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## Triangle and its proof

Jackie.Zhou
Yantai Yew Wah International School
junzhou013@gmail.com
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 1 / 31
Congruent Triangles
Axiom: fact we accept without proof
Two triangles with are congruent.(SAS)
Two triangles with are congruent.(ASA)
Two triangles with are congruent.(SSS)
The corresponding edges/angles of congruent triangles are
1. In

ABC and

, AB = A

, B = B, C = C

. Prove
that

ABC

=

.
Pf: A = 180

B C
A

= 180

Hence, A = A

In

ABC and

, since
A = A

, AB = A

, B = B

ABC

=

(ASA)
Corollary: Two triangles with two equal angles and one equal
opposite side are congruent
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 2 / 31
2. As in the graph, AB intersects with CD at point O,
OA = OD, OC = OD. Prove that

OAC

=

ODB.
Pf: In

OAC and

ODB,
OA = OD
AOC = DOB
OC = OB

OAC

=

ODB(SAS)
3. If

AOB

=

## DOC, prove that

ABD

DCA.
Pf:

AOB

=

DOC
AO = DO, BO = CO, AB = DC
+ = +
i.e., DB = AC
In

ABC and

DCA
AB = DC
=
=

ABD

DCA( )
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 3 / 31
1. As in the gure, CAB = DBA, AC = BD. Prove that
C = D, CB = DA
2.As in the gure , AC bisects BAD, AB = AD. Show that AC bisects
BCD
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 4 / 31
3. As in the graph, point B lies inside EAF, C, D are two points on
AE, AF, 1 = 2, 3 = 4. Prove that AC = AD
4. As in the graph, AB = CD, AP CD, CE = AF. Prove that
E = F
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 5 / 31
5. As in the graph, AB = AD, AF = AG, BF = DG. Prove that
BAG = DAF
6. As in the graph, BF = DE, DE AB, DF AC. Prove that D is the
middle point of BC
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 6 / 31
7. As in the graph, E, F are two point on segment BC,
BF = CE, AEB = DFC, B = C. Prove that

ABE

=

DCF
8. As in the graph, AB = AC, D = E, 1 = 2. Prove that

ABD

ACE
9. As in the graph, AB = AD, BC = DC. Prove that B = D
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 7 / 31
10. As in the graph,

ABC

=

are heights(angular
bisector, middle line) of

ABC and

. Prove that AD = A

.
11. As in the graph, AB = CD, BE = DF, B = D. Prove
(1) AE = CF
(2) AE CF
(3) AFE = CEF
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 8 / 31
12. As in the graph, AB = AC, AD = AE, BD intersects with CE at
point F. Prove
(1) B = C
(2)

BEF

=

CDF
(3) BF = CF
13. As in the graph, AB CD, AD intersects with BC at point O, EF
passes through O, AB = CD. Prove
(1) OC = OB
(2) OE = OF
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 9 / 31
Isosceles Triangles
Theorem: the two base angles of an isosceles triangles are equal.
Theorem: a triangle with two equal angles is an isosceles triangles.
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 10 / 31
eg:

ABC is an isosceles triangle, BD, CE bisect B, C respectively.
Prove that BD = CE.
pf: ABC = ACB
1 =
1
2
ABC =
1
2
ACB = 2
In

BDC and

CEB
ACB = ABC
BC = CB
1 = 2

BDC

=

CEB (ASA)
BD = CE
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 11 / 31
1. As in the graph, C is a point on BD, AC BD, AC = BC = CD.
Prove
(1)

ABC is an isosceles
triangle
(2) nd the size of BAD
2. As in the graph, AC intersects BD at point O, AB DC, OA = OB.
Prove that OC = OD.
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 12 / 31
Corollary: In an isosceles, the vertex angular bisector, the middle line
of the base, the height of the base coincide.
AD bisect A : 1 = 2
AD is middle line: BD = CD
eg. As in the graph, D, E are two points on BC. AB = AC, AD = AE.
Prove that BD = CE.
Pf:Plot AF BC
AB = AC, AF BC
BF = CF
Similarly, DF = EF
BF DF = CF EF
i.e., BD = CE
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 13 / 31
3. As in the graph, D lies inside

## ABC, BD = CD, BD bisects

ABC, CD bisects ACB. Prove that AB = AC
4. As in the graph, CAE is an exterior angle of

ABC,
AD BC, 1 = 2. Prove that AB = AC
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 14 / 31
5. As in the graph, AB = AC, DB = DC, AD intersect with BC at E.
Prove that BE = CE
6. As in the graph, AB = AC, ABD = ACE. Prove
(1) OB = OC
(2) BE = CD
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 15 / 31
Theorem: An isosceles triangle with one angle 60

is an equilateral
triangle
Theorem: In an right angled triangle, if one of the acute angles is
30

## , then the opposite right angled side is half of the hypotenuse

Eg. In

ABC, C = 90

, A = 30

. Prove BC =
1
2
AB.
Pf: Extend BC to D such that CD = BC, joint AD

ABC

=

AB = AD, BAC = DAC = 30

ABD is an equilateral triangle
BC =
1
2
BD =
1
2
AB
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 16 / 31
7. As in the graph, in

## ABC, AB = AC = 2a,ABC = ACB = 15

,
CD is the height of AB. Find the length of CD
8. As in the graph,

## ABC is an equilateral triangle, plot three parallel

lines of its edges to get a new triangle DEF. Is

DEF still an
equilateral triangle? How many equilateral triangles can you nd?
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 17 / 31
Prove by contraction: Assume, Reduction, Contraction, Result
Eg. In

## ABC, prove that there is at most 1 acute angle.

Pf: Assume there are 2 or 3 right angles
without loss of generality, we assume A = B = 90

Then A+B +C = 90

+ 90

+C > 180

contraction
Thus there is at most one acute angle.
9. a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, a
4
, a
5
are all positive, and a
1
+a
2
+a
3
+a
4
+a
5
= 1, prove
that at least one of them is bigger or equal to
1
5
.
10. In

60

## 11. If m is integer and m

2
is even, prove that m is even.
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 18 / 31
Right angled triangle
Pythagoras Theorem:

## ABC is a right angled triangle

a
2
+b
2
= c
2
Theorem(HL): Two right angled triangles with the same hypotenuse
and one right angled side are congruent
AC = A

,AB = A

Then

ABC

=

1. In

ABC, C = 90

BD
2
+AC
2
= CD
2
+AB
2
.
2. ABCD A

AB = 5cm, AA

## = 8cm. An ant crawl from point A to point C

to get
food. What is the shortest way to get there? Find the distance.
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 20 / 31
3. As in the graph, ABC = ADC = 90

, AB = AD, E is a point on
AC. Prove that
(1) DAC = BAC
(2) ED = EB
4. As in the graph, AB = CD, DE AC, BF AC, DE = BF.
Prove that
(1) AE = CF
(2) AB CD
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 21 / 31
Perpendicular bisector:(How to plot it with ruler and compass)
As in the graph, MN AB, AC = CB
Theorem: any point of perpendicular
bisector has equal distance to two end
point
As in the graph, PA = PB
Any point has equal distance to the two end points lies on the
perpendicular bisector line
If QA = QB, Q is a point on line MN
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 22 / 31
Bisect line AB
Open a pair of compasses to more than half the distance AB
Place the compass point on A and draw arcs above and below AB
With the same radius,place the compass point on B and draw arcs
above and below AB
Line CD: perpendicular bisector of AB
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 23 / 31
1. MN is the perpendicular bisector line of segment AB, C, D are two
points on MN. Prove
(1)

ABC,

triangles
2. In

## ABC, AC = 27, BC = 23, perpendicular bisector of AB

intersects with AB at D, with AC at E. Find the perimeter of

BCE.
3. As in the graph, A, B are two barns, we want to built a dock besides
the river which has equal distance to those two barns. Can you nd the
position of the dock?
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 24 / 31
Theorem:the perpendicular bisector of three sides of a triangles will
pass through a common point
As in the graph, O is the common point.

O : circumcircle of

ABC
O : circumcentre, OA = OB = OC
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 25 / 31
1. We have segment a, plot an isosceles triangle with base a, height
1
2
a.
2. In

## , the perpendicular bisector of AB

intersects with AB, AC at E, D. Prove:AD =
1
2
DC.
3. As in the graph, AD bisects BAC, the perpendicular bisector of AD
intersects with AB, BC at F, E. Prove
(2) DF AC
(3) EAC = B
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 26 / 31
Bisect angle ABC
Open a pair of compasses and place the point on B. Draw two arcs
such that they intersect the arms of the angle
Place the compass in turn on the points of intersections, draw
another pair of arcs of the same radius. Ensure they intersect
With the same radius,place the compass point on B and draw arcs
above and below AB
Line BF: angular bisector
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 27 / 31
Theorem: points on angular bisector has equal
distance to the two sides
As in the gure, If OC bisects AOB, then
PD = PE
Theorem: points that have equal distance to
the two sides lie on the angular bisector
As in the gure, If PD = PE, then OC bisects
AOB
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 28 / 31
1. A, O, B are on a same line, OD bisects AOC, OE bisects BOC.
Find the size of DOE.
2. In the following gure, nd a point P such that PC = PD and P has
equal distance to OB, OC
3. In

## ABC, AD bisects BAC, BD = CD, DE AB, DF AC.

Prove that EB = FC.
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 29 / 31
inscribed circle and incentre
inscribed circle

## O : OD AB, OE BC, OF AC,

OD = OE = OF
incentre O: intersection of angular bisector of CO, AO
Eg. AO bisects BAC, OD BC, OE AB,
OD = OE. Prove that CO bisects ACB.
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 30 / 31
1. As in the graph, CBD, BCE are exterior angles of

ABC, their
angular bisector intersect at F. Prove that AF bisects DAE.
2. As in the graph, BE AC, CF AB, BE intersects with CF at D,
BD = CD. Prove AD bisects BAC
Jackie.Zhou (YWIES) Grade 7 Bilingual Math Triangle and its proof 31 / 31