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ca#era
$and-outs %earning ga#e
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
Pre-course Quiz
How's your grammar?
Hows your grammar?
'o#plete each of the sentences belo" by circling one or more alternatives (!) *)'+&
Countable and uncountable nouns
1. Are you ere for !usiness or """""""""..
! holiday
* pleasure
' free ti#e
#. I tin$ a !as$et of """ wou%& !e a nice gift to sen&.
! fruit
* fruits
' fruity
'. (e """"" are una))y wit te new arrangements.
! staff
* staffs
' staff,s
Pronouns
*. He's !een ta%$ing to """""" for o+er an our.
! they
* the#selves
' the#
,. -on an& """"". are going to te conference ne.t wee$.
! #e
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
* I
' #yself
/. I can't use my com)uter. """"" !ro$en.
! Its
* It,s
' It is
Articles
0. 1iew 2ei wor$s at te os)ita%. 1e's """""""
! a nurse
* nurse
' the nurse
3. It too$ 4uite a %ong time to get tere. It was """"""""". 5ourney.
! three hours
* a three-hour
' a three hours
6. 1e wor$s si. &ays """""".. wee$.
! the
* a
' in
Verbs

Present perfect and past perfect
17. Hes %ost te re)ort again. (ats te secon& time tis """"""".
! happened
* has happened
' had happened
11. 8e wor$ we%% togeter. 8e """""""".. eac oter for a %ong time.
! have kno"n
* kno"
' had kno"n
3/& (e man sitting ne.t to me on te )%ane was ner+ous !ecause e
"""""". !efore.
! hasn4t flo"n
* hadn4t flo"n
' didn4t fly
Passives
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
1'. (e )resentation """""".. start at 17.77am. Its 17.'7am now9 an& it
sti%% asnt starte&.
! is supposed to
* "as supposed to
' supposed to
1*. :ur accounts """"" once a year !y e.terna% au&itors.
! are revie"ing
* is revie"ed
' are revie"ed
1,. (e meeting """" to '.77)m.
! postponed
* has been postponed
' is postponing
Modals
1/. (eres )%enty of time. ;ou """"" urry.
! don4t have to
* can4t
' needn4t
10. A%% staff """"" carry com)any I< car&s. It is com)u%sory.
! have to
* can
' #ust
13. I "".. meet you at nine oc%oc$ tomorrow morning.
! "ould
* "ill
' should
Prepositions
16. I'%% !e out of te office "" =ri&ay morning.
! at
* in
' on
#7. P%ease fi%% "" te form.
! in
* up
' do"n
#1. I'%% meet you "" te air)ort.
! at
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
* in
' on
Conjunctions
##. """""". ma$ing a )rofit %ast year9 te com)any as &eci&e& to %ay off
'77 em)%oyees.
! Whereas
* !lthough
' .espite
#'. It's fast9 safe an& comforta!%e. It's +ery economica% """".
! also
* too
' as "ell
#*. I'm rea%%y )%ease& Henry as """"" foun& a 5o!. He's !een out of wor$
for ages.
! finally
* eventually
' in the end
Relative structures
#,. >o%in to%& me a!out is new 5o!9 """""""""""".. +ery muc.
! "hich he likes
* he likes
' that he likes
#/. 8at's te name of te man """"".. you !orrowe& te car from?
! 77777 (nothing+
* "ho
' that
#0. I &on't %i$e tas$s """"". are re)etiti+e.
! "hat
* that
' "hich

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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
8y are you ere?
It is i#portant that you clearly identify "hy you have co#e to this course and "hat you
hope to achieve by to#orro" afternoon "hen the course ends&
What are #y short-ter# and long-ter# goals for this course8
$o" #uch ti#e and effort a# I prepared to put into course8

$o" is #y gra##ar no"8 What are #y strong points8
What are #y "eak areas - "hy a# I here8
What do I hope to learn8
What do I e9pect to be doing on the course8
.o I have any specific proble#s that I hope this course "ill address8
8ats in it for you?
:ou "ant this course to be of benefit to you& So) it4s a good idea to think about these
;uestions before you start the course& The #ore you are sure "hat your learning ai#s
are) the #ore the trainer can help you achieve the#&
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
>ourse o!5ecti+es an& a))roac
:!5ecti+es
We can4t cover everything about gra##ar in a t"o day "orkshop& $o"ever) "e "ill
focus on areas of gra##ar "here Singaporean users of =nglish often differ fro#
Standard =nglish users& We also "ant to help you "ith areas of =nglish gra##ar that
you find particularly proble#atic& :ou #ay have already identified these areas on the
previous page or during your pre course assign#ent& Please let your trainer kno" if
you have any #ore ;uestions during the ne9t t"o days& Point out that "e can4t
possibly cover every activity on this "ork book& We "ill pick and choose depending on
participants4 needs
A))roac
>ur approach "ill first involve you in thinking about and discussing the #eaning of
various features of =nglish gra##ar& :our trainer "ill then help you to co#e to
conclusions about gra##ar use& i&e they do the "ork?
We "ill then do practice e9ercises to help you apply these conclusions& We "ill also
continually refer back to a piece of your "riting and re-e9a#ine the gra##ar&
>ontent
In this course) "e "ill focus on three #a@or areas of =nglish gra##arA
nouns
verbs and tenses
sentence structure
If you can #aster these) then you have #astered the #ost i#portant areas of
gra##ar&
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
1ection 1?
Basic )rinci)%es an& termino%ogy
>b@ectivesA
*y the end of this section you "illA
have produced so#e data to "ork "ith as a case study
be able to identify the different parts of speech in =nglish

;our writing? >ase stu&y
Cirst) "e "ould like you to do so#e "riting& :ou "ill be able to refer to this as you
progress through the course& :ou can either "rite a letter in response to the situation
described belo" or "rite a letter that is relevant to your "ork situation right no"& So
perhaps a letter you have @ust "ritten or still need to "rite&
>onte.t
:ou "ork for Hi Velocity) a courier co#pany&
!n i#portant client asked for high priority docu#ents (a proposal+ to be delivered to a
co#pany) Training Direct) in Ta#pines fro# his office in the '*.& The vehicle carrying
the docu#ents "as involved in an accident "hile transporting the# to Ta#pines& In the
confusion no-one thought to ring the client and tell the# "hat happened& The
docu#ents "ere eventually delivered) but late) and your client #issed the deadline for
sub#ission of their proposal& $e only found out "hen he rang Training Direct in
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
Ta#pines to #ake sure it had arrived& $e did) ho"ever) #anage to get his proposal
included after it "as e9plained to Training Direct "hat had happened&
:ou have been speaking to your very angry client on the phone& $e is threatening to
"ithdra" his business& Do" you have to "rite a letter of apology) and try to keep your
client) as losing hi# "ould be a big loss to your co#pany and also reflect badly on
you&
(as$
Write the letterA
!pologise for not contacting the client i##ediately
=9plain e9actly "hat happened
.escribe the steps you have taken to ensure it doesn4t happen again
!ppeal to the client to continue giving you his custo#
>ffer appropriate co#pensation
Get the# to "rite as #uch as possible& The #ore they "rite) the #ore they reveal ho"
you can help the#?
(e %etter
Photocopy their letters and return the# i##ediately& They can refer to their copies
throughout the course& =ncourage the# to correct errors they spot as the go through
the course content&
Eark your copy of their letters and return the# on the afternoon of day /& .on4t bother
about "riting styleF @ust focus on the gra##ar& :ou could highlight errors and get the#
to correct in groups&
(a%$ing a!out grammar
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
If you "ant to learn about gra##ar) then you need to kno" so#e of the #ain ter#s
that are used& Gnscra#ble each of the clue "ords& 'opy the letters in the nu#bered
cells to other cells "ith the sa#e nu#ber&
Grammar (ermino%ogy
Parts of s)eec
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
:our trainer "ill give your tea# t"o pieces of gra##ar ter#inology fro# the list belo"&
Prepare a short presentation on a piece of flipchart paper& !ns"er these ;uestionsA
What is a(n+ 7777778
$o" is it used8
What are so#e e9a#ples8
Gse your tea#4s background kno"ledgeF the dictionaries on your tableF and any
gra##ar books that you feel #ay be helpful&
3& DounsA #ake sure they or you #ention nouns- are na#es of things) people) places)
activities and e#otionsF for# sub@ects and ob@ects of sentencesF co#e in countable
and uncountable for#sF ing for#s
/& erbsA action "ordsF H for#s (you could give out verb "heels here+F sub@ect-verb-
ob@ect
H& !d@ectivesA describe nounsF ad@ctiveInoun or nounIbeIad@ective
2& !dverbsA describe verbs) ad@ectives) other adverbs and sentences
Parts of s)eec- continue&
5& Pronouns- replace nounsF not as accurateF #ust agree "ith the verb
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
6& Prepositions- co#e before nouns
1& 'on@unctions- @oining "ords) parts of a sentence) sentences and paragraphs
together
<& !rticles- indefinite and definiteF co#e before nouns but not all
Parts of s)eec
In the paragraph belo") find t"o e9a#ples of each piece of gra##ar ter#inology
:ou #ay observe all the correct for#s for "riting business letters) but if the body of the
letter is badly "ritten) the entire letter is ineffective& The body of the letter al"ays
deserves special attention& Planning the content and the order of "hat you "rite is
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
essential to ensure that the content is logically "ritten and all the i#portant topics are
covered&
!fter "riting the letter it is also necessary to revie" it for any spelling and gra##ar
#istakes& ! letter "ith #istakes gives a very bad i#pression& :ou can do this by using
the spelling and gra##ar check in your "ord processing soft"are& :ou should also
use a good gra##ar reference book& Ti#e for planning and revie" is never "asted& It
can often #ake the difference bet"een a good and a sloppy letter&
Douns 777777777777777777 77777777777777777777777
erbs 777777777777777777 77777777777777777777777
!d@ectives 777777777777777777 77777777777777777777777
!dverbs 777777777777777777 77777777777777777777777
Pronouns 777777777777777777 77777777777777777777777
Prepositions 777777777777777777 77777777777777777777777
'on@unctions 777777777777777777 77777777777777777777777
!rticles 777777777777777777 77777777777777777777777
:n%ine )ractice?
httpAJJ"""&;uia&co#J#cJ65<H/&ht#l
8ats wrong?
Identify "hat is "rong "ith the sentences belo"& Which part of speech is incorrect8
Gse your findings fro# the previous t"o e9ercises to help you e9plain your ans"er&
3 We apologies for the inconvenience caused&
/ We install the #achine last "eek&
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
H *oth of our pro@ect #anagers is in a #eeting right no"&
2 I understand you specialise in selling and leasing these e;uip#ents&
5 We are a"are of the proble#s and "e "ill feedback our custo#er service staff&
6 I "ould be happy to serve you in the future&
1& They kno"s the proble#s and "ill look into it&
<& !lthough it "as a boring conference) but "e still stayed until the end&
B& Scores vary bet"een 15K to B0K&
30& Punctuality is a very huge proble# in this organisation
1ection 1ummary
In this section youA
set your learning ai#s
did a gra##ar ;uiz
learnt so#e gra##ar ter#inology
practised using this ter#inology
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
What has been useful so far8 Think about "hat you have learnt in this section and
record your #ost significant learning points&
1ection #?
@sing grammar resources
>b@ectivesA
*y the end of this section) you "illA
kno" ho" to use a gra##ar reference book
have learnt about free resources available on the internet
@sing grammar reference !oo$s
Which sentence is correct8 Get the# to vote
If a member of staff is ill, he must send a medical certificate to HR.
orA
If a member of staff is ill, he or she must send a medical certificate to HR.
orA
If a member of staff is ill, they must send a medical certificate to HR.
We can use gra##ar reference books to check points of gra##ar "e are not certain
about&
%et4s check in the gra##ar bookA Walk the# through this
3 Turn to the Inde9 at the back and look up gender.
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
/ %ook up the section (//1+) the nu#bers at the top of the page are not page
nu#bers) but the nu#bers of the sections appearing on those pages&
H Read through the section and decide "hich of the above sentences is correct&
They are all correct?
Practice
Do" look at the follo"ing groups of sentences) and decide "hich ones are correct&
!gain ;uote fro# the gra##ar book to support your ans"ers&
%ook under ,#easure#ent e9pressions, forA
3& It took ;uite a long ti#e to co#e to a decision& It "as a three hours #eeting?
/& It took ;uite a long ti#e to co#e to a decision& It "as a three-hour #eeting?
%ook under ,bring and take, forA
H& I4ll bring you to the airport&
2& I,ll take you to the airport&
%ook under ,lend and borro", forA
5& This is a really interesting bookF #ay I borro" it8
6& This is a really interesting bookF #ay I lend it8
%ook under ,;uestion tags, forA
1& The #eeting4s at ten) isn4t it8
<& The #eeting4s at ten) is it8
%ook under ,so#e and any, forA
B& The prices "ere so highF "e couldn4t afford to buy so#ething&
30& The prices "ere so highF "e couldn4t afford to buy anything&
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
@sing :n%ine resources
Cro# online dictionaries "ith audio pronunciation to interactive gra##ar ga#es) the
internet is a "onderful resource for anybody "ho uses a co#puter to "rite& The
follo"ing list is @ust a sa#ple of "hat is available online& *ook#ark the ones you find
#ost useful in your Cavourites&
"""&learnenglish&org&uk
httpAJJ"""&bbc&co&ukJskills"iseJ"ordsJgra##arJ
"""&dictionary&co#
"""&gra##arbook&co#
"""&englishclub&net
httpAJJnetgra##ar&altec&orgJ#ain&ht#l
httpAJJ"""&englishpage&co#

Quiz using on%ine resources
The ans"ers to these ;uestions can be found at or through
httpAJJ"""&englishpage&co# on the Gra##ar *ook page&
3& What are the co##on mo&a% +er!s8
/& What are the differences bet"een countable and non countable nouns8
H& What is the rule for a&5ecti+e "ord order8
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3B
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
1ection 1ummary
In this section you learned ho" to #ake the best use of so#e resources around you to
help you i#prove your "riting&
Eake a list of the resources you have at ho#e and "ork for "riting& Eake a list of
those you don4t have& Which do you think should be available8
8or$
$ave .on4t have
Gra##ar e9pert8
Internet access
.ictionary8
Gra##ar check
Eodel "riting8
Gra##ar book(s+
Home
$ave .on4t have
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
1ection '?
Aouns
>b@ectivesA
*y the end of this unit) you "illA
kno" about different types of noun
have looked at noun for#ation
>ounta!%e an& uncounta!%e nouns
Think of the "ords seat and seating& They are obviously very close in #eaning) but
there is a very i#portant gra##atical difference&
To try and "ork out the basic rules) start off by deciding "hich of the "ords fits in the
sentences belo"A
3 The seat in the #iddle is reserved for the .irector
/ Seating is provided in the reception area in case visitors cannot be attended to
i##ediately&
H The seating in the boardroo# "as very co#fortable&
2 Three of the seats had to be replaced in ti#e for the safety and health inspection&
-
5 Please take a seat&
6 Seats are available for all guests&
Seat is "hat is kno"n as a countable nounF seating is an uncountable noun&
With your trainer) "ork out the rules for using articles
aBan (e CC
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
1ingu%ar
counta!%e nouns
a seat the seat
specific
("hich777+
P%ura%
counta!%e nouns
the seats
specific
("hich777+
seats
general
(allJany777+
@ncounta!%e
nouns
the seating
specific
("hich777+
seating
general
(allJany777+
:n%ine )ractice?
httpAJJ"""&susse9&ac&ukJlangcJsupportJe9ercisesJintJgra##arJsleep&ht#
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
Point out that generally "e don4t use LtheM the first ti#e "e #ention the noun in
a te9t but do use LtheM after that&
Get participants to look at the !rticles sections in the gra##ar bookA there are
35 pages of the#? Point out the lack of logic for a lot of article use e&g& Page 6<A
Places&
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
Practice
>rganise the nouns belo" into t"o groupsA countable and uncountable&
>ounta!%e @ncounta!%e
!ll uncountable apart fro# LsignageM "hich
doesn4t e9ist in standard =nglish?
Good "ays to decide if a noun is countable or uncountableA
3& Try putting a nu#ber in front of the noun and an LsM on the end& .oes it look
strange8
/& Put the noun in a ;uestion "ith either L$o" #anyM (countable+ or L$o" #uchM
(uncountable+
H& If you are still unsure) check in your dictionary&
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personnel infor#ation evidence research soft"are correspondence
"ording #oney luggage furniture clarification feedback
baggage lighting signage entertain#ent litter @argon
e;uip#ent e#ploy#ent ne"s #achinery advice kno"ledge
/1
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg

>ounta!%e noun car& game
The ai# of the ga#e is to have in your hand only cards of one typeA either countable
or uncountable& $o" is this achieved8 When your trainer says LpassM everyone has to
pass a card they do not "ant to keep to the person seated on their right& So everyone
gets rid of one card and gets a ne" one at the sa#e ti#e& :ou have to decide ;uickly
"hether you need it or not) and the procedure is repeated until so#eone thinks that all
the cards in their hand are either countable or uncountable nouns& ery optional?
When you think you have "on) yell out?
>ounta!%e @ncounta!%e
:n%ine )ractice?
(Gn+countable nouns
httpAJJ"""&eflnet&co#Jgra##arJcncga#e&php This is a cool ga#e- it has rock
#usic and guns in it?

'heck your letter& .o you have any errors "ith noun and article usage8
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
Pronouns
'o#plete this tableA
Persona% )ronouns? Possessi+e? Def%e.i+e
)ronouns 1u!5ect :!5ect a&5ecti+es )ronouns
1ingu%ar
I #e #y #ine #yself
:ou :ou :our :ours :ourself
$e $i# $is $is $i#self
She $er $er $ers $erself
It It Its - Itself
>ne >ne >ne4s - >neself
P%ura%
We Gs >ur >urs >urselves
:ou :ou :our :ours :ourselves
They The# Their Theirs The#selves
=9a#pleA I like you :ou like me 2y book It4s mine I cut myse%f
:n%ine )ractice?
Ga#es / N H and Quiz H
httpAJJ"""&bbc&co&ukJskills"iseJ"ordsJgra##arJinterestsentencesJpronounsJ
'heck the pronouns in your letter& !re they correct8
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
1ection 1ummary
Record "hat you have learnt in this section& $as anything surprised you8
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
1ection *?
Eer!s

>b@ectivesA
*y the end of this unit) you "illA
understand the difference bet"een past) present perfect and past perfect for#s
and their uses
understand the difference bet"een active and passive for#s
be able to use #odal au9iliary verbs appropriately
be #ore a"are of standard =nglish preposition use
Present )erfect an& sim)%e )ast
=nglish has a nu#ber tenses "hich are used for the past& T"o of the #ost i#portant
areA
Present perfectA $e has been the '=> for ten years&
Past simpleA $e "as the '=> for ten years&
%ook at the pairs of sentences belo"& In each pair) one sentence uses the Present
Perfect) the other the Si#ple Past& !ll the tenses are used correctly and appropriately&
%ook at the pairs carefully) and co##ent on the differences in #eaning bet"een the#&
Then try to for#ulate a rule or set of rules to tell you "hen to use the t"o tenses&
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
3 I "rote a letter yesterday& (definite past+
/ I have "ritten a proposal& (indefinite past+
H I4ve "orked "ith hi# for three years& (unfinished past+
2 I "orked "ith hi# for three years& (finished past+
5 $e fell over and cut his knee at "ork (past actionF past result+
6 What have you done8 I4ve cut #y knee (past actionF present result+
(ime %ines
This is a ti#e line& With your instructor illustrate the #eaning on the ti#eline of
1. I wrote a %etter yester&ay


Do" in your groups do the sa#e thing for the rest of the sentences&
#. I a+e written a )ro)osa%
'. I+e wor$e& wit im for tree years
*. I wor$e& wit im for tree years
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Do"
Do"
Do"
Do"
H/
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
,. He fe%% o+er an& cut is $nee at wor$
/. 8at+e you &one? I+e cut my $neeF
Practice- &e!ate it
%ook at the sentences belo"& In each case) decide "hether the verb given in brackets
should be Present Perfect or Si#ple Past) and "rite it in the space provided& *e
prepared to @ustify your decisions to your tea# #ates? If you are not sure use the ti#e
line to help you as you did in the previous e9ercise&
3 I OppOO&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& (kno"+ hi# all #y life&
/ EaryOOppO&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& (be+ in bed "ith a bad cold all this "eek&
H I O&OppO&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& (speak never+ to her since&
2 IO&OppO &&&&&&&&&&&&&&& (have not+ ti#e to do it yet&
5 Er PoO&&&spOO&&&&&&&&&&&&&& (assure+ Er Dg during the site #eeting on /5 >ctober
that it "ould be i#proved&
6 We&&&&OOpp&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& (already re#inded+ you that our inspection engineers need
to check the packing before the e;uip#ent is shipped&
1 Ey colleagueO& spOO&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& (e9plain+ our reservations about the proposal t"o
"eeks ago&
< TonyO&&OppO&&&&&&&&&&&&&& (cancel+ the #eeting) so I,ll be able to see you after all&
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Do"
Do"
HH
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
B I O&&OOpp&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& (attend+ three conferences this year&
30 WeOeitherO(take+ note of the cracks you #entioned at the #eeting on 35
.ece#ber& (ppQ took note after 35 .ecF spQ took note on 35 .ec+
:n%ine )ractice?
httpAJJeolf&univ-
fco#te&frJuploadsJressourcesJgra##arJ317verb7tensesJ057spast7pperfJspastNprespe
rf3&ht#
httpAJJ"""&#arks-english-school&co#Jga#esJg7presperf&ht#l
httpAJJ"""&englishpage&co#JverbpageJverbs6&ht#
Past Perfect
What is the difference in #eaning bet"een these t"o sentences8
The patient had died when the doctor arried.
The patient died when the doctor arried.
.ra" the ti#eline for the t"o sentences belo" to sho" the difference in #eaning&



The patient had died when the doctor arried.
The patient died when the doctor arried.
If tere are not two actions or e+ents at two &ifferent )ast times9 you sou%& not
use te )ast )erfectF
Do" try this&
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Do"
Do"
H2
!ctive Rohn "rote te %etter
Passive (e %etter "as "ritten by Rohn&
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg



It had been raining all morning so we cancelled the site isit.
:n%ine )ractice?
httpAJJperso&"anadoo&esJautoenglishJgr&pastperf&i&ht#
httpAJJ"""&ego2u&co#JenJcra#-upJgra##arJpast-perfect-progressiveJe9ercises8
default
Passi+es
We for# the passive by using the appropriate tense of the verb to be I a past
participleA
They were made in !hina. "someone made them in !hina#
$ new e%tension is being built. "someone is building a new e%tension#
The company was founded in &'(). "someone founded the company in &'()#
The sub@ect of a passive verb corresponds to the ob@ect of an active verbA
:n%ine )ractice?
httpAJJnetgra##ar&altec&orgJGnitsJGnit7BJa303cB7603000&ht#l
The passive for# can sound rather distant and i#personal and for this reason) it
should be used sparingly& It is useful) ho"ever) "hen "eA
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Do"
H5
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
don,t kno" "ho perfor#ed the action e&g& *y credit card has been stolen.
don4t "ant to reveal "ho perfor#ed the action e&g& +our che,ue has been
misplaced
are #ore interested in the ob@ect than the sub@ect of the active sentence e&g&
He has been promoted.
(e )assi+e in actionF
Read the story belo"
3 $ighlight the e9a#ples of the passive& Identify "hich tense each one is
/ .ecide for each e9a#ple "hy it is being used instead of the active

2o+ing :fficeF
We had @ust #oved into our ne" offices "hen it started happening& The offices had
been renovated fro# an old boarding school that had stood on the site for over a
hundred years&
It took #e a "hile to notice& I "ould put do"n a stapler on #y desk and then a fe"
#inutes later I "ould go to use it again and it "as not there& It "ould appear a couple
of hours later) or the ne9t day& *ut then it happened too often and #y colleagues "ere
telling #e that the sa#e "as happening to the#&
It got "orse& The things that "ere taken never reappeared as they had at first& It began
to cause proble#s a#ong the staff& =veryone "as suspicious of everyone else& I "as
getting very "orried& Trust and co-operation "ere being eroded&
Then one day I "as looking through so#e old ne"spapers that had been left in a
cupboard& Ey eye "as caught by an article about a pupil "ho had attended the school
that "as no" our offices& !pparently the boy had been suspected of being a
klepto#aniac& $e "as confronted by the head#aster but denied it& The school then
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H6
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
called in the police& *ut before the police could do anything the boy "as found in his
roo#) dead& $e had killed hi#self&
I kne" that no" I had discovered the person responsible for the #issing ite#s in the
office& The proble# no" "as) "hat "as I going to do about it8?
Bringing it a%% togeter
8ee% of =ortune
:our trainer "ill give you so#e instructions for this ga#e& It4s i#portant that you "ork
as a tea#& !ll the tea# #e#bers should agree decisions& Sentences are on page 10
.ice rules
3- %ose a turn) goes to ne9t tea#
/- S/00 for correct ans"er
H- %ose a turn) goes to ne9t tea#
2- S200 for correct ans"er
5- Ban$ru)t) goes to ne9t tea#
6- S600 for correct ans"er

'heck your letter& .o you have any errors in use of past) present perfect and past
perfect tenses8
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H1
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
2o&a% au.i%iary +er!s
Cill in the #issing lettersA
'an S7 7 7 7 7 E7 7t Shall $7 7 7 to E7 7 7 7
W7 7 7 >7 7 7 7 to E7 7 '7 7 7 7 W7 7 7 7 De7 7 7 7

Practice
Which #odal verbs gra##atically fit in the sentences belo"8
=uture )ossi!i%ity Present )ossi!i%ity :!%igation
G.P 7777 fall ne9t year
"illJshall
have to
ought to
should
#ay
#ight
could
It 7777 be true
#ust +haveIpp
have to
ought to
should
#ay
#ight
could
:ou 7777 "ear a tie
Eust had to
have to had to
need to needed to
ought to IhaveIpp
should IhaveIpp
De4uests Permission A!i%ity
7777 you help #e8
"ould
could
can
"ill
7777 I leave early8
(#ight+
#ay
could
can
I 7777 speak 2 languages
'an could
What about L>ffersM8 Would you like (#e to+O8 Shall IJ"eO8
What about past tenses8 In red
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H<
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
:n%ine )ractice?
httpAJJ"""&englishpage&co#J#odalsJinteractive#odal<&ht#
>on&itiona%s
In your groups) e9plain the difference in #eaning bet"een these three sentences& :our
trainer "ill ask you to present your conclusions&
3& If I lose my -ob, I will go abroad (likely future+ e&g& "hat "ill you do ifO&&8
!lso possibleA can) #ay) #ight) should) ought to& 'an start "ith L"henM
/& If I lost my -ob, I would go abroad (unlikely future+ e&g& "hat "ould you do if&&8
!lso possibleA could) #ight)
H& If I had lost my -ob, I would have gone abroad (past that didn4t happen+ e&g&
"hat "ould you have done if&&&8 !lso possibleA could have) #ight have
In your tea#s) "rite B LIfM sentencesA H of each type& Gnlike the sentences above)
#ake sure they are about B different topics and not #erely the sa#e topic "ritten in H
different "ays& We "ill e9a#ine all these sentences together on the "hiteboard&
What about this sentence8
If I lose my -ob, I go abroad. (al"ays happensF generally true+
'heck your letter& .id you use any conditional sentences8 !re they correct8
:n%ine )ractice?
httpAJJ"""&englishpage&co#JconditionalJconditional6&ht#
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HB
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
Pre)ositions of )%ace? at9 in9 on
We generally useA
at for a point or an event
in for an enclosed space
on for a surface
3& >ur "ebsite address is at the top of the page&
/& I have a #eeting in P% ne9t "eek
H& There is too #uch infor#ation on this slide
2& We4ll see you at the conference
5& :ou I. #ust have a photo on it
6& The G* building is in 'ecil Street
1& I4ll be at "ork all day
<& The na#es of the "riters are on the front of the report
B& We read about the redundancies in the ne"spaper
30& The P.' is in Tan@ong Pagar at 32H 'ecil Street on the 31
th
floor
:n%ine )ractice?
httpAJJ"""&britishcouncil&orgJlearnenglish-central-gra##ar-gra##ar-ga#es-
archive&ht# Scroll do"n to prepositions (place+
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20
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
Pre)ositions of time? at9 in9 on
We generally useA
at for a precise ti#e
in for longer periods
on for days and dates
3& We start the training day at Ba#
/& What did you do at the "eekend8
H& In the past) business "riters favoured a #ore for#al style of language
2& We "ill have the #eeting in the #orning
5& We "ill have the #eeting on Tuesday #orning
6& We close for t"o "eeks at 'hrist#as
1& What did you do on 'hrist#as day8
<& In the 3BB04s) the P.' "as kno"n as the *usiness 'o##unication Gnit
B& I "ent to $ong Pong 777 last Rune
30& We have training 777 ne9t Tuesday
:n%ine )ractice?
httpAJJ"""&britishcouncil&orgJlearnenglish-central-gra##ar-gra##ar-ga#es-
archive&ht# Scroll do"n to prepositions (ti#e+
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23
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
Pre)ositions an& co%%ocation
%ook at these sentences& Which are correct8
3& I "ould like to re;uest unpaid leave&
/& I "ould like to re;uest for unpaid leave&
H& This is a re;uest for unpaid leave&
2& We should e#phasise on the online booking facilities&
5& We should place e#phasis on online booking facilities&
6& We should e#phasise online booking facilities&
1& %et4s have a discussion about last #onth4s sales figures
<& %et4s discuss last #onth4s sales figures
B& %et4s discuss about last #onth4s sales figures
30& We have investigated into the alleged activities&
33& We have conducted an investigation into the alleged activities&
3/& We have investigated the alleged activities&
'an you see a pattern8 Douns are follo"ed by prepositionsF verbs are not
.o you think this pattern is al"ays true8 Do) but Singaporeans al"ays see# to use the
sa#e preposition "ith both the verb and noun&
$o" do you kno" "hich preposition to use8 %ook in a good dictionary
'heck your letter& $ave you used the correct prepositions8
:n%ine )ractice?
httpAJJ"""&susse9&ac&ukJlangcJsupportJe9ercisesJintJgra##arJdependentprepositions&h
t#
- Professional .evelop#ent 'entre - *ritish 'ouncil) Singapore /001
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2/
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
1ection 1ummary
This section covered so#e aspects of the =nglish tense syste#& It4s i#possible to
cover every tense on a brief course& $o"ever) by no" you should be feeling #ore
confident in your kno"ledge of the "ay tenses "ork& :ou should also you kno" "here
to go for help if you need it?
What are you still confused about8
Which tense(s+ are you still #aking #istakes in8
$o" can your ensure that your professional correspondence is gra##atically
accurate8
1ection ,?
1entence structure
>b@ectivesA
*y the end of this section) you "illA
kno" the co#ponents of a sentence
have seen ho" to build co#ple9 sentences using con@unctions and other
linking devices
have e9a#ined the uses of relative clauses
kno" #ore about punctuation and ho" it affects sentence #eaning and clarity
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2H
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
If this is the start of the afternoon of day /) "hy not begin "ith the silent sentence on
page 108
8at is a sentence?
! sentence is a group of "ords that e9presses a co#plete idea (state#ent) ;uestion or
e9cla#ation+& It consists of one or #ore clauses) and usually has a sub@ect and a
verb& When "ritten) it begins "ith a capital letter and ends "ith a full stop) ;uestion
#ark or e9cla#ation #ark&
%ook at this sentenceA
The client arried&
What is the sub@ect of the sentence8 7the client7
What is the verb8 7arrived7
The basic pattern of the =nglish sentence is sub@ect I verb I ob@ect
*elanie wrote a report
Sub@ect I verb I ob@ect
Practice
:our trainer "ill divide you into three groupsA
Sub@ect group
erb group
>b@ect group
Sub@ect groupA :our task is to think of 30 "ords that can be the sub@ect of a sentence
erb GroupA :our task is to think of 30 "ords that can be the verb of a sentence
>b@ect groupA :our task is to think of 30 "ords that can be the ob@ect of a sentence
Work "ith the other t"o groups to create as #any #eaningful sentences as you can
:n%ine )ractice?
Quiz %evel H
httpAJJ"""&bbc&co&ukJskills"iseJ"ordsJgra##arJsentencebasicsJ"hatisasentenceJ;uiz&
sht#l
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22
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
>om)%e. sentences
There are #any different "ays in "hich "e can build si#ple sentences into #ore
co#ple9 ones& We can add any of the follo"ingA
!d@ective The new client arrived&
!dverb The client arrived late.
'on@unctionJsubordinate clause The client arrived and sat down.
Prepositional phrase The client arrived for the meeting.
Participle phrase The client) haing lost his way) arrived&
Relative clause The client) who was .rench) arrived&
*y co#bining the above "e can createA
The new client, who was .rench, haing lost his way, arried late for the meeting and
sat down.
Practice
In pairs choose one of the sentences you created in the previous activity& *uild up
#ore infor#ation to fit the sentence and create a #ore co#ple9 final sentence
Do" go and "rite it on the board
$o" "ould you change it to #ake it easy to understand by your reader(s+8
Gin$ing wor&s
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25
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
%inking "ords are usually con@unctions or adverbs) used to connect ideas& They fall
into four #ain categoriesA
contrast Singapore is hot but *ritain is cold
se;uencing Cirst) Singapore "as part of RohoreF thenO&&
cause Singapore is hot because it4s near the e;uator
result Singapore is near the e;uator so it is very hot
additionJreinforce#ent Singapore is clean and green
Practice
'ategorise these linking "ords under the headings belo"A
>ontrast 1e4uencing >ause Desu%t A&&itionB
reinforcement
although #ean"hile because conse;uently also
ho"ever eventually as lead to #oreover
but finally result fro# thus too
nevertheless for#erly in order to as a result in addition
>n the other
hand
after due to hence further#ore
"hereas then since so as "ell
despite ne9t in vie" of therefore secondly
even so as soon as o"ing to result in another
>om)%ete te sentences !e%ow using te a))ro)riate %in$ing wor&?
3& The plane eventuallyJfinally landed at eleven) three hours late&
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ersion 1&2
conse;uently also because although #oreover lead to #ean"hile too
thus as eventually as a result ho"ever finally in addition hence but so
further#ore as "ell for#erly nevertheless therefore on the other hand
result fro# in order to result in due to after since secondly "hereas
in vie" of despite then another o"ing to even so ne9t as soon as

26
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
/& >ur ship#ent "as delayed due toJo"ing to the recent postal strike&
H& !lthough the issues "ere i#portant) not #any people voted&
2& Gnfortunately) your letter arrived after the final date for applications& ThereforeJas
a resultJthusJhenceJconse;uently) "e cannot consider you for the post&
5& We are "riting to you in order to clarify certain points&
6& The car is fast) co#fortable and safe& It,s very econo#ical tooJas "ell&
1& Eyan#ar "as for#erly kno"n as *ur#a&
<& I "ould like to spend #ore ti#e "ith #y fa#ilyF ThereforeJas a
resultJthusJhenceJconse;uentlyJso) I have decided not to apply for the senior post&
B& The drug has strong side effects& In additionJ#oreoverJalso) it #ight be addictive&
30& .espiteJalthough having #ade good profits last year) the co#pany has decided to
cut 500 @obs&
'heck your letter& $ave you used the correct linking "ords8 .o you have to add in
so#e #ore to #ake your "riting clearer8
:n%ine )ractice?
Ga#e 3A Is this a co#pound sentence8
Ga#e /A Eake co#pound sentences
httpAJJ"""&bbc&co&ukJskills"iseJ"ordsJgra##arJinterestsentencesJco#poundsentence
sJga#e&sht#l
De%ati+e )ronouns
Relative pronouns perfor# t"o functions at onceA
they are used like other pronouns as the sub@ects or ob@ects of verbs
they act like con@unctions to @oin t"o clauses together
What,s the na#e of that #an8 $e @ust ca#e in8
What,s the na#e of that #an who @ust ca#e in8
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
In the second sentence who replaces the sub@ect he, and allo"s us to @oin the t"o
sentences together&
'o#plete these sentencesA

3& This is the house thatJ"hich Rack built& (essential infor#ation+F L"hichM is acceptable
contrary to popular belief
/& This house) "hich Rack built ) is no" falling do"n& (non essential infor#ation+
Do" try theseA
H& This is the #an "ho loves #e? LWhoM replaces the sub@ect&
2& This is the #an "ho#J"ho I love? LWho#M replaces the ob@ectF "ho is beco#ing
increasingly acceptable
5& This is the #an "hose love I re@ected? Possessive

Practice
'hoose an appropriate relative pronoun fro# the bo9 belo" to co#bine the pairs of
sentences "hich follo"&
a+ 'hangi lies in the east of Singapore&
b+ I live in 'hangi&
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"ho "here "hich that "hose "ho# "hen
2<
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO&
a+ :ou bought a ne" '.&
b+ 'an I borro" the '.8
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO&
a+ This is #y colleague) Wendy&
b+ She "orks in the payroll depart#ent&
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO&
a+ I "ent to P% last "eek&
b+ I #et the ne" #anager&
OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO&
:n%ine )ractice?
Quiz %evel b
httpAJJ"""&bbc&co&ukJskills"iseJ"ordsJgra##arJpunctuationJco##asJ;uiz&sht#l
'heck your letter& $ave you used any relative clauses8 !re they correct8
Punctuation
Read through appendi9 . and then punctuate the follo"ing e#ailA
dear sarah
it "as great to hear fro# you thanks for sending the photo of us all at the conference it
brings back #any happy #e#ories
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2B
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
i# glad youve been successful in your @ob hunting and have #anaged to find such a
good position i# sure youll en@oy it as it sounds really interesting
actually ive been #eaning to e#ail you to ask if you have Sali#,s address as i see# to
have lost it and i "anted to visit hi# "hen i# in penang ne9t #onth
do you have any plans to co#e here it "ould be "onderful to see you again
"ell that4s all for no" thanks again for the photo

all the best
#ei ling
:n%ine )ractice?
Ga#e level HA Putting te9ts into co#pound sentences
httpAJJ"""&bbc&co&ukJskills"iseJ"ordsJgra##arJinterestsentencesJco#poundsentence
sJga#e&sht#l
Quiz %evel '
httpAJJ"""&bbc&co&ukJskills"iseJ"ordsJgra##arJinterestsentencesJco#poundsentence
sJ;uiz&sht#l
'heck the punctuation in your letter&
1ection 1ummary
In this section you e9a#inedA
Sentence structure
'on@unctions
Relative pronouns
Punctuation
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50
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
Record "hat has beenA
Interesting8
*oring8
Gseful
Gseless8
.ifficult8
=asy8
What "ill you re#e#ber forever8
What have you forgotten already8

!nd ho" "ill it affect the "ay you co##unicate8
1ection /?
>ourse De+iew
>b@ectivesA
*y the end of this section) you "ill haveA
applied the course concepts to a revie" of your "riting
peer revie"ed your colleagues "riting
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53
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
revisited the pre-course assign#ent and discussed the ans"ers using
kno"ledge fro# the course
;our writing? case stu&y fee&!ac$
We "ill no" all revie" your letters that you "rote on the first #orning& Eake a note of
the errors you and your colleague #ade&
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5/
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
;our )re course assignment? 4uiz &econstruction
In groups) agree on the ans"ers to the ;uiz on pages
:ou "ill then discuss the ans"ers "ith your trainer&
Question
;our
answerHsI
Digt or
wrong
Page
reference in
course !oo$
=ina%
comments
Aouns
1.
/&
H&
Pronouns
2&
5&
6&
Artic%es
1&
<&
B&
Eer!s
30&
33&
3/&
3H&
32&
35&
2o&a%s
36&
31&
3<&
Pre)ositions
3B&
/0&
/3&
>on5unctions
//&
/H&
/2&
De%ati+e
structures
/5&
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5H
Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
/6&
/1&
8at a))ens tomorrow?
1o you get !ac$ to wor$ tomorrow an& wat &o you face?
! pile of paper"ork8
/0 voice#ail #essages8
50 e-#ails8
Is going for training really "orth it "hen you4ve got so #uch to catch up on8 $o" "ill
you be able to put "hat you4ve learned into action "hen you4ve got so #uch "ork8
We all face these proble#s) but there are "ays of #aking things "ork& %et the *ritish
'ouncil give you a fe" tips& It4s ti#e #anage#ent?
When you get in to "ork set aside a couple of hours to catch up on your
#essages and e-#ails& <ont call anyone back i##ediately unless it4s really
urgent) #ake a list of things to do and prioritise it&
De9t ti#e you go for training put #essages on your e-#ail and voice#ail telling
people you4re not available& Suggest another contact&
Try placing a sign on your desk or in-tray e9plaining that you "on4t be around
and suggesting another contact for urgent "ork&
To consolidate your training ho" about the follo"ingA
Put aside 30 or 35 #inutes in your first day back to "ork and brainstor# on a
spider diagra# "hat you learned&
Put aside a fe" #inutes to revie" your action plan on a Eonday #orning&
Re#ind yourself to start doing things&
Sit do"n "ith a colleague or your tea# and e9plain to the# "hat you learned&
See if you can all benefit&
$old a #eeting to transfer your learning to others in the co#pany&
!fter a couple of "eeks) go over the course #aterials again& See if you can
co#e up "ith 5 situations in "hich you have or could have used so#ething fro#
the course&
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
!ction plan
Goa% H8at I wi%% &oI 2eto& HHowI By H8enI
1
#
'
*
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
A))en&ices
A))en&i. A? :n%ine )ractice acti+ities
Parts of speech
httpAJJ"""&;uia&co#J#cJ65<H/&ht#l
!rticles
httpAJJ"""&susse9&ac&ukJlangcJsupportJe9ercisesJintJgra##arJsleep&ht#
'ountableJuncountable nouns
httpAJJ"""&eflnet&co#Jgra##arJcncga#e&php
Pronouns
httpAJJ"""&bbc&co&ukJskills"iseJ"ordsJgra##arJinterestsentencesJpronounsJ
(Ga#es / N H and Quiz H+
Present perfect and past tense
httpAJJeolf&univ-
fco#te&frJuploadsJressourcesJgra##arJ317verb7tensesJ057spast7pperfJspastN
presperf3&ht#
httpAJJ"""&#arks-english-school&co#Jga#esJg7presperf&ht#l
httpAJJ"""&englishpage&co#JverbpageJverbs6&ht#
Past perfect tense
httpAJJperso&"anadoo&esJautoenglishJgr&pastperf&i&ht#
httpAJJ"""&ego2u&co#JenJcra#-upJgra##arJpast-perfect-
progressiveJe9ercises8default
Passives
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Grammar for Business trainers """&britishcouncil&org&sg
httpAJJnetgra##ar&altec&orgJGnitsJGnit7BJa303cB7603000&ht#l
'onditionals
httpAJJ"""&englishpage&co#JconditionalJconditional6&ht#
Eodal verbs
httpAJJ"""&englishpage&co#J#odalsJinteractive#odal<&ht#
Prepositions
httpAJJ"""&britishcouncil&orgJlearnenglish-central-gra##ar-gra##ar-ga#es-
archive&ht# scroll do"n to prepositions (place+ and prepositions (ti#e+
httpAJJ"""&susse9&ac&ukJlangcJsupportJe9ercisesJintJgra##arJdependentprepos
itions&ht#
Sub@ect verb ob@ect
httpAJJ"""&bbc&co&ukJskills"iseJ"ordsJgra##arJsentencebasicsJ"hatisasentenc
eJ;uiz&sht#l (%evel '- Superstar #aterial?+
%inking "ords
httpAJJ"""&bbc&co&ukJskills"iseJ"ordsJgra##arJinterestsentencesJco#poundse
ntencesJga#e&sht#l (Ga#es 3 N /+
Relative clauses
httpAJJ"""&bbc&co&ukJskills"iseJ"ordsJgra##arJpunctuationJco##asJ;uiz&sht#l
(%evel *+
Punctuation
httpAJJ"""&bbc&co&ukJskills"iseJ"ordsJgra##arJinterestsentencesJco#poundse
ntencesJga#e&sht#l (%evel H+
httpAJJ"""&bbc&co&ukJskills"iseJ"ordsJgra##arJinterestsentencesJco#poundse
ntencesJ;uiz&sht#l (%evel '+
A))en&i. B? Grammar terms
!ctive for# Tells us "hat the sub@ect doesA I wrote the report& 'o#pare "ith ,passive,
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for#&
!d@ective .escribes the noun or pronounA a successful #eeting
!dverb .escribes "hen) "here or ho" so#ething happensA it finished yesterday/ he
ca#e hereF they "orked ,uic0ly
!rticle Gsed before nouns) these are the "ords a1an (indefinite+ and the (definite+
!u9iliary verb The verbs be, hae and do are used "ith other verbs to for# tenses)
passive and continuous for#s) ;uestions and negativesA I am readingF he
has "rittenF it doesn2t "ork
'lause Group of "ords containing a sub@ect and a verb& It #ay be a sentence or
only part of a sentence&
'onditional ! sentence consisting of t"o clausesF a condition "hich usually includes the
"ords if, unless or when and a resultA If you wor0 hard, you will succeed.
'on@unction !lso kno"n as ,linking "ords,) these are "ords "hich @oin other "ords)
phrases) sentences or paragraphsA tea and coffeeF they played tennis een
though it "as raining&
'ontinuous
for#
!lso kno"n as the ,progressive for#, this suggests an action is in progressA
They are discussing the #atter no"&
Gerund -ing for# of a verb used as a nounA I en@oy traelling
Infinitive The base for# of the verbA be, write, go. It can be used "ith or "ithout to3 I
asked hi# to meet #eF you #ust be ;uiet&
Intransitive
verb
! verb "hich does not take an ob@ectA the rain fell& In this sentence there is
no ob@ect& 'o#pare "ith ,transitive, verbs&
Eodal verb Group of verbs including can, could, will, would, may, might, must and
should used "ith other verbs to e9press ideas such as ability) possibility)
obligation) prohibition etc&
Doun Da#e of a person) place) ob@ect or ideaA child, room, table, imagination.
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>b@ect The person or thing affected by the verbA They shook hands. 'o#pare "ith
,sub@ect,&
Passive for# Tells us ho" the sub@ect is affected by the action of the verbA The report was
written by #e& 'o#pare "ith ,active for#,&
Past participle Gsed in perfect tenses and passive for#sA I have wor0ed F it has been done&
Phrasal verb !lso kno"n as ,#ulti-"ord verbs,) these are verbs used "ith adverbs or
prepositions to create a ne" #eaningA the plane too0 off/ he gae up
s#oking
Possessive Sho"s "ho or "hat so#ething belongs toA my bookF Peter2s penF this is
yours.
Present
participle
The ,ing, for# of the verbF I sa" hi# leaing.
Preposition Words like at, on, in, from, through, etc) used before nouns or pronouns to
sho" ti#e) place) #ove#ent) etcA "e "ent into the roo#F the #eeting is at
three o,clock&
Pronoun Takes the place of a nounA Ey ne" boss started today) she2s very nice&
Question tag Phrases like is it4, are they4, or haen2t you4 "hich are added to the end of
state#ents to for# ;uestionsA :ou "ork here) don2t you4
Relative
clause
Gsed to identify so#eone or so#ething) or to give #ore infor#ation about
the#A The #an I spo0e to "as very friendlyF Ey boss) who is .rench, is in
Paris at the #o#ent&
Si#ple for# *asic for# of a verbA he runs t"ice a "eek (present si#ple+F It started last
"eek (past si#ple+
Sub@ect Perfor#s the action of the verbA She spoke to hi#F cars are e9pensive in
Singapore& 'o#pare "ith ,ob@ect,&
Tense Cor# of verb "hich tells us about "hen an action or event took place (past)
present or future+A he lies here (present si#ple+F he lied here (past
si#ple+&
Transitive verb erb that takes an ob@ectA $e made a #istake& In this sentence ,a #istake,
is the ob@ect of the verb ,#ade,& 'o#pare "ith ,intransitive verb,&
erb .escribes an action or stateA he swims "ellF they en-oyed the sho"&
A))en&i. >? Parts of s)eec
Three little "ords you often see
are !RTI'%=SA a) an) and the&
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! D>GD,s the na#e of anything)
asA school or garden) toy) or s"ing&
! PR>D>GD replaces any nounA
he) she) it) and you are found
!.R='TI=S tell the kind of noun)
asA great) s#all) pretty) "hite) or bro"n&
=R*S tell of so#ething being doneA
to read) "rite) count) sing) @u#p) or run&
$o" things are done the !.=R*S tell)
asA slo"ly) ;uickly) badly) "ell&
'>DRGD'TI>DS @oin the "ords together)
asA #en and "o#en) "ind or "eather&
The PR=P>SITI>D stands before
a noun asA in or through a door&
The IDT=RR='TI>D sho"s surprise
asA >h) ho" pretty? !h? ho" "ise?
The "hole are called the P!RTS of SP=='$)
"hich reading) "riting) speaking teach&
A))en&i. <? Gin$ing wor&s
>ontrast 1e4uencing >ause Desu%t A&&itionB
reinforcement
although meanwhile because conse,uently also
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howeer eentually as lead to moreoer
but finally result from thus too
5eertheless formerly in order to $s a result In addition
on the other
hand
after due to hence furthermore
whereas as soon as since so as well
despite then in iew of therefore another
een so ne%t owing to result in secondly
A))en&i. J? (e tense system - Acti+e +oice
Past Present =uture
Past sim)%e
I came to Singapore in
&''6.
Refers to actionJevent
co#pleted at a specified
ti#e in the past&
Present sim)%e
I start wor0 at 7'.77.
The sun rises in the east.
Refers to current
actionsJevents or those
"hich are ,al"ays, true&
'8i%%' future
I will meet you at the
airport tomorrow at nine.
Refers to future fact)
intention) prediction or
speculation&
Past continuous
I was reading the report
when I first heard the
news.
Refers to an action "hich
took place over a period of
ti#e at a kno"n ti#e in the
past&
Present continuous
8e are working on two
new products at the
moment.
Refers to an action in
progress no"&
=uture continuous
He will be working in 9:
ne%t wee0.
Refers to an action "hich
"ill take place over a
period of ti#e in the future&
Past )erfect
I didn2t answer the phone
as I had already locked
the door.
Present )erfect
I have lived here for
seen years.
=uture )erfect
5e%t year, we will have
been in business for
twenty years.
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%ooks back at the past
fro# the past&
%ooks back fro# the
present and connects
present "ith past&
%ooks back fro# the future&
Past )erfect continuous
They had been talking for
three hours when I arried&
%ooks back at an action in
progress in the past&
Present )erfect
continuous
He has been working on
that report all morning&
%ooks back at an action
"hich "as recently
co#pleted or is still in
progress&
=uture )erfect
continuous
8e will have been
working together for
e%actly fie years by the
end of ne%t month&
%ooks back at an action in
progress fro# a future
point&
A))en&i. =? Punctuation
The purpose of punctuation is to #ake the #eaning as clear as possible& The "rong
punctuation #ark can so#eti#es cause #isunderstanding or confusion&
>a)ita% %etters (also called upper-case letters+
begin a sentence Thank you for your letter ofO
for people,s na#es Rohn) Er *ro"n) Suriaty
for na#es of places Singapore) %ondon) !sia) 'ecil Street
for na#es of organisations *ritish 'ouncil) =uropean 'o##unity
for days) #onths) festivals Eonday) !pril) %unar De" :ear
=u%%-sto)
co#es at the end of co#plete sentencesA a co##a is not strong enough
cannot co#e at the end of a dependent clause standing by itselfA If the
outstanding amount is not paid. is incorrect
In general) punctuation "ith abbreviations is o#itted no"adays&
Question mar$
Cairly obvious) co#es at the end of a ;uestion - but re#e#ber that a reported ;uestion
is no longer a ;uestion) has state#ent sub@ect-verb "ord-order) and therefore takes no
;uestion #arkA ;$re you going to :ondon ne%t wee04< T The !hairman as0ed if I was
going to :ondon the following wee0.
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1emi-co%on
This is the least understood punctuation #ark& It is #uch closer to a full-stop than to a
co##a) and can never be substituted for a co##a& So#eti#es there is a choice
bet"een full-stop and se#i-colon& ! se#i-colon is usedA
to @oin t"o closely related sentences3 I wrote the letter/ =ohn posted it.
to separate long ite#s in a listA Her responsibilities include line management of si%
staff/ annual budgetary control/ sourcing and ordering of supplies/ and the design
and implementation of the promotional plan.
>omma
! co##a in "riting represents a brief pause in speech& So#e people like plenty of
co##as - others don,t? :ou have considerable freedo# in the use of co##as)
e9cepting the seven i#portant rules given hereA
! co##a by itself can never be used bet"een t"o independent clauses or
sentences (see se#i-colon+&
! co##a is usually used "hen a dependent clause precedes an independent
clause) but not "hen the independent clause co#es firstA co#pare $lthough it
was raining, he went for a wal0. "ith He went for a wal0 although it was
raining. This is because "e naturally pause "hen saying the first sentence)
but not the second&
While t"o co##as can be used as brackets bet"een sub@ect and verb) one
co##a can never go bet"een a sub@ect and its verb3 *r :im, the President of
our company, is >? years old. *utA *r :im, the President of our company is >?
years old. (The second e9a#ple has a different #eaning& It #eans that you
are telling Er %i# the age of the President&
'o##as are used in horizontal lists) "ith an optional (and !#erican+ co##a
before Uand43 He spea0s .rench, @erman, Ho00ien ",# and *alay. 'o##as are
unnecessary in vertical lists&
'o##as are used after linking "ords at the beginnings of sentencesA .inally,
he managed to pass his driing test. %inking "ords in the #iddle of sentences
have co##as before and afterA He still can2t drie, howeer, as he hasn2t got a
car.
'o##as are necessary "ith non-defining relative clauses (clauses "hich give
unnecessary or e9tra infor#ation+& 'o#pare The man who is sitting oer
there is my uncle. "ith 8inston !hurchill, who lied to be '7, was in
Parliament for oer >7 years.
'o##as are used to introduce direct ;uotes but are not used in reported
speech& 'o#pareA The director said, 2It will mean oertime for most of the
staff.2 "ith The director said it would mean oertime for most of the staff.
>o%on
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! colon is used "hen one sentence leads into) or points directly to"ards)
anotherA He loo0ed out of the window3 the s0y was cloudy and oercast.
! colon is used to introduce a listA 8e hae offices in fie countries3 $ustralia,
=apan, 9orea, Singapore, and Thailand.
<as
This is #ore co##on in note "riting and rarely used in business "riting& It can be
used toA
indicate an afterthoughtA We shall arrive on Eonday - at least) I hope so&
indicate a discontinuity in the thought) or an interruptionA Winston 'hurchill -
"ho# I briefly #et "hen I "as a child - had a career in Parlia#ent "hich
spanned 65 years&
Quotation mar$s (also kno"n as inverted co##as or speech #arks+
Single ;uotation #arks are often used "hen "e talk about a "ord) or use it in
an unusual "ayA The word 2esplanade2 can be pronounced two ways.
=ither single (U 4+ or double (LM+ ;uotation #arks can be used for ;uoting
speech& Cor a ;uotation inside a ;uotation) use the for# not used for the #ain
;uotation&
Da#es of books) ne"spapers and #agazines should be italicised) not in
;uotation #arks& Quotation #arks are used for na#es of articles or chaptersA I
read Eargaret 'han4s article on LWhere to find the best Roti RohnM in the
Straits Times last year&
Hy)en
There are no good rules for hyphenating nouns& Gse a dictionary - but even
dictionaries so#eti#es disagree?
$yphenate ad@ectives "hen the individual co#ponents alone do not #ake senseA !
fourAfootAtall #an #ust have t"o hyphens) since ) four, foot and tall in this conte9t are
nonsensical& (DoteA foot, not feet, because =nglish ad@ectives have no plural for#s&+
A)ostro)e
!n apostrophe is used to indicate possessionA B<s3 the company<s annual report for
one co#panyF Bs< 3 the companies< annual report for several co#panies&
!postrophes are used to indicate #issing letters in shortened verb for#sA he<s for he is
or he has/ she<d for she had or she would.
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A))en&i. G? 2onster sentence
(e car a& come &own te roa& an&
crosse& te 5unction wen se su&&en%y
saw er !roters son in is 2ancester
@nite& sirt )%aying foot!a%% a%ong te
narrow )a+ement !ut se was 5ust in time to
stam) er foot on te !ra$e wen te !a%%
!ounce& off te )a+ement an& e ran into
te roa&.
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A))en&i. H? 8ee% of fortune
(e &e%i+ery a& arri+e& %ast wee$
(e meeting was )ost)one& as te c%ients f%igt a& !een
&e%aye&
(ey a& teste& te &rug for years !efore it came onto te
mar$et
1e a& to ta$e a !rea$ !ecause se a& !een wor$ing too
ar&
I a+e ne+er seen im !efore
(e mar$eting manager re)orte& tat sa%es a& risen o+er te
%ast 4uarter
(e em)%oyee was &ismisse& !ecause e a& sto%en K1777
from te )etty cas
(ey were &iscussing te new )ro5ect for tree ours wen I
arri+e&
(an$ you for te %etter wic I a& recei+e& yester&ay
(ey a& ne+er !een tere !efore
1e sai& tat se was tere %ast year
I a& met my us!an& wen we were at uni+ersity togeter
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A))en&i. I? ;ou +etF
:ou have @ust got back fro# overseas and your assistant has "ritten this e#ail on your
behalf& :ou need to vet it&
Taking into account everything you have learnt so far) correct the #istakes&
Bi!%iogra)y
1ome !oo$s we recommen& are?
Eichael S"an) Practical Cnglish Dsage, >9ford Gniversity Press)3BB5
Ray#ond Eurphy) Cnglish @rammar in Dse "Intermediate#, 'a#bridge
Gniversity Press) 3BB2
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Eartin $e"ings) $danced @rammar in Dse) 'a#bridge Gniversity Press)
3BBB
%eech) 'ruickshank N Ivanic) Cnglish @rammar E Dsage, Pearson =ducation)
/003
.avid 'rystal) Discoer @rammar) Pearson =ducation) 3BB6
Patricia T& >4'onner) 8oe is I) Riverhead *ooks) 3BB6
Peter Strutt) *ar0et :eader3 Fusiness @rammar and Dsage, Pearson
=ducation %td) /000
Roan Waller N Rebecca Pang) Intermediate Fusiness Cnglish S0ills, %ong#an
Group (Car =ast+ %td) 3BBH
%o" =e %ing N !da# *ro"n) Cnglish in Singapore, EcGra"-$ill =ducation
(!sia+) /005
!da# *ro"n) Singapore Cnglish in a 5utshell) Ti#es Eedia) 3BBB
!da# *ro"n) Cnglish :anguage *yths) EcGra"-$ill =ducation (!sia+) /00H

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