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UNIT 10: JOBS

ARABLE FARMING
Arable farming is the cultivation of land to grow food, like fruit, vegetables, cereals and cotton.
Persons who work in arable farming are called arable farmers.

CROPS
o Crops are the products that farmer grows. There are two types:
Dry Crops: need small amount of water, mainly rainwater. For example, wheat, grapes and cherries
Irrigated Crops: need a lot of water from irrigation systems. For example, vegetables like tomatoes and
peppers and fruits like oranges and apples.
TASKS OF AN ARABLE FARMER
1. Ploughing: turns the soil over and make furrows with the tractor and plough.
2. Fertilising: farmer puts food in the soil.
3. Sowing: puts the seeds into the soil.
4. Irrigating: give plants water they need.
5. Spraying: farmer sprays plants to kill insects.
6. Harvesting: collects all the fruits from the plants.


LIVESTOCK FARMING
Livestock farming involves breeding, looking after and selling domestic animals.
We get food like meat and milk and leather from livestock farming.
Main types of livestock are:
o Sheep: we get meat, milk and wool.
o Cows: we get meat, milk and leather.
o Pigs: we get meat and leather.
o Goats: we get meat and milk.
o Chikens: we get meat and eggs.

TASKS OF LIVESTOCK FARMERS
1. Feed the animals.
2. Clean the stables and cowsheds.
3. Look after the health of animals.
4. Get products from animals.


FISHING

Fising is catching fish and other animals from rivers, lakes and seas. Fishermen are the people who work in
fishing industry.
There are two types of fishing:
o Freshwater fishing: happens in rivers and lakes.
o Sea fishing: happens in sea.


TYPES OF SEA FISHING
o Coastal fishing: near the coast and in small boats. They catch fish like sardines and anchovies.
o Deep-sea fishing: far from the coast and in very big boats. They catch fish like cod and tuna.


TASKS OF FISHERMEN
1. Go out to sea
2. Put out the nets
3. Collect the nets
4. Classify the fish
5. Go back to the port
6. Repair the nets and clean the boat
7. Sell the fish at the fish market




THE CRAFT INDUSTRY
In craft industry people make products by hand, using simple tools.
People who work in craft industry are called craftmen and craftwoman. For example, potters make pottery,
carpenters make furniture, tailors and dressmakers make clothes and blacksmith work in iron.

THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
Manufacturing industry transforms natural products, called raw materials into manufactured products. For
example, wood is used to make a table.
People who work in manufacturing industry are called factory workers. Factory workers use machines in
factories. Factories are in the outskirts of cities.

SERVICES
People who work in service industry help other people
o Teachers work in schools and universities.
o Doctors and nurses work in hospitals and clinics.
o Retailers work in shops and markets.
o The local police are responsible of peoples safety.
There are two types of services:
o Public services: controlled by government. For example, police officers, doctors, teachers.
o Private services: controlled by business and individuals. For example, shop assistants and waiters.