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09-EC-014

A PROJECT ON
RECTANGULAR MICROSTIP PATCH ANTENNA
FOR THE FREQUENCY USED IN BLUETOOTH



Submitted for partial fulfillment of award of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

degree

In

Electronics Communication and Engineering


By

Vinam Tyagi(0929031089)
Mayank Aggarwal(0929031038)
Sudhanshu(0929031083)



Name of Guide
Prof Ruchi Gupta




GAUTAM BUDDH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW










Certificate



Certified that Vinam Tyagi, Mayank Aggarwal, Sudhanshu have carried out the
research work presented in this report entitled Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna
for the frequency used in bluetooth for the award of Bachelor of Technology in
Electronics and Communication from Gautam Buddh Technical University, Lucknow
under my supervision. The project report embodies result of original work and studies
carried out by Student themself and the contents of the project report do not form the
basis for the award of any other degree to the candidate or to anybody else.










Signature of the supervisor
Ms Ruchi Gupta






INDEX
1. Abstract 1
2. Introduction and Objective & Goals 1
3. Keywords 1
4. Resources 6
5. Methodology 7
6. Applications 9
7. Project Plan 11
8. References 12





1
ABSTRACT
In this paper, a novel design of small sized, low profile coaxial fed patch antenna is proposed for BLUETOOTH
applications at 2.4GHz frequency. The patch shape is similar to and different parameters like return loss, VSWR, gain
along , directions, radiation pattern in 2-D and 3-D, axial ratio, E and H Field Distributions, Current Distributions are
simulated using HFSS 13.0. The measured parameters satisfy required limits hence making the proposed antenna suitable
for BLUETOOTH applications in 2.4GHz band.

Keywords: Coaxial fed,
Bluetooth, FR4

1. INTRODUCTION

The BLUETOOTH technology provides short range of
wireless connections between electronic devices like
computers, mobile phones and many others thereby
exchanging voice, data and video. The rapid increase in
communication standards has led to great demand for
antennas with low real estate, low profile and size, low
cost of fabrication and ease of integration with feeding
network. Microstrip patch antennas are widely used
because they are of light weight, compact, easy to
integrate and cost effective. However, the serious problem
of patch antennas is their narrow bandwidth due to surface
wave losses and large size of patch for better performance.

Various techniques like using Frequency Selective
Surface[13]-[14], Employing stacked configuration[6],
using thicker profile for folded shorted patch antennas[8],
use of thicker substrate[10], slot antennas ike U-slot patch
antennas together with shorted patch[4], double U-slot
patch antenna[5], L-slot patch antenna[8], annular slot
antenna[9], double C patch antenna[3], E-shaped patch
antenna[2], and feeding techniques like L-probe feed[7],






circular coaxial probe feed[1], proximity coupled feed
are used to enhance bandwidth of microstrip patch
antenna. The size of feeding patch and thickness of
dielectric should be taken care. The techniques to reduce
the size of the [patch like use of short circuited
element[15]-[16], high dielectric constant material[17],
slots[10], and resistive loading[19] have been proposed.

But, the choice of slot antenna[20] introduced the
drawback of narrow bandwidth and poor circular
polarization performance and complex laser cutting of






solar cells is required to achieve desired shape during
fabrication. Monoplole[12], printed monopole[21]-[26],
dipole[11] antennas improve the bandwidth to a greater
extent. But, monopole antennas are of large size and
difficult to build and integrate. Printed monopole antennas
also have numerous advantages like low profile, small
size, easy integration but has disadvantage of low broad
impedence bandwidth and low omnidirectional radiation
pattern. The dipole antennas have large input impedence.
So, an impedence matching transformer or balun coil at
feed point is required which increases the size of antenna.

In this paper, a compact size patch antenna is proposed
with dielectric substrate as FR4 with r=4.4 and
dimensions are base on resonant frequency. Various
attempts are made to adjust the dimensions of the patch to
impove the parameters like return loss, VSWR, gain along
, directions, radiation pattern in 2-D and 3-D, axial
ratio, E and H Field Distributions, Current Distributions
using HFSS 13.0 which is a high performance full wave
EM field simulator for arbitarary 3D volumetric passive
device modelling that takes advantage of the familiar
Microsoft Windows graphical user interface. It integrates
simulation, visualization, solid modelling, and automation
in an easy to learn environment where solutions to your
3D EM problems are quickly and accurate obtained.
Ansoft HFSS employs the Finite Element Method (FEM),
adaptive meshing, and brilliant graphics to give you
unparalleled performance and insight to all of the 3D EM
problems.

2. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
The proposed structure of the antenna is shown in Fig.
(1). The antenna is simulated on an FR4 substrate with a




















































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dielectric constant of 4.4 and a loss tangent of 0.02. The
thickness of the substrate is 6.7 mm. The size of the
antenna is 80* 80 mm
2
, which is suitable for most
Bluetooth devices. Rectangle shaped patches are cut at
middle to form shaped patch antenna and width of
each arm is 25mm.
3. SIMULATION RESULTS

A. Return losses

Return loss
2.4121 -20.3133
m3 3.0182 -13.9963

-5.00


-10.00





Patch_Antenna_ADKv1
Curve Inf o
dB(St( coax_pin_T1,coax_pin_T1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1

m3
-15.00


-20.00 m2


-25.00
1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00
Freq [GHz]
Fig. 3: Return loss


Fig. 1: Geometry of Patch antenna

A patch can also be fed with a probe through ground
plane. The probe position can be inset for matching the
patch impedance with the input impedance. This insetting
Figure (3) shows the return loss Curve for the proposed
antenna at 2.4 GHz. A return loss of 22.90dB is obtained
at desired frequency

B. 2D Gain & 3D gain Totals
minimizes probe radiation. The ease of insetting and low

2D Gain Total

Patch_Antenna_ADKv1
radiations is advantages of probe feeding as compared to
microstrip line feeding. The dimensions of shaped
patch shown in Fig. (1) are L=80mm, W=20mm,S=16mm,
W1=20mm.these are designed at operating frequency 2.4
GHz.
1m01.00 -40.0000 8.9249

5.00

-0.00

-5.00

-10.00

-15.00

-20.00

-25.00

-30.00
m1 Cur ve Inf o
dB(GainTotal)
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Phi='0deg'
dB(GainTotal) Setup1 :
LastAdaptive
Phi='90.0000000000002deg'

-35.00
-200.00 -150.00 -100.00 -50.00 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00
Theta [deg]

Fig .4: 2D-Gain Total



Fig. 2: Ansoft-HFSS generated antenna model

Figure 2 shows the proposed antenna on FR4 Substrate
using Ansoft-HFSS.





Fig. 5: 3D-Gain Total

Figure (4-5) shows the antenna gain in 2D &3D
patterns. The gain of proposed antenna at 2.4GHz is
obtained as 8.9367dB. The gain above 6dB is acceptable.


















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C. VSWR

degrees would be important. The radiation pattern for

An
N
s
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Corpora
X
tion
Y

VSWR
Patch_Antenna_ADKv1
theta at 0deg and 90deg is presented in figure 6(a), 6(b)

45m.100 2.4121 1.6809
Cur ve Inf o
m2 3.0424 3.4260
40.00

35.00

30.00
dB( VSWRt( coax_pin_T1))
Setup1 : Sw eep1
and 6(c).

E. Axial Ratio

25.00

90m.100

-46.0000 67.3461

Cur ve Inf o
m2 48.0000 33.5651
dB(AxialRatioValue)
20.00

15.00
80m.300

70.00
168.0000 24.0193

m1
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Phi='0deg'

Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Phi='90.0000000000002deg'

10.00

5.00
m2
m1
0.00
50.00

40.00
m2
1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00
Freq [GHz]

Fig.6: VSWR

The VSWR for the proposed antenna is less than the
2dB. The obtained value is 1.5089 from Fig 6.





D.Radiation Patterns
30.00
m3
20.00

10.00

0.00
-200.00 -150.00 -100.00 -50.00 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00
Theta [deg]

Fig.8: Axial Ratio

Axial ratio which is the ratio of the major axis to the
minor axis of the polarization ellipse where the resulting
pattern is an oscillating pattern is obtained as in Fig 8

Ansoft Corporation Radiation Pattern 1 Patch_Antenna_ADKv1




-90


-60




-120

-30







-150
0

0.00

-10.00

-20.00
-30.00





-180

30







150


60


90


120
Curve Inf o
dB(rETotal)
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Phi='0deg'
dB(rETotal) Setup1 :
LastAdaptive
Phi='90.0000000000002deg'
F. Field Distrubutions

Fig. 7a. Gain in Total

Ansoft Corporation Radiation Pattern 2 Patch_Antenna_ADKv1


-60

-30
0
30
-20.00

-30.00
60
-40.00
Curve Info
dB(rEPhi)
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Phi='0deg'
dB(rEPhi) Setup1 :
LastAdaptive
Phi='90.0000000000002deg'

-90

-50.00

90

Fig.9a: E-field Distribution


-120


-150



-180


150

120 The effect produced by an electric charge that exerts a
force on charged objects is the E-Field and its distribution
in the patch is as shown in Fig 9a.

Fig. 7b. Gain along Phi

Ansoft Corporation Radiation Pattern 3 Patch_Antenna_ADKv1





-90


-60




-120

-30







-150
0

-2.00

-14.00

-26.00

-38.00





-180

30







150


60


90


120
Curve Info
dB(rETheta)
Setup1 : LastAdaptive
Phi='0deg'
dB(rETheta) Setup1 :
LastAdaptive
Phi='90.0000000000002deg'

Fig. 7c: Gain along Theta

Since a Micro strip patch antenna radiates normal to its
patch surface, the elevation pattern for = 0 and = 90


Fig.9b: H-field Distribution







The measured intensity of a magnetic field in the patch is shown in Fig 9b.

G. Current Distrubution



Fig.10: Mess Pattern

The triangles show the current distribution.Here the number of triangles inside the patch are more than those on the
substrate ie.. the current distribution in the patch is more when compared to that inside the substrate in Fig10.



H. Field Vectors:



Fig 11a: E-Field Vector



Fig 11b: H-Field Vector

The E-Field Vector and H-Field vectors of proposed patch antenna are obtained as shown in Fig 11a and 11b.












RESOURCES


In this, a new microstrip DMS is proposed. The structure is
more compact compared to conventional spurline. The structure
is well suited for a dual-frequency antenna with two close bands.
By inserting DMS in both the feeding lines of a dual-frequency
patch antenna, more than 20 dB improvement in ports isolation
relative to a conventional patch antenna has been achieved.
Furthermore, return loss, and impedance bandwidth changes
very small. The radiation patterns are not affected much by such
inclusions.
The microstrip line acts as a good transmission line. The
performance of the microstrip line can be improved if we etch
geometry on signal plane and such structures are known as
Defected Microstrip Structure (DMS) . The slowwave factor of a
DMS microstrip line is raised as discontinuities is introduced in
the path of EM waves, which increases the impedance of line.
This phenomenon can be used to reduce the size of passive
planar circuits like microstrip line length, coupling lines, and
microstrip antennas.
Its improved filtering characteristics can help to meet the
emerging application challenges. The radiation from the ground
plane is the major constrain to design a DGS based circuit. But
DMS provides same slowwave characteristics, keeping ground
plane intact.




METHODOLOGY


We have designed an array of rectangular patch
antennas of the center frequency 2.4 GHz,bandwidth as
2.4 GHz to 2.5 GHz. Gain required as 17dBi. We have
employed a hybridstructure where we are using two
dielectrics,one as air and other as FR4 PCB. Each patch
fed via a semi rigid coaxial cable of 50 ohms
impedance [8]. The array connected with a power
divider network of microstrip line feed on FR4
PCB. One side fully copper plated PCB acts as
ground plane for the array of 4 patches see in
Fig(3)
Fig (3) 4 -patch array antenna.and other side is etched for
getting power divider network of microstrip line feed
Microstripantennas can be made to emulate many of the
different styles of antennas explained above see in
Figure(3). Microstrip antennas offer several
tradeoffs that need to be considered [9]. Because
they are manufactured with PCB traces on actual
PCB boards, they can be very, the three essential
parameters for the design of microstrip patch
antenna are: 1) Frequency of operation (f 0 ): The
resonant frequency of the antenna must be
selected appropriately. 2) Dielectric constant of
the substrate . A substrate with a high

dielectric constant can be selected since it reduces the
dimensions of the antenna.



APPLICATIONS

Mobile and satellite communication application: Mobile
communication requires small, low-cost, low profile antennas.
Microstrip patch antenna meets all requirements and various types of
microstrip antennas have been designed for use in mobile
communication systems. In case of satellite communication circularly
polarized radiation patterns are required and can be realized using either
square or circular patch with one or two feed points.


Global Positioning System applications: Nowadays microstrip patch
antennas with substrate having high permittivity sintered material are
used for global positioning system. These antennas are circularly
polarized, very compact and quite expensive due to its positioning. It is
expected that millions of GPS receivers will be used by the general
population for land vehicles, aircraft and maritime vessels to find there
position accurately.


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID): RFID uses in different areas
like mobile communication, logistics, manufacturing, transportation and
health care [2]. RFID system generally uses frequencies between 30 Hz
and 5.8 GHz depending on its applications. Basically RFID system is a
tag or transponder and a transceiver or reader.

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax): The
IEEE 802.16 standerd is known as WiMax. It can reach upto 30 mile
radius theoretically and data rate 70 Mbps. MPA generates three
resonant modes at 2.7, 3.3 and 5.3 GHz and can, therefore, be used in
WiMax compliant communication equipment.

Radar Application: Radar can be used for detecting moving targets
such as people and vehicles. It demands a low profile, light weight
antenna subsystem, the microstrip antennas are an ideal choice. The
fabrication technology based on photolithography enables the bulk

production of microstrip antenna with repeatable performance at a lower
cost in a lesser time frame as compared to the conventional antennas.

Rectenna Application: Rectenna is a rectifying antenna, a special type
of antenna that is used to directly convert microwave energy into DC
power. Rectenna is a combination of four subsystems i.e. Antenna, ore
rectification filter, rectifier, post rectification filter. in rectenna
application, it is necessary to design antennas with very high directive
characteristics to meet the demands of long-distance links. Since the aim
is to use the rectenna to transfer DC power through wireless links for a
long distance, this can only be accomplished by increasing the electrical
size of the antenna.

Telemedicine Application: In telemedicine application antenna is
operating at 2.45 GHz. Wearable microstrip antenna is suitable for
Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). The proposed antenna achieved
a higher gain and front to back ratio compared to the other antennas, in
addition to the semi directional radiation pattern which is preferred over
the omni-directional pattern to overcome unnecessary radiation to the
user's body and satisfies the requirement for on-body and off-body
applications. A antenna having gain of 6.7 dB and a F/B ratio of 11.7 dB
and resonates at 2.45GHz is suitable for telemedicine applications.








PROJECT PLAN

Since using fractals as an approach to antenna design is a relatively new development in the field
of antenna research, the Sierpinski carpet microstrip antenna were Selected for this project. They
are simple to design and their radiation properties are far better documented in research literature
than those of other types of fractals

Before undertaking the design of both antennas, it is prudent to establish general design plan
and to determine the constraints imposed on that plan. The design plan includes the following
phases:


1. Theoretical development: rough calculations of antenna parameters as wells develop a
general idea of the physical implementation of the antenna.


2. Numerical simulation: perform software simulations in order to verify the theoretical design
and adjust any parameters to predict the desired antenna performance.


3. Physical implementation: undertake physical construction of the antennas based on
simulation-confirmed parameters.

4. Experimental testing: measure antenna performance is measured and compare with the
simulated results.





REFERENCES

[1] M A Matin, M.P Saha, H. M. Hasan Design of Broadband Patch Antenna for WiMAX and WLAN ICMMT
2010 Proceedings, pp. 1-3

[2] F. Yang, X. X. Zhang, X. Ye, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, Wide-band Eshaped patch antennas for
wireless communications, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 10941100, Jul. 2001.

[3] M. Sanad, Double C-patch antennas having different aperture shapes, in Proc. IEEE AP-S Symp.,
Newport Beach, CA, Jun. 1995, pp. 21162119.

[4] Shackelford, A.K., Lee, K.F., and Luk, K.M.: Design of small-size widebandwidth microstrip-patch antennas,
IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., 2003, AP-45, (1), pp. 7583
[5] H. F. AbuTarboush, H. S. Al-Raweshidy, and R. Nilavalan, Triple band double U-slots patch antenna for
WiMAx mobile applications, in Proc. Of APCC, Tokyo, Feb. 2008, pp. 1-3.

[6] Waterhouse, R.B.: Broadband stacked shorted patch, Electron. Lett. 1999, 35, (2), pp. 98100
[7] Guo, Y.X., Luk, K.M., and Lee, K.F.: L-probe proximity-fed shortcircuited patch antennas, Electron. Lett.,
1999, 35, (24), pp. 20692070

[8]K.L. Lau and K.M. Luk Wideband folded L-slot shorted-patch Antenna ELECTRONICS LETTERS 29th
September 2005 Vol. 41 No. 20
[9]Madhur Deo Upadhayay1, A.Basu2, S.K.Koul3 and Mahesh P. Abegaonkar4,Dual Port ASA for Frequency
Switchable Active Antenna 978-1-4244-2802-
1/09/$25.00 2009 IEEE, pp.2722-2725

[10] R.Chair, K.F. Lee,K.M.Luk Bandwidth and cross- polarisation characteristics of quarter wave shorted patch
antenna microwave and op.technol.Latt,vol-22 no
2,pp.101-103,1999

[11] N. Zhang, P. Li, B. Liu, X.W. Shi and Y.J. Wang Dual-band and low cross-polarisation printed dipole
antenna with L-slot and tapered structure for WLAN applications ELECTRONICS LETTERS 17th March
2011 Vol. 47 No. 6

[12] Xue-jie Liaa, Hang-chun Yang and Na Han AN IMPROVED DUAL BAND-NOTCHED
UWB ANTENNA WITH A PARASITIC STRIP AND A DEFECTED GROUND PLANE 2010
International Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication
Systems (lSPACS 2010) December 6-
8,2010, 978-1-4244-7371-7/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE

[13] Hsing-Yi Chen and Yu Tao Performance Improvement of a U-Slot Patch Antenna Using a Dual-
Band Frequency Selective Surface With Modified Jerusalem Cross Elements IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 59, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2011,pp 3482-3486

[14] Hsing-Yi Chen and Yu Tao Antenna Gain and Bandwidth Enhancement Using Frequency Selective Surface
with Double Rectangular Ring Elements 978-1-
4244-6908-6/10/201 0 IEEE, pp. 271-274

[15] S. Pinhas and S. Shtrikman, Comparison between computed and measured bandwidth of quarter-wave
microstrip radiators, IEEE Trans.Antennas Propag., vol.
36, no. 11, pp. 16151616, 1988