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Retrofitting of cooking stove to use biogas as fuel Bibi Shabneez Chamroo Chemical and Renewable
Retrofitting of cooking stove to use biogas as fuel
Bibi Shabneez Chamroo
Chemical and Renewable Energy Engineering
Abstract
The study focused on modifying a LPG stove to use biogas as fuel. The biogas was first generated by AD of cow dung and two types of stoves were then retrofitted. Trials were conducted each involving different modification of the
existing stoves; until a blue flame suitable for cooking was ultimately produced. The air regulation parts of the stoves were the only component that required modification. The performance of the developed burners were then analysed by
measuring the burning efficiency. Further analysis showed that efficient combustion of biogas is a result of combined factors such as the flow rate of methane, geometry of the stove and the cooking pot being used. It was also noted that
the modified LPG stoves produced blue flame in three layers. No flue gas was coming out from the burners. With appropriate safety measures fire, health and environment hazards can indeed be minimized.
Introduction
Results
 Increasing interest in using biogas for cooking
purposes
Description of current stoves
 Small stove (SS)
 Large stove (LS)
 A typical biogas production system use bacteria to
convert OM such as manure into useful energy
products though AD.
Burner manifolds
Mixing tubes
Flame ports
Air shutters
 Final product: CH 4 , CO 2 , traces of other gases and
digestate
Problem 1: Use of LPG as cooking fuel is on the rise
mainly due to improved technologies of stoves that
rendered cooking safer, easier and cleaner compared to
use of wood and charcoal
Air inlet ports
Retrofitting of stoves
Problem 2: Numerous farmers involved in cow rearing
face challenge of waste disposal allowing animal waste
to decompose in the open
No flame
Trial 1 Unmodified LPG burner
Trial 5
Close air shutters and primary air ports; sealed with rubber/
cardboard/ seal tape
No flame
Trial 2 Close air shutters in the stove
Trial 3 Block the primary air ports
o
When knob is set on its minimum
No flame
o
When knob is set on its maximum
- Use of large stove only
Trial 4 Close air shutters keeping primary air ports open
Trial 6
- Block air passages using rubber/cardboard
 To study the current gas cooking stove
o When knob is set on its minimum
o When knob is set on its maximum
 To highlight the modification that needs to be
done in the existing stove to accommodate
biogas
Perfect blue flame
Blue flame, not suitable
for cooking purposes
 Modification of existing stove to burn biogas
 Efficiency measurement of the burner
developed
Methodology
Safety considerations
Safety practices
Safety features of stove
 Close the digester valve
 Not leave flammable materials near the flame
 Electronic igniter
DESIGNANDDEVELOPMENT
 Safety valves
 Keep fire extinguisher nearby in an accessible pantry
 Inspect for gas leaks and getting biogas stove checked
annually
 Flame safeguard
 Ventilation and filtration
 Keep room ventilated when cooking
 Regular maintenance on the biogas production system
RETROFFIITINGCURRENTLPG
MECHANISMOFTHESYSTEM
STOVES
Conclusions
• The fifth and sixth trials proved to be the best retrofits whereby only the primary aeration control part of the cooking stove require modification
• Efficiency measurement (71 % for SS and 67 % for LS) has also proved to be in line with that obtained by previous studies (> 57 %).
ASSESSING
• Complete combustion:
ANALYSIS
PERFORMANCEOF
o
eliminates hazardous emission that occurs with other biomass cook stoves
RETROFITTEDSTOVES
o
does not darken cooking utensils used
• An existing LPG stove can indeed be retrofitted for using biogas as fuel.
• Reduce the country’s dependence on LPG
RESULTS
• Allow Mauritius to achieve proper energy management
Recommendations
Stove efficiency
heat absorbed by water
Continuous feeding of digester
=
heat given off by burning methane ×100
Mechanism of the system
• Stove testing such as the Water Boiling Test, contact resistance experiment
Nominator = m C p ∆T
• Install a biogas pressure gauge
Denominator = enthalpy of combustion
• Measure flame temperature
• Booster pump