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An ISO 9001:2008 Company

Forming Fabrics Dryer Screens

Metal Wire Cloth

Ch e mi c a l s
Vol.15 / Issue-5 MAY 2011
Paper recycling is the process of recovering waste paper and
remaking it into new paper products. It is estimated that on a
global basis municipal solid waste constitutes of about 35% by
weight of paper and paper products which are recyclable.
After waste paper is collected from printers / converters or
recovered from the municipal waste stream, there are three
possible options available for disposal: recycling (including
centralised composting), incineration and landfill.
This hierarchy would seem to suggest that recycling paper has
more environmental benefits than incineration or landfill.
Indeed two recent studies from Coopers & Lybrand: CSERGE
(Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment) and
U.S. EPA (the U.S. Environment Protection Agency) support this view
with following points:
Rigorous scientific research has demonstrated that manufacturing
paper with recycled content is good for the environment.
Producing recycled paper requires less energy and water than
producing paper from trees.
By recycling paper, we prevent it from being landfilled where it
degrades, producing methane, a greenhouse gas. According to
the U.S. EPA, landfills are the single largest U.S. source of
methane emissions to the atmosphere and degrading paper is a
primary cause.
Manufacturing with recovered paperboard cuts down on air
pollutants such as nitrogen oxides that contribute to smog and
particulate emissions that cause respiratory problems.
In short, recycling paper into products like 100% recycled paper
creates significant environmental and economic benefits for any
Paper used as feedstock for making recycled paper are broadly
divided as: pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste.
Pre-consumer waste is material which left the paper mill but was
discarded before consumer use. Post-consumer waste is material
discarded after consumer use, such as old corrugated containers
(OCC), old magazines, old newspapers (ONP), office paper, old
telephone directories, and residential mixed paper (RMP).
Internationally, about half of all recovered paper comes from
converting losses (pre-consumer recycling), such as shavings and
unsold periodicals; while approximately one third comes from
household or post-consumer waste.
A third category of waste paper is Mill broke which are paper
trimmings and other paper scraps from the paper production, and
recycled internally in the paper mill.

Energy Saving
Energy consumption is reduced by recycling, although there is
some debate regarding the actual energy savings. The Energy
Information Administration claims that there is a 40% reduction in
energy when paper is recycled versus paper made with virgin
pulp, while the Bureau of International Recycling (BIR) claims a 64%
Seen differently, recycling paper to make pulp actually consumes
more fossil fuels than pulping via the kraft process since these mills
generate all of their energy from burning waste wood (bark, roots) and
lignin which is a bye-product, while Recycling Mills purchase most of
their energy from local power companies, where the electricity is
generated by burning fossil fuels.
However, fossil fuel use can also be offset in recycled paper
production by burning wastes from the process. For example more
than 20% of the Aylesford Newsprint Mill's energy needs are met
through burning waste sludges.
But the energy debate tends to be very narrow : The forest
products industry generally excludes in its analysis, the fuel used in
forest management e.g. in drilling, seeding, harvesting, transport of
timber to the pulp mill and the pulp to distribution points.
Environmental Aspects
Production of both virgin and recycled paper gives rise to pollutants
which are discharged to water as effluents.
Overall, studies suggest that the environmental burden is less if
paper is recycled. There are small increases in BOD and suspended
solids but technology is available to reduce these pollutants from the
effluent stream.
However, recycling mills may have polluting by-products, such as
sludge. While heavy metals in the sludge have been of concern, the
levels of these contaminants are thought to have declined in line with
a reduction in their use in inks and pigments.
Effluents can be treated by clarification and activated sludge and/or
anaerobic processes to control BOD and COD and in a few cases
waste paper processing paper mills already have realized a totally
effluent-free process.
U.S. EPA has found that recycling causes 35% less water
pollution and 74% less air pollution than making virgin paper.
Some calculations show that recycling one ton of paper saves
about 17 mature trees, 26 m3 of water, 2.3 m3 of landfill space, 2
barrels of oil (320 l), and 4,100 kilowatt-hours (15 GJ) of
electricity enough energy to power the average American home
for six months.
International Paper, the US based Paper and Packaging Company is set to take control of The Andhra
Pradesh Paper Mills Ltd, having acquired the majority shares of this company.
IP already has its presence in 20 countries around the world.
Website: http : // www.wirefabrik.com

European Union
Paper recovery in Europe has a long history and has grown into a
mature activity to meet the requirements of the European
Commission and national governments. Their aim is the reduction of
the environmental impact of waste during manufacturing, converting /
printing, collecting, sorting and recycling processes. Paper recycling
rate in Europe has already touched 66%, the voluntary target set for
2010 by the industry.
United States

The history of paper recycling in the US has several dates of
importance among which 1993 stands out as the first year when
more paper was recycled than was buried in landfills.
By 1998, some 9,000 curbside programs and 12,000 recyclable
drop-off centers had sprouted up across the US. The US paper
industry set a goal to recover 55 percent of all the paper used in the
US by 2012. However in 2007 itself a record -high of 56% of the
paper used in the US (or 54.3 million tons) was recovered for
recycling five years ahead of schedule.

Waste paper constitutes 43% of the total furnish used in the
Indian Paper Industry. But only about 20% of paper is being
currently recovered annually as waste. 50% of industrys waste
paper requirement is met through import which is still rising.
While the low recovery is partly on account of alternate use of paper
in wrapping, packing, etc. India lacks a system of collection, sorting
and grading of waste paper for proper utilization. The lack of proper
segregation at the source results in waste paper getting contaminated
and becoming unusable. Government intervention may be
necessary to encourage segregation at source and increase
recycling so as to minimize landfills and attendant environmental
As an initiative from the industry, ITC Paperboards and
Specialty Papers Division launched their waste paper collection
programme called Wealth Out of Waste (WOW) in select areas of
the country. As a start, it has tied up with several IT companies
which would sell their waste paper to ITC for recycling. It also
plans to tie up with Residential Welfare Associations (RWAs),
NGOs and local bodies to expand the waste paper collection
Although the production of recycled papers involves the same
paper machine as used for virgin pulp, stock preparation involves
the use of several papermaking chemicals.
The following are commonly used while making recycled paper :
1. De-inking Chemicals: These are instrumental in detaching the
printing ink from the waste paper and removing it from the system by
washing or flotation.
2. Stickies and trash control chemicals: Processing of waste
paper results in accumulation of colloidal contaminants in the
system which need to be removed to ensure smooth machine
runnability. This is done with the help of scavengers like
organoclays or cationicaly charged coagulants.
3. Strength additives: Recycling results in the decline of fibre length
and the subsequent loss in fibre strength. Papermachine breaks
tend to be enhanced when producing recycled paper. To check this,
Dry Strength additives in the form of polymeric resins or
polysaccharides such as guar gum and starch are used.
4. Felt and Wire Cleaning Chemicals Because of contaminants
like carried-over ink particles, colour pigments, coating binders,
waxes and adhesives all existing in a colloidal form in the
papermaking system, wires and felts tend to accumulate deposits.
Chemical companies are able to provide specific and effective felt
and wire cleaning and conditioning chemicals which help to
preserve their longevity, and at the same time sustain their ability
to perform.
Paper recycling has to some extent relieved the pressure on
wood as a raw materials source for pulp and paper. Using less wood
fibre results in less intensive forest management and reduces
exploitation of old growth forests which are vitally important for
biodiversity. At the same time, many mills are actively promoting
social forestry and private plantations.
The market demand for waste paper will increase as new
processing capacity is developed. To ensure supply a statutory
requirement on local authorities to devise and implement ambitious
recycling plans with minimum targets for recovery levels, would be
an important step. Both - jobs and the economy, would benefit from
increased paper recycling.
We fight with our Products, but we win with our People Jeff Owoc, Sr. VP, Medrad Inc.
What does B T U stand for ? ( Hint : Energy Term)
First correct answer will win a Parker Vector Roller Pen (Maximum two prizes for one person in a year).
Post / Fax / Email your answers to EDITOR-W&F SNIPPETS by 20
May, 2011.
Mr.EVGK Sharma, DGM(Production), The APPM Ltd. Unit: CP, M.R.Palem - 533 126

Find the mismatched pair/s.
(1) Cellulose ~ Cellulase (2) Amylose ~ Amylase (3) Xylan ~ Xylase (4) Protein ~ Protease
Post / Fax / Email your answers to EDITOR-W&F SNIPPETS by 20th May, 2011.
Mr. Prasad Reddy BVVSV, Central laboratory, ITC Ltd PSPD, Sarapakka, Khammam Dist, A.P 507 128
Quiz: Benzoate treated papers are used for : a) Packing of meat products b) Protecting metal parts against corrosion
c) For soap wrappers.
Correct Answer: b) Protecting metal parts against corrosion

Mr.K.S.M. Srinivas, Asst.Manager, P.M. (Process), Andhra Pradesh Paper Mills Ltd, Rajah Mundry (A.P.)
1. Best / first correct answer received will win one-year subscription to IPPTA Journal (Maximum one prize for one person in a year).
2. Best of the 12 monthly winners in a year, will win one-year subscription to Paper 360
Magazine, USA.

A telephone is a convenient instrument to talk to people without offering them a drink.

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Wires & Fabriks (S.A) Ltd,
JAIPUR-302012, India.
Phone: 0141-2341722 Fax: +91-141-2340078
Email: snippets @ wirefabrik.com
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The contents & opinions expressed in this publication are of the writer/editor. The Company has not verified & may not subscribe to the same.

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