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Genetic Engineering Speech Outline

I. Intro
-Genetic Engineering is the process by which we take an organism and
modify its characteristics through its genome. This is a very important
process because it is used frequently in industries such as medicine and
food.

II. Review of Simple Genetic Engineering(45 seconds-1minute)
A. Bacteria
1. Bacteria are very simple organisms that can be modified easily
2. They are easily modified through transformation, which is when
we simply allow bacteria to intake DNA from its environment. We
use electricity to make bacteria more porous to force the DNA into
the cell.
3. This can also be done through transduction, which is taking a virus
and using it to force DNA into the bacteria.
4. To add to my previous speech, we can also use other bacteria to
conjugate with a select bacterium. This is when we take a bacteria
cell and give it a gene, making it HRF+. It will then transmit the
code to other bacteria.
5. Bacteria are very useful in industry and these forms of genetic
engineering are used in producing hormones, vitamins, and even
food such as yogurt.
NIH Research Paper: Haemophilia is a disorder of clotting
factors in the blood. This is often cured using DNA
recombinant technology by producing new blood
components.
6. Bacteria are also very efficient organisms and require selective
pressure, a reason to have a code, in order for it to express a gene.
We often provide antimicrobial resistance genes with the desired
gene and then select for bacteria that are resistant.
7. Transition: This process can be extended to larger organisms
as well
III. Complex Genetic Engineering(1.5-2 minutes)
A. Crops
1. Crops are the most well-known genetically modified organisms,
2. They are modified through a more complicated process
3. A gene gun takes a heavy metal such as gold or tungsten coated
with DNA.
4. The metal is injected into a series of unorganized plant cells. Many
of the cells die, but a few survive and have the DNA migrate into
their chromosomes.
5. They are then recollected and turned into plant components,
eventually leading to the organism. Many hormones are involved
in this process as well.
6.
B. Humans and Animals
1. Gene guns are used to inject neurons in particular and are used
study when the brain degenerates through diseases such as
Parkinsons or through neurotoxins. They are also used to modify
DNA in animals to give them immunity to a particular disease.
2. Gene guns are less prevalent in animals than in plants.
3. Cloning is interesting to most people so I will discuss this next.
4. Nuclear transfer is the process of removing the DNA from an
unfertilized egg and replacing it with the DNA from another
organism. If the egg divides, it should produce the intended
organism.
5. This is holly Dolly the Sheep was cloned.
IV. Controversy
A.) GMOs
1.) There is a lot of controversy concerning GMOs
2.) According to the AMA, there have been no health detriments
caused by eating genetically modified food. Research is still being
done
3.) GMOs are also believed to have fewer health benefits