include a type of address called a service-point

address (or port address). The transport layer gets the entire message to the correct
process on that computer.
- Segmentation and reassembly. A message is divided into transmittable segments
with each segment containing a sequence of number. These numbers enable the
transport layer to resemble the message correctly.
- Connection control. Transport layer can control the delivery segments to the
transport layer at the destination machine through either connectionless or
connection oriented.
- Flow control. Unlike the data link layer, flow control at transport layer is per-
formed end to end rather than across a single link.
- Error control. Unlike that data link layer, error control at transport layer is per-
formed process-to-process rather than across a single link. Error correction is
usually achived through retransmission.

10. Question (1.0 mark)What are the responsibilities of the application layer in the
TCP/IP model.
- Network virtual terminal.A network virtual terminal is a software version of a
physical terminal, and it allows a user to log on to a remote host.
- File transfer, access, and management. This application allows a user to access
file in a remote host, to retrieve (phc hi) files from a remote computer for use in
the local computer, and to manage or control files in a remote computer locally.
- Mail services. This application provides the basis for e-mail forwarding and
- Directory services. This application provides distributed database sources and
access for global information about various objects and services.

11. Question (1.0 mark):What are the differences between propagation delay and
transmission delay?
Propagation delaymeasures the time required for a bit to travel from the source to the
destination. The propagation delay is calculated by dividing the distance by the
propagation speed:
propagation delay
propagation speed

Transmission delayis the time required for transmission of a message symbol depends
on the size of the message and the bandwidth of the channel:
message size
transmission delay


12. Question (1.0 mark):What are multiplexing and its major goal?
Multiplexing is the set of techniques that allows the simultaneous transmission of
multiple signal across a single data link.
The major goal of Multiplexing is to share an expensive resource.

13. Question (1.0 mark):Why doesstatistical TDM have higher bandwidth efficiency
than synchronous TDM?.
Because in statistical TDM, slots are dramatically allocated. Only when an input line
has a slots worth of data to send is it given a slot in the output frame. Therefore, the
number of slots in each frame is less than the number of input lines. In synchronous
TDM, however, if a source does not have data to send, the corresponding slot in the
output frame is empty. Thus, the number of slots in each frame is always equal to the
number of input lines.

14. Question (1.0 mark):Discuss the efficiency of circuit switching and packet
Circuit switching:
The circuit-switching networks are not as efficient as the packet-switching network
because resources are allocated during the entire duration of the connection. Therefore,
these resources are unavailable to other connections.
Moreover, since the route from one point to another is decided before communication is
started, the communication remains on the same route from the beginning to the end of
process even if that route is not the most efficient one.
Packet switching:
The efficiency of the packet switching network is better than that of the circuit
switching network because resources are allocated only when there are packets to be
transferred. Therefore, these resources can be shared to other connections.
Moreover, each packet are allowed to find its way to the destination by the most
efficient route possible.

15. Question (1.0 mark): Why is ATM so called virtual-circuit switching?
Because ATM uses two types of connection: Permanent virtual-circuit connection
(PVC), and Switch virtual-circuit connection (SVC).

16. Question (1.0 mark):What are the roles of MAC sublayer?

- Frame delimiting and recognition
- To perform the control of access to media.
- It performs the unique addressing to stations directly connected to LAN.
- Detection of error

17. Question (1.0 mark):Why are random access protocols also known as contention
In random access method, no rules specify (quy nh) which station should send next.
Stations competes with one another to access the medium. This is why this method is
also known as contention method (phng php u tranh).

18. Question (1.0 mark):Why does slotted-ALOHA provide better performance than
pure-ALOHA ?
In pure ALOHA, the stations transmit frames whenever they have data to send. When
two or more stations transmit simultaneously, there is a collision and the frames are
In slotted ALOHA, however, the time of the shared channel is divided into discrete
intervals called slots. If any station is not able to place the frame onto the channel at the
beginning of the slot, the station has to wait until the beginning of the next time slot. By
this method, slotted ALOHA can reduce the chances of collision so it provide better
performance than the pure ALOHA.

19. Question (1.0 mark):Distinguish the major differences of CSMA/CD and
The major differences between CSMA/CD and CSMA/CA are:
- CSMA/CD is typically used in wired networks while CSMA/CA is used in
wireless networks.
- CSMA/CD is standardized in IEEE 802.3 and CSMA/CA is standardized in
IEEE 802.11.
- CSMA/CD takes effect after a collision while CSMA/CA acts to prevent
collisions before they happen.
- CSMA/CA reduces the possibility of a collision while CSMA/CD only
minimizes the recovery time.


20. Question (1.0 mark):What are Clear-to-Send (CTS) and Request-to-Send (RTS)
of wireless LAN designed for ?
CTS and RTS of wireless LAN are designed for reducing frame collision

21. Question (1.0 mark):Why is ATM called a asynchronous network ?
ATM uses statistical (asynchronous) time-division multiplexing,that is why it iscalled
Asynchronous Transfer Mode

22. Question (1.0 mark):Explain why connection at ATM layer is considered as
connection-oriented mode.
Because in ATM, a virtual circuit must be established between two endpoints before the
actual data exchange begins.

23. Question (1.0 mark):Why is an IPv4 address considered unique and universal?
Ipv4 address is unique because each address is defined one, and only one connection
two the Internet.
Ipv4 address is universal because each addressing system must be accepted by any host
that wants to be connected to the Internet.

24. Question (1.0 mark):How to distinguish IPv4address classes in the classful
addressing method? How many classes are there ?
In the classful addressing method, there are 5 classes: A, B, C, D and E.
The distinction of these five classes bases on their first bits (if the address is given in
binary notation) as follow:
- If the first bit is 0, it defines class A.
- Class B always starts with two bits 10.
- The first three bits of class C is always 110.
- The first four bits of class D is always 1110.
- And 1111 is the first four bits of class E.

25. Question (1.0 mark):What are the problems of classful addressing ?
The problem of classful addressing is that each class is devided into a fixed number of
blocks with each block having a fixed size as shown in the table below:

Since the addresses were not distributed properly, resulting in no more addresses
available for organizations and individuals that needed to be connected to the Internet.
To understand the problem, let us think about class A. This class can be assigned to
only 128 very large organizations in the world but each needs to have a single network
with 16,777,216 nodes.A block in class A address is too large for almost any
organizations. This means most of the address in class A were wasted (unused). Class B
addresses were designed for midsize organizations, but many of the addresses in this
class also remained unused. A block in class C is probably too small for many
organizations. Class E were almost never used, wasting the whole class.

26. Question (1.0 mark):Describe briefly the classless addressing method.
In classless addressing, when an entity, small or large, needs to be connected to the
Internet, it is granted a block (range) of addresses. The size of the block varies based on
the nature and size of the entity.
1. The addresses in a block must be contiguous, one after another.
2. The number of addresses in a block must be a power of 2 (1, 2, 4, 8,...)
3. The first address must be evenly divisible by the number of addresses.

27. Question (1.0 mark):List address sets for private networks. Are they unique?

They are unique inside the organization, but they are not unique globally.

28. Question (1.0 mark):What is NAT?
Network Address Translation or NAT is technology that allows a private network to use
a set of private addresses for internal communication and a set of global Internet
addresses for externalcommunication.

29. Question (1.0 mark):By using a figure, describe briefly how NAT operates.

The figure above shows a NAT implementation. As the figure shows, the private
network uses private addresses.The router that connects the network to the global
address uses one private address and one global address. The private network is
invisible to the rest of the Internet; the rest of the Internet sees only the NAT router with
the address
30. Question (1.0 mark):Explain why communication at the network layer in Internet
is connectionless.
Because in connectionless service, the network layer protocol treats each packet
independently, with each packet having no relationship to any other packet. The packets
in a message may or may not travel the same path to their destination. This type service
is used in the datagram approach to packet switching. The Internet has chosen this of
service the network layer.
The reason for this decision is that the Internet is made of so many heterogeneous
networks that it is almost impossible to create a connection from the source to
destination without knowing the nature of the networks in advance.

31. Question (1.0 mark):Explain why IPv4 is considered as an unreliable and
connectionless datagram protocol (a best-effort delivery service)?
Ipv4 is considered as an unreliable and connectionless datagram protocol because it
provides no error control or flow control (except for error detection on the header).
IPv4 is also a connectionless protocol for a packet-switching network, each datagram is
handled independently, and each datagram can follow a different route to the

destination. The datagrams sent by the same source to the same destination could arrive
out of order.

32. Question (1.0 mark):What is the role of the Address Resolution Protocol.
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is used toglue the network and data-link layers
in mapping network-layer addresses to link-layeraddresses. (19.1)

33. Question (1.0 mark):What are RIP, OSPF, BGP?
- The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is an intradomain routing protocol used
inside an autonomous system. It is a very simple based on distance vector
- The Open Shortest Path First or OSPF protocol is an intradomain routing
protocol based on link state routing. Its domain is also an autonomous system.
- Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an interdomain routing protocol using path
vector routing.

34. Question (1.0 mark):What is distance vector routing?
Distance vector routing is routing method in which each router sends its neighbors a list
ofnetworks it can reach and the distance to each network.

35. Question (1.0 mark):What is link state routing?
Link state routing is a routing method in which each router shares its knowledge of
charges in its neighborhood with all other routers.

36. Question (1.0 mark):Inshortest path slection algorithm, what does shortest path
There are many ways for a packet to go to node B from node A. There may be some
intermediate node from A to B such as node C, D, ... The distance between two adjacent
nodes is called cost, or weight.The shortest path from A to B is the one whose
cumulative cost, or weight is smallest.

37. Question (1.0 mark):Explain why UDP is considered as connectionless transport
layer protocol.
Because the packets (user datagrams) are sent from one party to another with no need
for connection establishment or connection release. This means that each user datagram
can travel on a different path. The packets are not numbered, they may be delayed or
lost or may arrive out of sequence.


38. Question (1.0 mark):Explain why UDP is not a reliable transport protocol.
Because, there is no flow control and error control mechanism in UDP.

39. Question (1.0 mark):Explain why TCP is considered as connection-oriented
transport layer protocol.
Because if two TCPs want to send data to each other, they have to establish the
connection between them before sending data.

40. Question (1.0 mark):List some reasons causing congestion in networks.
Congestion results from applications sending more data than the network devices (e.g.,
routers and switches) can accommodate (cha c), thus causing the buffers on such
devices to fill up and possibly overflow. A buffer is a portion of a device's memory that
is set aside as a temporary holding place for data that is being sent to or received from
another device. This can result in delayed or lost packets, thus causing applications to
retransmit the data, thereby adding more traffic and further increasing the congestion.

41. Question (1.0 mark):Briefly describe how Slow Start algorithm operates for TCP
congestion control?
The slow-start algorithmis based on the idea that the size of the congestion
window(cwnd) starts with one maximum segment size(MSS), but it increases one MSS
eachtime an acknowledgment arrives. This algorithm starts slowly but grows

(RTT: Round-time trip)
Start cwnd = 1 = 2
After 1 RTT cwnd = cwnd + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2 = 2
After 2 RTT cwnd = cwnd + 2 = 2 + 2 = 4 = 2

After 3 RTT cwnd = cwnd+ 4 = 4 + 4 = 8 = 2

42. Question (1.0 mark):Briefly describe how Congestion Avoidance algorithm
operates for TCP congestion control?
Congrestion Avoidance algorithm increases the cwnd (congestion window) additively
until congestion is detected. In this algorithm, each time the whole window of
segments is acknowledged, the size of the congesstion window is increased by 1.

(RTT: Round-trip time)
Start cwnd = i
After 1 RTT cwnd = i + 1
After 2 RTT cwnd = i + 2
After 3 RTT cwnd = i + 3

43. Question (1.0 mark):Distinguish traffic parameters such as average data rate, peak
data rate and maximum burst size.
- Average data rate is the number of bits sent during a period of time divided by the
number of second in that period.
amount of data
Average data rate

- Peak data rate: the maximum data rate of the traffic.
- Maximum burst size: refers to the maximum length of the time the traffic is
generated at the peak rate.
44. Question (1.0 mark):For best-effort traffic, which performance metric (delay,
throughput) is more important. Why ?
Throughput. Because for best-effort traffic, we want to transmit data as much as
possible but not care much about whether the data are delay or not.