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DENSITY A Property of MATTER



PRE-LAB DISCUSSION:
Chemistry is the study of matter, which is defined as anything that has mass and volume.
You already have experience determining mass & volume in the lab. In this experiment
you will determine volumes of different materials, using direct and indirect methods. You
will also use the relationship between mass and volume of a substance to determine its
density.

Volumes of liquids are measured directly in a graduated cylinder. Liquid quantities dealt
with in lab are usually expressed in milliliters (mL); larger quantities may be expressed as
liters (l). Volumes of regularly shaped objects can be calculated using measurements of
their dimensions. For example the volume of a rectangular solid can be found by
multiplying its length by width by height, V=l x w x h. Volumes of solids are usually
expressed as cubic centimeters (cm
3
).

Irregularly shaped objects, such as rocks or objects too small to be measured with
accuracy, need to have their volumes measured through a method called water
displacement. If a solid is immersed in a liquid such as water, the solid will push aside, or
DISPLACE a volume of water equal to its own volume. Each milliliter of water that is
displaced by a solid will equal one cubic centimeter of solid volume.

Density is an important property of matter; as a physical property it can be used to ID a
substance. Density is defined as the amount of matter in a given unit of volume.

DENSITY = MASS
VOLUME
PROCEDURE:

Part I. SOLIDS
1. Obtain a 50 mL graduated cylinder and the following 3 substances: glass rod, zinc and
copper.
2. Determine the mass of the glass rod, record your answer with 2 decimal places.
3. Fill a 50 mL graduated cylinder with enough water that the glass rod will be covered.
Record this Initial volume of water.
4. Lower the glass rod , carefully, into the graduated cylinder filled with an initial volume
of water. Make sure it is completely submerged, and record this Final water level.
5. Repeat this same procedure with the pieces of copper and zinc. Record the masses
and volumes in the data table.

Part II. LIQUIDS

1. Clean and dry a 10mL graduated cylinder. Weigh the cylinder and record its mass to
the nearest hundredth.
2. Take the cylinder to the lab counter and measure out EXACTLY 1.00 mL of ethanol.
Record this volume in the data table.
3. Re-mass this graduated cylinder, now containing the ethanol. Record mass in DT.
4. Repeat steps 1 thru 3 using glycerine
5. Clean and dry the graduated cylinder, once again record the mass of the empty
graduated cylinder. Do not re-use the same value from step #1
6. Fill the cylinder to the 10.00mL mark with distilled water. Read the MENISCUS and
record the volume in the DT.
7. Mass the cylinder with the water, and record this mass in the DT.

RESULTS:

Part I SOLIDS
Mass & Water Displacement
Solid Mass Initial H
2
O
Level
Final H
2
O Level Volume of
Solid
Glass Rod
Zinc
Copper

Part II LIQUIDS

Liquid Volume Mass Empty
Cylinder
Mass Cylinder
& Liquid
Mass of Liquid
Ethanol
Glycerin
Water


CALCULATIONS:

1. In the tables below, calculate the densities of all substances, solid & liquid measured,
using the equation, DENSITY = MASS
VOLUME

(The mass and volume, needed below, can be found in the result tables above)

2. In the Final column, Calculate the difference in your lab value for the density and the
accepted values of density for each substance.


SOLIDS Mass
(g)
Volume
(mL)
Density: g/mL
or g/cm
3

Accepted
Density
Difference
in Density
Glass Rod 2.4 g/cm
3

Zinc 7.10 g/cm
3

Copper 8.94 g/cm
3





LIQUIDS Mass (g) Volume
(mL)
Density: g/mL
or g/cm
3

Accepted
Density
Difference
in Density
Ethanol 0.79 g/mL
Glycerin 1.25 g/mL
Water 1.00 g/mL